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date: 16 June 2019

(p. 603) Index

(p. 603) Index

Figures, notes, and tables are indicated by “f,” “n,” and “t” respectively.

Abdallah, C., 224
Abdulrahman, Mohamed, 529, 530–1
Ableism, 474, 480, 488
Aboriginals. See Indigenous communities
Absenteeism, 260, 377
Abuse
of children, 27, 391n2
of migrant workers, 22
of power, 332
Academia, 357–69
accommodation provisions in, 488
activism in, 33
ADVANCE initiative for, 111, 112–13
diversity management in, 359–60, 364–8, 364f
Eurocentrism in, 132–3, 135
global, 130, 132–4, 136, 138, 141, 143
institutional level analysis of, 363–6
methodology for study of, 360–3, 367, 368
national differences in, 358
overview, 8, 357–9
politics of diversity and, 31–3
practitioner activities and, 45–7
socialization into, 338, 339–40, 345
Southern Theory in, 168–9, 170
translation of qualitative research to, 344–7
women in, 32
Academy of Management Executive (Cox & Blake), 46
Access and legitimacy paradigm, 237
Accommodation. See Workplace accommodation
achuts (untouchables), 411
Acker, Joan, 19, 52, 158, 590
ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) movement, 196
Action research, 543–4, 547, 549
Activism
in academia, 33
feminist, 20–1, 544
grassroots, 41, 565
LGBT, 197
Activity limitations, defined, 469. See also People with disabilities (PWD)
Actor–network theory (ANT), 448
ADC (American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee), 500
Additive intersectionality model, 443–4
Adib, A., 455, 463, 593
adivasis (indigenous aboriginals), 411
Adler, N., 375–6, 377
ADVANCE initiative, 111, 112–13
Affinity networks. See Diversity networks
Affirmative action (AA)
assimilation approach of, 84
criticisms of, 29, 256–7
defined, 239
diversity management vs., 44, 237
geographical differences in, 29–30, 29n7, 31
individual benefits of, 6, 239–41, 246
legal and moral rationales for, 220
limitations of, 83
politicization of, 155
positive effects of, 29, 31
quotas and, 42, 84, 240
in South Africa, 420
Affirmative internationalism, 137
(p. 604) Afigbo, A., 30n8
Africa
affirmative action programs in, 30
globalization scholarship in, 139
human resource diversity programs in, 584–5
African National Congress, 420
Agamben, Giorgio, 512
Age
age–ethnicity–class dyads, 454–62, 464–5
cultural context and, 457
disability and, 471, 483
discrimination, 373
income inequality and, 459
of workforces, 456–7
Age management programs, 456–7, 461
Agency
ambiguous diversities and, 222, 230
in business case for diversity, 264
in critical sensemaking method, 309, 310
defined, 309
of female entrepreneurs, 397–8, 399, 404
structure and, 548, 549
Ahl, H., 388
Ahmadiyya sect, 415
Ahmed, Sara, 197, 266
Ahonen, P., 159
AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) movement, 196. See also HIV/AIDS
Alberti, G., 22, 590
Ali, Faiza, 8, 408, 419
Allah, 400
Allen, A., 222
Allport, G. W., 114
Altman, J., 392
Alvesson, M., 100, 255, 304
Ambiguous diversities, 218–34
agency and, 222, 230
ambivalence and, 228–30, 231
case study of, 218–19, 224–5, 227–8, 229–30
contradiction and, 225–8, 230–1
definitions of, 221
in diversity management, 219–20, 230
framework for study of, 221–30
future research directions, 232
overview, 5–6, 218–19
queer theory and, 221–2
strategic, 222–5, 228, 230–1
Ambivalence
ambiguous diversities and, 228–30, 231
of borders and boundary crossings, 184, 185
in colonialism, 161, 162, 163
of cultural authority, 185, 186
in identifications, 188
in Pakistani law, 415
as resistance to the dominant cultural imperatives, 164
of tempered radicals, 20
American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), 500
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 470, 475, 478, 486
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, 443
Anand, R., 558
Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) Lands, 393, 393n4
Anderson, C. L., 478
Anderson, R., 391, 392
Ang, I., 520
ANOVA (analysis of variance) method, 443
ANT (actor–network theory), 448
Anthias, F., 70n1, 462, 591
Anti-categorical approach, to intersectionality, 70, 441, 442, 465, 523
Anti-Discrimination Board of New South Wales, 528, 528n1
Anti-Discrimination Directives (EU), 70, 206
Anti-Semitism, 504–5
Apartheid, 166, 421, 425
Appadurai, M., 592
APY (Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara) Lands, 393, 393n4
Aragon, S. R., 566
Arber, S., 545
Arciniega, L. M., 243
Argentina, as vulnerable country, 409
Al Ariss, A., 462
Articulations, 306
Artifacts, cultural, 543, 544–5, 549
Ascribed identity, 117, 510
Ashcroft, B., 186
Ashkanasy, N. M., 376
(p. 605) Ashley, L., 461
Asia, globalization scholarship in, 139
Asian Dragons, 409
Assimilation
in academia, 350
in diversity management, 46, 585
entrepreneurship and, 399, 403
heteronormative ideals and, 199, 212
of indigenous research methodologies, 169
of minorities, 83, 84, 389, 505
into organizational culture, 480
Association of American Colleges and Universities, 368
Aull Davies, C., 100
Australia
affirmative action in, 240
business case for diversity in, 265
equality–diversity discourse in, 48, 49–51
feminist activism in, 20–1
immigrants in workforce in, 235
Indigenous communities in, 390–5, 390n1
Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands of, 393, 393n4
race and gender laws in, 523
settler–native relations in, 394
stereotype threat in, 481
Austria, diversity discourse in, 74, 454
Authenticity, 322–4
Avotie, L., 562
Ayoko, O. B., 245
Baby Dragons, 409
Bachan, R., 463
Bairoh, S., 65
Baldridge, David C., 9–10, 469, 482, 484
Balkundi, P., 460
Balser, D. B., 485
Banerjee, S., 129, 131, 178, 393
Bangladesh, formation of, 409
Barbarism, 503
Barbosa, I., 266
Barley, S. R., 319
Barney, J., 237–8
Barnum, P., 459
Baron, R. C., 479
Barr, J. J., 481
Barragan, S., 589
Barrett, M., 63
Barth, F., 185
Bauman, Z., 331–2
Baumfree, Isabella (Sojourner Truth), 67
Baytos, L. M., 558
Beasley, C., 526–7
Beatty, Joy E., 9–10, 469
Beck, Ulrich, 332
Beckles, H., 24, 24n5
Bedell, K. W., 476
Behavioural disintegration, 244
Belgium
diversity discourse in, 463
people with disabilities in, 476
Bell, E., 302
Bell, M. P., 462, 479, 480
Belongingness, in work groups, 115, 284, 376
Bending, in identity work, 401–2
Bendl, Regine, 5, 184, 195, 202–3, 544
Benschop, Yvonne, 10–11, 294, 302, 543, 545, 546, 547, 553, 586
Bensimon, E. M., 359
Benson, J. K., 95
Bergmann, H., 187
Bernstein, Ruth Sessler, 4, 109, 113, 114, 116
Berry, D. P., 462, 480
Best, R. K., 445
Bezrukova, K., 284, 557
Bhabha, Homi K., 135, 161, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167, 175, 176, 185, 186, 187, 306
Bharat. See India
Bias. See also Discrimination; Stereotypes
common method bias, 290, 292–3
ethnocentrism, 83, 127, 184, 389, 584
institutional, 46
managerial, 240, 424, 485
unconscious, 18, 112, 118, 120
Biculturalism, 48
Bilimoria, Diana, 4, 109, 111, 113, 117
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 469
Billings-Harris, L., 118
Binary thinking, posthumanist critique of, 98–9
Biological racism, 506, 509
Biomedical model of disability, 474
(p. 606) Biswas, R., 54
Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. See also Ethnicity; Race and racism
access to power, 17
affirmative action, impact on, 239–40, 241, 246
career advancement of, 240
career satisfaction of, 241, 287–8, 377
economic restructuring, impact on, 22
entrepreneurship of, 301–2, 388–9, 403
equal opportunity initiatives for, 286
in leadership positions, 376
pay equity for, 240
police discrimination and, 26–7
unemployment among, 17
Black Consciousness movement, 167n4
Black feminism
critiques of second-wave feminism, 51
defined, 436
on intersectionality, 67–9
sociological imagination and, 18–19
Black Feminist Thought (Hill Collins), 18, 69, 436
Blackmail, 401
Blake, S., 178, 179, 262
Blake-Beard, S. D., 561
Blancero, Donna Maria, 4, 109
Blaut, J. M., 506
Bleijenbergh, Inge, 10, 539, 547, 548
Bodenhausen, G. V., 116, 119
Bogaert, S., 91
Böhm, S., 306
Bolivia, buen vivir in, 141–2
Boogaard, B., 94, 589
Boon, S. P., 303
Boone Parsons, D., 545
Borchhorst, A., 21
Border control, internal, 164
Borders
as inclusion/exclusion mechanisms, 182, 184–5, 188
internal, 390
liminality of, 184, 186
between self and others, 184
Bosch, Anita, 8, 408
Bosma, H., 402
Boundary work, 399, 400
Bourdieu, P., 54, 458, 461, 462
Bourgeoisie, 458
Bowleg, L., 443–4
Bowring, M., 200
Boxall, P., 49, 288
Boxenbaum, E., 585–6
Bracchitta, K., 481
Bradley, Harriet, 28, 590
Braidotti, R., 98
Brain drain, 375
Brantlinger, P., 161
Braverman, H., 326
Brazil
diversity management in, 542
emergence of, 33, 409, 549
Brewer, J. D., 18
Brewer, M. B., 524
Brewis, J., 200
BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) countries, 33, 409, 549
Brint, S., 113–14
British Airways, 446
Broadbent, E., 477
Brown, C., 21
Brown, Michael, 26
Brown, R., 523
Bruni, A., 388, 402
Bryant, L., 455, 548
Buckley, T., 116, 118
Buen vivir (living well), 141–2
Buitelaar, M., 402, 459
Burawoy, M., 32, 330
Burgess-Limerick, T., 343
Burke, R. J., 239
Burkhauser, R. V., 478, 480
Burrell, G., 65, 87
Buse, K., 113
Bush, George W., 139
Business case for diversity, 255–77
agency and subjectivity in, 264
in codes of conduct, 209
consumer group representation in, 260–1
contextual considerations of, 265–6
critical diversity studies on, 155–8
critiques of, 6, 262–6, 318
(p. 607) decision-making, creativity and innovation in, 261, 376, 377
defined, 255
as discourse of control, 263–4
dualisms in, 40–5
effectiveness of, 261–2
elements of, 258–61
in emerging countries, 414, 426
employees, attracting and retaining, 259
future research directions, 274
implementation and internationalization of, 155–8
multiculturalism and, 178, 179
organizational, 374–7, 380–1
origins of, 255, 256–7
racism and discrimination in, 264–5
reduced costs and, 259–60
social justice discourses and, 258–9, 266–73, 268–70t, 371
Butler, Judith, 197, 198, 200, 202
Buttner, E. H., 118
Cabral-Cardoso, C., 266
Calás, Marta B., 11, 51, 177, 182, 445, 575
Calori, R., 374
Caluya, G., 529, 530
Calvinism, 399
"Camouflaging power and privilege: a critical race analysis of university diversity policies" (Iverson), 366
Canada
affirmative action in, 239–40
business case for diversity in, 265
diversity discourse of employers in, 267–71, 268–70t
engineering profession, female representation in, 307
immigrant workers in, 235, 447
pay equity in, 240
people with disabilities in, 470–1, 478, 488
Capitalism
class and, 76
colonialism and, 132
contemporary nature of, 20
entrepreneurship and, 399
globalization and, 190, 589, 593
historical breaks and continuities in, 22
neoliberalism and, 131, 193, 591
normalizing power of, 196
as patriarchal structure, 69
Protestant work ethic and, 399, 507
Carbin, M., 588
Career advancement, 240
Career satisfaction, 241, 287–8, 294, 377
Caribbean islands, reparation demands of, 24
Carrim, Nasima M. H., 8, 408
Cassell, C., 43, 54, 56
Caste system, 410, 411, 412, 413
Categorization and elaboration model (CEM), 283, 284
Catholicism, 507
CDA (critical discourse analysis), 446–7
Chadwick, K., 89
Chain referral sampling, 343
Chan, F., 473, 477
Chang, E., 91
Change agents, Turkish female entrepreneurs as, 398
Chapman, D., 202
Charter of Fundamental Rights (EU), 46
Child abuse, 27, 391n2
Childcare facilities, in workplace, 417, 425
Chile, emergence of, 409
Chilisa, Bagele, 169
China
emergence of, 33, 409, 549
guanxi in, 580–1
in management and organization studies, 141
peaceful rise framework and, 141, 142, 143
in war on terror, 143
Choi, J. N., 582
Choi, S., 287
Choo, H., 436–7, 438, 524
Chopra, R., 526, 527
Chrisman, J. J., 391, 392
Christensen, Ann-Dorte, 69
Christensen, K. A., 481
Christensen, S., 87
Christianity, 502, 506–7, 508
Chua, R. V. J., 119
(p. 608) Cisgender, 198
Cisnormativity, 196, 197, 199, 210, 211, 213
Citibank Pakistan, 418–19
Citizenship, dimensions of, 504
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (US), 45, 500
Civil Rights movement, 41, 51, 83, 506
Clash of civilizations theory, 129, 137–8, 139, 502–3
Class
age–ethnicity–class dyads, 454–62, 464–5
capitalism and, 76
definitions of, 458
discrimination based on, 17
disidentification with, 458–9
in diversity practice, 19, 589
institutionalizing processes in creating and maintaining, 458
middle class, 19n1
power and, 458
Clegg, S., 307
Co-optation mechanisms
in business case for diversity, 273
knowledge production and management through, 133–4, 135, 139, 142, 143
radicalization of, 131
Co-workers, reaction to workplace accommodation, 485–6, 489
Coalition Government (United Kingdom), 29
Cockburn, C., 20
Codes of conduct (CoCs)
business case for diversity in, 209
defined, 204
on harassment, 207–8, 209
on health and safety, 208
heteronormativity in, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213
laws and regulations in, 208–9, 212
queer theory analysis of, 203, 204–12, 207t, 213
on relationships, 208, 211–12
sex–gender–sexuality in, 205–8, 207t, 210, 211–12
Coding techniques, 92–3, 205, 361–3
Cohen, L., 202
Cole, B., 439, 443
Colella, A., 480, 485
Collective identity, 520, 524
Collectivism
in equal opportunity approach, 28, 34
in Islam, 400
in systemic structures of inequality, 18
Colleges. See Academia
Colley, H., 560
Collins, Patricia Hill, 18, 69, 436, 438, 440, 442
Colonial subjectivities, 161, 181
Colonialism and colonization. See also Postcolonialism
capitalism and, 132
cultural imperialism and, 160
defined, 160n1
in diversity management, 128, 129–30
dominant group advantages of, 163
global, 128, 129–30
legacies of, 24–5, 162, 167
in politics of diversity, 23–7, 30, 30n8, 33
slavery and, 24
Coloniality, 128, 130, 131–2, 135–6, 140
Combahee River Collective, 67–8
Coming out process, 423
Commatization, of oppression, 68
Commodity diversity, 94
Common method bias, 290, 292–3
Communications Management Units, 501
Communism, 95
Competency
of academics, 344
of employees, 231, 272
in individual-level diversity, 116–22, 121t
multilingual, 457
of supervisors, 424
Competitive advantage
in business case discourse, 255, 257, 265
diversity management and, 44, 84, 155, 178, 237
workforce diversity as, 238, 261, 374, 375–6
Competitive individualism, 50
Component theory of disability identity development, 472
Compulsive heterosexuality, 200
The Condition of the Working Class in England (Engels), 319n1
Conflict-oriented identity work, 401
Conley, H., 29n7
Connell, Raewyn, 168–9, 526, 527, 529
Conradson, D., 592
(p. 609) Constitutive intersectionality model, 443
Construct validity, of research methodology, 290, 291–2, 293
Constructionism, 64, 71
Consumer group representation, in business case for diversity, 260–1
Containment mechanisms
knowledge production and management through, 133–4, 135, 139, 142, 143
of military, 137
in othering processes, 182
radicalization of, 131
Content mapping approach, 361
Content validity, of research methodology, 291–2
Context model, of global diversity management, 371
Contradiction, 225–8, 230–1
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 40, 416, 418
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), 486
Cooper, J. N., 18
Cornwall, A., 525, 526
Cornwall, J., 53
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Initiatives, 54, 204
Cosmopolitanism, 129, 130, 132, 136, 140
Counter-knowledge, 140
Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World (Said), 503
Cowling, M., 464, 541
Cox, Taylor, 46, 178, 179, 237, 262
Crary, Marcy, 4, 109
Creativity
contradiction and, 228
in decision-making, 261
diversity and, 119, 209, 243, 262, 376, 377
entrepreneurship and, 395
in qualitative research, 337
strategic ambiguity and, 223
Creed, D., 200
Crenshaw, Kimberlé Williams, 68–9, 435, 436, 437, 439, 440, 518, 525, 590
Crisp, R. J., 119–20
Critical discourse analysis (CDA), 446–7
Critical diversity studies, 539–52
assessment of research contributions to, 547–8, 549, 550
business case for diversity in, 155–8
critiques of, 75, 101, 177
data sources, collection, and analysis in, 544–6
defined, 539–40
dialectical tradition in, 95–7
discursive tradition in, 93–5, 96, 180
in diversity management research, 85, 93–7
emergence of, 154, 156
first-wave, 157–8
future research directions, 549
on language, 302–3, 446–7
overview, 5, 10, 153–4, 539–40
phases of, 542–8
postcolonialism in, 166–70
principles of, 85
qualitative research in, 345, 348, 350–1, 543, 549
research agendas in, 540–3
researcher’s role in, 547
second-wave of, 158–9
strategies for, 543–4, 548–9
survey of, 154–9
textual analysis in, 300–1, 302–3
Critical hermeneutics, 446
Critical Management Research (Alvesson & Deetz), 100
A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (Hook), 166
Critical sensemaking method (CSM), 300, 305, 308–11, 310f, 447
CRPD (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities), 486
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) Initiatives, 54, 204
Cultural artifacts, 543, 544–5, 549
Cultural diversity. See Multiculturalism
Cultural globalization, 138
Cultural imperialism, 23, 160, 161, 162
Cultural legitimacy, 528–9
Cultural metacognition, 119
Cultural pluralism, 16, 127, 177, 184
Cultural racism, 179, 506, 507, 508, 509
(p. 610) Dacin, M. T., 458
DAL (diversity-authenticity-leadership) triangle, 323, 324
Dana, L., 391
D’Andrea, A., 592
Danowitz, Mary Ann, 8, 357
Darwin, A., 563
Datta, K., 529, 530
Daus, C. S., 376
Davenport, S., 222
Davidson, D., 113
Davies, A., 447
Davis, Angela, 68
Davis, Kathy, 439
Davison, H. K., 484
Dawkins, Richard, 505
De Beauvoir, S., 23
De Dreu, C. K. W., 283
De Lauretis, Teresa, 196n3
De Neve, G., 526
De Vries, J., 563
De Vries, R. E., 90, 91
Deakin, S., 27
Dean, D., 20
Debebe, G., 116
Deblaere, C., 519
Dechant, K., 258
Decision-making
bureaucratization of, 42
creativity and innovation in, 261
critical moments in, 546
ethical, 238
information/decision-making concept, 88
Declaration of Human Rights (UN), 40
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN), 390
Deem, R., 362
Deep-level diversity, 88, 89, 114, 236
Deetz, S., 100
Defensive internationalism, 137
Dehumanization, of Muslim populations, 511, 512
Deleuze, G., 97, 98
Democracy, organizational, 330
Demographic imperative, 256
Demography, identity and, 579–81
Denis, J.-L., 224
DeNisi, A. S., 480, 580
Denissen, A. M., 303
Denmark
diversity discourse in, 585–6
trade unions in, 29
Deshpande, S., 412
Developmentalist fallacy, 133
Diagnostic equality checks, 378–81, 382
Dialectic transformations, 54–6, 55t
Dialectical tradition, in diversity management research, 95–7
Dickens, L., 29
Differences. See Diversity
Dill, B. T., 438, 520
Dimensions for the Design of Diversity practices. See 3D-model of diversity management
Dinsbach, A. A., 90, 91
Disabilities, defined, 469. See also People with disabilities (PWD)
Discourse approach, to equal opportunity, 42
Discourse of control, business case for diversity as, 263–4
Discourse theory (Laclau & Mouffe), 7, 300, 305–8
Discrimination. See also Bias; Oppression; Stereotypes and stigmatization
age-based, 373
apartheid, 166, 421, 425
in business case for diversity, 264–5
career satisfaction and, 241
class and, 17
at global vs. local levels, 372
at higher education institutions, 358, 363, 366
in India, 411, 412
institutional, 299
intersectionality and, 86
language and, 299, 302, 423
of LGBTI persons, 372
of Muslim populations, 397, 499–501, 509–12, 590
in Pakistan, 417
(p. 611) of people with disabilities, 473, 474, 477, 480, 483, 488
by police, 26–7
religious, 500–1
systemic, 44
in UK labour market, 373
of women, 40, 416, 418. See also Gender differences
Discrimination and fairness paradigm, 237
Discursive closure, 181
Discursive tradition, in diversity management research, 93–5, 96, 180
Distancing, in ethnographic research, 320
Ditomaso, N., 459
Diversity
ambiguous. See Ambiguous diversities
business case for. See Business case for diversity
categories and constructions of, 63–5, 71
commodity, 94
constructionist perception of, 64, 71
deep-level, 88, 89, 114, 236
definitions of, 44, 110, 236, 281, 576–7
disabled persons. See People with disabilities (PWD)
essentialist perception of, 64, 71, 183
ethnicity. See Ethnicity
innovation and, 89
internationalizing, 155–8, 578, 582–3, 595. See also Transnational diversity
intersectionality of, 70–2, 70n1
linguistic deconstruction of, 71–2
moral case for, 40, 209, 230, 238. See also Social justice
multiculturalism, 175–94. See also Multiculturalism
organizational. See Organizational diversity
politics of. See Politics of diversity
provincializing, 578, 583–8, 595
race. See Race and racism
simultaneity of, 578, 588–90, 595
surface-level, 236
workplace. See Workplace diversity
Diversity, Ethnicity, Migration at Work (Healy & Oikelome), 30
Diversity-authenticity-leadership (DAL) triangle, 323, 324
Diversity dividend, 109, 111, 116, 120, 122, 283
Diversity literacy, 424
Diversity management (DM), 127–49. See also Diversity management outcomes; Diversity management research; Global diversity management
affirmative action vs., 44, 237
ambiguities of, 219–20, 230
colonialism in, 128, 129–30
conceptual contradictions of, 226
critical turn in, 262–6
critiques of, 156–8, 157t, 180–4, 298–9, 575–6
definitions of, 358, 359–60, 367, 553
in emerging countries, 127, 128, 129
Eurocentrism in, 129, 131, 134, 143
evolution of, 256–7, 282, 317, 576
globalization and, 127, 128, 136–43, 144, 576
heteronormativity in, 195–6
in higher education institutions, 359–60, 364–8, 364f
individual benefits of, 6, 239–41, 239n1, 246
intersectionality, implications for, 65, 72–6, 77
itinerant, 321–6
knowledge and, 4, 128–36
as multiculturalist discourse, 178–80
politics of diversity in, 28–9
postcolonial critique of, 180–4
queer theory in discourse of, 202–3
relational levels of, 358, 361
rise of, 1, 42–4, 83–4, 127, 128–9, 155
theoretical frameworks for, 236–8
3D-model of, 554–7, 555t, 567–9, 567t
universalization of, 128, 131, 132, 139, 141, 182
Diversity management outcomes, 281–97
belief in diversity as factor in, 242, 247
career advancement, 240
career satisfaction, 241, 287–8, 294, 377
fault lines and, 243–4, 247
individual, 239–41, 246
organizational, 6, 244–6, 247
overview, 7, 281–2
pay equity, 240
strategic orientations and, 245
survey research on, 7, 282, 284, 285–93
(p. 612) task types and, 243
team and group, 6, 241–4, 246–7
for work groups, 283–4
Diversity management research, 83–108. See also Critical diversity studies; Ethnographic research; Qualitative research; Quantitative research; Survey research
comparative nature of, 182–3
critical traditions of, 85, 93–7
future challenges for, 569–70
interpretative tradition of, 84, 85, 91–3, 93n3
methodology for, 86–7
multi-level approaches in, 292, 293–4, 299, 303–5
multiculturalism in, 187–90
overview, 4, 83–6
positivist tradition of, 53, 84, 85, 87–91, 93n3, 183
postcolonialism in, 188–9
posthumanist feminism and, 85, 86, 97–100, 101
queer theory in, 54, 199–203, 201t
representational nature of, 183
textual analysis in, 7, 301–5
Diversity networks
content of, 564–5
criticisms of, 554, 564, 567
format for, 566–7
for LGBT persons, 564, 565, 566–7
participants of, 565–6
purpose of, 563–4, 568
Diversity professionals, defined, 20
Diversity Research Network, 262, 287
Diversity scorecards, 359
Diversity toolkits, 8, 47, 372, 373, 378–82, 383
Diversity training programs
content of, 557–8
criticisms of, 554, 567
on disabilities, 481
format for, 557, 559–60
participants of, 558–9
for police, 27
in South Africa, 424
for supervisors, 112, 559
for women, 558–9
Dobbin, F., 155, 246, 286
Doherty, A., 92
Domaining effect, 321–2
Dominquez, C. M., 117–18
Donaldson, L., 45
Dovidio, J. F., 114
Down, S., 319n1
Draine, J., 479
Draper, W. R., 480
Du Bois, W. E. B., 436
Dualisms, 39–61
in Australian context, 49–51
dialectic transformation of, 54–6, 55t
in diversity discourse, 42–5, 43t
in equal opportunity, 28, 41–2, 43–4, 43t
gender vs. “other” diversity dimensions, 51–2, 55
global perspectives vs. local economies, 47–51, 55, 371–2, 382
mind–body, 97–8
in New Zealand context, 48–9
overview, 4, 39–40, 40t
practitioner activities vs. academic research, 45–7
in quantitative vs. qualitative methodological approaches, 52–4, 56
in social justice and business case for diversity, 40–5
Duggan, Lisa, 197, 199
Durkheim, Émile, 67
Dutch Foundation for Psychotechniques (NSvP), 322, 332
Dweck, C. S., 119
Dwyer, S., 89
Dye, Kelly, 6, 255
Economy. See also Business case for diversity
equal opportunity and, 45
global restructuring of, 22
of good expectations, 331
hybrid, 392
neoliberalism and, 199
Ecuador, buen vivir in, 141–2
Edenheim, S., 588
Education. See Academia
Edwards, P., 22
(p. 613) EEOC (Equal Opportunity Employment Commission), 500, 510
Ego–bodily relations, 167, 167n4
EGOS (European Group of Organization Studies), 2
Egypt, emergence of, 409
Ehrenreich, B., 319n1
Eibach, R. P., 523
Eisenberg, E. M., 222, 223, 224, 228
Eisenhardt, K. M., 460
Ely, R., 46, 237
Emerging countries, 408–31. See also BRIC countries
business case for diversity in, 414, 426
characteristics of, 408, 409
classification of, 409
comparison of, 425–6
diversity management in, 127, 128, 129
India, 409, 410–15
overview, 8, 408–9
Pakistan, 409–10, 415–19
South Africa, 410, 420–5
Emic approaches, 465, 523, 541, 543, 548–9
Employee network groups. See Diversity networks
Employees/employment
affirmative action, impact on, 239–40
attracting and retaining, 259
authenticity of, 322, 323
diversity. See Workplace diversity
host country national, 580, 581
of people with disabilities, 475–8, 486–7
public policies, impact on, 478
survey research on, 286–90, 293
workplace accommodation and, 482–3
Empowerment
diversity initiatives and, 163, 382, 542
intersectional, 590
psychological safety and, 116
sociological imagination and, 18
in South Africa, 420–1, 422, 424
of women, 19
Empson, L., 461
Empty signifiers, 307
Entrepreneurship, 388–407
capitalism and, 399
contextual factors in, 399–403
of ethnic minorities, 301–2, 388–9, 403
of female migrants, 302, 388, 395–9, 400–3, 404
Indigenous, 390, 391–5, 403–4
individualism and, 388, 392, 395, 399
intersectionality and, 398–9, 403
overview, 8, 388–9
postcolonialism and, 394, 403, 404
stereotypes in, 388, 389
EO initiatives. See Equal opportunity initiatives
Epistemological approach of intersectional analysis, 442
Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC), 500, 510
Equal opportunity (EO) initiatives. See also Workplace diversity
codes of conduct on, 207
defined, 239
discourse approach to, 42
diversity management critiques of, 156, 157t
dualisms in, 28, 41–2, 43–4, 43t
economic rationale for, 45, 220
for ethnic minorities, 286
history of, 83
in India, 412, 413
individual benefits of, 6, 239–41, 246
legislative policies on, 40–1, 50
liberal approach to, 41–2
in Pakistan, 416, 417, 418–19
politicization of, 155
radical approach to, 42
social justice and, 281
in South Africa, 420
survey research on, 286
Equality. See also Equal opportunity (EO) initiatives; Social justice
income, 240, 241
moral case for, 40
multinational corporation policies on, 382
neoliberalism, impact on, 17, 48
Equality toolkits, 378–82
Erkut, S., 243
Escalating indecision, 224
Essed, P., 158
(p. 614) Essentialism
on difference, 64, 71, 183
Eurocentrism and, 132
on language, 71
Muslim populations and, 502–5, 510
Essers, Caroline, 8, 302, 388, 396, 546, 547
Ethical decision-making, 238
Ethnic groups, defined, 457
Ethnic wars, 137
Ethnicity. See also Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups; Indigenous communities
age–ethnicity–class dyads, 454–62, 464–5
cultural context and, 457–8
as negative marker of difference, 26
in Nigeria, 30–1, 30n8
in Pakistan, 416–17
Ethnocentrism, 83, 127, 184, 389, 584
Ethnographic research, 317–36
in critical tradition, 96, 543
history of, 319, 319n1
in interpretative tradition, 92
intersectional analysis in, 443
on itinerant diversity management, 321–6
multi-level designs for, 304
on organizational democracy, 326–30
overview, 7, 317–19
subversive potential of, 318, 320, 331, 332
on workplace diversity, 319–21
Etic approaches, 464–5, 523, 541
Eurocentric liberalism, 130, 139
Eurocentric universalism, 128, 129, 130, 134, 135
Eurocentrism
in academia, 132–3, 135
defined, 160
in diversity management, 129, 131, 134, 143
in gender and diversity research, 159
globalization as radicalization of, 130–1, 137
longue durée of, 130, 130n1, 131, 132, 135
postcolonialism and, 159, 160–1
Europe/European Union (EU)
aging workforces in, 456–7
Anti-Discrimination Directives, 70, 206
Charter of Fundamental Rights, 46
management perspectives in, 374
pay equity in, 240
people with disabilities in, 470
European Group of Organization Studies (EGOS), 2
Eveline, J., 563
Exclusion
age and, 457
by heteronormativity, 203
historical examples of, 16
identity categories and, 399
of Muslim populations, 504
Exclusionary inclusion, 129, 130, 132
Expatriation, 73, 91–2, 462, 580, 594
Exploitative relationships, cultural aspects of, 198–9
Expository textual analysis, 301–2
External intersectionality, 72–4
External validity, of research methodology, 290–1, 294
Fairclough, N., 304, 306
Fanon, Frantz, 136, 161, 166, 167
Farh, J. L. L., 580, 581
Faria, Alex, 4, 127
Fault lines, 243–4, 247
Fear Inc. (Center for American Progress), 512
Featherman, D. L., 461
Federal Human Capital Survey, 287, 291
Feij, J. A., 90, 91
Feminism. See also Black feminism; Posthumanist feminism
activism and, 20–1, 54
fragmentation of, 51
on intersectionality, 67–9, 76–7, 474
postcolonial, 165
poststructuralism and, 303, 589
research methodology of, 53
second-wave, 40, 51, 67
transnational, 51, 70
Feminism without Borders (Mohanty), 70
Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (hooks), 68
Ferguson, Kathy, 591
Ferguson (Missouri) race riots (2014), 22, 26
Ferree, M., 436–7, 438, 524
Feyes, K. J., 481
Field of discursivity, 306, 308
Fielden, Sandra L., 10, 539
(p. 615) Fieldwork, in qualitative research, 340–4
Finland
business case for diversity in, 266
diversity discourse in, 75, 586
organizational democracy of software engineers in, 326–30
term for diversity in, 71–2
Fireplace mentoring sessions, 321, 325, 326, 332
First-wave critical diversity studies, 157–8
Fiske, S. T., 479
Fleischmann, A., 184, 202–3
Fletcher, J. K., 303
Fleury, A., 409
Floating signifiers, 306, 307
Flynn, R. J., 118
Foldy, E., 116, 118, 242
Foley, D., 390
For-profit organizations, diversity discourses of, 269–72, 270t
Ford, Michele, 526, 527, 530
Forson, C., 590
Fortier, A. M., 592
Foster, T., 262
Foucault, Michel, 98, 167, 197, 200, 446, 577, 577n1, 588, 594
France
diversity discourse in, 75
higher education institutions in, 358
people with disabilities in, 476
term for diversity in, 71
Fraser, N., 455–6, 459
Frederick, H., 390
Freeman, S., 91
F-Secure Corporation, 320, 327–30, 331
Functionalism, 87, 183, 262, 273
Fundamental critiques, of diversity management, 156–8, 157t
Fundamentalist Islam, 138
Furunes, T., 92
Gaertner, S. L., 114
García, M., 485
Gaunt, P. M., 479–80
Gay Rights movement, 52
Gebert, D., 284
Gedro, J., 202
Gender coaches, 559
Gender differences. See also Men; Women
in access to power, 17
in disabilities, 471
in entrepreneurial stereotypes, 388, 389
ethical orientation and, 238
in firm performance, 89
in income/pay, 40, 240, 241
in India, 413–14
institutional practices of, 365
intersections with sex and sexuality, 197–8, 197f, 205–8, 207t, 210, 211–12
Islam and, 400
legislative policies on, 21
in Pakistan, 418–19
resistance to normative constructions of, 303
in UK labour market, 373
Gender performance, 198, 202
Genocide, 391, 391n3
Ghadar, F., 375–6
Gherardi, S., 402
Ghorashi, H., 185, 189
Ghumman, S., 510
Gilbert, J. A., 286–7
Gill, C., 472
Gilroy, P., 23, 24
Gilson, S. F., 472
Ginkel, W. P., 89
Giscombe, K., 563
Githens, R. P., 566
Glick-Schiller, N., 592
Global academia, 130, 132–4, 136, 138, 141, 143
Global Burden of Disease Study (2010), 469
Global colonialism, 129–30
Global coloniality, 128, 130, 131–2, 135, 136, 140
Global Compact (UN), 40–1
Global diversity management, 370–87
business case for organizational diversity in, 374–7, 380–1
diagnostic equality checks in, 378–81
implementation in local economies, 47–51, 55, 371–2, 382
methodology for study of, 377–8
models and frameworks for, 370–1
overview, 8, 370–3
(p. 616) toolkits for, 8, 372, 373, 378–82, 383
in UK labour market, 373–4
Globalization
capitalism and, 190, 589, 593
cultural, 138
diversity management and, 127, 128, 136–43, 144, 576
hypermobility and, 592
intersectional effects of, 73, 590
neoliberalism and, 128–30, 131, 593, 595
as radicalization of Eurocentrism, 130–1, 137
workplace diversity and, 32
Goffee, R., 391
Goldman Sachs Investment Bank, 409
Golnaraghi, Golnaz, 6, 255, 499
Gomez-Mejia, L., 179, 183
Gooden, M., 476
Gotanda, N., 509
Gouws, A., 425
Grace, M., 343
Graham, M., 205
Grassroots activism, 41, 565
Gray, B., 458
Greene, A.-M., 20, 28–9
Grewal, I., 70
Grice, S., 273
Griffiths, G., 186
Groeneveld, Sandra, 7, 281, 318
Grosfoguel, R., 133
Grosz, E., 97
Groups
inclusion practices for, 113–16, 120–2, 121t
intersectionality and, 524–5
performance outcomes and diversity, 6, 241–4, 246–7
social identity theory and, 524, 525
workplace diversity practices of, 113–16, 120–2, 121t
Groupthink, 243
Growth orientations, 245
Guanxi, 580–1
Guattari, F., 97, 98
Guerrier, Y., 455, 463, 593
Haberstam, Jack, 197
Haberstam, Judith, 197
Hagedorn-Rasmussen, P., 585
Hahn, H., 474
Hakim, C., 240
Hall, J. P., 479
Hall, S., 181
Hallock, K. F., 477
Hampden-Turner, C., 457
Handbook of Workplace Diversity (Prasad), 162–3
Hannappi, G., 455, 458
Hannappi-Egger, Edeltraud, 9, 454, 455, 457, 458, 460–1
Hansman, C. A., 561
Haq, Rana, 8, 408, 413, 541
Harassment
caste system and, 412
codes of conduct on, 207–8, 209
at higher education institutions, 366
of Muslim populations, 499
of people with disabilities, 477
of women, 17
Harcourt, M., 477
Harcourt, S., 477
Hardy, C., 304
Harris, L., 545
Harris, Sam, 505
Harrison, D. A., 115
Härtel, C. E. J., 91, 376
Harter, L. M., 226, 263
Hate crimes, 500
Hausa-Fulani tribe (Nigeria), 30n8
Hawking, Steven, 482
Hazer, J. T., 476
HCN (host country national) employees, 580, 581
He, J., 457
Health, codes of conduct on, 208
Healy, Geraldine, 3, 15, 22, 23–4, 28, 30, 590
Hearn, Jeff, 4, 62, 69
Hegel, Georg, 95
Hegemonic masculinities, 69, 526, 527
HEIs (higher education institutions). See Academia
Helms Mills, Jean, 7, 9, 300, 304, 305, 435, 447
Hendricks, D. J., 477
Hendry, C., 376
Henry, J. D., 481
(p. 617) Herbert, J. I., 301
Heres, L., 586
Hernández-León, R., 463
Herring, C., 375
Heteronormativity
in codes of conduct, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213
definitions of, 198–9
in diversity management, 195–6
exclusion by, 203
LGBTI performances of, 199
in organizational culture, 196, 198
power structure of, 197, 198, 200, 202
Heterosexual matrix, 197–8, 197f, 200, 202, 203
Heterotopia, 577n1
Hewitt, J., 306
Hickey-Moody, A., 529
Hierarchy of oppression, 23, 24
Higher education institutions (HEIs). See Academia
Hijabi Muslims, 501, 510, 590
Hilde, Rosalie, 7, 298, 310, 318, 447
Hindustan. See India
Hitchens, Christopher, 505
HIV/AIDS, 196, 420
Hofhuis J., 118
Hofmann, Roswitha, 5, 195, 203, 454
Hogg, M. A., 522
Holgate, J., 22, 590
Holgersson, Charlotte, 10–11, 177, 553, 554
Holvino, E., 155, 458, 522–3
Holzer, H. J., 239
Homan, A. C., 118, 242, 283
Homo sacer (sacred or cursed man), 512
Homonormativity, 197, 199
Homophily, 460
Hong Kong
emergence of, 409
people with disabilities in, 476
Hoobler, J., 179, 576
Hook, Derek, 166–7
Höök, P., 554, 561, 563
hooks, bell, 68
Hornscheidt, A., 72
Hörschelmann, K., 528
Horwitz, I. B., 110
Horwitz, S. K., 110
Host country national (HCN) employees, 580, 581
Houkamau, C., 49, 288
Houlette, M. A., 244
Houssay-Holzschuch, M., 409
Houtenville, A. J., 480
Hubbard, E., 359
Huddy, L., 522–3
Human resource management (HRM)
actual vs. perceived policies of, 292
in diversity management, 46, 112, 246, 247, 258, 583
good practice standards, 22
performance outcomes and, 284, 292
positivism and, 89
survey research on, 285–6
Human rights
academic discourses of, 136
in Australia, 391n3, 439
in Canada, 470
Declaration of Human Rights (UN), 40
intersectionality and, 518
macro framework for, 41
same-sex relations and, 52
in South Africa, 420
universal values of, 510
Humbert, A. L., 396
Humphries, M., 273
Hunt, B., 481
Hunt, C. S., 481
Huntington, Samuel, 502–3
Huntingtonian racialism, 139, 141
Hybrid economies, 392
Hypermobility, 592
Hypervisibility, 509
Identitarianism, 582, 589, 591
Identity. See also Social identity theory (SIT)
ascribed, 117, 510
collective, 520, 524
in critical diversity studies, 180
definitions of, 437
demography and, 579–81
essentialism vs. constructionism on, 64
of female migrants, 302
of LGBTI persons, 200, 510
(p. 618) multiple levels of, 524–5
othering processes and, 86, 100, 161, 181–2
of people with disabilities, 472–5
performances of, 199, 222
postcolonial theory and, 448
in qualitative research, 340–4
shifting nature of, 186, 187
social confirmation of, 98, 99–100, 116
social construction of, 53, 117
stage theory of, 119–20
Identity blindness, 288
Identity politics, 98, 525
Identity work
of female entrepreneurs, 400–2
individual-level factors impacting, 118
intersectionality and, 86, 399
levels of, 524
manifestations of, 400–2
organizational, 164
of researchers, 350
Igbo tribe (Nigeria), 30n8
ILO (International Labour Organization), 40
Immigrants and immigration
abuse of, 22
assimilation of, 83
critical sensemaking method in analysis of, 309–11, 310f
female migrant entrepreneurship, 302, 395–9, 400–3, 404
politics of diversity and, 21, 22, 25–6
racialised masculinities and, 530
social networks of, 462–3
in workforce, 235, 373, 375, 447, 590
Impairments, defined, 469. See also People with disabilities (PWD)
Imperial Leather (McClintock), 70
Imperialism, cultural, 23, 160, 161, 162
Imrie, R., 472
Inclusion
borders as mechanisms of, 184–5
defined, 110
diversity training programs on, 557
exclusionary mechanisms of, 129, 130, 132
at group level, 113–16, 120–2, 121t
identity categories and, 399
leadership and, 284
organizational climate for, 283–4, 289, 376
at organizational level, 111–13, 120–2, 121t
principles of, 45
Income. See also Class
gender differences in, 40, 240, 241
inequality in, 16–17, 40, 240, 241, 373, 459
of people with disabilities, 476
India, 410–15
affirmative action in, 240
caste system in, 410, 411, 412, 413
comparison with Pakistan and South Africa, 425–6
education in, 412
emergence of, 33, 409, 549
equality and diversity as defined in, 410–11
independence of, 409
legislative and current history on diversity and equality, 411–12
organizational diversity practices in, 413–15
religion in, 409–10
socio-political dynamics in, 412
women in, 411–12, 413–14, 426, 541
Indigenous communities
in Australia, 390–5, 390n1
entrepreneurship in, 390, 391–5, 403–4
knowledge systems of, 161, 162, 168, 169–70, 391
oppression of, 390–1
unemployment in, 390
Indigenous Research Methodologies (Chilisa), 169
Individualism
competitive, 50
entrepreneurship and, 388, 392, 395, 399
in equal opportunity approach, 28
neoliberalism and, 593
religious, 400
sociological imagination and, 18
voluntarism and, 27, 28, 34
Individuals
diversity management benefits for, 6, 239–41, 239n1, 246
workplace diversity competencies of, 116–22, 121t
Indonesia
rise of, 33
as vulnerable country, 409
(p. 619) Industrial relations, as field of study, 32n9
Inequality. See also Discrimination; Exclusion
in access to power, 17
defined, 554
in income/pay, 16–17, 40, 240, 241, 373, 459
societal effects of, 16–17
Inequality regimes, 52
Information/decision-making concept, 88
Innovation
in decision-making, 261
diversity and, 89, 377
Innovative orientations, 245
Institutional bias, 46
Institutional discrimination, 299
Institutional practices of gender, 365
"Institutionalisation of Gender and Diversity Management in Engineering Education" (Leicht-Scholten et al.), 365–6
Institutionalized oppression, 420
Integration and learning paradigm, 237, 283–4
Interaction structuring practices, 114–15
Intercategorical approach, to intersectionality, 70, 441, 442, 443, 474, 489
Interdependence, 72
Interdiscursivity, 322
Internal border control, 164
Internal intersectionality, 72–4, 75
Internal validity, of research methodology, 292–3
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (UN), 40
International Labour Organization (ILO), 40
Internationalizing diversity, 155–8, 578, 582–3, 595. See also Transnational diversity
Interpretivism, 84, 85, 91–3, 93n3, 300
Intersectional invisibility, 523
Intersectional sensibility, 590
Intersectionality, 62–82, 435–68
age–ethnicity–class dyads, 454–62, 464–5
of categories and differences, 63–5, 70–2, 70n1
challenges of, 76
criticisms of, 435, 442, 588
definitions of, 52, 437–9, 455
discriminatory impact of, 86
entrepreneurship and, 398–9, 403
external vs. internal, 72–4, 75
feminism on, 67–9, 76–7, 474
globalization and, 73, 590
history and development of, 66–72, 436–7, 518, 588
implications for diversity and diversity management, 65, 72–6, 77
masculinities and, 69
methodological approaches to analysis of, 440–4
oppression and, 52, 66, 435, 436–7, 438, 522
overview, 4, 9, 62–3, 435–6
paradigms and applications of, 444–9
in policy development, 69–70
political, 440
in politics of diversity, 17, 19–20
positivism and, 445
postcolonialism and, 70, 448–9
postpositivism and, 445–9
poststructuralism and, 447, 588
research challenges and, 464–5
of sex–gender–sexuality, 197–8, 197f, 205–8, 207t, 210, 211–12
social identity theory and, 521–3, 531
structural, 440
transnational diversity and, 73, 74, 588–90
Interviews
protocols/guides for, 92
in qualitative research, 339, 340, 341–4
semi-structured, 339, 340, 342, 350, 543
Intracategorical approach, to intersectionality, 70, 441–2, 474, 489, 523
Irish migrants, 25
Islam and Muslims
in Bangladesh, 409, 410
clash of civilizations theory and, 502–3
comparison with Jewish populations, 504–5
dehumanization of, 511, 512
discrimination of, 397, 499–501, 509–12, 590
entrepreneurship and, 399, 400
essentialization of, 502–5, 510
of female migrant entrepreneurs, 302, 397, 399, 400
fundamentalist, 138
gender segregation in, 400
(p. 620) harassment of, 499
hate crimes against, 500
Hijabi Muslims, 501, 510, 590
in India, 409–10
Orientalism on, 399, 503
overview, 10, 499–502
in Pakistan, 409, 410, 415, 416, 417
phenotypes of, 508–9
racialised masculinities of men in, 529
racialization of, 502, 509
sharia and, 500
Shia Muslims, 416, 417
stigmatization of, 501
Sunni Muslims, 416
Islamic fundamentalism, 138
Islamophobia, 141, 499, 501, 504–5, 512
Italy
diversity discourse in, 74
female entrepreneurs in, 402
Itinerant diversity management, 321–6
Ivancevich, J. M., 286–7
Iverson, S. V., 366
Jabbour, C. J. C., 542
Jack, Gavin, 5, 44, 87, 94, 153, 181, 256, 257, 262, 263
Janssens, M., 94, 188, 263, 264, 302, 541, 546, 585
Jaworski, K., 455, 548
Jay, Alexis, 27
Jayasinghe, Laknath, 10, 518
Jehn, K. A., 284, 557
Jews, comparison with Muslim populations, 504–5
Jewson, N., 41, 42
Joh, J., 119
Johnson, L., 242
Johnston, W. B., 84
Jones, D., 23n4, 42, 584
Jones, K. C., 522
Joshi, A., 460
Jovic, E., 485
Joy, S., 117
Ju, S., 479
Just, Sine Nørholm, 5–6, 218
Just-in-case approach, to workplace accommodation, 487–8
Kaasila-Pakanen, Anna-Liisa, 5, 175
Kalev, A., 246, 286
Kalokerinos, E. K., 481
Kalonaityte, V., 75, 154, 164–5, 167, 175
Kamp, A., 155, 585
Kaplan, C., 70
Kärreman, D., 255, 304
Katila, S., 544
Kauzya, J. M., 30
Kearney, E., 284
Kellough, J. E., 286
Kelly, C., 424, 425
Kelly, E., 155, 246, 286
Kennedy, John F., 507
Kenway, J., 529
Kenya, age management programs in, 457, 461
Ketner, S., 402
Key performance indicators (KPIs), 224, 225
King, Martin Luther, 26
King, Peter, 501
Kirby, E., 226, 263
Kirkland, S., 558
Kirton, G., 16, 20, 28–9
Kish-Gephart, J. J., 458
Klarsfeld, A., 587
Kleiner, M., 91
KMLG (Kohinoor Maple Leaf Group), 419
Knights, David, 4, 83
Knowledge
categorization of, 72
counter-knowledge, 140
dislocation of, 99
diversity management and, 4, 128–36, 303
Indigenous systems of, 161, 162, 168, 169–70, 391
politicization of, 182
power and, 93–4, 96
procedural, 365
of social identities, 119, 521
sub-knowledges, 128, 133–4, 135–6, 138, 139–42
subalternization of, 131, 136
Western construction of, 265
Kochan, T. A., 243
Kohinoor Maple Leaf Group (KMLG), 419
Kolb, D. M., 560–1
(p. 621) Konrad, Alison M., 9–10, 65, 177, 239, 243, 245, 246, 370, 469, 577
Kosofsky Sedgwick, Eve, 197, 202
Kovera, M. B., 485
KPIs (key performance indicators), 224, 225
Kram, K. E., 561
Kramer, V., 243
Kristinsson, K., 88–9
Kulik, C. T., 112, 119
Kulkarni, M., 479–80
Kumar, K., 242, 262
Kunda, G., 319
Kurtulus, F. A., 240
Kwek, D., 183
Labour Government (United Kingdom), 21
Laclau, E., 7, 300, 304, 305, 306
Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory, 7, 300, 305–8
Lam, H., 477
Langley, A., 224
Language
critical diversity studies on, 302–3, 446–7
discrimination and, 299, 302, 423
essentialist vs. constructionist perspectives on, 71
interdependence and, 72
in making of meaning, 255
in Pakistan, 417
in qualitative research, 346–7
in South Africa, 423
Larsen, Jørgen Elm, 69
Latin America
buen vivir in, 141–2
decolonial scholarship in, 130–1, 132, 134, 135
gender relations in, 447
Laws and regulations
in codes of conduct, 208–9, 212
on equal opportunity, 40–1, 50
on gender equality, 21
intersectionality in, 69–70
for people with disabilities, 470–1, 475, 478, 487–8
in politics of diversity, 27–31
on race relations, 21–2, 45
on same-sex marriage, 52, 422–3
Lawsuits, 259–60, 377
Layder, D., 15
Leadership. See also Supervisors
authenticity in, 323, 324
ethnic minorities in positions of, 376
transformational, 245, 284, 289
in workplace diversity, 245, 247, 284, 289
Learning frames, 118
Leasher, M. K., 476
Lee, D., 32
Lee, H., 202
Legge, K., 331
Legislation. See Laws and regulations
Leicht-Scholten, C., 365
Leitch, S., 222
Lengnick-Hall, M. L., 479–80
Leonard, J. S., 460
Leonard, P., 175, 594
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) persons. See also Queer theory
activism among, 197
coming out process for, 423
discrimination of, 372
diversity networks for, 564, 565, 566–7
exclusion from liberation movements, 196
heteronormative performances of, 199
identities of, 200, 510
legislative rights for, 52
organizational diversity and, 224
racialised masculinities and, 530
in South Africa, 422–3
Levinas, E., 98
Levine, D. I., 460
Lewis, A. P., 200
Lewis, Bernard, 502, 503
Liang, X., 111, 117
Liberal approach, to equal opportunity, 41–2
Liden, R. C., 459
Life-politics, 332
Liff, Sonia, 41
Limerick, B., 343
Lin, X., 455, 546
Lindisfarne, N., 525, 526
Lindsay, N., 391
Lindsay, S., 91
Linnehan, F., 239, 246, 370
Linstead, S., 129, 131, 178
Liquid Modernity (Bauman), 331–2
(p. 622) Little Gitmos, 501
Litvin, D., 42–3, 258, 263, 264, 267, 302, 458
Liversage, A., 302
Lobel, S., 262
Longue durée, of Eurocentric coloniality, 130, 130n1, 131, 132, 135
Loo, R., 476
Lorbiecki, A., 44, 87, 94, 256, 257, 262, 263
Lorde, Audre, 69
Loretto, W., 472, 473
Lorey, I., 72
Louvrier, Jonna, 4, 62, 75
Lowe, K. B., 118
Lowson, E., 545
Luhman, J. T., 330
Lupton, B., 464, 541
Lutz, Helma, 68
Lyons, Lenore, 526, 527, 530
Mac an Ghaill, M., 455, 546
Mackinnon, C., 41
MacNab, B., 114
Macro level research
critical sensemaking method for, 308
elements of, 358
on higher education institutions, 361, 367
intersectionality in, 438, 520, 524
politics of diversity and, 20
on women’s employment challenges, 419
Maghreb, emergence of, 409
Magnusson, E., 437
Magoshi, E., 91
Malaysia, emergence of, 409
Malhi, R. L., 303
Management and organization studies (MOS)
decoloniality and, 141, 142
globalization and, 127, 128, 129, 130, 139
pluriversality and, 143, 144
postcolonialism in analysis of, 175
Managers. See Leadership; Supervisors
"Managing a Meritocracy or an Equitable Organization? Senior Managers’ and Employees’ Views about Equal Opportunities Policies in UK Universities" (Deem), 362
Mandal Commission, 411
Manipulation, in identity work, 401–2
Mäntylä, H., 544
Maori peoples, 48, 51–2, 584
Marcus, George, 320
Marginalized masculinities, 69
Marriage, same-sex, 52, 422–3
Martin, J., 304, 558
Martins, L., 283, 558
Marx, Karl, 67, 95
Marxism, 67, 139, 161, 305, 332, 458
Masculinities. See also Racialized masculinities
entrepreneurship and, 388, 389
hegemonic, 69, 526, 527
intersectionality and, 69
linear rational thinking and, 97–8, 99, 100, 101
of people with disabilities, 473
Mason, D., 41, 42
Masuch, C., 304
Maternity leave, 414, 416, 418, 419
Mayer, D. M., 284
Mayer, K. U., 461
McCall, L., 70, 71, 441–2, 443, 455, 465, 523, 525
McClintock, A., 70
McCoy, L., 304
McCurley, K., 522
McEnrue, M. P., 377
McKay, D., 592
McLaughlin, M. E., 479
McLeod, P., 262
McMahon, B. T., 473, 477, 480
McMillan-Capehart, A., 243
Meekosha, Helen, 69
Men. See also Gender differences; Masculinities
paternity leave for, 414
racialized experiences of, 529–31
Men and Masculinities in Southeast Asia (Ford & Lyons), 526
Mental representations, of tasks, 89
Mentoring programs
content of, 560–1
criticisms of, 554, 560, 567
external organization of, 556
fireplace sessions, 321, 325, 326, 332
format for, 562–3
(p. 623) participants of, 561–2
for women, 560–1
Mercer, Danielle, 9, 435
Meriläinen, S., 94, 266, 345, 544, 586
Merritt, D., 242
Meso level research
critical sensemaking method for, 308
elements of, 358
on higher education institutions, 361–2, 367
politics of diversity and, 20
queer theory as applied to, 202–3
social identity theory and, 520, 524
on women’s employment challenges, 419
Metacognitive strategies, 119
Metcalfe, B. D., 158, 159, 165
Methodological nationalism, 592
Mexico
emergence of, 33
identity construction in, 589
relational demography in, 582
Meyer, B., 244
Meyerson, D., 20, 228, 229, 560–1
Michaelsen, L. K., 242, 262
Micro level research
critical sensemaking method for, 308, 311
elements of, 358
on higher education institutions, 362
intersectionality in, 438, 520
queer theory as applied to, 200, 202
social identity theory and, 524
on women’s employment challenges, 419
Middle class, 19n1
Millennium Development Goals, 19
Miller, C. E., 476
Miller, J., 53
Milliken, F., 283, 558
Mills, Albert J., 9, 435, 446, 499, 589
Mills, C. Wright, 18, 31
Mind–body dualisms, 97–8
Minority group model of disability identity, 474–5
MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey) countries, 33
Mir, Ali, 10, 32, 33–4, 499
Mir, Raza, 10, 32, 33–4, 499
Mirza, H. S., 590
Misra, J., 522
Mitchell, T. R., 485
Mobile subjectivities, formation of, 578, 591–4, 595
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade, 70
Molden, D. C., 119
Moore, Mark E., 9–10, 469
Mor, S., 119
Moradi, B., 519
Moral case for diversity, 40, 209, 230, 238. See also Social justice
Moral obligation, of Western world, 23, 160
Moreton-Robinson, A., 394
Morgan, G., 65, 87
Moroccan female entrepreneurs, 302, 396, 399, 400–3
Morris, M. W., 119
Moser, Ingunn, 69
Mouffe, C., 7, 300, 304, 305
Muchiri, M. K., 245
Mueller, S., 389, 399
Mufti, A., 160, 504
Multi-level analyses, 292, 293–4, 299, 303–5
Multicultural personality questionnaires, 325, 326
Multiculturalism, 175–94. See also Diversity; Ethnicity; Race and racism
age and, 457
business case for diversity and, 178, 179
cultural difference vs., 184–7
diversity management and, 178–80
limitations of, 183–4
overview, 5, 175–7
paradigms of, 87
postcolonial critique of, 175, 180–4
in research methodology, 187–90
in third space, 184–7, 188, 189–90
Multinational corporations (MNCs)
business case for diversity and, 265
codes of conduct, queer theory analysis of, 203, 204–12, 207t, 213
diversity-related policies and practices of, 246
(p. 624) equality policies and procedures for, 382
global policies of, 371–2, 379, 380, 381
in India, 413–14
intersectional transnationalizations of, 73, 74
in Pakistan, 418
workforce diversity of, 375–7
Munir, K., 458
Muñoz, J. E., 530
Munshi, D., 265
Muslim populations. See Islam and Muslims
Mustapha, A. R., 31
Mutsaers, Paul, 7, 317, 320
Mykletun, R. J., 92
Naff, K. C., 286
Naples, N. A., 442
National Science Foundation (NSF), 111, 113
National Security Entry-Exit Registration (NSEER) Program, 500
Nativism, 83
Naturalization, 181
Nemetz, P., 87
Nentwich, J. C., 42
Neocolonialism, 162, 162n2, 188
Neoliberalism
capitalism and, 131, 193, 591
diversity management and, 575
economic, 199
globalization and, 128–30, 131, 593, 595
growth of, 18
impact on equality, 17, 48
normalizing power of, 196
principles of, 43, 512
voluntarism and, 27
Neo-nomads, 592
Nestlé Pakistan, 418
Netherlands
coordinated market economy of, 397
diversity discourse in, 74, 585, 586
ethnic minority representation in organizations in, 286
itinerant diversity management of police officers in, 321–6
people with disabilities in, 470
survey research among public sector employees in, 288–90
Turkish female entrepreneurs in, 302, 396–8, 400–1
Network groups. See Diversity networks
Neumark, D., 239
New York Police Department (NYPD), 500–1
New Zealand
affirmative action in, 240
as bicultural society, 584
diversity management outcomes in, 288
equality–diversity discourse in, 47, 48–9, 51
immigrants in workforce in, 235
pre-colonial groups in, 23n4
Ng, Eddy S., 6, 235, 239, 242, 245, 246
Nigeria
emergence of, 33
ethnic diversity in, 30–1, 30n8
9/11 attacks. See September 11, 2001 attacks
Niqab (face veil), 499
Nishat Chunian Group, 419
Nishii, L. H., 284, 292
Nkomo, Stella M., 8, 65, 179, 408, 576–7
Noble, G., 528–9
Nodal points, 306, 307
Nomadism, 592
Non-fundamental critiques, of diversity management, 156, 157t
Non-profit organizations
diversity discourse of, 269–71, 270t
social justice discourse of, 271, 272
workplace diversity practices of, 113, 116
Noon, M., 28, 29, 156, 179, 318, 377
North Korea, emergence of, 409
Norway, women in management positions in, 240
Nottingham/Notting Hill race riots (1958), 21
Nouri, R., 243
Novak, J., 481
NSEER (National Security Entry-Exit Registration) Program, 500
NSF (National Science Foundation), 111, 113
NSvP (Dutch Foundation for Psychotechniques), 322, 332
Nyambegera, S. M., 584
NYPD (New York Police Department), 500–1
Obesity, as disability, 478
O’Brien, Mary, 68
Occupational upgrading, 463
Ogbonna, E., 545
Oikelome, F., 22, 23–4, 30
Ojha, A., 413
Old boys’ networks, 564, 565
Omanović, Vedran, 4, 83, 87, 96, 178, 586
Omi, Richard, 505–6, 511
Ong, Aihwa, 512
Openness to experience, 118
Oppression. See also Discrimination; Exclusion
colonialism and, 162
commatization of, 68
hierarchy of, 23, 24
of Indigenous communities, 390–1
institutionalized, 420
intersectionality and, 52, 66, 435, 436–7, 438, 522
Optimal contact practices, 114, 115
O’Reilly, C. A., 262
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 204, 235, 469, 470
Organizational democracy, 326–30
Organizational diversity. See also Workplace diversity
business case for, 374–7, 380–1
critical diversity studies on, 539–50
in India, 413–15
LGBTI persons and, 224
in Pakistan, 417–19
in South Africa, 423–5
Organizations
diversity management outcomes for, 6, 244–6, 247
gendering of, 53
heteronormative culture of, 196, 198
inclusion practices for, 111–13, 120–2, 121t
maintenance of group differences in, 163–5, 167
queer theory in discourse of, 202, 213–14
survey research on, 285–6, 293
workplace diversity practices of, 111–13, 120–2, 121t
Orientalism, 25, 161, 162, 181–2, 399, 503
Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient (Said), 161, 181, 503
Ortlieb, Renate, 9, 238, 454, 457
Osella, C., 526, 527
Osella, F., 526, 527
Ostendorp, A., 586
Østergaarda, C. R., 88–9
Ostrander, R. N., 473
Oswick, C., 28, 156, 179
Other backward classes (OBC), 410–11, 412, 413, 414–15
Othering processes
in entrepreneurship, 388, 403
Orientalism as, 161, 181–2
postcolonialism and, 403
in social confirmation of identity, 100
third space and, 186
Otten, S., 118
Özbilgin, Mustafa F., 8, 29, 358, 361, 370, 461, 464, 520, 523, 541
Ozkazanc-Pan, Banu, 11, 165, 541, 575
Öztürk, Mustafa Bilgehan, 8, 370, 372
Packer, A. H., 84
Paetzold, R., 485
Paige, R. M., 558
Pakeha peoples, 584
Pakistan, 415–19
comparison with India and South Africa, 425–6
creation of, 409–10
equality and diversity as defined in, 415
ethnic diversity in, 416–17
legislative and current history on diversity and equality, 415–16
linguistic diversity in, 417
organizational diversity practices in, 417–19
religion in, 415, 416, 417
socio-political dynamics in, 416–17
women in, 415–16, 418–19, 426
Palich, L., 179, 183
Paluck, E. L., 560
Paludi, Mariana Ines, 9, 435, 447
Pan American Airways, 448
(p. 626) Parent, M. C., 519
Parker, K, 479
Parker, M., 202, 203, 221
Participant observation, 319, 341, 543, 549. See also Ethnographic research
Participation restrictions, defined, 469. See also People with disabilities (PWD)
Paternity leave, 414
Patil, V., 70
Patriarchy, 19, 23, 27, 69, 401
Patriot Act of 2001 (US), 500
Pay/pay equality. See Income
Peaceful rise framework, 141, 142, 143, 144
Pearson, Noel, 392
Peer-mentoring programs, 563
Pelled, L. H., 460, 582
Peng, P., 240
People with disabilities (PWD), 469–98
access to power, 17
discrimination of, 473, 474, 477, 480, 483, 488
employment outcomes of, 475–8, 486–7
future research directions, 488–9
harassment of, 477
identity of, 472–5
in India, 411, 413, 414
legislative policies for, 470–1, 475, 478
overview, 9–10, 469–71
prevalence of, 469, 470
in South Africa, 420, 422
stigmatization and stereotyping of, 473, 478–82, 484
unemployment among, 470, 472, 475, 482
workplace accommodation for, 470, 478, 482–6, 487–8
PepsiCo, 260
Peredo, A., 391, 392
Peretz, Martin, 503–4
Performativity, 197, 198, 202, 203, 222
Perkins, D. V., 479
Pettigrew, A., 376
Phenotypes, of Muslim populations, 508–9
Philippines, emergence of, 409
Phillips, D., 443
Phillips, N., 304
Pieterse, A. N., 89
Pillow, W., 347
Pinar, M., 91
Pio, E., 302
Pitts, D. W., 285, 291
Pluralism. See also Multiculturalism
cultural, 16, 127, 177, 184
defined, 1
religious, 508
Pluriversality, 127–8, 130, 131, 134, 143, 144
Poggio, B., 402
Point, S., 265, 266, 585
Police
discrimination by, 26–7, 500–1
itinerant diversity management of, 321–6
multicultural skills initiatives for, 94
Policy development. See Laws and regulations
Poling, T. L., 243
Political intersectionality, 440
Politics of diversity, 15–38
academic careers, influence on, 31–3
colonial history in, 23–7, 30, 30n8, 33
in diversity management, 28–9
history, society, and biography in, 18–22, 33–4
immigration and, 21, 22, 25–6
intersectionality in, 17, 19–20
overview, 3, 15–17
transversal, 591
voluntarism and regulation in, 27–31, 34
Porter, Janet, 7, 298, 318
Portugal, diversity initiatives in, 266
Positioning theory, 64
Positive discrimination. See Affirmative action (AA)
Positivism
in diversity management research, 53, 84, 85, 87–91, 93n3, 183
human resource management and, 89
intersectionality and, 445
principles of, 85
survey research and, 90
textual analysis and, 300
Postcolonial feminism, 165
Postcolonialism, 159–70
advantages of utilizing, 175–6
in critical diversity studies, 166–70
defined, 159–60
diversity management and, 180–4
(p. 627) in diversity management research, 188–9
entrepreneurship and, 394, 403, 404
Eurocentrism and, 159, 160–1
identity and, 448
intersectionality and, 70, 448–9
modes of analysis in, 161–2
multiculturalism and, 175, 180–4
prefix debate regarding, 162n2
on workplace diversity, 25, 153–4, 162–6, 265
Posthumanist feminism
on binary thinking, 98–9
in diversity management research, 85, 86, 97–100, 101
Postidentitarian transnational diversity, 579, 594–5
Postpositivism, 300, 445–9
Poststructuralism
on discourse, 64–5, 507
feminist, 303, 589
on gendering of organizations, 53
intersectionality and, 447, 588
meanings in, 186
rise of, 42
Powell, Glen, 10, 518
Powell, N. G., 84
Power
abuse of, 332
asymmetry of, 181, 190, 299, 303, 306
class and, 458
coloniality and, 130, 131, 137
contextual factors and, 47, 55, 159, 541
in exploitative relationships, 198–9
hegemonic masculinities and, 69
heteronormative, 197, 198, 200, 202
hierarchical, 185
inequality in access to, 17
knowledge and, 93–4, 96
in managerial relations, 302
micro and macrophysics of, 592
performative elements of, 530
politics of, 394
of privileged groups, 25, 26
in qualitative research, 53, 340–4
race and, 502, 507
social relations of, 15, 64, 67, 76
in 3D-model of diversity management, 556, 567–8, 569
Pragmatism, 402
Prakash, G., 161–2
Prasad, Anshuman, 159–60, 162–4, 163n3, 165, 167, 175–6, 265, 399
Prasad, P., 25, 65, 175, 177, 181, 183, 184, 577
Pre-colonial history, 23n4
Pringle, Judith K., 4, 23n4, 39, 65, 177, 577, 584
Process model, of global diversity management, 370, 371
Proletariat, 458
Protestant work ethic, 399, 507
Provincializing diversity, 578, 583–8, 595
Psychological safety, in work groups, 116
Psychopolitical theory of racism, 166–7
Puar, J. K., 591
Public policy. See Laws and regulations
Public-politics, 332
Pullen, A., 303
Purdie-Vaughns, V., 523
Purkayastha, B., 591
Qualitative research, 337–54. See also Ethnographic research
in critical diversity studies, 345, 348, 350–1, 543, 549
discipline-specific methodological norms in, 338–40, 350
on entrepreneurial aspirations in Indigenous communities, 393–5
fieldwork in, 340–4
in interpretative tradition, 92
intersectional analysis in, 443
interviews in, 339, 340, 341–4
language issues in, 346–7
overview, 7, 337–8
power and identity in, 53, 340–4
quantitative research vs., 52–4, 56, 339
reflexivity in, 347–50, 546
social justice and, 53
translation to academic writing, 344–7
Quantitative research. See also Survey research
intersectional analysis in, 443
qualitative research vs., 52–4, 56, 339
(p. 628) Queer theory, 195–217. See also Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) persons
ambiguous diversities and, 221–2
codes of conduct, analysis using, 203, 204–12, 207t, 213
definitions of, 202
in diversity management research, 54, 199–203, 201t
on gendering of organizations, 53
as multifaceted theoretical concept, 196–9
in organizational discourse, 202, 213–14
overview, 5, 195–6
Queerness, defined, 221–2
Quotas, in affirmative action, 42, 84, 240
Qur’an, 400
Race and racism. See also Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups; Discrimination
biological racism, 506, 509
in business case for diversity, 264–5
colonialism and, 24
cultural racism, 179, 506, 507, 508, 509
legislative policies regarding, 21–2, 45
in mentoring programs, 562
origin and evolution of, 505–7
psychopolitical theory of, 166–7
race riots, 21, 22, 26
in UK labour market, 373
in US, 26, 505–8
Racial formation, 502, 505–6, 511
Racial Formation in the United States (Omi & Winant), 505–6
Racialization process, 502, 509, 511
Racialized masculinities, 525–31
examination of, 525–7
legitimacy and, 528–9
men’s experiences with, 529–31
spatial contexts of, 527–9
Ragins, B., 53
Rainey, H. G., 287
Rancière, Jacques, 330
Rand, E. J., 221–2
Rao, A., 91
Rao, D., 479
Räsänen, K., 544
Rasky, C., 435, 437, 438
Razack, S., 512
Re-categorization practices, 114–15
Reaganomics, 43, 45
Reconquista, 502, 506
Recruitment practices, 46, 73, 377, 461, 542
Red herring bills, 500
Redistribution–recognition dilemma, 456, 459
Reflexive Ethnography (Aull Davies), 100
Reflexive Methodology (Alvesson & Sköldberg), 100
Reflexivity, in research, 53, 99, 100, 347–50, 546
Regan, A., 558
Regulations. See Laws and regulations
Reid, C. A., 480
Reinharz, S., 544–5
Relational approach, to intersectionality, 440–1
Relational demography, 579, 580–1, 582
Religion. See also Islam and Muslims
discrimination based on, 500–1
in India, 409–10
individualism and, 400
in Pakistan, 415, 416, 417
in US, 505–8
Religious pluralism, 508
Renegar, V. R., 225–6, 228
Research methodology. See also Diversity management research; Ethnographic research; Qualitative research; Quantitative research; Survey research
of feminism, 53
Indigenous, 169–70
for intersectional analysis, 440–4
multi-level approaches, 292, 293–4, 299, 303–5
multiculturalism in, 187–90
social justice and, 53
validity of, 290–3, 294, 539, 545–6, 549
Reservation system, in India, 411, 412–13, 415, 426
Resource-based theory, 238, 246
Return-to-work plans, 470
Reverse discrimination, 29, 85, 256. See also Affirmative action (AA)
Riach, K., 472, 473
Rich, Adrienne, 197
Richard, O. C., 89, 179, 237–8, 243, 245
(p. 629) Riots, race, 21, 22, 26
Risberg, Annette, 5–6, 218, 585
Rivard, P., 116, 118
Roberson, L., 112, 558
Roberson, Q. M., 111
Roberts, E., 479
Roberts, L. M., 117
Robinson, G., 258
Rodriguez, N., 463
Roggeband, C., 94, 589
The Roots of Muslim Rage (Lewis), 502
Rosen, B., 285
Rosenblatt, V., 114
Rotherham child abuse, 27
Routledge Advances in Feminist Studies and Intersectionality book series, 76–7
Rubin, Gayle S., 197
Ruscher, J. B., 479
Russia, emergence of, 33, 409, 549
Ryan, A. M., 510
Rynes, S., 285
Sabelis, I., 185, 189
Safety, codes of conduct on, 208
Saha, S. K., 546
Said, Edward W., 23, 25, 161, 162, 163, 175, 176, 180–1, 182, 399, 448, 449, 503
Salary. See Income
Salipante, P., 114, 116
Salzer, M. S., 479
Same-sex marriage, 52, 422–3
Sampling techniques, 92, 343, 546
Sardy, R., 202
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 161
Sawyer, J. E., 244
Scandinavia
affirmative action in, 31
gender equality in, 21
Scase, R., 391
Scattered Hegemonies (Grewal & Kaplan), 70
Scheduled castes (SC), 410–11, 412, 413, 414–15
Scheduled tribes (ST), 411, 412, 413, 414–15
Scheid, T. L., 479
Schermuly, C. C., 244
Schmidt, A., 544
Schwabenland, C., 94–5, 175, 258, 266, 267, 271, 272–3, 371
Scully, M. A., 20, 200, 228, 229
SDSs (strategically deployable shifters), 324
Sears, G. J., 245, 246
Second-class citizenship, 504
Second Sex (de Beauvoir), 23
Second-wave, of critical diversity studies, 158–9
Second-wave feminism, 40, 51, 67
Secret behaviour approach, 402
Selbee, L. K., 461
Self-identity. See Identity
Self-techniques, 199
Semi-structured interviews, 339, 340, 342, 350, 543
Sennett, Richard, 328
September 11, 2001 attacks, 139, 140, 499, 500
Sex discrimination. See Gender differences; Women
Sex–gender–sexuality, 197–8, 197f, 205–8, 207t, 210, 211–12
Sexuality. See also Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) persons; Queer theory
intersections with sex and gender, 197–8, 197f, 205–8, 207t, 210, 211–12
neglect in diversity management discourse, 195–6
racialization of, 530
South African protections on, 422–3
Shachaf, P., 91, 92
Shane, S., 399
Shapero, A., 390
Sharia (Islamic law), 500
Sharma, J., 198–9
Shaw, L. R., 473, 477
Sheehan, M., 463
Shepherd, D., 23n4, 584
Shia Muslims, 416, 417
Shields, S., 437–8, 443, 518–19, 520
Shimoni, B., 187
Shore, L. M., 284
Shuey, K. M., 485
Sieben, B., 238, 457
Siim, B., 21
Silverstein, M., 322
Similarity/attraction concept, 88
Simkhada, P. P., 481
(p. 630) Simpson, R., 303
Simultaneity of diversity, 578, 588–90, 595
Sinclair, A., 559
Singapore, emergence of, 409
Singh, P., 240
Singh, V., 265, 266, 585
Skeggs, B., 458–9
Sköldberg, K., 100
Slavery, reparations for, 24
Slonaker, W. M., Sr., 484
Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA), 418
Smircich, L., 51, 177, 445
Smith, Dorothy, 304, 443
Smith, N. J., 32
Snowball sampling technique, 92, 343, 546
Social categorizations, 88
Social change, functionalism vs. radical structuralism on, 87
Social class. See Class
Social confirmation, of identity, 98, 99–100, 116
Social constructionism, 523, 588
Social constructivism, 98
Social identity markers, 52
Social identity theory (SIT), 519–25
emergence of, 519
on expatriate managers, 580
on identity differentiation, 579
intersectionality and, 521–3, 531
on multiple levels of identity, 524–5
overview, 10, 519–21
positivism and, 88
Social integration practices, 114, 115
Social justice. See also Affirmative action (AA); Equal opportunity (EO) initiatives
in business case for diversity, 258–9, 266–73, 268–70t, 371
dualisms in, 40–5
equal opportunity and, 281
in non-profit organizations, 271
policies for promoting, 16
research methodology and, 53
Social networks, of immigrants, 462–3
Social psychology
business-oriented paradigms of, 176, 178
in critical discursive tradition, 93
in diversity management research, 155, 157–8, 184, 189–90, 579
implications of over-focus on, 298–9
in positivist tradition, 88, 183, 581
Socialism, 95
Socialization
into academia, 338, 339–40, 345
of expatriates, 580
gender, 399
identity and, 64
organizational, 90, 462
Socially shared cognition perspective, 89
Socioeconomic status. See Class
Sociological imagination, 18–19, 31
Søderberg, A. M., 585
Soni-Sinha, U., 589
Soper, B., 262
South Africa, 420–5
affirmative action in, 240
apartheid in, 166, 421, 425
Black Consciousness movement in, 167n4
comparison with India and Pakistan, 425–6
equality and diversity as defined in, 420–1
Indian populations in, 410
legislative history on diversity and equality, 420–1
linguistic diversity in, 423
organizational diversity practices in, 423–5
socio-political dynamics in, 421–3
women in, 421, 422, 426
Southern Theory, 168–9, 170
Southern Theory: The Global Dynamics of Knowledge in Social Science (Connell), 168
Sowards, S. K., 225–6, 228
Spatial contexts, of racialised masculinities, 527–9
Special Economic Zones, 512
Spell, C. S., 557
Spicer, A., 306
Spinoza, Baruch, 98
The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone (Pickett and Wilkinson), 16
Spivak, G. C., 448
Srinivas, M., 413
Srivastava, S., 527, 528
Stafford, Z., 26
Stage theory of identity, 119–20
Stakeholder theory, 238
State of Exception (Agamben), 512
Steele, M., 374
Stephenson, Jacqueline, 6, 235
Stereotype threat, 119, 481
Stereotypes and stigmatization. See also Bias; Discrimination; Heteronormativity
biological basis of, 115
colonial, 163, 167
defined, 479
in diversity discourses, 586
in entrepreneurship, 388, 389
of Muslims, 501
in othering processes, 183
of people with disabilities, 473, 478–82, 484
reinforcement of, 184
uncertainty reduction concept and, 88
Stewart, M. M., 65, 576–7
Steyaert, C., 586
Steyn, M., 424, 425
Stolen Generations, 391n3
Stonewall movement, 196
Strachan, Glenda, 4, 39
Strategic ambiguity, 222–5, 228, 230–1
Strategic model of global diversity management, 370, 371
Strategic orientations, 245
Strategically deployable shifters (SDSs), 324
Stringer, D. Y., 479
Structural intersectionality, 440
Structuralism, 87. See also Poststructuralism
Sub-knowledges, 128, 133–4, 135–6, 138, 139–42
Subalternization, of knowledge, 131, 136
Subjectivities
in business case for diversity, 264
colonial, 161, 181
mobile, 578, 591–4, 595
Subordinated masculinities, 69
Sufism, 399
Sullivan, Kevin, 257
Sumption, M., 463
Sunni Muslims, 416
Supervisors. See also Leadership
bias of, 240, 424, 485
competency of, 424
in diversity management implementation, 542
expatriate, 91–2, 580
training programs for, 112, 559
Surface-level diversity, 236
Survey research
characteristics of, 281
on diversity management outcomes, 7, 282, 284, 285–93
on employees, 286–90, 293
in experimental designs, 283
in field studies, 283
future challenges in, 294
methodological issues in, 290–4
multi-level designs for, 292, 293–4
organizational, 285–6, 293
positivism and, 90
Süß, S., 91
Sustainable development theories, 133, 142
Sustainable livelihoods, 394
Sweden
diversity discourse and initiatives in, 74, 75, 586–7
gender coaches in, 559
racial hierarchies in, 164–5
social production of diversity ideas in, 96
term for diversity in, 71–2
Swift, M. L., 484
Switzerland, diversity initiatives in, 586
Syed, Jawad, 8, 358, 361, 408, 462, 520
Syed, M., 440
Systemic discrimination, 44
Taiwan, emergence of, 409
Tajfel, H., 519, 521
Taksa, Lucy, 10, 518
Tapia, M., 22, 590
Tatli, Ahu, 8, 29, 370, 461, 464, 523, 541
Teams. See Groups
Tedmanson, Deirdre, 8, 388, 393
Tempered radicals, 20, 228–9, 230, 231, 339
Textual analysis, 298–316
applicability of, 299, 311–12
coding techniques for, 205
(p. 632) critical hermeneutics and, 446
critical sensemaking method in, 300, 305, 308–11, 310f, 447
criticisms of, 304–5
data sources for, 300
of discourse and rhetoric, 302
in diversity management research, 7, 301–5
expository, 301–2
Laclau & Mouffe’s discourse theory for, 7, 300, 305–8
multi-level approaches to, 299, 303–5
in theoretical perspectives, 300–1
Thailand, emergence of, 409
The Third Jihad (documentary), 501
Third space, 135, 176, 184–7, 188, 189–90
Thomas, A., 389, 399
Thomas, D., 46, 237, 558
Thomas, P., 306
Thomas, R., 236, 237, 238, 447
3D-model of diversity management, 554–7, 555t, 567–9, 567t
Tiffin, H., 186
Timmermans, B., 88–9
Toh, S. M., 580
Tomlinson, F., 175, 258, 266, 267, 271, 272–3, 371, 543, 548
Toor, Saadia, 10, 499
Top management teams (TMTs), 244, 247
Tracey, P., 458
Trade unions
dichotomization of workplace and migration in, 590
membership declines, 17
politics of diversity and, 29
Training programs. See Diversity training programs
Transformational leadership styles, 245, 284, 289
Translocational positionalities, 591, 592
Transnational diversity. See also Multiculturalism
conceptualizations of, 577, 578
demography and identity in, 579–81
intersectionality and, 73, 74, 588–90
mobile subjectivities and, 578, 591–4, 595
modes of diffusion, 578
overview, 11, 577
postidentitarian, 579, 594–5
Transnational feminism, 51, 70
Transnational patriarchies, 69
Transversal politics, 591
Triandafyllidou, A., 520
Trompenaars, F., 457
Truth, Sojourner, 67
Trux, Marja-Liisa, 7, 317, 320
Tschopp, M. K., 479
Tsui, A. S., 580, 581
Tung, R. L., 242
Turkey
emergence of, 33, 409
female entrepreneurs from, 396–9, 400–3
Turner, R. N., 119–20
Turnover rates, 260, 284, 377, 424
Tusler, A., 472
Tyler, M., 202
Ukur, G., 457, 460–1
Uncertainty reduction concept, 88
Unconscious bias, 18, 112, 118, 120
Under-accommodation, 482, 483, 485
Unemployment
of ethnic minorities, 17
in Indigenous communities, 390
of people with disabilities, 470, 472, 475, 482
Unions. See Trade unions
United Kingdom (UK)
affirmative action in, 29, 29n7
business case for diversity in, 265, 374–5, 380, 381
diversity management outcomes in, 294
feminist activism in, 21
gender equality in, 21
immigration in, 235, 373, 590
income inequality in, 17
labour market in, 235, 373–4, 375
liberal market economy of, 397
migrants in, 21, 25–6
national self-esteem of, 23–4
non-profit organizations in, 272
people with disabilities in, 471, 478, 483
(p. 633) police discrimination in, 26–7
race relations in, 21–2
recruitment practices in, 461
trade unions in, 29
Turkish female entrepreneurs in, 396–8
United Nations (UN)
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 40, 416, 418
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 486
Declaration of Human Rights, 40
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 390
Global Compact, 40–1
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 40
intersectionality in policy development of, 69
United States (US)
affirmative action in, 29
business case for diversity in, 265
Civil Rights movement in, 41, 51, 83, 506
diversity management discourse in, 42–3
feminist activism in, 20
higher education institutions in, 358, 359, 368
identity and demography in, 579–81
immigrants in workforce in, 235
income inequality in, 17
Latinization of, 163
9/11 attacks, 139, 140
people with disabilities in, 470, 471, 476–7, 478, 483
race in, 26, 505–8
religion in, 505–8
Universal design approach, to workplace accommodation, 487–8
Universal diversity, 128, 131, 132, 139, 141, 182
Universities. See Academia
Untouchables, 410, 411
Urciuoli, B., 324
Valentine, G., 525
Validity, of research methodology, 290–3, 294, 539, 545–6, 549
Value-in-diversity hypothesis, 237, 242
Van den Brink, Marieke, 10–11, 543, 545, 553
Van der Zee, Karin, 118, 325
Van Dick, R., 242
Van Engen, M., 547, 548
Van Ginkel, W. P., 242
Van Hoven, B., 528
Van Knippenberg, D., 89, 242, 283
Van Laer, Koen, 7, 337, 339–40, 343–4, 346–7, 349–50, 541, 546
Van’t Veer, J. T. B., 480
Varma, A., 480
Veiga, J. F., 482
Venkataraman, S., 399
Verbeek, Stijn, 286
Verfremdung (distancing), 320
Vertovec, S., 317
Vietnam, emergence of, 409
Vinkenburg, C., 547, 548
Violence. See also Abuse
hate crimes, 500
race riots, 21, 22, 26
Visible minorities, 256, 265, 328
Vloeberghs, D., 91
Voicing, in ethnographic research, 320–1
Voluntarism, 27–31, 34, 374, 382
Von Bergen, C., 262
Von Hippel, C., 481
Waddington, L., 486
Wages. See Income
Wahl, Anna, 10–11, 553, 554
Wajcman, J., 22
Walby, S., 69
Walenta, C., 184, 202–3
Walgenbach, K., 72
Walk the Talk-programme, 559
Wallraff, G., 319n1
War on Terror, 139, 143, 512
Ward, J., 200
Warner, Michael, 197
Warrior ethic, 399
Watson, W. E., 242,