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date: 28 February 2020

General Index

General Index

Numbers in bold refer to tables and figures.

(p. 817) abeyance structures, 111, 119, 285, 343, 351, 626
abolitionist movement, 94, 342, 479, 503, 516, 553, 561, 602
abortion activism, 329, 371, 516, 523, 537–538, 720
activism
activism/participation distinction, 60–61
checkbook, 296–297
disengagement from, 11–12, 234–235, 277–286
diffusion of conflict, 78, 91, 426–427, 429–436, 469, 717
DIY activism, 296–297
ephemeral engagement 13–14, 308, 348, 355–357
flash activism, 60, 356–357, 360
flashpoint triggers, 425–426, 429, 436, 642
identification of the enemy, 34, 116, 698
instrumental vs. expressive action, 11, 222–223
leaderless action, 12, 291, 297–298
rural conflict, 69, 74–75, 78–79
single-issue, 314
sociability, 207, 250, 278–279, 283, 285
temporal rhythms, 73–76
transfer of activism to institutional politics, 94
unorganized, 18, 76, 294, 567–576
WUNC (worthiness, unity, numbers, commitment), 2–3, 374, 551
activists
biographies, 279–282
civic and social skills, 61, 280, 501
group selection mechanisms, 43–44
life histories and commitment, 72, 234, 277–286
perception of relative deprivation, 220
shared goals, 33, 311, 315, 317, 328, 500
shared symbolic world, 38–41, 367
advocacy groups, 51, 59–62, 359, 415–416, 500, 504–506, 517–518
coalitions, 495, 506, 730
transnational, 193, 327, 359, 608, 743–748
alternative health movements, 108, 115, 117
alternative/minority lifestyles and values, 3, 54, 208–209, 314, 343
autonomous geographical spaces, 391–392
lifestyle politics, 478, 480–481
utopian communities, 520
anarchism/anarchist groups, 291, 294, 300, 429–430, 516, 520, 526, 582, 720, 778
animalrights activism, 117, 225, 406, 481, 518, 640, 662
animal welfare, 332, 479, 481, 484, 486
anomie and anomic behavior, 10, 146, 371
anti-apartheid movement, 135, 479, 483, 519, 526, 550, 621, 721, 724
anti-austerity protests, 22, 99, 139, 614, 677, 684, 767, 774–778
Indignados movement (2011–12, Spain), 368, 371, 375, 500, 542, 587, 684, 724, 788
anti-capitalism movements, 51, 53–54, 57–59, 99, 389, 745
(p. 818) anti-globalization movements, 153, 282, 291, 588, 608, 722
anti-Nazism, 760
anti-nuclear movement, 35, 149, 278, 331, 505–506, 516, 731, 778
anti-racism movements, 35, 163–165, 165, 716, 720
anti-Semitism, 102n16, 479, 484
anti-war movements, 61, 99, 101n15, 149, 280, 282, 284, 368, 489, 551–553
see also peace movements
Arab Spring (2011), 76, 133, 139, 346, 414, 614, 622, 628–629, 767–768
demographics, 154–156
graffiti and street art, 554, 628
non-violent protest, 528
religious mobilization, 178
role of digital media, 360, 368
scale shift, 90–91
support from popular musicians, 552
transformative emotion, 271–273
brokerage, 75, 91, 235, 238, 311, 318–319, 329, 333, 374–375, 378, 387, 623, 738
capitalism, 8–9, 32, 50–54, 51, 99, 133–143
creative destruction, 79, 137–140
democratic, 57–59
dysfunction, 599
endemic labor unrest, 137–138
exogenous shock, 676
Fordist production, 134–136
global, 9, 54, 59, 133–137, 140, 432, 607–615
Great Depression (1930s), 148
hegemonic system, 53–54
imperialism, 143n9
Keynesianism, 7, 58, 719–720
liberal corporatism, 57–58
neoliberal, 7
profitability vs. legitimacy, 140–141
race to the bottom, 135
regulation of, 57–59
structural contradictions, 32, 205, 608
technocratic, 53
welfare provision, 711–724
charities, 3, 498–499, 503, 713
child protection, 333, 537–538, 542
civil disobedience, 151–152, 369–370, 429, 482, 716, 749, 803
civil resistance, 467–474
contrast with pacifism, 469
everyday resistance, 346–349, 571–573, 626
Ghandian tactics of non-violence, 467–469, 526
mass participation, 472–473
outcomes, 471–473
political opportunity, 470
political process models, 470
regime change, 472, 686–692
religious movements, 467
state responses, 468, 470–471
strategic, 468
success rates, 471–472
civil rights movement (1954–68, USA), 16, 58, 167, 200, 415, 469, 503–505, 526, 553
“black is beautiful” element, 516, 518
demographic factors, 147, 151–152
emotion labor, 117
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955), 417, 482
non-class-based nature, 142n2
non-violent and violent phases, 151–152
organizational rivalry, 330–331
outcome success, 471, 504, 507
radical flank effect, 93
role of critical communities, 343
scale shift, 387
support of popular musicians, 550, 552
Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision, 96, 151, 504
(p. 819) civil society organizations (CSOs), 190, 317, 320, 327, 367, 371, 612, 739
contexts and conditions for activism, 754–755
determinants of impact, 756
development of global ethical consciousness, 758–759
impacts of social movement activism, 756–757
information politics, 757–758
institutionalized participation, 762–764
issue framing, 757, 759–761, 761
normative debate, 758–760
participation in global governance, 753–764
perception as legitimate advocates, 758
stakeholders and partnerships, 762–764
see also public sphere
civil war, 347–348, 440–441, 596
armed rebellion and resistance, 414, 621
community militias, 458–459
contentious politics approach, 8, 86–89, 92–94, 97–100
control–compliance model, 446
counterinsurgency, 453, 458–459
escalation of violence, 154, 447, 457
geographical factors, 101n10
group institutions, 455–456
guerrilla warfare/insurgency, 16, 86, 89, 446, 621, 644
identity conflict, 189, 191–192
ideology, 456
mechanisms, 97–100, 101n10
power relations, 446
principal agent approach, 454–456
rebel government, 446, 458
revolutionary movements, 23, 147, 456, 471–472, 596, 793, 795–796, 801–803
sexual violence, 454–455
social legacies, 460–461
social mobilization, 452–462
social movement analysis, 446–447, 452–462
socialization and political training, 455
state responses, 458–459
violence against citizens, 453–456
class conflict/struggle, 8–9, 52–54, 133–143, 202, 712, 796–802
class consciousness, 32
effect of globalization, 8–9, 133–137
climate change activism, 540, 612, 615, 732, 737–738
coalitions, 13, 221, 319, 326–335
advocacy, 495, 506, 730
belief orientations and frames, 328, 332, 367, 369, 374, 378, 625
brokerage, 75, 91, 235, 238, 311, 318–319, 329, 333, 374–375, 378, 387, 623, 738
coordination mode, 313–314, 313
definition, 326–328
longevity, 327, 334
outcomes and consequences, 331–335
political opportunities, 329–330
resource mobilization, 330–331
shared ideology/identity/interests/goals, 328, 334
social movement partyism, 327
social ties and group interaction, 329
threats and alliance-building, 329–330, 334
transnational 327–329, 332–333, 335, 388, 754
collective action
action events, 7, 34, 38–40, 42–3, 45n1, 45n3, 313
action taxonomy, 220, 227–228
costs, benefits and risks, 224–225, 234, 250–253
effect of big shocks, 80–82
effect of repression, 257–258
empowerment, 112, 119–120, 267, 347, 392, 482, 504, 507, 550, 746, 749
historical analysis of, 7, 68–82
horizontal, 12
long-term trends, 69, 74–77, 80
micro-mobilization, 264–273
paradox of, 35–36
performative, 18, 77–78, 268, 317, 587–588
production of society, 34
response to structural change, 4–5, 160–162, 174–176 (p. 820)
structural dynamics, 7–8, 15, 77–79, 624–626
collective action fields, 12–13, 41, 44, 307–308, 312, 318–319, 321
collective action problems, 254–256, 597, 601
collective behavior theory, 4–5, 70, 246–260, 423–436, 439–448
collective consumption, 4, 202
collective goods, 3, 5, 222, 247–250, 254–256
collective identity, 4, 33, 110–113, 237–238, 342, 418–419, 746, 749–750
boundary maintenance, 110–111, 312–313, 549
construction of, 5, 112, 119–120, 195, 549–551
constructivist explanations, 190–191, 195
felt inner obligation, 225
identity politics, 54, 109, 185–196, 270, 484
instrumentalist explanations, 189–191
network dynamics, 5, 232, 240–241
participation identities, 309
political consciousness, 110
politics of difference, 194–195
politics of place, 200–201
primordialist explanations, 188–191, 195
processes of identification, 226–227
ritual practice, 33, 117, 268, 412, 550
role in social movement strategy, 8
stigmatized identities, 111–112, 266–267
storytelling and narratives, 17, 40–41, 271, 317
collective learning, 35, 45n7, 73–74, 77–78, 410
color revolutions, 98–99, 150, 345–346, 550, 560
communication, 3, 13–14, 235–236, 360–363
agenda setting, 361
audience participation, 372
crowd-enabled organization, 375, 377–378
digital media mobilizations, 368, 372–373
hybrid media, 372
information overload, 362
mediatization, 561–563
movement art, 551–553
movement communication culture, 376
organizational capacity, 377–378
priming effects, 361
reception and interpretation, 361–362, 369
repertoires, 376–377, 379
role in social movements, 367–379
communicative action theory, 35
communism, 31, 149, 314, 597, 628
connective action, 14, 60, 300, 349, 358, 373–375, 377–378, 777
consumer politics, 60, 478–490, 572, 703–705
anti-sweatshop movement, 480, 484, 488–490, 657, 659
boycotts/buycotts, 16, 478–484, 487–488
cause framing, 485
citizen-consumers, 479
collaboration and the triangle of change, 485, 487–490
consumer protection and rights, 486–487, 490
culture jamming/adbusting, 480, 659–660
emotional appeals, 485, 487
feel-good activism, 484
genetically modified (GMO) products, 479, 485–487, 657, 732
guilt relief, 484–485, 487
international issues, 482–484
lifestyle politics, 478, 480–481
markets as political arenas, 479, 481–482, 485
product labeling, 480, 484–485, 487
solidarity networks, 480
worker welfare, 479–480, 488–490
contentious politics (CP), 8, 10, 19–21, 23, 72–74, 78–80, 86–100, 368
alliance- and coalition-building, 97–98, 625
causes and mechanisms, 87–88, 90–92
CP as field of interaction among actors, 86–87
diffusion of conflict, 78, 91, 191–192, 426–427, 429–436, 469, 717
duplicity and speaking the truth, 626–627
dynamic drama, 73–74, 80, 88, 93–94, 623
episodes of contention, 8, 14, 17, 87–92, 98–99, 343–344, 347, 350, 411, 543
(p. 821)
event catalogues 88–90
factions and splinter groups, 285, 316, 418, 523
goal displacement, 91, 96
mass incidents, 619–620
relational dynamics, 88, 93–94, 97–100, 624–626
scale shift, 90–91, 93, 387
slippery slope of tolerance, 631
strategic field of play, 619, 624–626
tactical creativity, 627–628
use of the term CP, 86–87, 87
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 611–612, 653–654, 661–662, 700, 702–703
corporations and businesses, 16, 120, 387, 479–480, 482–483, 487–490, 534, 656, 658, 660, 698
action repertoires, 655–663, 656
activist shareholders, 702
benefit corporations, 700–701
competitive dynamics, 698
corporate greenwashing, 611, 658
crowdfunding, 703–704
impacts on social movements, 696–705
links with non-government organizations, 654, 659
management of dissent, 653–663
media campaigns and counter-framing, 659
movement-approved product labels, 659
opportunity structures, 21, 696–704
private politics, 654–655
professional lobbying firms, 701–702
public affairs and public relations departments, 660, 662
use of private security, 637, 660
varieties of capitalism and corporate strategy, 20, 654, 660–662
corporatism, 7, 21, 51, 57–59, 485, 488, 505, 611, 669, 712
countermovements, 15, 17, 20, 411, 416–418, 441–442, 637–638, 715, 735
courts and legal systems
cause lawyers, 95
conservative legal movement, 96
legal mobilization, 95–96
medical malpractice claims, 534–535
movement reactions to court rulings, 95, 116, 119, 151, 504
tort reform movement, 534–535, 539
critical mass theory, 36, 98, 236, 239, 252, 254–256
crowd behavior, 251–252, 424
cultural activity, 13, 385
action events, 7, 34, 38–40, 42–3, 45n1, 45n3, 313
advertising and graphic design, 550
anti-war artworks, 551–552
arts and artistic expression, 17, 549–555
audiences, 549
clothing and personal appearance, 413, 550–551, 557, 559
cognitive praxis, 17, 555, 583
communication function, 551–553
creation and maintenance of collective identity, 549–551
dance, 550–551, 627
drama of contentious politics, 73–74, 80, 88, 93–94
dramaturgy, 559
films, documentaries, and videos, 549, 552–553, 559
flags and banners, 551, 628
folk traditions, 78, 268, 385
guerrilla theater and art, 553–554
imagined communities, 347–351, 367
literature, 552–553
logos, 480, 562, 659
mediatization, 561–563
movement self-representation, 555
movements as expressive public performances, 549
murals and graffiti, 553–554, 628
music and song, 113, 118, 223, 268, 342, 549–555, 627
performative emotion, 268
performative protest, 18, 77–78
photography, 558
pictorial turn, 557
recruitment, 549–550, 555
representing the other, 554–555, 559
repression and criticism of art, 554
resistance identity, 385
ritual practice, 33, 117, 268, 412, 550
(p. 822) cultural activity (cont.)
tactical creativity, 627–628
theater and drama, 549, 552–553, 588
truth-bearing and truth-revealing, 555
use of color, 98–99, 150, 345–346, 550, 560
visual symbols and visual analysis, 377, 388, 550, 557–563
see also storytelling
cultural studies, 3, 17
culture and conflict, 513–529
challenge and change, 513–514
concept of culture, 513–514
conflict and movement emergence, 8–9, 13, 40–42, 108–109, 148–149, 309, 513–520, 516, 614–615
cultural fabrication and bricolage, 526–527
cultural revitalization, 525–526
embracement stances, 516–518
mechanisms, 525–528
movement stances, 514–520
reform stances, 518–519
rejection stances, 520–522
relational and interactional context, 521–525
world-rejecting vs. world-affirming movements, 515–516, 520
democracy
conflict resolution, 192, 196
consensual, 55–56, 58, 63, 668–669
cyclical processes, 79
deliberative, 22–23, 62, 767, 772–774, 781, 787–789
diffusion of, 76
encouragement of social conflict, 803
hegemonic, 54
legitimacy, 62
majoritarian, 55–56, 63, 668–669
models of, 55–56
participatory and deliberative democracy in action, 768–775, 787–789
proportional systems, 669
reciprocity with social movements, 71–72
representative, 23
routinized peaceful protest, 474, 668
rule of minorities, 51
social associations, 39, 88
social movements and democratic innovation, 781–789
stakeholder principle, 22
tolerance and admission of dissidence, 643, 802–803
Western liberalism, 22, 51–52
see also neoliberalism
democratization, 193, 196, 327, 460, 626, 643–644, 683, 781–783
cause and effect of social movements, 71–72
comparative analysis, 81, 92, 472, 622–623, 686–692
cyclical patterns, 76, 619
labor movements, 135, 332, 781
welfare movements, 716, 721–722
demographics of social movements, 9, 146–156
age cohorts, 148–151, 154–156
baby boomers, 148–149, 152, 155–156
demographic categories, 147
movement participants, 146–149
political event generations, 148–149
reproduction of society, 150
role of education, 146–147, 150
social marginalization, 150–151
societal institutions, 146, 149–151
urbanization, 150
see also migration
demonstrations and marches, 2–3, 16, 73, 151, 154, 559–560, 587–588, 598
disengagement, 11–12, 234–235, 277–286
Egyptian Revolution (2011), 346–347, 350
emotion, 8, 10–11, 18, 116–119, 226, 264–273
cementing function, 265–266
collective bonds, 269–270
collective excitement (effervescence), 33
collective sentiment, 33
cross-border emotions, 271–272
cultural production, 271
dimensions of narrative, 537
emotion cultures, 117–118
emotion labor, 117
emotional appeals, 485, 487
emotional habitus, 11, 117–120, 267
(p. 823)
emotional opportunities, 118
emotional organizational rhythm, 525
emotional turn, 36–37, 264
euphoric disorder, 424
experience of riots, 426, 429–430
hot cognition, 11, 264–265
joy of agency, 426, 446, 458
moral shock, 11, 264–265, 267, 272, 405–406, 559, 563
performance and ritual, 268
power asymmetries, 269–270
repressive regimes and mobilization, 267–268, 270–271
role in identity formation, 36–37
subversive and mobilizing emotions, 265–267, 270–272
transformative, 271–273
visual imagery, 559
Enlightenment period, 31–32
environmental groups/activism, 21–22, 87, 231, 236–239, 259, 316–317, 332, 516
concept of environmentalism, 730
conflict with labor movement, 522–523
corporate greenwashing, 611, 658–659
environmental movement organizations (EMOs), 730, 732, 735–738, 741
environmental NGOs, 730–731, 734–739
Friends of the Earth activity, 732, 735, 738
German green movement, 505–506
GMO activism, 479, 485–487, 657, 732
Greenpeace activity, 487, 659, 734–735, 738
League of Conservation Voters (USA), 736
nuclear accidents, 265, 733
opportunity structures, 330
policy responses, 611–613
social movement impact, 21–22, 729–741
tradition of individualism, 328
transnational, 335
wilderness preservation movement (Canada), 233–234, 238
ethnicity and ethno-national movements, 10, 94, 120, 147, 185–196
“becoming” indigenous, 195
collective sentiment, 187
concepts of ethnicity and nation, 186–187, 601
constructivist explanations, 190–191, 195
ethnic cleansing/genocide, 191, 601
ethnic favoritism, 601–602
ethno-genesis, 190
ethno-linguistic fractionalization (ELF) index, 188
ethno-national conflict, 87, 163, 186, 189, 191–192
instrumentalist explanations, 189–191
inter-ethnic cooperation, 192
politics of difference, 194–195
primordialism, 188–191, 195
fatherhood movements, 517
feminism, 108–121, 142n2
alliances, 334
anti-rape movement, 537–538
collective identity, 348–349
consciousness-raising, 119, 519
cultural activity, 345–346, 552–554
feminist frames, 332
feminist geography, 390
gender consciousness, 280
internal democratic practices, 787
lesbian feminism, 110–111, 113, 269, 342
postpartum depression self-help movement, 109
reproductive justice, 332
second-wave, 269, 328, 351, 519, 585, 720
soft repression, 636
state feminism, 284
third-wave, 148, 563
transnational, 118, 585, 609, 614
women’s movements, 3, 108–109, 111, 113, 116, 118–119, 269, 280, 340–346, 472, 552, 570, 609, 767, 771
women’s suffrage movement, 101n4, 111, 329, 342, 716
(p. 824) frames and framing, 4–5, 189, 206, 223, 265, 267–270, 316–317, 349, 361–362, 367, 369, 759–761
collective action frames, 296, 349, 375, 536, 558
construction of social reality, 11, 38–41, 43
issue framing, 332, 485, 757, 759–761, 761
regime characteristics, 59, 620–621
symbolic interactionism, 4, 33, 38, 246
free rider problem, 189, 222, 224–225, 247–249, 252–253, 255–256, 358, 374
game theory, 41, 93, 249, 253–254, 257, 399–401, 404, 424
gay rights movements, 16, 112, 115–116, 483, 540
gender and sexuality movements, 8, 108–121
AIDS activism, 111, 115, 117–118, 269, 271, 542, 588, 698, 720, 762
anti-gay movements, 517, 523
anti-rape movement, 537–538
Dignity organization, 113
empowerment, 112
identity deployment, 109–113
identity performance, 113, 118
intersex movement, 112, 115
multi-institutional politics, 114–116, 120–121
opportunity structures, 116, 118, 121
queer/gay politics, 8, 111–12, 327, 588
reproduction of gender norms, 297
role of emotions, 116–119
geography and social movements, 14, 70, 101n10, 383–392
activist geography, 390–392
assemblages, 389–390
grievance structures, 385–386
land occupation, 75, 79, 385
participatory geography, 391
people’s geography, 391
politics of place, 383–385
politics of scale, 386–388
population mobility, 386
social movements as convergence spaces, 388–389
socio-spatial inequality, 383–386
spatial meaning and value, 384
spatial practice and political struggle, 383, 387–389
terrains of resistance, 384, 587
geopolitics, 141–142, 385, 524, 609–610, 636
global justice movement
agenda-setting, 571
citizen-workers, 206
coalitions, 314
ethnographic study, 582–583, 585–587
logics of action, 582
participation and democracy from below, 22, 767, 772–774, 776, 778, 783, 788–789
storytelling, 538
transnational networks, 612–613, 642
urban setting, 200, 206
welfare concerns, 722–724
globalization, 4, 57, 490
class and labor conflict, 8–9, 133–137
effect on protest and social movements, 80, 156, 607–615
effect on state capacity, 18, 599–603, 613, 721–724
global governance, 59, 753–764
global master frames, 761
ideas and norms diffusion, 19, 193, 610
institutionalized international norms, 608, 610
migration, 9, 19, 159–169
multilateral arena, 607–615
networking, 584–586
normative debate 758–760
population growth, 9, 146, 155–156
religious revivalism, 176
winners and losers, 9, 161, 675
see also neoliberalism
green parties, 674–675, 736, 740
gun control movement, 518
habitus, 11, 38, 267, 426, 436, 514
historical analysis, 7, 68–82
comparative research, 70–71, 78, 81
conceptions of time and place, 69–70
critical junctures, 7, 19, 70, 81–82, 687, 796–797
effect of big shocks, 80–82
event history analysis, 89
(p. 825)
micro-history and macro-history, 72–73
temporal rhythms, 73–76
trends, 69, 74–77, 80
humanitarian and human rights movements, 415, 482, 488, 490, 497–498, 585, 603, 607–613, 739, 743–751, 760
Amnesty International, 272, 747
CARE, 747
conceptualization of human rights movements, 744–745
global constitutionalism, 22, 744–745
grassroots organizations (GROs), 747–751
Human Rights Watch, 744, 747
international human rights regime, 22
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), 744, 747–751
Oxfam, 747, 749
Red Cross, 272, 497–498
Save the Children, 747
subaltern cosmopolitanism, 744–745
transnational advocacy and activism, 272–273, 608, 743, 745–748, 750
incentives for activism, 97, 141, 222, 224, 236, 250–251, 254, 256, 299, 316, 330, 358, 412, 697, 777
indigenous movements, 582, 585, 722–723
Latin American, 94, 192–196, 384, 587–588, 684, 687–692
individual activism, 10–11, 60–61, 232, 239, 242, 599, 674
information and communications technology (ICT)
activist videos, 559, 587
blogger-activist identity, 350
blogospheres, 350
clicktivism, 60, 484
crowdfunding, 703–704
flash activism/protest power, 356–357, 360
hactivism, 379, 416
information age, 134, 358, 361–362
information overload, 362–363
open source software, 292, 586
role in collective action and social movements, 3, 13–14, 60, 73, 342, 346, 349–351, 355–363
slacktivism, 356–357
social movement online communities (SMOCs), 349–351
socially mediated mobilizations, 367–379
transnational activism, 359–360, 754–755
use in policing and surveillance, 356, 368, 379
user-generated content, 358, 360
viral reality, 587
virtual communities, 349–351
visibility of social movements, 18
interest groups, 2–3, 51–52, 55, 57–59, 61, 115, 162, 165, 500, 653, 669–670, 784, 786, 802–803
policy advocacy, 59–62
professionalization of social movements, 405–406
interest representation, 7, 58–59
employers’ groups, 58
Islam/Muslims
al-Qaeda, 96, 173, 179, 521
authoritarianism, 445
counterterrorism surveillance, 640–641
dawa (missionary work), 179
fundamentalism, 177, 445, 527–528
globalized Islam, 444
hostility to art and artists, 554
Jihad, 148, 179, 417, 419, 443–444
liberal/cultural vs. revolutionary, 177, 179
migration, 159, 161, 163–164, 167–168
militancy and violence, 441–445, 521
Muslim Brotherhood, 350, 627, 637
Muslim World League, 418
Qur’an, 527–528
religious leaders and mosques, 445
revivalism, 177–180
Salafism, 96, 177, 179–180, 419
sharia law, 527–528
(p. 826) Islam/Muslims (cont.)
Sunni–Shia conflict, 189, 522
Taliban, 459, 521, 527–528
voice and exit, 177–182
Islamization, 159, 179
knowledge production, 4, 115, 120, 391, 555, 580, 583–584, 588, 640, 757
labor movements, 9, 21–22, 133–143, 224, 327, 334, 522–523, 560, 598, 672, 674, 767, 769–770, 781
immigrant workers, 135–136, 148
role in democratization, 135
social movement unionism, 135–136
status-based movements, 140–141
labor unrest
ancient Roman, 467
attacks on union power, 721
Chinese, 135, 138–139
definitions of “labor”, 139–140, 142n7
effects of globalization, 8–9, 133–137
effects of war, 81, 141
French 73, 88
Italian, 543
Luddite movement (19th century), 519
“precariat” protest, 139–140
salaried bourgeoisie protest, 139–140
South African, 723–724
Spanish, 75
strikes, 8, 16, 55, 69, 73–75, 77, 135–136, 192, 219, 268, 543, 622, 691, 717–718
United States, 135–136
leaders/leadership, 5, 12, 221, 238, 297–298, 407
Left Hegelianism, 32
lesbian feminists, 110–111, 113, 269, 342
LGBT groups/organizations, 3, 109–110, 115–116, 118–121, 142n2, 327, 361, 523–524, 560, 697, 699
literacy, 69
MAS (Movimiento al Socialismo, Bolivia), 688–691
mass media, 43, 81, 367–370, 378
migration, 9, 19, 39, 159–169
anti-migrant mobilization, 161, 164–165
asylum seekers and refugees, 159–164, 527, 540
claims-making, 160–167, 163–166, 169n1
economic, 159–160
effect of globalization, 160–162, 165–166
European integration, 9, 162
fortress Europe, 160
guest workers, 160
integration politics, 163–164
migrant social movements, 159, 161, 164, 166–168
political opportunity structures, 163
religious revivalism, 176
sans papiers, 159, 165
Support and Opposition to Migration (SOM) project, 162–166
modular collective action, 78, 619–620, 625–626, 629–631
motivation, 11, 61, 98, 219–228, 247, 259, 399–400, 411–412, 429, 443, 502
action mobilization process, 228
action taxonomy, 220
additive model, 225
grievance and injustice, 385–386, 425–426
inner obligation, 225, 250
motivational dynamics, 227
non-rational, 36–37
norms, 39–40
perception of costs and benefits, 224–225, 233–234, 250–253
narrative, 534–544
articulation of ties, 317
authority, 542
characters, 535
collective action frames, 536
concept and definitions, 535–536
(p. 827)
emotional dimensions, 537
fortifying myths, 539
impact on policy change, 541–542
institutional schemas, 538, 540–541
life stories, 543
movement emergence, 536–538, 614–615
multiple interpretation, 536
narrative turn, 37, 40–41
normative point, 536
norms and conventions, 536, 540–541
persuasive function, 538–539
plausibility, 537
plot, 536
strategic, 535, 538–541
vehicles of ideology, 536, 539
see also storytelling
nationalism, 10, 185–196, 600–602
Arab, 154
Basque, 560–561
EOKA movement (Cyprus), 96, 100
ethno-national conflict, 87, 163, 186, 189, 191–192
Northern Ireland, 93–94, 99–100, 418
Palestinian, 344–345, 348
regional, 149
neoliberalism, 754, 760–761, 761, 768
crisis, 722–723
globalization, 370–371, 388, 390, 427–428, 715, 718–724
growth model, 205
neoliberal capitalism, 7, 54, 720–724
social protest, 427–431, 614, 687, 689, 691, 716, 723–724
technocratic consensus, 687
urban, 210
network society, 4, 371
networks, 7, 231–242, 302n2, 306–322
action fields, 1, 294, 307–322
boundary definition, 312–313
cohort groups, 148–151, 154–156, 320–321
collective ties, 308–317
coordination modes, 312–315, 313, 321
critical mass effects, 36, 98, 236, 239, 252, 254–256
embeddedness, 11–12, 146, 237–239
evolution, 13
fragmentation and factions, 285, 309, 316, 584
information sharing, 310, 326, 389, 587
interactions, 308–309
interpersonal, 61, 232, 306, 313, 343, 402, 777
joint participation and event co-presence, 311
local–global networking, 18, 579, 584–586, 588, 614
micro- and macro-structures, 43
movement capital, 38–39
multiple dynamics, 240–241, 256–258
narrative and articulation of ties, 317
network analysis, 89, 232, 308–309, 321–322, 329
organizational form, 315–316
power dynamics, 307
qualitative comparative analysis, 241
radical democratic networks, 296
relational analysis, 12–13, 306–322
scale, 232–233
shared membership/affiliation, 310–311
shared symbolic world and ideology, 38–41, 311, 315–316
social capital, 238–239
social influence, 236–237, 240–241, 250–251, 256–257
social media and virtual networks, 236, 239–240, 242
social selection, 236, 240–241
solidarity, 5, 234, 249–250, 582
structural holes, 235, 239, 319
submerged, 111, 296, 348–349, 351, 629
transnational, 233, 608, 610, 743, 745–748, 750
weak and strong ties, 228, 234, 237, 318–319, 326–327
(p. 828) new media activism, 18, 579, 586–588
new social movements, 16, 21–22, 314, 332, 474, 671–672, 767, 771, 773, 787, 789
call for “real” democracy, 375, 571, 768, 774–775
conception and exemplification of democracy, 767–778, 787–789
democratic innovation, 781–789
network structure and network ties, 776
participatory and deliberative democracy in action, 768–775, 787–789
newly industrializing countries (NICs), 134–135, 739
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
business NGOs (BINGOs), 611
civic coalitions, 307, 489
environmental, 730–731, 734–739
global governmentality, 612
international human rights advocacy, 743–744, 747–751
issue campaigns and cause networks, 372–373, 489, 500, 504
NGOization, 612
participation empowerment, 507
partnerships with corporations, 654
professionalized, 22, 612
selective inclusion, 19, 641, 659–660
transnational, 603
turnover and defection, 277
universalist visions, 22
welfare provision, 713
non-state actors, 164, 439, 453–455, 610–611, 746, 754, 757, 759, 761–764
non-violent activism, 16, 151–152, 414, 528, 626, 795
Ghandian tactics, 467–469, 526
violent/non-violent repertoire continuum, 440–441, 447
obesity activism, 517–518
occupations, 75, 98, 147, 154, 208, 210, 500, 506, 550, 625, 716–717, 723–724, 774–775
Occupy movements, 54, 133, 368, 371, 373, 542, 571, 614, 724, 775, 788
communication culture, 376
crowd-enabled connective action, 375
organizational forms, 12, 294, 296–299, 301, 528
use of subversive art, 550
use of technology, 378
voluntary association, 500
online activism, 119, 291, 349, 361–362, 416, 500, 704
organic foods movement, 486–488
organizational analysis, 12–14, 248–249, 291–303
association vs. membership, 295–297, 295
autonomy vs. rules, 292–294, 295, 298–299
complexity, 45n6
direct democracy vs. hierarchy, 295, 297–298
emergence/emergent organizations, 12–13, 292–300, 306, 315, 614–615
incentives, 250–251, 299–300
international organizations, 19, 22, 57, 332, 373, 610, 764
isomorphism, 610
mutual aid vs. sanctioning, 295, 299–300
organizational fields, 1, 221, 278, 294, 341, 697
organizational variables, 293–300, 295
partial organizations, 292–302
self-organization vs. monitoring, 295, 299–301
organizational ecology, 89
Palestinian Intifada (1987), 344–345
party politics, 20, 667–678
alliance and conflict structure, 667
anti-party organizations, 676–677
coalitions, 333, 669, 671, 677
effects of social movements on party systems, 674–677
elections, 60, 75, 79–80
electoral corruption, 95, 98, 345
electoral participation, 94–95
electoral systems, 63, 667–669
institutional division of power, 668–669
(p. 829)
movement-based parties, 95
movement issue co-optation, 668–669, 675
national minority parties, 669
New Left vs. New Right, 672–674
parties as social movement organizations, 668, 672–675, 688–689, 691
party capture, 669, 672
party–movement hybrids, 95
protest voting, 63
relations with social movements, 94–96, 99, 333, 670–671
Tea Party movement (USA), 95, 101n13, 149, 151, 153–154, 156, 526, 676
trade union mobilization, 95
peace movements, 314, 332, 412, 472, 498, 505–506, 516
performative collective action, 18, 77–78, 268, 317, 551–553, 558–561, 587–588
pluralism, 7, 50–52, 57–59, 175, 192, 385, 387–388, 620, 669, 761
Polanyian theory, 7, 50–51, 51, 57–59, 62, 137–139, 686
policing and security, 599, 623–625, 630, 634–645
enforcement style, 414–415, 442, 641–644
functions of, 638–641
institutional actors, 636–638
invasive, 379
private actors, 637–638
privatized spying, 638
regime characteristics, 59, 79, 194
repressive repertoire, 620, 626–631
riot control, 414–416
use of ICT in policing and surveillance, 356, 368, 379
political opportunity structure
analysis, 21, 41–43, 52, 55–57, 473, 667–668
open vs. closed, 5, 56, 330
political parties
Austrian Liberal Party (FPÖ), 671, 675
Brazil Workers’ Party, 721, 724
Christian Democratic Party (Germany), 506
Communist Party (China), 630
Communist Party (USSR), 149
Communist Party of India-Marxist, 784–785
Danish People’s Party, 671
Democratic Party (USA), 99, 675, 699
Green Party (Germany), 505
IRA/Sinn Féin, 94
MAS (Bolivia), 688–691
Movimiento Quinta República (MVR, Venezuela), 689
National Front (France), 99
National Front/British National Party, 674
National Socialist Party (Germany), 526
Pachakutik (Ecuador), 691
Republican Party (USA), |94, 101n13, 153, 676
Scottish National Party, 669–670
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP; Northern Ireland), 94
Swiss People’s Party (SVP), 671, 675
political process theory, 12–13, 15, 20, 55–57, 108–109, 114–116, 223–224, 667–668, 670–671
analysis of mechanisms of contentious politics, 90–91
central function of state institutions, 19, 55–56, 108–109, 114, 194
international organizational analysis, 57
Marxist conception of power, 114
Polanyian logic, 59
rationalist assumptions, 116
regime type and opportunity structures, 59
strategic view of action, 5, 470
political science
approaches to social movements, 50–64
institutionalist approaches, 55–56, 59, 63
International Relations (IR), 19, 22, 57, 90, 257, 607, 610, 746, 750, 758
political culture, 56, 63, 96, 415, 429, 440, 557
theories of the state, 52, 54–57
Tocquevillean theory, 39, 50–51, 51, 59–62, 76, 496
Weberian theory, 7, 31, 50–52, 51, 54–55, 58, 62, 174, 186, 502, 604n1, 621
world systems theory, 19, 53–54, 140
(p. 830) political violence, 10, 15, 55, 71, 78, 80, 88, 414–416
al-Qaeda movement, 96, 173, 179, 521
armed rebellion and resistance, 414, 621
assassination, 414, 416, 439
Black Panther Party, 152, 718
Black Power movements, 152, 279
communication goals, 444
culture-dependence, 439
effect of “youth bulge”, 150
EOKA movement (Cyprus), 96
escalation dynamics, 15–16, 96, 441–442
ethnic cleansing/genocide, 191, 601
hijacking, 439
Japanese Red Army, 150
kidnapping, 414, 416, 439
mechanisms and dynamics, 97, 441
mobilization pathways, 443–445
moral disengagement and legitimation of violence, 180
movement rivalries, 442
Northern Ireland, 93–94, 99–100
radicalization, 96, 180, 442, 444
Red Army Faction (Baader-Meinhoff; Germany), 150
Red Brigades (Italy), 96, 150
role of police and security forces, 416–417, 425–436, 442
social movement perspective, 439–448
state reactions, 442
use of torture, 268, 270, 439, 558, 644, 746
violent/non-violent repertoire continuum, 440–441, 447
Weather Underground (USA), 150
poor people’s movements, 720
populism, 20–21, 63, 161, 671–676, 681–692
Latin American, 686–692
top-down leadership and mobilization, 20, 681–682, 684–685, 689–690
power relations/structures, 1, 5, 8, 307, 388, 391–392
asymmetry, 50, 194, 264, 269–270, 273, 441, 610–611
emergence of counter-power, 44, 614–615
hegemons, 141
institutional, 114–116
Marxist conception, 114
multidimensional, 114
pluralistic, 468
power-sharing vs. power concentration, 55–56
reproduction of, 38
practice movements, 18, 348, 567–576
acts of citizenship, 568
appropriation, 569, 572–573, 576n4, 576n5
effects, 574–575
everyday practice, 568
everyday resistance, 346–349, 571–573, 626
goals, 568, 572
land occupation, 75, 79, 385, 569
migrants, 569, 575
norms and legitimation, 573–575
squatting, 75, 201–202, 207–209, 414, 569, 573
transgressive challenge, 568, 571
use of public space, 569
private politics
corporate actors, 20–21
governance of protest, 20
protest cycles, 5, 69, 71, 75–77, 80, 258, 282, 318–320, 687–688, 716
protest patterns, 8, 55, 70, 73–76, 80, 312–315
protest repertoires
bodily gestures, 78, 587
civil disobedience, 151–152, 369–370, 429, 482, 716, 749, 803
conscientious objection, 414
demand and supply of protest, 221–222
electoral protest, 98
flash mobs, 60, 500
hybrid and multi-issue activism, 373
land occupation, 75, 79, 385, 569
military mutiny, 81
rent strikes, 93
road blockades, 78
self-immolation and suicide, 91, 268, 272, 439, 520
sit-ins, 151–152, 414, 431, 471, 500, 504, 506, 749
squatting, 75, 201–202, 207–209, 414, 569, 573
(p. 831)
tax resistance, 77
protest waves, 373, 639, 716–720, 776
public sphere, 23, 173, 345, 670, 746, 758, 769–770, 772, 774, 787
racial politics, 92, 527, 537
anti-apartheid movement, 135, 479, 483, 519, 526, 550, 621, 721, 724
anti-Nazism, 760
anti-racism movements, 35, 163–165, 165, 716, 720
anti-Semitism, 102n16, 479, 484
black power movement, 152, 279
Nazism, 479, 526, 554
white power movement, 524
radical flank effect, 93–94, 457
radicalization, 88, 91, 96, 176, 180–181, 285, 319, 416–418, 442–443, 457, 641, 720, 801
Rastafarianism, 526–527
rationality and rational choice theory, 5, 7, 10–11, 35–37, 41–42, 238, 246–260, 277, 442, 446, 494
collective goods, 247–248
costs, benefits and risks, 224–225, 234, 250–253
incentives, 250–251, 254–256
prisoner’s dilemma, 253–254, 257
strategic action/agency, 11, 35–36, 110, 247, 257–258, 376, 399–401, 620, 625–626
religion/religious movements
anti-gay movements, 517, 523
Aum Shinrikyo movement, 527
Buddhism, 178–179, 627
Christian evangelicalism, 177
Christian schisms, 523–524
Christian values movements, 517
claims-making, 174, 179, 181
cults/sects, 174, 179, 181
de-privatization, 9, 175–176
de-secularization, 175
extremism, 180
fundamentalism 9, 173, 177
global religious identity, 177
globalization and migration effects, 176
identity politics, 177, 179
liberation theology, 173, 178
mass suicide, 520
new religious movements, 173–174
Protestant fundamentalism (USA), 173
radicalization, 88, 91, 96, 176, 180
revivalism, 9–10, 173–182
rise of, 35
sociology of, 9–10, 173–175, 177, 180–182
structural conditions of religiosity, 175–176
syncretism, 527
transnational, 611
voice and exit, 177–182
world-rejecting movements, 520–522, 527
see also Islam/Muslims
repertoires, 14–15, 63, 78, 88, 221, 410–419, 598, 603
arenas of action, 401–403, 411–417
clothing and personal appearance, 413, 550–551, 557
communication, 376–377, 379
gaining public support, 417
identity deployment, 413
innovation, 406, 410
interaction with state authorities, 413–416
intra-movement interaction, 411–412
know-how, 282, 410, 755
performance, 410
selection and change, 410, 413–419
skills, 410
repression, 13, 80, 91, 94, 154, 193, 267–268, 278, 319, 329, 343–346, 554, 619–631
actions of countermovements, 637–638
core dimensions, 635
counterterrorism surveillance, 640–641
functional, 634, 638–641
governance of internal dissent, 19–20, 599, 634–645
institutional, 634, 636–638
outcomes, 644
private security actors, 637–638
scale, 634–636
soft repression, 636
space and zoning techniques, 639–640
(p. 832) repression (cont.)
use of public order law, 640
variations in level and character, 641–644
research methods, 280
anthropology, 6, 17–18, 33, 89, 97, 557, 578–579, 581–584, 587–589
ethnography, 18, 578–589
European Social Survey, 2, 98
interviews, 542–543, 588
life course sociology, 278, 283
life history calendars, 283
participant observation, 578–579, 584, 589
sequence analysis, 283
World Values Survey, 2, 673–674
resource mobilization theory, 5, 8, 35–36, 251, 330–331, 374, 383, 389, 442, 473, 776
central function of state institutions, 108, 120
instrumentality, 224
rationalist assumptions, 116, 246
socioeconomic inequalities, 61
structural approach, 223, 249, 767
revolution, 23, 76, 471, 793–803
class conflict, 796–802
comparative study, 624–625
conceptualization, 615
elite crisis, 798–800
French Revolution, 68, 74, 81, 92, 794–795
Iranian Revolution, 794
Marxist analysis, 794, 796–801
Orange Revolution (Ukraine), 98–99, 550
people power, 624–625
regime change, 472, 686–692, 793–794, 801
revolutionary movements, 23, 147, 456, 471–472, 596, 793, 795–796, 801–803
revolutionary situations, 795–798, 801
Russian Revolution, 82
social movement analysis, 622
social revolution, 793–794, 794, 801
violent vs. non-violent, 795
right to the city, 209–211
rights movements/groups
animal rights activism, 117, 225, 406, 481, 518, 640, 662
campaign for marriage equality, 96, 119, 151
consumer rights, 486–487, 490
gay rights, 16, 112, 115–116, 483, 540
gender equality, 54, 148, 185, 333, 755
housing rights, 208, 210
importance of political recognition, 195
indigenous rights, 193, 585
labor rights, 373, 484, 489–490
migrant rights, 9, 159, 166–168, 327, 559
women’s suffrage movement, 101n4, 111, 329, 342, 716
riots, 15, 139, 251–252, 414, 423–436
caracazo (1989, Venezuela), 687
concept and definitions, 424–427
condemnation and pathologization, 423–424, 429, 431–432
emotional experience, 426, 429–430
English riots (2011), 431–435
escalation, 424, 426, 430–431, 434–435
flash mobs, 60, 500
flashpoint model, 425–426, 429, 431, 436, 642
food riots, 77, 79, 425, 721
ghetto riots (USA, 1960s), 425
Greek riots (2008), 427–431
grievance and injustice, 425–426
intensifiers, 426, 430
issueless, 424
issue-oriented 425
political and social context, 423–425, 427–429, 432–436
race riots, 152
riot ideology, 279, 430–431
role of police and security forces, 416–417, 425–436
symbolic locations, 425
theories of crowd behavior, 251–252, 424
social capital, 39, 61–62, 206, 231–232, 238–240, 301, 501
social media networks, 236, 239–240, 242, 360, 587
social movement communities (SMCs), 294, 340–351 (p. 833)
alternative community structures, 341, 347–351
concept of, 341–343
everyday resistance, 346–349, 571–573, 626
ICT and virtual communities, 341, 346, 349–351
identity formation and maintenance strategies, 342–343, 348–349
imagined communities, 347–351, 367
informal ties, 342, 348
Iranian Green Movement (2009), 345–346
non-Western, 340–1, 343–346
social movement industry, 278, 341
social movement theory
actor-network theory, 389, 586
class analysis, 8–9, 32, 52–54, 133–143, 202, 712, 796–802
comparative analysis, 70–71, 78, 81, 92, 472, 622–625, 686–692
complexity theory, 586
constructivism, 19, 95–96, 187–188, 190–191, 195, 602, 610, 746–747
cultural turn, 56, 89, 92, 121, 264, 521, 581, 767
emotional turn, 36–37, 264
expectancy–value theory, 224–225
mapping the field, 1–23
multi-institutional politics approach, 114–116, 120–121, 147, 149–151
narrative turn, 37
“new social movement” theory, 4–5, 8, 34–35, 54, 110–111, 114, 116, 474, 581, 776
social movements
agents of socialization, 279–280, 286
carriers of historical action, 34
citizen participation, 1–3, 59–62
constraints on defection, 279
critical junctures, 7, 19, 70, 81–82, 687, 796–797
group selection mechanisms, 43–44
incentives to participation, 222, 250–251
individual participation, 10–11, 60–61
progressive, 22
relational dynamics, 88, 624–626
service delivery, 3, 13, 16
variability of rewards, 283–284
working utopias, 38
social movement organizations (SMOs), 2, 22, 61, 74, 112, 221, 223, 285, 291–292, 340, 355, 390, 412, 772–773, 784–787
political parties, 668, 672–674
social network analysis, 89, 235–238, 241–242
social psychology, 10–11, 110, 180, 220, 223–227, 232, 237–239, 278, 285, 399, 455, 629
social theory, 6–7
approaches to social movements, 31–45
communicative action theory, 35
Durkheimian analysis, 33, 36
evolutionary approaches, 42–44
functionalism, 34, 42
macro- vs. micro-structural approaches, 35–45, 45n2
methodological objectivity, 34–5
narrative turn, 7, 40–41
norms and rules in social relations, 39–40
preoccupation with social order 31, 34
social process theory, 34
socialism, 31, 53, 683–684, 720, 739
Solidarity trade union and movement (Poland), 173, 178, 539, 628, 717
squatting, 75, 201–202, 207–209
states
agency of, 7, 404–405, 596
arenas of conflict and collective action, 18, 404–405, 594–605, 619–631
autocracy, 621
binding rule-making, 595–598, 604n1
consent of the governed, 468, 598
corruption, 621–622
global state system, 609–611
globalization and state capacity, 18, 599–603, 613, 721–724
governance of internal dissent, 19–20, 599, 619–631, 634–645
infrastructural power, 598, 712–713
institutional complexity, 597–600
(p. 834) states (cont.)
international institutions, 607–609, 612
legitimacy, 597, 601
manipulation of culture, 601–602
monopoly on the use of legitimate violence, 52, 80, 413, 597, 604n1
political regimes, 596–597, 620–621
security dilemma, 89
sovereignty and national identity, 600–602
state–society ties, 596–597, 602–603
state vulnerability and choice of mobilization forms, 598, 602
territorial reach, 599
totalitarian, 620–621
storytelling, 17, 40–41, 271, 309, 317, 412, 534–536, 538–544
strategy, 399–407
Articulation dilemma, 401
Bystander dilemma, 402
Dirty Hands dilemma, 406
dynamic interactions, 403–404
game theory, 399–401, 404
Innovation dilemma, 406
means, 405–406
Naughty or Nice dilemma, 405
players and goals, 400–401
Shifting Goals dilemma, 401
states as players and arenas, 404–405
strategic action/agency, 11, 35–36, 110, 247, 257–258, 376, 399–401, 620, 625–626
Survival or Success dilemma, 400–401
Today or Tomorrow dilemma, 401
strikes, 8, 16, 55, 69, 73–75, 77, 135–136, 154, 192, 219, 268, 414, 543, 622, 691, 717–718
subaltern groups, 17, 22, 190, 204, 347, 567, 570–571, 583, 744–745
suicide bombing, 86, 445
Tea Party movement (USA), 95, 101n13, 149, 151, 153–154, 156, 526, 676
terrorism
9/11 attacks, 86, 92, 96, 100, 148, 412, 441, 443, 541, 558, 636, 640
counterterrorism measures, 440, 640–641
critical terrorism studies, 443–444
extremism, 96, 180
global, 89
homegrown, 443–444
national security specialists, 89
propaganda by the deed, 444
sarin gas attack (Tokyo, 1995), 527
“war on terror”, 148, 636
transitional justice movement, 272
transnational/global social movements, 385, 602–603, 607–615, 753–764
advocacy, 193, 327, 359, 608, 743–748
elite responses, 611–612
institutional logic, 114, 120, 612, 615
international institutions, 607–609, 612
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), 744, 747–751, 754, 763
local–global networking, 18, 579, 584–586, 588, 614
opportunity structures, 196
political imagination, 614–615
transnational organizing, 14, 120, 201, 233, 271–273
world-historical perspective, 613–614
urban sphere
cities for people vs. cities for profit, 203–204, 209–211
collective consumption, 4, 202
effect of global financial crisis, 204–205
local political contexts, 204–209
LULU (Locally Unwanted Land Use) mobilization, 205–207
new urban policy agenda, 203–204
NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) grievance, 201, 205–207, 630
(p. 835)
opportunity structures, 203–209
politics of place, 200–201
social housing, 210, 713
social mobilization, 10, 200–211
space and contentious politics, 10, 200
subaltern mobilization, 204, 210
urban planning, 10, 201–202, 204–205, 505, 782
urban sociology, 201
urban transformation, 10, 202–211
urbanization, 386
voluntary and non-profit organizations, 3, 16–17, 150, 267, 494–507
citizens’ initiatives, 505–506
civic voluntarism, 61
collaborative activity, 504
cultural contexts, 496–497
implicit politics, 500
participation and motivation, 500–503
politicized aims, 499
social capital, 501
social entrepreneurship, 502–503
social movements as forms of voluntary association, 499–500
vehicles and outcomes of social movements, 495, 503–507
volunteering, 494–499
wars/warfare
American Civil War, 92, 94
asymmetric, 192
automation of, 141
child soldiers, 460
Cold War, 185, 191, 456, 801
effects on social movements and collective action, 80–82, 141
ethno-national, 191–192
First World War, 81, 90, 141, 148, 714, 718
Iraq War, 224, 334, 350, 368, 558, 736
private actors and mercenaries, 141, 637–638
pro-social outcomes, 460–461
Second World War, 58, 71, 118, 140, 148–149, 151, 160, 264, 314, 503–504, 719
South African (Boer) War, 141
Spanish–American War, 141
Vietnam War, 61, 280, 282, 284, 453, 551–553
see also civil war
welfare provision, 3, 21, 137, 140–141, 176, 208, 210, 387, 499, 504–505, 539, 599, 655, 711–724
charities and NGOs, 713
de-commodification, 711–712, 719
effects of neoliberalism, 721–724
fiscal welfare, 713
inequality and poverty, 713
Keynesian, 719–720
private/corporate provision, 713
social insurance, 712, 714
social movement activism, 714–724
universalism, 712
welfare from below and self-help, 208, 348, 718
welfare regimes, 712
world systems theory, 4, 610–611
Zapatismo movement (Mexico), 371, 384, 539, 582, 585–586, 615, 773, 776