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date: 03 June 2020

(p. 933) Index

(p. 933) Index

Please see individual main entries for countries/regions.

Abbas I, Shah of Persia 516, 518, 526
Abbasid period 433, 461–2
custom 237
early Abbasid caliphate, judiciary in 306–10
hadith 410
ijma 280–1, 287–8
ijtihad 183–4, 186
master jurists 417–18
muhtasib 309–10, 315, 329, 341–2
Orientalism 111–12
pragmatists 122
qadi courts 306–10, 313–15
revisionists 118
state and law, relationship between 388
‘Abd al-‘Ali, Shah 523
Abd al-Jabbar 258
Abd-Allah, Faruq 422
Abd al-Razzaq al-San‘ani 235, 411
Abdal-Rehim, Abdal-Rahman 898
Abduh, Muhammad 288, 571–2, 790
Abdullah ibn ‘Umar 415
Abella, Rosie 716
Abidin, Muhammad Amin 545
Abou El Fadl, Khaled 798, 828, 870–4, 876
Abraham 114
Abrahamian, Ervand 789
Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi 242, 259, 274
Abu Bakr al-Jassas 255–6, 426
Abu Bakr al-Siddiq 282, 304
Abu Hanifa 90–1, 213, 307, 309, 394, 416, 438, 890
Abu-Lughod, Lila 914
Abu Muslim 328
Abu-Odeh, Lama 801–2
Abu Yusuf 240–1, 309, 367–8, 422
Abu Zayd, Nasr 350–2
Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) 855
Ackerman-Lieberman, Phillip 452
Adams, Carol 881
al-‘Adawi, Muhammad Hasanayn Makhluf 864
administrative law 406
advice-giving 142–3, 144–5
Afghanistan 752–3, 770, 781, 812
Ağır, Seven 347
Agrama, Hussein Ali 142, 574, 802, 856
Ahl-e-Hadees community 677
Ahmad, Aziz 500–1, 504
Ahmad, Atif Ahmad 188, 262
Ahmad ibn Abi Da’ud 374
Ahmadis 678–81
Ahmad, MB 499
Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam 678–9
Ahmad, Nehaluddin 898
Ahmad Shah Durrani, 1st Emperor of the Durrani Empire 495
Ahmed, Leila 82–3, 833–4, 838, 889
Ahmed, Manzooruddin 280, 282–3
Ahmed, Rumee 75–6, 260–1, 263
al-Ahsan, Abdullah 827
Aisha 294, 415
Akbar I, Third Mughal Emperor 494–5, 497–8, 502–3, 505–6
Akbar, MJ 500
Akgündüz, Ahmed 317–18, 345, 557–8
Akhbaris (anti-Usuli movement) 211, 221–6, 230
Akhund al-Khurasani 228–30
Akyıldız, Ali 346
(p. 934) Ala’ al-Din al-Samarqandi 259, 263
Alam, M 501, 505
Albarghouthi, Ali 203
Algar, Hamid 807
Algeria 65–6, 563, 892, 907
Ali, Abdullah bin Hamid 291–3
‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (Fourth Caliph) 110, 305, 415
Ali-Karamali, Shaista 183, 188–9
Ali, Kecia 68–71, 75, 84–8, 90–1, 881, 889, 894, 899
al-Allama al-Hilli 210–11, 217–18, 220–1, 440
Almohad regime 165–6
alms tax (zakat) 520, 599, 764, 848, 858, 862
al-Alwani, Taha Jabir 742
Aly, Anne 767–8
Amedroz, AF 357–8, 360–2
Ameer Ali, Syed 540–2, 545
American Legal Realism 61–2, 476–7
al-Amidi, Sayf al-Din 260, 272, 278–9, 295, 445, 454
al-ʿAmili Hasan ibn Zayn al-Din al-Shahid al-Thani 211, 220–3, 229
Amin, SH 529–30
Almoravid period 364
Anas, Malik ibn 214–15, 393–4
al-Anbari, Abu Ali 194
Andalusia 307–9, 311, 315–17, 361, 366, 373
Anderson, Benedict 59–60, 605
Anderson, JND 563, 568, 889–90, 899–901, 903–4
Anderson, Michael 908
Anglo-Muhammadan law 537–50, 685–6, 691
appeals 540, 541
case law 544–7
codification 540–3, 546, 547
colonialism 537–50, 908
command, law as a 546
costs 538
courts/judiciary 540
custom 546–7
English common law 537–8, 541, 543
equity 537
family law 908
fatwas 543
independence, India after 547–8
legislation 546–7, 549–50
local justice 540
marriage 547
modernism 541–2
Mughal Empire 497
Narantakh v Parakkal 544–7
origins 539–40
postcolonial legal structures 538
power structure 537–8
precedent 543
Privy Council, appeals to 540, 541
qadi courts 539
religious matters 537–8
rule of law 539
sample case 544–7
Shari‘a law 543
slavery 546
sources 542–7
subject matter 540–2
terminology 537–9, 547
transition period 538
translations 542–4
trust law 541–2
women/gender equality 547
al-Qaida 854
animals 861–83 see also dogs
animal-centric law 862–3, 866, 868–70, 874
animal law, definition of 861–3
animal turn 861–2, 866–9
anthropocentricism 874, 876–9
camels 865
cats 866
chickens 868
Christianity 881
classical period 866, 874
conservation 868
contemporary scholarship 869–70
cows 868
factory farming 867–8, 877
fatwas 871
fighting 867
halal 752, 864, 868, 879–80
(p. 935)
harming animals 874–6
history 861–6, 880
huquq 876
Judaism 880–1
killing animals, permissibility of 864–8, 872, 874–6, 879–81
kindness to animals 864–6
patriarchy 881
pigs 870, 873–4
premodern period 862, 867
Qur’an 875–9
rationality 872–4
research, areas for future 880–2
riding 862
rights of animals 867, 868, 876
sacrifices 868, 877
scientific and medical research on animals 867, 877
secularism 867
sentience 862, 864, 875–6
Shafi‘i school 870, 876
sheep 865
Shi‘a Islam 880
slaughter 864, 865, 868, 872, 875–6, 879–81
spoils of war 876
subjectivities 862–3, 870
Sunnis 870, 880
theocentricism 876
utilitarianism 867
vegetarians 868
vivisection 867
West 863, 867
women/gender equality 881, 882
Zoroastrians 874, 881
analogical reasoning (qiyas) 212–14, 236, 242, 252, 254, 387, 391, 409
An-Na‘im, Abdullahi 564–5, 575, 798, 827–9, 831–2, 837–8, 886–7, 915
al-Ansari, Al-Shaykh Murtada 211–12, 227–30
Ansari-Pour, MA 610
Ansari, Zafar Ishaq 233
anthropocentricism 874, 876–9
anthropology 133–48
American cultural anthropology 135
colonialism 134–5
courts/judiciary, studies of 136–42
culture 135–7, 146
dispute resolution 136–42
ethics and law 142–5
ethnography 137, 140, 141–2
fatwas 141, 146
framing 137, 138–9
historiography 134–7
ibadat 145–6
ifta’ 146–7
interpretation 65, 137, 146
law, definition of 133–4
philology 51, 53
positive law 51, 57, 134, 137
primitive law 135
qadi courts 302, 320
rituals 140, 145–6
small scale societies 135–6
social anthropology 135, 138–9, 145
social sciences 57–60
ulama 135–6
women/gender equality 78, 80
anti-Muslim sentiments/Islamophobia 20, 31, 699–702, 728
Anwar, Zainah 96, 915
apostasy 544–7, 831, 897
Aquinas, Thomas 150–1
Arabi, Oussama 899, 911
Arab-Israeli war of 1967 823
Arjomand, Said Amir 789, 800, 807
Arrowsmith, William 54–5
Asad, Talal 142, 574–5, 831
al-Ash‘ari, Abu Musa 305
Ash‘arism 258–9, 265, 277, 427
al-Astarabadi, Muhammad Amin 211, 222–4, 518
al-Asyuti 451
atavism 570–1
Atia, Mona 858
Augustine, Saint 142, 165
Aurangzeb, Muhyi al-Din Muhammad 495, 499, 502–3, 543
Austin, John 265, 546
(p. 936) Australia, Shari‘a law in 751–74
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, access to justice for 763
Afghan cameleers 752–3, 770
Albanian Muslims 754
assimilation and integration 755, 756
Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) 763
child custody 761
community 770–1
councils 755, 772
courts or quasi-judicial bodies 755, 760–2, 769–70
culture 754–5, 760, 763, 772
dietary requirements 753, 772
diversity 769–70
divorce 758–61, 772
dress 767–8
family dispute resolution 761
family law 752, 755, 757–64, 769
finance 751–2, 755, 763–7, 772
economic links with Muslim majority countries 765
interest 763–4
Johnson Report 765–6
Muslim Community Cooperative Australia (MCCA) 764
regulation 765–6
tax laws, review of 766
zakat 763–4
freedom of religion and worship 753
halal slaughter 752
historical perspective 752–7
identity 755, 756
infrastructure 754–5
institutions 755, 772
Lebanese migrants 754
liberalism 763
mahr 753–4, 759
marriage 753, 755, 757–8, 762
limping marriages 760
polygamy 758
unregistered 757–8
media 751
mediation and arbitration processes 769
migration 752–5
minorities 751–2
mosques 752, 755
multiculturalism 754, 761, 763, 768
non-English speaking background, people from 763
personal attitudes to Shari‘a law 756
places of worship 752, 755, 770
politics 751, 756–7, 768
secularism 751, 756, 770
transient population 752–3
Turkish migrants 754
White Australia policy 753–4
women/gender equality 758–60, 762, 769, 772
authoritarianism 190, 192, 195, 575, 827
Avicenna 159–60
al-Awa, Muhammad Salim 797
‘Awda, ‘Abd Al-Qadir 809
Ayyubids 375, 461–3, 467
Azam, Hina 86–90
Azami, Muhammad Mustafa 396, 411
al-Azri, Khalid 893
Ba‘alawi’s 20–1
Babur, First Mughal Emperor 494
Baderin, Mashood 828–9, 840, 888–9
Baer, Gabriel 77, 78
Baha’is 621
Bahlen, Ashk 209
Bahrain 782–3
al-Bahrani, Yusuf 223–5
Baillie, Neil BE 543
Baker, Raymond 797–8
Bakhos, Carol 881
Balić, Smail 742
Baljon, JMS 504
Balz, Killian 200
Bangladesh 673–4, 676, 682–4, 690–1 see also Mughal Empire
British colonialism 682, 685, 688
civil war 690
comparative research 691
constitutionalism 682–3
courts/judiciary 687–8
divorce 688, 897, 909
family law 685, 897, 908
fatwas 687–8
(p. 937)
Muslim Family Laws Ordinance (MFLO) 688
non-Muslim minority 674
non-state adjudicatory bodies 687
Pakistan 682, 688, 690
secularism 690
Shi‘a Islam 676
state religion, Islam as 683
banking 845–9, 851–5
Bano, Samia 737, 835, 895
al-Baqir, Muhammad 212, 214
Bardsiri 523–4
Barelvis 676–7
Barkan, Ömer Lüfti 347
Baroody, Jamil 822, 830–1
Barquq 374, 376
barter 845
Bauer, Thomas 470–1
Baugh, Carolyn 293–5
Bayat, Asef 806–7
Baybars, al-Zahir 313, 461–2
Bechor, Guy 567
Bedir, Murteza 197, 255–6, 666–7
Bedner, Adriaan 911
Bedouins 303, 912
Beg, Hatam 523
Beg, Haydar 526
Bein, Amit 665–7
Bell, Catherine 57
Bellion-Jourdan, Jérôme 858
Bencheikh, Soheib 742–3
Bennoune, Karima 801
Benthall, Jonathan 858
Bentham, Jeremy 546, 862–3
Berger, Maurits S 573, 908–9
Berke Khan 462
Berkey, Jonathan 341, 467–8, 470
Berkowitz, Beth 881
Berlie, Jean 603
Bernandi, Cory 771
Bernand, Marie 258, 278
Beyazit II, Ottoman Sultan 553
Bhatia, ML 500–1
Bhojani, Ali-Beza 209–10
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali 547
bigamy 544–7
al-Bihbihani, Muhammad Baqir 211, 225–6
Bilgrami, RM 500–1
Bin Laden, Osama 854
biographical works 421–2
biotechnology 143–4
Bishara, Azmi 797
Bishop, Bronwyn 767
al-Bishri, Tariq 797
Black, Ann 751, 757–8, 765–6
Blitt, Robert C 795
Boas, Franz 135
Bose, S 503
Bosnia 736–7
Bourdieu, Pierre 142
Bousquet, Georges-Henri 877
Bowen, John 57, 78, 770–1
Boyd, Marion 909–10
Boydston, Jeanne 93–4
Bravmann, M 281
Brown, Nathan 793, 795, 800
Brunei 590, 592, 598–9, 781
Constitution 598
Islamization 598–9
Penal Code 599
Sultan of Brunei 598–9
Buddhism 593, 600–1, 603, 683
al-Bukhari 368
Bulliet, Richard 204
Burton, John 253
Burujirdi, Seyyed Hossein 229
Buyid period 310–12, 369–70, 440
Caeiro, Alexandre 62
Cairo Declaration of Human Rights (CDHR) 823–4, 827, 830
Çakır, Ruşen 657
Calder, Norman 190–2, 222, 256, 261, 424–5, 440, 448–9
caliphs
authority to formulate and apply the law, who had 417–18
ijtihad 186–7
Madinese caliphate, adjudication in 304–6
Mamluk Sultanate 461–2
Marwanid caliphs 361
Qur’anic Inquisition 418
(p. 938)
revisionists 115–16
shadow-caliphs 462
succession to Muhammad 109–11
Canada
Alberta, mahr in 711
arbitration 909–10
British Columbia, mahr in 710–11, 716–17, 720
domestic violence 37–9
family law 909–10
Federal Interpretation Act 72
freedom of religion 716
Islamic Institute of Civil Justice 702
media 702
myth that Shari‘a law had been banned 703
Ontario
Shari‘a law 700, 702–4, 720–1, 909–10
premodern period 910
Quebec 714
women/gender equality 702–4, 720–1
Canbakal, Hulya 486–7
Cantwell Smith, Wilfred 114, 136
Carlisle, Jessica 911–12
Carroll, Lucy 897–8
casuistry 108–14, 119, 244
Chalmeta, Pedro 337, 343
Chamberlain, Michael 467–8, 470
Chandra, S 502
Chardin, Jean 513–15, 528
charismatic authority 109, 111
Charrad, Mounira 907
Chatterjee, N 505
Chaudhry, Ayesha S 32–40, 126
Chaumont, Eric 258
Chehata, Chafik 238
Chiarella, Gregory M 602
children see minors
China, perceptions of law in 71–2
Christianity 12–13, 59–60, 881
Clarke, Morgan 140, 143
classical period 403–36
1st/7th century 408, 411–15
2nd/8th century 405–6, 409–11, 415–18
3rd/9th century 410, 417, 418–23
4th/10th century 423–9
5th/11th century 423–9
animals 866, 874
constitutions 779, 784–7, 790, 799
family law 886, 888
hadith 409–12, 430
historiography 252–5, 403–36
human rights 819, 824
ijma 271–92, 295–6
ijtihad, closing the gates of 423–5
legal literature, emergence of 415–18, 420, 423, 430
marriage 889, 894
maslaha (human interest) 427
master jurists 415–19
origins, debates on 412–15
papyri, examination of early 430
philology 54–5
Qur’an as source 404–9
rationalists 420–1, 427
research 429–31
revelation 427
revisionism 430
schools of law 410, 418–23, 430
Shafi‘i school 419–20, 426–7
shi‘i law, emergence of a distinct 427–9
sources 430–1
Sunna 409
Sunnis 428–9
understudied sources 430
usul al-fiqh 252–5
clientage 50–1, 53
codification 559, 567, 572–3
Anglo-Muhammadan law 540–3, 546, 547
code-like works 443
constitutions 786, 798
family law 903, 905–7
Ottoman Empire 319
qadi courts 319–20
scripturalist/positivist approach 572–3
Shari‘a law 827
women/gender equality 907
Cohen, Jennifer F 623
Cole, Juan 906
(p. 939) colonialism
Anglo-Muhammadan law 537–50, 908
anthropology 134–5
British colonialism 675, 679–80, 806
Bangladesh 682, 685, 688
family law 907–8
India 286, 563, 685, 688
Mughal Empire 495, 496–7, 506
Pakistan 685, 688, 689
common law 907–8
domestic violence 43
Dutch-colonial heritage 590
family law 888, 890, 904, 907–9, 914
feminism 69, 202, 838, 914
fiqh 64, 65–7
historiography 5–10, 42
human rights 69, 202, 819, 824–5, 831, 833–4, 838–9
ijtihad 182, 197, 202
intersectionality 25, 28
legislation 562–3, 567–8
marriage 890
Orientalism 65–6
Patriarchal Islamic Legal Studies (PILS) 10, 25
pragmatists 125, 127
precedent 908
pre-colonialism 7, 9–10, 42
Privy Council 907–8
revisionists 119
slavery 824–5
translations 66–7
utilitarianism 64
waqf 66–7
white supremacy 8–11, 25, 33
women/gender equality 834, 837, 838
commanding right and forbidding wrong see hisba (commanding right and forbidding wrong)
common law 66–7, 537–8, 541, 543, 907–8
communitarianism 142, 418
Companions and successors 391–4, 409, 410–11
consensus see ijma‘ (consensus)
conservatism 904
constitutions 779–818
19th century 788
authority 801–11
classical period 779, 784–7, 790, 799
codification 786, 798
comparative analysis 795, 799
constitutionalism 783–801
constitutionalist, whether Islamic law is 784–5
constitutional text, definition of 779
Constitution of Medina 790–1
corruption 799
courts/judiciary 785, 804–5
debates amongst intellectuals 796–801, 813
democracy 785, 786, 791, 793, 797, 801, 805, 809–11
divine sovereignty 800–1, 802, 810–11
drafting constitutions 783, 790, 792, 796, 800
early constitutional experiments, impact of 788–91
entrenchment of Islamic principles 781
executive 785, 805, 809–10
fiqh 786, 793
human rights 792, 793, 795, 800–1
identity 781
ijma‘ 797
ijtihad 797, 802
individualism 785
interpretation 780, 784–6, 792–3, 798, 801–5, 808–13
Islamic inflation 795, 796
Islamism 797–8, 800, 808, 813
judicial review 804–5
legislation 573–5
legitimacy 793, 800–3, 809, 811
macrocosmic law 793
majority Muslim states 780–1, 790, 795, 802–3, 813
Mamluk Sultanate 461
microcosmic judicial ijtihad 793
minorities 801
nation-building 799–800
oaths 781
official state religions 782–3
Ottoman Empire 787, 788–9
parliament 809–10
popular sovereignty 800–1, 810–11
(p. 940)
postcolonial period 784, 790
public office 781
public participation 796
purposive interpretation 786
Qur’an 787, 793, 798, 808
rule of law 793, 795, 797, 799, 811
secularism 798–9
Shari‘a law 460–1, 780, 782–3, 786–810, 813
Shi‘a Islam 810
shura (consultation) 797, 810–11
siyasa shariyya (governance) 786, 793
social movements 791–2, 796
sources 781–2, 794–5, 800
sovereignty 781, 790, 793, 796–7, 800, 802–3, 807, 810–11
specialists in religion 805–9
standardization 795
state
identity 781
officials 809–10
power, limits on 786
religion, relations wuth 781–3
textual provisions 780–3, 792–5, 813–14
validity of laws 782
where debate takes place 811–13
wilayat al-faqih (rule by jurists) 800, 809–10
consultation (shura) 797, 810–11
Cook, Michael 328, 330–4, 350–2
Copts 856, 891
corruption 464–5, 477, 486, 799, 827
Costello, Peter 757, 771
costs 538
courts/judiciary see also mazalim (grievance courts); qadi courts; Safavid Iran, monarch’s courts in
Anglo-Muhammadan law 540, 541
anthropology 136–42
appeals 540, 541, 595
appointment of judges 420, 421–2, 463–5
constitutions 785, 804–5
corruption 464–5
culture 135–8, 139
divorce 79, 138–40
family law 140, 886–7, 890, 904–18
flexibility 79–80
high courts 540
jurisdiction 449–55
kadi system 476–8, 480–1, 484–90
Mamluk Sultanate 460, 462–5
marriage 140, 890
Mughal Empire 493–4, 496, 498
precedent 543
Privy Council 66–7, 540, 541, 907–8
schools of law 463
Shafi‘i justices, preeminence of 463
siyasa courts 463, 465–6, 473
siyasa shariyya (governance/policy) 450
tenure of judges 421–2
Umayyad period 116
women/gender equality 78–80, 887
Crean, Simon 764
Crenshaw, Kimberlé 10, 25
criminal law see also punishment
corruption 464–5, 477, 486, 799, 827
domestic violence, criminalization of 37
falsafa 163
finance 853–5
fraud and deceit 717, 844
money laundering 853
murder/homicide 478–9, 483, 488
penal code 475, 478–82, 487–9
robbery 482, 485–6, 489
Critical Legal Studies (CLS) 261
culture
American cultural anthropology 135
courts/judiciary 135–8, 139
domestic violence 33–4
dress 768
East African courts, studies of 137–8
family law 912–13
feminism 83–6, 94
(p. 941)
fiqh 49–51, 57
human rights 824, 833–4, 840
ibadat 145
imperialism 837
intention 139
Islamicity 564
literature, emergence of legal 416
mahr 719, 720
multiculturalism 399, 700, 754, 761, 763, 768, 770–1, 910
origins of Islamic law 49–51, 414
Qur’an 405
rituals 57
women/gender equality 76
Cuno, Kenneth M 890, 899–902
currency 845
custom 231–48
Abbasid period 237
‘ada 231–2
adat law 138
Anglo-Muhammadan law 546–7
definition 231–2
development, stages of 238–9, 246, 438
family law 912
fatwa literature, role of 244–5, 246
fiqh 232, 245
foreign origins thesis 234–5, 238
genres, development of legal 243, 246
hermeneutics 246
historiography 233, 236, 245
ijma 238, 242, 280, 286, 293–4
ijtihad, closure of 233, 237
incorporation 238–9, 241, 245
inductive abstraction 241–3
istihsani 236, 238–9, 241–3
juristic consensus 236
juristic methods for construction of legal rules 233, 244
legal change 243–5
legislation 557–8, 569
marriage 293–4, 894
ma‘ruf 231, 239
Medina 235, 242
modern scholarship 233–45
munkar 231
necessity 237, 242
new classifications 231–2
nukr 231
official and explicit role 236
origins of Islamic law 233–5
Ottoman Empire 480
periods 238–9
pre-Islamic tradition 233–5
qadi courts 303
Qur’an 233–6, 239, 246, 405–6
Qur’anic legal ethic 235
research 236, 241, 245–6
scope 231–2
secularism 366
social customs 243–5
sources 233–46
succession 138
Sunna of the Prophet 233–40, 246
theory and practice, dichotomy of 233, 236–8, 245
traditionalists 231–46, 397
unofficial and implicit role 236
urf 231–2, 236, 239, 246
usul al-fiqh 251–2
women/gender equality 547
al-Dabusi, Abu Zayd 261
Danchin, Peter 831
Dar al-Zahra, Tarim, Yemen 20–1
Davidson, Garrett 471
Davidson, Naomi 70–1
Davis, John 912
Dawani, Jalal al-Din 527
Day, UN 499
death penalty 478–80, 689
illicit sex 6–8, 618, 623, 743, 812
prostitution 489
stoning 6–8, 812
‘urfi courts 530–1
de Man, Paul 54–5
DeLorenzo, Yusuf Talal 850
democracy
constitutions 785, 786, 791, 793, 797, 801, 805, 809–11
Islamicity, criteria for 564, 565
legislation 575
shura (consultation) 810–11
social movements, wave of 791
development and continuity, age of (12th-15th centuries) 437–57
code-like works 443
courts and jurisdiction 449–55
creativity 438, 441
custom and practice, displacement of Islamic legal thinking by 438
flexibility 442
hadith 441–2
ijtihad 438, 440, 442, 444
Imami Shi‘ism 439, 440–4
interpretation 438–44
jurisdiction 449–55
Mamluk Sultanate 442
mashhur, definition of 443–4
mujtahids
extinction of 438, 439–40
fatwas 439–40
mukhtasars, analysis of 441–4
practical administration of the law 438–9
Qur’an 441–2
schools of law (madhhabs) 438–44
stagnation 437–8
taqlid 438–43
terminology 443–4
uniformity 441–2
usul al-fiqh 257, 439, 442, 444–7
dhimmi rules 73
Diem, Werner 452
dispute resolution see also courts/judiciary
anthropology 136–42
arbitration 909–10
mediation 484
property 141–2
divorce 895–9, 902, 908–9 see also talaq (divorce)
apostasy 897
courts/judiciary 79, 138–40
delegated divorce 897–8, 902
divorce 895–9, 902, 908–9
falsafa 162
feminism 85
fiqh 162
hadith 145, 898
human rights 896
incentive payments 141
initiation of divorce 700, 706–8, 715–21, 891–2
intention 139–40
khul (divorce initiated by wives) 708, 732, 737, 898–9
maintenance 897–8
Model Agreement for Dissolution of Marriage 897–8
negative economic consequences 700, 706–7, 715, 720–1
patriarchy 70
polygyny 895–7
public policy 897
Qur’an 898
rates 70
registration 911
women/gender equality 896–9, 915
dogs 870–3, 876, 881
black dogs 871
fatwas 871–2
Hanafi school 870
Hanbali 870
kindness 866
Maliki school 870, 873
purity 864, 870–4
Shafi‘i school 870
slaughter 880
Sunnis 870
Zoroastrianism 881
d’Ohsson, Ignatius Mouradgea 542
domestic violence 33–40
authority 39–40
colonialism 43
criminalization 37
culture 33–4
essentialism 33–4
ethnography 36
fiqh 33–4
intersectionality 28, 42–3
Kuala Lumpur, survey in 37–9
living religion, Islam as a 35, 40
moral subject, as 35
patriarchy 34, 38–40
power 36
(p. 943)
premodern period 33–6, 40, 43
Qur’an, interpretation of 33–40
racial topic, as 36–7
structural patriarchy 38–9
surveys 37–9
tafsir 33–4
Toronto, survey in 37–9
white supremacy 34, 42–3
Donnelly, Jack 821
Douglas, Mary 58
Dow Jones Sharia Market Index 850
dress
culture 768
employment 739
ijtihad 200
media 767–8
public opinion 767–8
white supremacy 20–2
du Mans, Raphael 513
Dunne, Fiona 183, 188–9
Dupret, Baudoin 565, 886, 889, 902, 913
Dutton, Yasin 235, 408
Dworkin, Ronald 193
East African courts, studies of 137–8
East India Company 539–40
Eaton, RM 501–2, 504
education see also schools of law (madhhabs); universities
institutions 463–73
khanqah 468
madrasas 466–8, 469, 472
Mamluk Sultanate 463–73
origins and influences on Islamic law 386, 389–93
patriarchy 22–3
Egypt
animal protection 881–2
appeals to local governors, system of 361
Al-Azhar mosque-university 571–2
British colonialism 806
Byzantine Egypt 361
charity 858
codes 564, 572, 574–5
Copts 856, 891
culture 902
dar al-‘adl (Palace of Justice) 375
divorce 891, 896, 898–9, 907
dress 200
family law 896, 898–9, 904, 907, 913
fatwas 143–4
finance 848, 853–4, 856
fiqh 902
freedom of religion 856
hisba 348–52
ijtihad 200–1
Islamism 797–8, 853–4
literature, emergence of legal 416
Maliki school 444
Mamluk Sultanate 64–5, 70
marriage
authority of males 900–2
courts/judiciary 890
kafa’a (suitability or equality) 893
New Marriage Contract 902
polygyny 896
secret 911
Mit Ghamr 848, 853–4
muhtasib 340, 342–3
Napoleonic Code with fiqh, comparison of 564
Nasser Social Bank (NSB) 848
new family ideology 900
New Marriage Contract 902
organ transplantation 144
Ottoman Empire 64–5
polygyny 896
qadi courts 373–4
savings and investment houses 848
schools of law 420
scripturalist/positivist approach 572
secularism 794
Shari‘a law 782, 804, 902, 907
Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) 200, 793, 907
ulama 806
Wasat Party 797–8
women/gender equality 782–3, 904
zakat (alms tax) 848
Eickelman, Dale 136
(p. 944) El Alami, Dawoud 899–900, 905
El Fadl, Khaled Abou 189–90, 192, 194–5
El-Gamal, Mahmoud 847, 851, 853–4
El-Nahal, G 501
El Shamsy, Ahmed 256, 414–15, 418, 422–3, 425, 427
employment 739, 740–1
Enlightenment 107, 114, 826
Erbakan, Necmettin 658–9
Ergin, Osman Nuri 345
Escovitz, Joseph 463–5
Esposito, John 797
essential doctrine test 545
essentialism 33–4, 95
ethics
accountability 27, 29
anthropology 142–5
domestic violence 35
falsafa 151, 154–5, 159, 163, 171
feminism 96
identity 657, 659
ijma 277, 294–5
marriage of minors 294–5
medical ethics 143–5, 624
patriarchy 37–8
public places 349–50
qadi courts 305
Qur’an 235, 405–8
sexual violation 89
Shari‘a law 827
theocentric ethics 89
usul al-fiqh 264, 266
virtue ethics 142
white supremacy 14–16, 33, 37–8
Evans-Pritchard, EE 135
Ewing, EP 501
exegesis (tafsir) 13–14, 33–4
extremism and intolerance 728, 738, 741–3
Fadel, Mohammad 67, 262, 308, 314–16, 441–3, 556
al-Faisal, Muhammed, Prince 849
faith, performance of 17–22
Falk, Richard 825, 839
falsafa (philosophy) 149–75
city 153–6, 158–9, 162–5
excellent city 153–4
imperfect cities 155, 161, 165
just city 162, 165
virtuous city 154, 158, 162–5
criminal law 163
defence of philosophy 170
economics 159
equity 171–3
ethics/morals 151, 154–5, 159, 163, 171
excellent city 153–4
Farabi 151–61
Ibn Bajja 163–7
Ibn Rushd 167–74
Ibn Sina 158–63
Ibn Tufayl 163–7
imperfect cities 155, 161, 165
just city 162, 165
just wars 156–7, 162
law-givers 155, 157, 160–2, 165
law, place of 149–75
marriage 161–2
natural law 172–3
political philosophy 149–75
positive law 161
prophecy 150, 154–5, 160, 170
resurrection, belief in bodily 168
revealed laws, status of 150, 155–61, 165–73
rulers 153–6, 162, 165
natural 154
true 153–4
Shari‘a law 156, 160, 163, 168–73
theology and philosophy, relationship between 150
universals 152, 154, 157, 160, 162–4, 172–3
virtuous city 154, 158, 162–5
war, rules on 162–3
wisdom 160, 163, 166, 168–9, 172
(p. 945) family law 734–5, 740–1, 885–932 see also divorce; marriage
1970s 886
Anglo-Mohammadan law 908
authority of males and marital relationship 899–902, 914
children 887–8
classical period 886, 888
codification 903, 905–7
colonialism 888, 904, 907–9, 914
comparative law 903, 907
conservatism 904
court records 886, 906, 912
courts/judiciary 886–7, 904–18
culture 912–13
custom 912
diversity 902–3
family law 886–902
fatwas 886
feminism 886, 914–17
activism 838, 886, 907, 916
human rights 834–5, 914
women’s movements 916–17
flexibility 904
foreign law 908
historiography 885–932
human rights 824, 829, 834–6, 886, 894, 896, 906, 909–10, 914–16
law and society movement 886–7
legislation 903, 905–8
majority Muslim states 885, 911
Middle East 905–6, 913
minority Muslim states 906–9, 916
modernity 886, 888, 903–6, 912–13
Mughal Empire 497
national law 903, 908–9
North Africa 905–6, 908, 913
oral narratives 886
Orientalism 905
Ottoman Empire 904
parental relationships 887
patriarchy 885, 904
pluralism 729–30, 896, 909, 910, 916
politics 886, 904, 907
postcolonialism 886, 907, 909
premodern period 904
private international law 740–1
schools of law 903, 905
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on US 886–7, 888, 908–9, 914
Shari‘a law 904–8, 912, 915
South Asia 905
South East Asia 905
state, role of the 886–7
succession 888
traditional families 885
translations 905–6
West, Islamic marriages in the 910
wilaya (male guardianship) 894–5, 914
women/gender equality 885–7, 903, 906–9, 914–17
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr 151–61, 165, 167
Fareed, Muneer 197, 199–200
Faris, Muhammad 48
Faruki, Kemal 290
Fatamids 366, 370–1
Fatwas see also muftis
Anglo-Muhammadan law 543
animals 871
Cairo Geniza documents 452
custom 244–5, 246
dogs 871–2
ethics 142, 143–4
Hanafi school 452, 454
Haram documents 453
history 439–40, 447–9
ijtihad 187
interpretation 447–8
istifta’ (inquiries) 447
laypersons, requests by 448
litigation, context of 448–9
mazalim tribunals 450–1
Mamluk Sultanate 450, 453–4
mujtahids 439–40
notarial practice, guidance on 451–2
organ transplantation 144
Ottoman Empire 476, 482–3
policy (siyasa) 450–1
primary fatwas 447–8
qadi courts 315–17, 451–2, 453
schools of law 448
Shari‘a law 450–1
(p. 946)
talaq 897
usul al-fiqh 454
waqf deeds 453–4
women/gender equality 76
Fayyad, Ishaq 229
Federspiel, Howard M 601
Feener, R Michael 594
Feldman, Noah 575, 787, 799
feminism 81–96
activism 838, 886, 907, 916
agency of women 89, 91–2
authority 201–3
categories 76–7, 95–6
colonialism 19, 69, 202, 838, 914
constructive approach to legal texts 82, 83–6
critique of legal discourse 81–96
culture 83–6, 94
divorce 85
family law 834–5, 886, 914–17
fiqh 82, 84–6, 88–9, 94
Global Life Stories research project (Musawah) 96, 917
historically contextualizing legal discourse 82–3, 86–90
historiography 78, 94
human rights 832–8, 914
ijtihad 201–3
interpretation 83–8
intersectionality 29–30
Islamism, rise of 82
legal education 201–3
legal subjecthood and gender 90–5
lived experience, theorization of 96
marriage 85–6, 87
Orientalism 82, 96
patriarchy 19–20, 33, 82–3, 126–7, 203
postcolonialism 202–3, 833
pragmatists 125–7
secularism 839
sharia law in state law, demands for 82
ulama 126–7
Western universities 202–3
white supremacy 10, 33
women’s movements 916–17
Fernandes, Leonor 442, 464–5, 468
finance 843–60
accountability 855
banking 845–9, 851–5
bank loans 845–6, 847, 851
charity 857–8
conceptual pillars 844–5
contract 843, 845–7
form and substance 845–7, 851
nominate contracts 846–7
criminal finance 853–5
critical appraisal 851–5
Dallah al-Baraka Group 849
Dar al-Mal al-Islami (DMI) 849
deregulation 849
derivatives 853
Dow Jones Islamic Market Indices 850
economic rationality 855–7
entrepreneurship 857
equity and risk 845–7, 851–3
financial instruments 843
form and substance 845–7
fraud and deceit 844
freedom of religion 856
free-market ideologies 843, 852
fundamentalism 854
futures 844
gharar 844–6
global financial markets 849–50
history 847–52, 857
ijara (nominate contract form) 847
insurance contracts 844
interest 734, 843, 844–7, 848, 851
Islamic Development Bank (IDB) 849
Islamism 848, 853–4
law in Islamic finance 844–7
lease paradigm 847
majority Muslim states 848
maqasid al-shari‘a 852
mirror, Islamic philanthropy as 857–8
money laundering 853
mortgages 845–6, 847, 851
mudaraba (partnership/financing) 846, 852–3
murabaha (sales contracts with mark–ups) 847, 851–3
musharaka (partnerships) 846, 852
neoliberalism 855, 858
(p. 947)
OIC 849
oil
1970s 843, 848–9
surpluses 843, 848–9
othering 855
patriarchy 18
politics 853–6
poverty 857
practice 851–3
premodern period 844–5, 848, 852, 857
protection of property 852
public policy 843
Qur’an 843, 844–5
rationality 855–7
regulation 843, 845, 849–50, 855
research, future directions of 855–8
riba (interest) 734, 843, 844–7, 851
screening of products 850
secularism 855–7
securitization 847, 854–5
security and policing 853–5
Shari‘a law, compliance with 850–1
social justice 852
status quo 851–3
stock exchanges 848
sukuk 847
supervisory boards 850–1
terrorism 853–5
theory 851–3
transparency 855
usul al-fiqh 852
usury 734
values-based screens 850
welfare 857–8
zakat (alms tax) 858
Finnis, John 265
fiqh (jurisprudence) 45–73
analytic approaches 45–6
anthropology 57–60, 65, 71, 133–4, 137, 141, 145–6
authenticity 47–8
collections 47–8
colonialism 64, 65–7
constitutions 786, 793
contemporary issues 46–7
critical of fiqh 65–7
critique of fiqh 46, 65, 67–71, 73
culture 49–51, 57
custom 232, 245
definition 45, 62, 106–7
dhimmi rules 73
doctrine, as a 46
domestic violence 33–4
epistemology 46, 61, 63, 72–3
family law 886–7, 888, 903–4, 907, 917
falsafa 156–7, 161–2
fatwas 60–2, 448, 451–2
feminism 82, 84–6, 88–9, 94
fiqh al-waqi‘ 46–7
furu‘ 45, 195
hisba 351
historical fiqh 46–8, 60–1, 63, 68, 71–2, 439–44, 455
historical positivism 48–54, 57, 59, 65
ideational site, fiqh as 71
ijtihad 45, 46, 187, 201
institutionalization 439, 441
intersectionality 71
interpretation 63, 65
Islamicity, criteria for 564
lacuna in the law, fiqh as 46–7, 56
law, definition of 133–4
legal reasoning, theories of 62–5, 71
legislation 553–5, 557–9, 561, 564, 568–70, 572
literary genre, as 46, 47, 51–2, 62–3, 71
Mamluk Sultanate 460
marginalization of Islamic law 561
marriage 888–9, 893–4, 899, 902
mazalim 369–70
minorities 47, 201
modernity 46–7
Mughal Empire 504
muhtasib 334, 337, 338–40, 347, 466
Napoleonic Code with fiqh, comparison of 564
Ottoman Empire 477
patriarchy 69–70
philology as a disciplinary frame 46, 47–56, 58–9, 63, 65
politics 57–60, 65, 68, 73
qanun 554–5
reform 46–7
research, considerations for future 71–3
(p. 948)
revisionists 116, 120
ritual 57–60, 63
scope 45
scripturalist/positivist approach 568–9
Shari‘a law 84–5
siyasa shariyya 557
social sciences 56–71
sources 46–7, 52, 53–4, 65–7, 71
tafsir 13–14
theory and practice 60–2
usul al-fiqh 45–6, 60, 62–3, 249–50, 257, 260–3, 266, 446
women/gender equality 68–70, 76
Floor, Willem 318, 343, 514, 520
Foblets, Marie-Claire 906
Foltz, Richard 869–70, 877
foreign law
custom 234–5, 238
family law 908
foreign origins thesis 234–5, 238
legislation 559, 564
Qur’an 407–8
skeptics 393
traditionalists 397–9
Foster, Benjamin 330
Foucault, Michel 143
Fournier, Pascale 716, 719, 892
France
Algeria
occupation 563
Orientalism 65–6
colonialism 65–6
dress 739
laicité 70–1, 683
mahr 735
Orientalism 65–6
Ottoman Empire 725
unitarian thinking 729
Frankfurter, Felix 192
Fraser, Malcolm 754
fraud and deceit 717, 844
Freamon, Bernard K 293–5
Frederic II, Holy Roman Emperor 725
freedom of expression 826
freedom of religion 819, 826, 830–2
belief, right not to 731
change of religion 830
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 729, 738
finance 856
foreign law 727
missionaries 830
public life 738–9
secularism 837–8
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 822
women/gender equality 837
Freeland, Richard 892
Friedenreich, David 59–60
Friedlander, Nuri 880
Friedmann, Y 502–3
Fück, Johann 411
Fuess, Albrecht 313, 358, 367, 372, 376
fundamentalism 801
furu‘, definition of 45
furu‘al-fiqh see fiqh
Fyzee, Asaf AA 544, 546–7, 678, 890, 897–8, 909
Geertz, Clifford 57, 136–7, 142
Geiger, Abraham 412–13
general purposes of shari‘a (maqasid) 786, 808, 828–30, 852
Genghis Khan 450, 494
genres, development of legal 243, 246
Gerber, Haim 787
Germany 51, 738
Ghamidi, Javed 293
al-Ghannushi, Rashid 797, 808, 810
al-Ghazali 167–9, 174, 186, 260, 328, 330–1, 787
Gibb, HAR 114–15, 368–9
Gilmartin, D 501
Gleave, Robert 209, 262–3, 441
Gluckman, Max 135, 137
Goitein, Shelomo D 235, 406–7, 452, 554–5
Goldziher, Ignaz 108, 234, 246, 251–2, 275, 280–1, 393, 404–6, 410–11, 413, 874
Goswamy, BN 499
Grady, Standish Grove 543
Greensboro Four 30
Grewal, JS 499
Grewal, Zareena 201–2
grievance courts see mazalim (grievance courts)
Grote, Rainer 795
Guenther, AM 504
Guidance Financial Group 850
Guillot, C 258
Gupta, SP 499
Habib, I 499
al-Hadi, Fourth Abbasid Caliph 372
hadith
animals 862, 864–7, 869, 871–2, 875
authenticity 404–12
classical period 409–12, 430
Companions and successors 409, 410–11
dating hadith 295–6, 410–11
development and continuity 441–2
divorce 145, 898
fabrication 406, 410–12
hermeneutics 427
ijma 271, 273, 275, 279–80, 283, 285, 294–6, 409
isnads (chain of transmitters) 409–11
matn (narrated test) 409, 411
origins of Islamic law, debates on 414
prayers 145
primacy 421
qiyas 409
Qur’an 405–6
ray 409–10
schools of law 427
source-critical approach 410
substantive law 389
traditionalists 390–1, 394–7, 399
travelling traditions test 295–6
usul al-fiqh 251–6, 262–3
al-Hadith, Ahl 222
Haeri, Shahla 614
Hafiz al-Din ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Nasafi 232
al-Ha’iri, Muhammad Husayn 226
hajj 26, 58, 88, 161, 594, 848, 868
Haykel, Bernard 809
al-Hakim, Sa‘d 229
al-Halabi, Ibrahim 482–3
halal 752, 864, 868, 879–80
Halley, Janet 556
Hamdy, Sherine 144
Hamilton, Charles 543
Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman 393
Hammami, Rema 917
Hammoudi, Abdellah 52–3
Hanafi school
Abbasid period 433
animals 870, 876
Barelvis 676–7
classical period 419–22, 430
colonialism 907–8
creativity 438
custom 238–44
Deobandis 676–7
development and continuity 438, 443
early Hanafi 62
fatwas 452, 454
hierarchy 443
hisba 351
ijma 272–4, 278
Ismailis 676–7
land tax and rent 52–3, 62
late Hanafi 62
Maliki school 308–9
manuals 907–8
marriage 889, 893–5
master jurists 416
maxims 447
Mughal Empire 504
muhtasib 339, 347–8
qadi courts 307–9, 310–11, 319
semi-Hanafis 422
(p. 950)
sexual violation 89
sources 52–3
talaq 897–8
usul al-fiqh 252, 257–61, 263
waqf 66
Hanbal, Ahmad ibn 258, 309, 421
Hanbali school
animals 870, 876
classical period 419–21
creativity 438
ijma 275–6
muhtasib 348
qadi courts 309, 315
Qur’an and hadith, primacy of 421
siyasa shariyya 572
theft, punishment of 64
traditionalists 421
usul al-fiqh 255–6, 258
Wahhabi tradition 349
Hanna, Nelly 901
haqq 136
Haque, Ziaul 844–5
Harding, Andrew 596
Harun al-Rashid 307, 368, 370
Hasan, Ahmad 272, 274, 283–6, 289
al-Hasan al-Basri 115, 258, 426
Hasebe, Fumihiko 358, 374, 376
Hasso, Frances 911
Hastings, Warren 539
Hayek, Friedrich von 851
Hazarin 593
Heideman, Stefan 362
Helfgott, Leonard M 623
Hemmasi, Mohammad 623
Henry, Clement 846, 854
Hentati, Nedjmeddine 366
hermeneutics
custom 246
fiqh 63–4
hadith 427
ijma 271–2
Imami Shi‘i legal theory 213–14, 230
schools of law 427
usul al-fiqh 254–5, 257, 259, 265
al-Hibri, Azizah Y 84–5
Higgins, Patricia J 623
al-Hilali, Taj al-Din 768
al-Hilli, Ibn Idris 217–20, 440
al-Hilli, al-Muhaqqiq 66, 217–18, 440–1
al-Hilli, Ni‘matullah 518
Hinchcliffe, Doreen 896, 905
Hinds, Martin 554
Hinds, Patricia 417–18
Hinduism 686–7, 692
Hirschl, Ran 799, 812
Hirsch, Susan 78, 80, 137–9, 886–7, 908
hisba (commanding right and forbidding wrong) 327–33
definition 327–31, 334
fiqh 351
human rights 826
individual duty 328, 331–2, 350–1
manuals 466
modern period 332, 348–52
muhtasib 327–32, 334, 336, 344, 466
origins 327–31
Qur’an 327–8, 331
right, definition of 328
Shari‘a law 350–1
scholarship 331–2
sources of law 351
wrong, definition of 328
Hisham ibn ‘Abd al-Malik 307–8
historiography 5–43 see also historiography of Sunni usul al-fiqh
anthropology 134–7
classical period 403–36
colonialist study 5–10
custom 233, 236, 246
elites 8–9
family law 885–932
feminism 78, 94
ijma 271–98
Intersectional Islamic Studies (IIS) 10, 25–30, 41–2
Mamluk Sultanate 459–74
medieval texts 7, 9–10
Mughal Empire 493–509
Patriarchal Islamic Legal Studies (PILS) 10, 16–24, 32–3, 41–2
pre-colonialism 7, 9–10, 42
Qur’an and Islamic law, relationship between 5–6
(p. 951)
scripturalist/positivist approach 570–1
slavery 294
subjectivities 37
theology 107, 128
White Supremacist Islamic Studies (WhiSIS) 10–16, 32–3, 41
women/gender equality 5–43
historiography of Sunni usul al-fiqh 249–67
820-981 CE, legal methodology from 253–6, 266
10th-16th century, genre of usul al-fiqh from 257–65, 266
ahl al-ra’y and ahl al-hadith, synthesis between 254
Ash‘arism 258–9, 265
analogical reasoning 252
authority 256, 261, 263, 266
classical period 252–5
classification of texts 257–60
communal living tradition 252–3
custom 251–2
development of Islamic law 257
emergence of usul al-fiqh 250–6
epistemology 263–4
ethics 264, 266
fuqaha’, classification of 257–60
genre of usul al-fiqh, understanding 257–66
hermeneutics 254–5, 257, 259, 265
intellectual debates 263–5
Iraqi jurists 252–3, 266
justificatory, usul al-fiqh as 261–3
language 257, 264–5, 266
legal methodology 249–67
mutakallimun, classification of 257–60
natural law 264, 265, 266
organic texts theory 256
post-Shafi‘i event, emergence of usul al-fiqh as a 253–6
premodern period 249–67
prescriptive period 260
proofs 252, 263
qiyas 254
rationalistic theology 253–4, 258–60
revelation 261, 264–5
al-Risala 250–1, 253–6, 266
al-Shafi‘i as founder of usul al-fiqh 251–6, 266
Shafi‘i school 250–1, 253–6, 257–9, 266
sources of law 252
tariqa 257–60
theological and juristic approaches, dichotomy between 257–60, 266
traditionist movement 252–3, 258
usul al-fiqh, definition of 249–50
history see also Anglo-Muhammadan law; classical period; development and continuity, age of (12th-15th centuries); historiography; modern period; premodern period
animals 861–6, 880
constitutions 785–91, 795–8, 801, 813–14
feminism 82–3, 86–90
finance 847–52, 857
human rights 819, 828, 832, 835, 839
ijtihad 181–97
Imami Shi‘i legal theory 207–30
legislation 552–65
marriage 901
mazalim 370–6
muhtasib 341–8
positivism 48–53, 63
qadi courts 301–25
women/gender equality 78
Hizb al-Tahrir 741–2
Hodgson, Marshall 115, 117, 317, 785
Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb 64
Holt, PM 461–2
Homerin, Th Emil 468
Hoodfar, Homa 915
Hooker, MB 590–2, 594, 598, 601, 604
Horowitz, Donald L 598
Hossain, Sara 895
Houda-Peppin, Fatima 702
Hourani, George F 276–7, 295
Howard, Douglas 558
Howard, John 767–8, 771
Hujjati, Baha’ al-Din 229
Hujji, Muhammad 48
(p. 952) Hülegü Khan 462
human rights 819–42 see also freedom of religion
apostasy 831
authoritarianism 827
Cairo Declaration of Human Rights (CDHR) 823–4, 827, 830
colonialism 824–5
family 824
majority Muslim states 827
marriage 824
Qur’an 823–4
shari‘a law 823–4, 836
slavery 824–5
women/gender equality 824
citizenship 821, 826
classical period 819, 824
colonialism 69, 202, 819, 824–5, 831, 833–4, 838–9
constitutions 792, 793, 795, 800–1
corruption 827
culture 824, 833–4, 840
dignity 819, 820, 822
divorce 896
education 830
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 653, 729, 738
feminism 832–8, 914
freedom of expression 826
freedom of religion 819, 822, 826, 830–2, 837–8
fundamentalism 801
history 819, 828, 832, 835, 839
individualism 826, 833
individuals 821, 826–7, 831–2
indivisibility of rights 822
Inquisition 828
International Bill of Human Rights 822, 824, 832
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 822, 832
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 822, 832
Islamism 824–5, 827, 828, 830, 837–8
legal relativism 824
majority Muslim states 822–3, 827, 833, 836–7
maqasid-al-Shari‘a (goals and purposes of law) 828–30
marriage 822
maslaha (public interest) 828–30, 839
minorities 822, 828, 829, 835
muhtasib 350
Muslim apologist model 820, 826–30, 835, 839–40
Muslim reformist paradigm 820
nationalism 838
natural law 829–30
Nazism and fascism 820
neutrality of state 832
OIC Charter 823–4
Orientalism 833
patriarchy 819, 833
postcolonialism 820–1, 823, 833, 839
power 820, 823, 831, 834
premodern period 819, 828, 830, 834, 839–40
Qur’an 828–9, 835
rationalism 826, 829, 838–9
race 820–1, 829
reformism 839
revelation 826, 829, 830–1
secularism 820, 827, 831, 835, 837–9
self-determination 824–5
separation of religion and state 828, 831–2, 837–8
Shari‘a law 827–8, 830, 833, 839
slavery 824–5
sources 829
state
conception of an Islamic state 827
critiques of the state 837–8
state sovereignty 821
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 822
torture 827
treaties, adoption of 836
ulama 828
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 820–4, 832–3 (p. 953)
Cairo Declaration 824
colonialism 824–5
drafting 821–2, 824
freedom of religion 830, 837
gender equality 837
majority Muslim states, non-compliance by 823
slavery 824–5
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 822
universalism 819–20, 822–3, 832–3, 836, 839
women/gender equality 819, 822, 824, 829, 832–8, 840
Humayun, Second Mughal Emperor 494–5
Humphrey, RS 497
al-Hurr al-Amili 223
Hurvitz, Nimrod 365–6, 369
Husain, W 499
Husayn, Muzaffar 523–4
Hussain, Arif Abdol 210
Hussain, Dilwar 743
ibadat 145–6
Ibn Aban 255–6
Ibn Abd al-Hakam 368
Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam al-Sulami 438, 440
Ibn ‘Abidin 240–1
Ibn Aktham, Yahya 374
Ibn ‘Arabi 287
Ibn Babawayh 212
Ibn Bajja 163–7
Ibn Baz 742
Ibn Farhun 314, 443–4
Ibn al-Farra’ 367–70, 377, 426–7
Ibn Hajar 374
Ibn al-Hajib 443–6
Ibn Hanbal 275, 423, 438
Ibn Hasan 499
Ibn Hazm 214, 265, 275, 292, 415
Ibn Idris al-Hilli