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date: 24 May 2019

(p. 1158) (p. 1159) Subject Index

(p. 1158) (p. 1159) Subject Index

∀-correctness 87
abstraction 102–3, 104, 114–15, 120, 932–8
academic prose
co-occurrence patterns 213–14
lexical bundles 203–7
A’ chains, Simpler Syntax 867, 894–8
acoustic phonetics 518–22
acoustic variation 504–8
action-perception cycle 481–3
actions
dot-actions 606
imagined 786
language as 346
vs. objects 114, 498–9
semantic relations 732–4
and sequence organization 176–8
in signed languages 844–5, 851
Transitive CEA constructions 135–42
in verbs 127–8, 244, 412
acoustic phonetics 518–22, 526
acoustic variation 504–7, 513, 523
acoustics-to-articulation mapping 518–20, 522
activation 1002–3
Actor–Undergoer Hierarchy (AUH) 720, 725, 737–8
adaptive approach 44
adaptive function
in communication 56–8
grammar as 50–1
adjacency pairs in conversation analysis 176–8, 181
adjectives 115–16
closed class 71
valency 240
adjunct–complement differentiation 232–3, 241–3
adjuncts in valency relations 233
advanced tongue root (ATR) 536–7, 583
adverbials in relevance theory 658–9
adverbs, closed class 71
affixation 600
category-changing 449–50
cohering and non-cohering 457
derivational 297, 301, 302, 452
effect on verb movement 67
inflectional 450–1
in language acquisition 35, 37
lexical blocking 626–7
ordering 463–4
same category as lexical units 17n
tense suffixes 339
agglutinating languages 334, 462–3
agrammatism 72n, 497, 500
agreement 271–5
subject–verb 387
Aktionsart 716–17
alignment 554, 555–60
alternations 678
ambiguity 161
American functionalism 348
American structural linguistics 21
A’ movement 75–6, 868, 881–2
analogies for describing language 9–10
analysis, definition 290
analysis phase in comprehension 122
analytic language 370–1, 462–3
anaphora 635, 636–9 (see also ellipsis)
frames perspective 813
zero 15, 185–6, 190, 806, 867
anchor position 173–4
Anglocentrism 8–9, 291, 292, 294, 303–4, 838 see also frameworks; metalanguage
annotations, frames approach 798, 799–800, 803, 814
antipassive construction 889–91
(p. 1160) antisymmetry 297–8
Antitopic Exclamative 154
antonymy, frames perspective 811–12
aphasia 51, 475–7, 495–6
Broca’s 475, 480, 495, 500
Wernicke’s 475
appendor questions 189
applicative constructions 891–3
apriorism 288, 291, 303
arbitrariness 59
areal diffusion 912, 917, 920
argument alternations, Simpler Syntax 882–93
argument–complement differentiation 243
argument-flagging patterns 298–9, 301–2
argument structure (a-structure) 155–8, 163–6, 260–2, 264–5, 268–75, 400–1
constructions 124–6, 140–3
articles 569–70, 591 see also bare nominals; bare plurals
vs. bare plurals 586–90
definite 573–9
indefinite 424–6, 584–6
in relevance theory 659
articulation 518–22
Articulatory Phonology 507, 509
articulatory variation 504, 507–8
Ascriptive Subacts in FDG 320, 325, 332, 336–7
aspect, grammatical 197, 229, 656, 781–2
aspectuals in relevance theory 660–1
assimilation, phonological 531–2
a-structure see argument structure
Auditor’s Economy 621 see also neo-Gricean pragmatics
auditory theories of speech perception 514–15
Autolexical Grammar 597
autonomy of syntax 76
autonomy principle 234–5
autosegmental representations 528–30
autosegmental rules 536–8
auxiliaries
fronting 685–8
grammaticalization 417–20, 422
bare argument ellipsis (BAE) 868–73
bare nominals 569–70, 573–7, 580, 586 see also articles
bare output conditions 431–2
bare plurals 581–2 (see also articles)
vs. articles 586–90
bare singulars see bare nominals
Basic Discontinuous Lambek Calculus (BDLC) 83–6
Basic Linguistic Theory 21, 304–7, 308
behavioral experiment 695, 777
best-fit computational model 123, 143
bilingualism in infants 29
binding 612
binding conditions 635–6, 637, 937
Binding Theory 262–8
biolinguistics 439, 441–3, 593
biology
adaptive approach 44
evolution 55–6
innateness 60
relationship with linguistics 8
blending 113
blocking, lexical 626–9
borrowing 465–6
British National Corpus 968–9
Broca’s aphasia 475, 480, 495, 500
Broca’s area 488, 491, 495–6
Brodmann’s area 475
building blocks 66
Cartesian linguistics 439, 446
cartographic approach 21, 65–78
Cartographic Project 435
case functions, distinction 18 see also subjects
case roles 808 see also thematic roles
Categorial Grammar 12, 79–80
Lambek calculus 80–3
discontinuous 83–6
quantifier scope 97–8
semantics 91–7
syntactic structures 86–91
categorial linguistics 20, 663
categorial proof nets 86–91, 96–8
(p. 1161) categorial structures see c-structures
categories 114–16
dependency relations 228
grammatical 113–15, 119, 120
boundaries 15–16
relationship with typological diversity 20–1
infant comprehension 31–2
infant production 33–5
language acquisition, zero derivation 37
lexical vs. functional 17
neurolinguistic processing 498–501
open vs. closed class 71–2
words without 995
categorization 103, 104–5, 117, 120, 414, 699–700, 701–6, 956–9, 962, 967, 988–90
usage-based theory 956–8, 959
category changing 449–50
conversion 453–4
causatives 628–9, 822–3
centrifugal languages vs. centripetal languages 227
change see language change
cheremes in signed languages 844
chunking 955
Church-Turing Thesis 92
classical categories 414
clause structure, Role and Reference Grammar 710–16
clause types in conversation 200–1
closed vs. open class of categories 71–2
coarticulation 504, 510–13, 514, 516–22, 524
coda 516, 532–4, 555 see also moras
code model of communication 647 see also inference
coding 701
coding devices 49–50
coercion 610
cognition 13–14
and grammar 984
and language 694–706
non-linguistic 693
relevance theory 641–3
cognitive capacities, Parallel Architecture 595–6
cognitive code, frameworks 301
cognitive frames 791–4
Cognitive Grammar (CG) 7, 14, 119–20, 151, 601, 608, 1000
in conceptual semantics 106–13
goal of 99–101
as symbolic grammar 113–19
cognitive iconicity, signed languages 846–8
Cognitive Linguistics (CL) 101, 121, 982, 984
conceptual structures 126–8
Embodied Construction Grammar 123, 144–5
experimental semantics 771, 772–4, 775–83
non-literal meaning 783–7
cognitive representation 43, 44–6, 61–2
theory of mind 51–5
cognitive systems, learning 955–6, 964–7, 975–6
Coherence condition 383, 821
coinage see word formation
colour categorizations, linguistic relativity 702–3
combinatoric constructions 158–9
Communicated Contents in FDG 319–20, 321, 332, 333, 336–7
communication 43–4
adaptive function 56–8
context 62–4
grammar in 46–8
non-human 49
pre-grammatical vs. grammatical 50–1
relevance theory 643–9, 650
theory of mind 51–5
comparative linguistics 308–9
Competition Model 490
complement–adjunct differentiation 232–3, 241–3
complement–argument differentiation 243
complements 157, 231
marking 239
Completeness condition 383
Completeness Constraint 736, 740
complex adaptive systems, usage-based theory 977–9
(p. 1162) complex sentences, Role and Reference Grammar 727–35
complex structures 46
complex words 449–50, 454, 456, 461–2, 464, 465, 467
language acquisition 36–7
processing 467–9
complexity and performance 97–8
compliance frames 800–1, 811
composition, semantic 160
compositionality 108, 113, 124–6, 459, 752–4
compounding 452, 457–8, 459, 941–2
in language acquisition 37
comprehension
fluency in 28, 30–1
infants 28–9
computational research 374
computational studies, Role and Reference Grammar 708
computational system 260–8, 272–82, 436
grammatical rules 284–5
language acquisition 282–4
con module in Optimality Theory 552–60
concatenative morphology 452
Conceptual Component of Functional Discourse Grammar 312–13, 314
relationship with Grammatical Component 329–30
Conceptual Metaphor Theory 783
conceptual/procedural distinction 656–7
Conceptual Semantics 16, 106–13, 421, 602–9, 752
Parallel Architecture 602–9
Conceptual Structure 126–8, 604–8, 611–12
conceptualization 106–7, 109–10, 112, 695, 701, 704
conditionals in relevance theory 657–8
configuration 385
configurational languages 379
Configurational Properties in FDG 322–4, 338
conjunction 389
connectionism 485
connexions 226–31, 255–6
conserving effect of frequency 965–6
consonants
CV coarticulation 520–1
shortening 546–7, 564
variation 505–7, 509
voiceless stops 508, 511–12
voicing 551
conspiracies 545
constituency 250, 255–7
vs. dependency 16
Constituent-Context Model (CCM) 680
constituent structure see c-structure
constraining equations for f-structures 388–9
constraints 597
Optimality Theory 569–90
construal phenomena 110, 112, 114
construction analysis 143–4
construction-based model of argument structure 156–8, 164
construction-based model of semantic composition 160
Construction Grammar (CG) 101–2, 147–50, 597, 600, 601, 707
Embodied 7, 122–4, 144–5, 151
constructions 130–5
primitives 128–30
schemas 126–43
frames approach 791, 815
Sign-Based (SBCG)
lexical-class constructions 158–9
origins 150–5
constructional meaning 610
constructional schemas 113, 117–18
constructions 114
as center of linguistic analysis 18
data-oriented parsing (DOP) 677
form–meaning pairs 967–70
frames approach 794, 801n, 805
productivity 966–7
usage-based theory 964
contact, linguistic 465–6
context
in grammatical description 62–4
as mental construct 51–3
words in discourse 103–4
(p. 1163) Contextual Component of Functional Discourse Grammar 312–13, 314, 320, 337
relationship with Grammatical Component 330–1
contextual inflection 455–6, 463
contextual information 31, 644, 649, 650, 655
contextual variables 355–6
contextualism 743–4, 746
Contrast in FDG 335
contrastive valency 249
control 433, 612
in MUC model 491–2
Simpler Syntax 873–7
control argument structure 142–3
control structures 268–71
conventional linguistic units 102, 104–5, 108, 114
conversation
clause types 200–1
co-occurrence patterns 214
lexical bundles 203–7
Conversation Analysis (CA) 13, 167–82 (see also pragmatics)
and language structure 182–90
conversational implicatures 616–24, 627–8, 632–5, 755–6
conversion 453–4 see also zero derivation
co-occurrence patterns 212–14
co-operative principle 616–18, 619, 645–6
coordination 273–5
core and periphery 161–2
corpus-based research 195, 196–201
vs. corpus-driven research 202
corpus data 954
hapaxes 469
phonetics 522
probabilistic linguistics 666–75, 679
corpus-driven research 16, 194, 196, 201–3
frequency evidence 210–11
lexical bundles 203–7
Multi-Dimensional (MD) analysis 212–22
pattern grammar 207–11
corpus linguistics 193–6, 222–3, 788
Correspondence Architecture 374, 399–401
Correspondence Theory 550
cost–benefit procedure 650–2
cross-linguistic approaches see typology
cross-linguistic variation see variation
c-structures 375–8
constraints 384–6
relationship with f-structures 394–9
cultural scripts 837–40
cumulative exponence 451 see also morphology
Curry-Howard semantics 94, 95
Danos-Regnier acyclicity 87
Darwin’s problem 439, 442, 446
data collection in conversation analysis 172
data-oriented parsing (DOP) 666–79, 689–91
language acquisition 680–9
Daughter Dependency Grammar 981
decategorialization 409, 410n, 423n
in grammaticalization 411, 412–13, 422, 424
Declarative Acts 336
decomposition 126
deep semantics 122, 123
deep structures 15, 46, 48
default inheritance 988–90
Default Semantics (DS) 743–6
applications 760–8
compositionality 752–4
future prospects 768–70
interpretations 754–8
merger representations 747–51, 757
default vs. inferential 758–60
definite descriptions 760–3
temporality 763–8
defective words 599
defining equations for f-structures 386–8
definite articles 573–9
degrammaticalization 409
deixis 57, 606
deletion, phonological 536
deontic states 61n
theory of mind 53–5
dependencies 263–5
agreement 271–5
dependency distance 1006
dependency grammar (DG) 16, 225–31, 234–6, 249–55
and constituency 255–7
dependency relations 226–31, 252–4
dependency structures 999–1002
dependency theory 8, 18
derivation 297, 301, 302, 452–4
affix ordering 463
Derivational Uniformity (DU) 867, 868, 894, 896
description of language structure 62–4
goals 99–101
descriptions, definition 289–90
descriptive frameworks see frameworks
desemanticization 410, 411, 412, 422, 424
devoicing 457, 538, 540–2, 551
diachronic approach 55–6 (see also language change)
vs. synchronic approach 21–2, 23
diachronic explanation 309
diachronic variation 22, 409, 465–7, 1004–7 (see also grammaticalization)
individual in adults 975–6
usage-based theory 970–2, 978
dialects 1006
digital signal processing (DSP) 522
Direct Realism 514
Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) 509–10
disambiguation 754
discontinuous Lambek calculus 83–6
Discourse Acts in FDG 314, 318, 321, 329
discourse analysis
corpus-based research 195
lexical bundles 203–7
discourse context words 103–4
discourse functions 381–2
discourse markers 657
discourse pragmatics 710, 722
linking role in Role and Reference Grammar 14
discourse referents 574–8, 585, 588
Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) 576, 633, 724, 752
discourse uniqueness 573–5
discrete approach see categorization
disjunction 389
displaced referents 57–8
displacement of noun phrases 433
distance 777, 778–9, 847–8
articulatory 510, 518–19
in dependencies 612, 1006
metaphors for 786–7
Minimal Distance Principle 433
in reflexives 266–8, 394, 638
distinctive features in phonology 526–35
distributional information in identifying word classes 31–2
Distributional Typology 901–6, 921–3 (see also typology)
case marking 906–9, 916–20
functional and event-based theories 911–13
metalanguages 906–11
methodology 913–16
ditransitive constructions 303–4
DIVA (Directions into Velocities of Articulators) 509–10
domain-generality 954–8
domains
source 785–7, 849
target 197, 786–7, 849
domains of language structure 10–14
boundaries 14–15, 18
in Formal Generative Typology (FGT) 945–8
linguistic meaning in 108, 109, 113
and neurolinguistics 474
Word Grammar architecture 990–3
duality of patterning in signed languages 843–4
duplication problem 546–7, 562–3
dynamic construal 779
dynamic meaning 773, 777–80
dynamicity 106, 777–80
E-language 983, 984, 1005–6
economy 650–2 see also Optimality Theory
(p. 1165) economy constraint 570 see also markedness constraints
economy principles 435, 438
Efficiency Requirement 261, 263–5, 273, 275, 283–4
electromagnetic midsagittal articulometry (EMMA) 513, 520
ellipsis 609, 611 (see also zero anaphora)
Simpler Syntax 868–73
Elsewhere Condition 626, 989
embedded clauses 281
Embodied Construction Grammar 7, 122–4, 144–5, 151
constructions 130–5
primitives 128–30
schemas 126–43
embodied semantics 122, 123
embodiment 107
Emergence of the Unmarked 547
emergentist approach 6, 10, 16, 259–85
Empirical Methods in Cognitive Linguistics (EMCL) workshop 773–4
enactment 122, 777–8, 787
Encoding operation 312, 314, 326, 335
encyclopedic knowledge 792–7
encyclopedic meaning 773, 780–1
endocentricity 226, 252, 385, 711, 714, 741
epenthesis 538, 542, 550–1
Episodes in FDG 321–2, 337–8
episodic memory 45, 52–3 see also memory representations
epistemic states 61n, 62
theory of mind 51–3, 54
epistemology 59
erosion in grammaticalization 411, 413–14, 416, 425
ethnocentrism 837–8 see also Anglocentrism; frameworks; metalanguage
ethnomethodology 169
ethnosyntax 837
European functionalism 348–9
Eval module in Optimality Theory 548–9
event-based theories 911–12, 918, 920
event-related potentials (ERPs) 477–8, 486–7, 495
event structure relations 807
evoking structures 128
evolution
in communication 56–8
of grammar 48–9, 61–2
of language 55–6, 603, 613
evolutionary perspectives 24–5
exclamatory constructions 163
executing networks (x-nets) 122
exemplar models
of speech production 510
usage-based theory 958–9
Exemplar Theory 678, 690
existential equations for f-structures 389
exocentric structures 385
experimental analysis 19
experimental manipulation 774, 776
experimental methods 40, 783
experimental phonetics 503–4, 522–4
experimental semantics 771–6, 787–9
dynamic meaning 773, 777–80
encyclopedic meaning 773, 780–1
non-literal meaning 783–7
perspectival meaning 773, 774–5, 776–7
usage-based meaning 773, 781–3
explanations, internal vs. external 23–4
explanatory adequacy 431
explicatures 652–6
extended argument dependency model (eADM) 485
Extended Coherence Condition 381, 392
Extended Projection Principle 946
extension 103, 105, 114, 140–3, 569, 852, 857
in grammaticalization 410, 411–12
extrinsic ordering 537–8
eye movement studies 492, 516–17, 779, 780–1
faithfulness constraints 552–4, 562, 563, 571–90
Family Bias Method 914–16, 920, 921
Fdef constraints 573–90 see also faithfulness constraints
f-description 386, 390, 393, 396–7, 402
Fdr constraints 575–80 see also faithfulness constraints
(p. 1166) feature geometry 532
feature matrices 527–9
features, phonological 507, 532, 933
fictive motion 778–80, 785–6
and metaphory 112, 119
and neuroscience 788
field linguistics 293
filler 128, 130, 132, 139, 143, 805
filler-gap dependencies 281, 301, 392
filler syllables 34, 103
Final-Over-Final Constraint 904
First Order Projection Condition 942
Fluid Construction Grammar 151
focal attention 52
focal heads 77
Focus in FDG 332–3
focus structure 722–4
Formal Generative Typology (FGT) 925–7, 938–45
evidence 949–50
explanations 948–9
linguistic domains 945–8
universals 927–38
formalist approach see generative linguistics
formants of vowels 504–5
form vs. function 101, 347
combined in Functional Discourse Grammar 315–16
form–meaning correspondence 449, 467, 967–70
forms and functions in language acquisition 37–40, 42
Formulation operation 312, 314, 317
Fpl constraint 571–90 see also faithfulness constraints
fragments 666–8, 675, 678
frame elements (FEs) 801–12
frame semantics 794–816, 1001
FrameNet Projects 798–804, 806, 813–14
framework-free grammatical theory 287–8, 290–4, 307–10
and Basic Linguistic Theory 304–7, 308
disadvantages 294–5
frameworks 288–9 (see also Anglocentrism; metalanguage)
functional 303–4
restrictive 295–303
Freedom of Analysis 551
frequency effects 468, 663–4, 667–8, 678
usage-based theory 964–7, 972–4
f-structures 375–7, 378–83, 385, 402
constraints 386–94, 569–70
relationship with c-structures 394–9
functional architecture of clauses and phrases 66, 67
functional categories in LFG 378
vs. lexical categories 17
functional control 379–81
functional description see f-description
Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) 7, 14, 18, 311–16
dynamic variation 342–3
levels of Grammatical Component 316–29, 331–5, 339–40
relationships between components 329–31
functional elements, inventory 70–2
functional explanations 300, 309
functional frameworks, disadvantages 303–4
Functional Generative Description 999
Functional Grammar (FG) 303–4
functionalist approach 315
external explanations 23
vs. Formal Generative Typology 932–3, 938–9
vs. generativist approach 4–5, 6–8
functional linguistics 347–9
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 478–9, 787–8
functional projections 68–70, 72
functional structure see f-structure
functional theories 101, 911–13, 918, 920
function vs. form 101, 347
combined in Functional Discourse Grammar 315–16
in language acquisition 37–40, 42
FunctN constraint 569–90 see also markedness constraints
fusional languages 334, 462–3
(p. 1167) Galilean style 440–3, 446
garden path sentences 495
Geach rule 81
geminates, rules 546–7, 562–3
Gen module in Optimality Theory 550–2
generalizations 807, 903–4
cross-linguistic 20
statistical 904–6
Generalized Alignment 554, 555–6
Generalized Conversational Implicatures (GCIs) 617, 632–3, 755–6 see also conversational implicatures
generalized linear model (GLM) 920
Generalized Phrase structure Grammar (GPSG) 384, 707
generative grammar 772
generative linguistics 296, 300, 307–9, 373, 431, 437 (see also Formal Generative Typology; Lexical-Functional Grammar)
vs. functionalist approach 4–5, 6–8
internal explanations 23
genericity 586–90
gestural communication 788
gestural overlap 511–12, 520
gestural theories of speech perception 515
gesture–signed language interface 853–63
Glue Semantics 14, 400, 401 see also syntax–semantics interface
Golden Age of Pure Pragmatics (GAPP) 631
government 252
Government and Binding Theory 480
gradience 663
usage-based theory 962–4
grammar (see also syntax)
as adaptive function 50–1
and cognition 984
in conversation analysis 183–90
description of language 62–4
evolution 48–9, 61–2
function 46–8
linguistic relativity 704–5
multi-propositional 58
neurology 60
in relevance theory 656–61
of semantic primes 830–3
as structure 49–50
theory of mind 51–5
grammar analysis
corpus-based research 195
corpus-driven research 202
framework-free 287–8, 290–4, 307–10
and Basic Linguistic Theory 304–7, 308
disadvantages 294–5
pattern grammar 207–11
grammar–lexis interface 17, 211, 355, 357
grammar universals see Universal Grammar; universals
grammatical architecture of LFG 374
grammatical categories 113–15, 119, 120
boundaries 15–16
relationship with typological diversity 20–1
Grammatical Component of FDG 312–13
relationship with Conceptual Component 329–30
relationship with Contextual Component 330–1
relationship with Output Component 331
grammatical constructions 147–50 see also Construction Grammar
grammatical function tier (GF-tier) 612
grammatical functions (GFs) 379–83, 866, 879, 882–90
grammatical metaphor 359, 365, 369, 372
grammatical polysemy 837 see also polysemy
grammatical relations, Role and Reference Grammar 724–7
grammatical rules 284–5
grammatical units vs. lexical units 117
grammaticality judgments 677–8
grammaticalization 16, 17, 426–8, 465 (see also language change)
auxiliaries 417–20, 422
linguistic typology 423–6
parameters 410–17
signed languages 853–4, 862
taxonomy 421–3
theory 407–10
(p. 1168) usage-based theory 954, 963–4, 973–4, 978
Gricean pragmatics
classical 615, 616–18, 633, 645–6
lexical 624–30
semantic 630–5
syntax 635–9
grounding 116n
hapaxes 469
Harmonic Alignment 556–60
Harmonic Ascent 553n
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 12, 149, 153, 383, 402, 601, 896, 1000
head movement 74, 385–6
heads
focal 77
topic 75, 77
hierarchical organization of domains of language structure 14
hierarchy, universals 76–8
historical adequacy (viability) 248–9
homonyms, networks 986–8
Hornian pragmatics 620–1
hypersequent calculus 84–6
Hypotactic Apposition 158
iconicity, signed languages 846–8
ideophones 334, 338
idiomatic constructions 160–1, 170, 454, 784, 968
lexical bundles 204
in the lexicon 599
representation in memory 959–61
syntactic 600–1
valency theory 244
WXDY? 970–1
I-language 983–4, 1005–6
I-society 1004
Illocutions in FDG 318–19
imperfective aspect 117, 781–3, 829
implicatures 609, 644, 652–6, 745–6, 755–6
Incredulity Response constructions 162
indefinite articles 424–6, 584–6
inflection 450–1, 454–7
affix ordering 463
outside derivation 297, 301, 302
Inflectional Phrase (IP), splitting 66
information structure see i-structure
inherent inflection 455–6, 463
inheritance 988–90, 994
inheritance hierarchies 149, 153, 162–3
innateness 59–60 (see also universals)
as a framework 291, 296, 300
insertion, phonological 536
instantiation 351–3
intention 642, 645–9
interaction, social 167–82
Interclausal Semantic Relations 732–5
interface constraints 554
Interface Uniformity (IU) 867–8, 874, 881, 894
intergestural timing 512
Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 317–20, 336–7, 341–3
relationship with Morphosyntactic Level 332–3
relationship with Phonological Level 333
relationship with Representational Level 332
intersubjectivity 102, 104, 171
intonation in signed languages 861, 862–3
intonational marking 335
Intonational Phrase in FDG 327–8, 340–1
intransitivity 302
inversion 185, 518–19, 680
linear 689
locative 155–6
subject and auxiliary 39, 154
I-principle 623, 625, 628 see also neo-Gricean pragmatics
is a relation 982, 987–8, 990–1, 993–5
Island Conditions 937–8, 944
i-structure 400
Role and Reference Grammar 722–4, 726
(p. 1169) joint attention 57
junction in dependency grammar 229
Just Because construction 157–8
Kleene operators 384, 391
knowledge
language as 347
as a network 985
usage-based theory 955–6
vs. use of language 6
lambda calculus, types 92–5
Lambek calculus 80–3
discontinuous 83–6
landmarks 1000
language, accounts 99–101
language acquisition 24, 27–8, 282–4
comprehension 30–2
vs. production 41–2
forms and functions 37–40, 42
grammar in 48–9
identification of word classes 31–2
innateness 59–60
linguistic relativity 701–2
perception of different units 28–9
phonetic 523
probabilistic linguistics 679–89
production
vs. comprehension 41–2
complex word structure 36–7
dependent on typology 35–6, 37
lexical 33–5, 37–40
morphological 33, 34–5, 37
new word formation 37
phonological 32–3
pragmatic 35
semantics 37–40, 42
units 40–1
representations in memory 29–30
spontaneous repairs 29–30
units 40–1
Universal Grammar 928–30, 936
universality 430–2
usage-based theory 954, 969–70, 975–6
Word Grammar 1002–3
language change 22, 409, 465–7, 1004–7 (see also grammaticalization)
individual in adults 975–6
usage-based theory 970–2, 978
language classification 462–3
language contact 465–6
language evolution 55–6, 603, 613
language faculty (FL) 430–2, 438, 444–6
language typology 315–16
language use, corpus-based research 196–201
language variation 194, 195, 280–2
Last Resort principle 433, 435
learnability 563–4
learning, adults 955–6, 975–6
Least Effort principle 433, 436
Left Branch Condition 392
Levinsonian pragmatics 622–4
lexemes
in dependency grammar 234–5
different forms of the same 450
in valency theory 238, 249
lexical analysis, pattern grammar 207–11
lexical blocking 626–9
lexical bundles 202–7
in corpus data 16
lexical categories vs. functional categories 17
lexical-class constructions 158–9
lexical decision task, priming effects 499
lexical decomposition 716–18
Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 5n, 11, 12, 14, 373–5, 402–3, 597, 707
computational work 401–2
Correspondence Architecture 399–401
data-oriented parsing 675–7
Optimality-Theoretic (OT-LFG) 401
relationships between structures 394–9
structures 383–94
syntactic structures 375–83
Lexical Integrity principle 377, 460–1
lexical items, internal syntactic structure 599
lexicalization 409, 465 see also grammaticalization
lexicalization asymmetry 629–30
Lexical Mapping Theory 377, 379
(p. 1170) lexical meanings 107–8
lexical morphology 996
lexical narrowing 624–5
lexical pragmatics 624–30
lexical projection 66
lexical semantics 47, 818, 821–4
frames approach 808, 810, 811
lexical sharing theory 400
lexical strings, Lambek calculus 82–6
lexical units (LUs) 799–811
vs. grammatical units 117
lexicon 454
emphasis in categorial grammar 79
grammar in 12
Optimality Theory 562–3
Parallel Architecture 598–602
psycholinguistic research 468
Word Grammar 991
lexis–grammar interface 17, 211, 355, 357
lexocentric structures 385
Linear Correspondence Axiom 73, 434–5
linear order 611 (see also word order)
approaches 18–19
Linguistic Expressions in FDG 324–5
linguistic relativity 693–706
linguistic units 991
usage-based theory 962
linking system 708
Role and Reference Grammar 735–9
literality 769 see also meaning, non-literal
local simplicity 75
logical form (LF) 594
logical operators 629–30
logistic regression model 665–6
logogenesis 353–4
logophoricity 638
Long Term Memory (LTM) 492, 495 see also working memory
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English corpus 196, 197, 203–4
macroroles see semantic roles
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 478–9, 517
mainstream generative grammar (MGG) 865, 866–7, 873, 881, 887, 896
mapping functions, between c-structures and f-structures 395–9
markedness constraints 552, 553–4, 562, 563, 569–90
markedness reversal, Optimality Theory 580–6
Meaning-Text Model 999
meaning (see also semantics)
characterizations 773
in language acquisition 37–40, 42
non-literal 783–7
MEG (magnetoencephalography) 478–9, 517
memory representations 45–6, 52–3, 958, 959–61, 965
Memory, Unification, Control (MUC) model 489–92
mental lexicon 45, 47, 52
non-human 49
mental representation 43, 44–6, 61–2
theory of mind 51–5
mental simulation 122, 777–8, 787
Merge 73, 434, 601–2
merger representations (∑) 747–51, 757
compositionality 752–4
default vs. inferential 758–60
definite descriptions 760–3
temporality 763–8
metafunction in SFL 354–6, 359–72
metalanguage 906–11 (see also frameworks; Natural Semantic Metalanguage)
as framework 291, 296
metaphors 107, 108, 112–13, 783–7
of anger 784
of ideas 783–4, 786, 849–50, 852
signed languages 848–51
of social distance 786
of time 784–5
methodology, experimental semantics 774–5
metonymy, signed languages 848, 851–3
micro valency 247–8
Middle Way 939–44
Minimal Distance Principle 433
(p. 1171) Minimalist Program 13, 429, 431–40, 444–7, 593–4, 610, 894, 927
and the cartographic approach 73–6
Galilean style 440–3
neurolinguistics 480–2
Mirror Principle 67, 434
modality, epistemic and deontic 658
model languages 707–8
Montague rule 81
mood in relevance theory 659
MOOD system 360, 362–5
moras 530n, 532–4 see also coda
Morpheme Structure Constraints 546–7
morphemes 450
in a lexicon 599–600
meaning 992
meaningless (“cranberry” morphs) 962–3
morphological classification 462–3
morphological erosion 413
morphological productivity 466–7, 469–70
morphological research, typology databases 470–1
morphological structure (m-structure) 14, 400–1
morphology 11–12, 314, 449–51
c-structures 377
as conceptual center of linguistics 14–15
as Morphosyntactic Level in FDG 324–6
Parallel Architecture 600
production in infants 33, 34–5, 37
rational 439–40
Word Grammar 992–3, 995–9
morphology–phonology interface 457–8, 997–8
morphology–semantic interface 458–60
morphology–syntax interface 11, 14, 460–2, 996–7
Formal Generative Typology (FGT) 945–7
Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 324–6, 338
relationship with Interpersonal Level 332–3
relationship with Phonological Level 335
relationship with Representational Level 333–4, 339–40
motion
descriptions of 778
fictive see fictive motion
motion events, linguistic relativity 704 see also space
Motor Theory 514
mouse-tracking studies 781–2
Move in FDG 318, 329, 336
movement 75–6
head 74
Simpler Syntax 881–98
verbs 66–7
M-principle 623–4, 628 see also neo-Gricean pragmatics
M-transitivity in Role and Reference Grammar 720–1
Multi-Dimensional (MD) analysis 212–22
multi-dimensional valency 241–3
multi-propositional discourse 47–8, 58
multiple inheritance 988–90, 994
Multivariate Typology 907, 909–11, 921
music 595–6
mutual manifestness 649, 655
N400 477–8, 479, 485, 496
narrative discourse, Multi-Dimensional analysis 220–1
nasalization 511, 516–17
as distinctive feature 526, 531
natural deduction proof 92
natural language, signed languages as 843–4
Natural Phonology theory 563
Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 15, 817–41
negation 389
frames perspective 811–12
negative equations for f-structures 389–90
neo-Gricean pragmatics 615, 618–24, 840
lexical 624–30
semantic 630–5
syntax 635–9
networks 985–8
usage-based theory 959–61
Neural Theory of Language (NTL) approach 121–3, 144–5
(p. 1172) Neurocognitive Linguistics 985
neurolinguistics 60, 473–4, 595, 697–8, 787–8
aphasia 51, 475–7, 480, 495–6, 500
brain imaging 477–80
cognitive representational system 45–6
frameworks 480–94
linguistic category processing 498–501
research 19
Role and Reference Grammar 708
speech perception 517–18
syntax–semantics interface 494–8
theory of mind 61–2
node creation 1002–3
Nominal Extraposition 157
nominalization 449–50, 469–70
processes 323–4
same category as lexical nouns 17n
non-apriorism 288, 291, 303
non-communicative behaviour 5
non-concatenative morphology 452–3
non-humans, semantic memory 49
non-linear relations in speech 520
non-verbal communication 57
noun phrases, displacement 433
nouns 114–15
open class 71
processing 498–501
same category as nominalizing suffixes 17n
valency 240
Nuclear Syllables in stress languages 328
null elements, treatment of 15
null instantiation 805–6
null subjects 15, 185–6, 190, 806, 867 see also ellipsis
number perception, linguistic relativity 705
object dislocation 942–3, 947
object–subject distinction 18
objects vs. actions 114, 498–9
ontogenesis 55, 353–4
ontological system 606
open vs. closed class of categories 71–2
Optimality-Theoretic Lexical-Functional Grammar (OT-LFG) 401
Optimality Theory (OT) 525, 532, 545, 547, 590–2
architecture 548–60
constraints 569–90
disadvantages 298–9, 302
learnability 563–4
lexicon 562–3
markedness reversal 580–6
typology 560–2, 568–80
variation 564–6
Output Component of Functional Discourse Grammar 312–13, 314, 327, 328
relationship with Grammatical Component 331
overall structural organization 173–4
overlap model 414–18, 422, 424–5
Pāṇinian approach to typology 902–4, 922
paradigms, noun and verb 34–5, 40
Parallel Architecture (PA) 593–7
Conceptual Semantics 602–9
lexicon 598–602
Simpler Syntax 609–13
Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project 401
Parallel Projection Architecture see Correspondence Architecture
Parallel Semantics (ParSem) project 401–2
paraphrasing 818–19, 820–1
Partially Ordered Grammars 564–5
passive constructions 141–2, 149, 376, 884–9
approaches 18
Patient role 125
pattern grammar 207–11
PCIs (particularized conversational implicatures) 617, 632–3 see also conversational implicatures
perceptual constancy 513–14
perfective aspect 781–3, 829, 853
periphery and core 161–2
perspectival meaning 773, 774–5, 776–7
PET (positron emission tomography) 478–9
phonemes, representation 526–35
(p. 1173) phonetic erosion 413–14
phonetic form (PF) 594
phonetics 11
acoustic 518–22
experimental 19, 503–4, 522–4
speech perception 513–18
speech production 508–13
variation 504–8
phonetic segments 182, 508, 526–8, 536–8, 554–7, 560
phonetic transcription 539–40
phonological change 504, 515, 523–4, 965, 977
phonological deletion 536
phonological features 507, 532, 933
Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 326–9, 339–42
relationship with Interpersonal Level 333
relationship with Morphosyntactic Level 335
relationship with Representational Level 334
phonological rules 545–7
phonological structure (p-structure) 400
phonological theory 564–6
Phonological Words in FDG 328–9, 341
phonology 11, 314, 525–6
articulatory 507, 509
distinctive features 526–35
methods of analysis 538–43
as Phonological Level in FDG 326–9
pluralization 599–600
processes 535–8
production in infants 32–3
in signed languages 844–5
Word Grammar 991–2
phonology–morphology interface 457–8, 997–8
phrasal categories 16
phrase structure rules 297, 384–6
phrase structure trees 384 see also c-structures
Phrases in FDG 324–6
phylogenesis 353–4
pidgins, pre-grammatical communication 50–1
pied-piping 84
Plato’s problem 437, 446
pluralization 538, 542, 570–90 (see also singular/plural distinctions)
genericity 586–90
markedness 581–4
phonology 599–600
polar type tree 86
polysemy 820–1, 822–3, 837
frames perspective 810–11
of verbs 244–5
polysynthetic languages 35, 334, 371, 950
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 478–9
Poverty of the Stimulus 430, 685–6
Praat 522
pragmatic compositionality 752–4
pragmatic conditions 35, 164
pragmatics 13, 314
Gricean see Gricean pragmatics
Hornian 620–1
infant production 35
as Interpersonal Level in FDG 317–20
Levinsonian 622–4
lexical 624–30
linking role in Role and Reference Grammar 14
reflexive pronouns 267
relevance theory 641–62
truth-conditional 752–3
pragmatics–semantics interface 12–13, 630–5, 649–50
Parallel Architecture 605
pragmatics–syntax interface 635–9
Formal Generative Typology (FGT) 947–8
Prague School 348–9
predicate–argument relations 379
prepositions 115–16
in valency relations 233
presumptive meaning, theory of 632–3
primary meanings (pms) 745–6, 749–51, 769
compositionality 752–4
primates 603
priming effects 499, 1002
principle of syntactic autonomy 231
principle of viability 248–9
(p. 1174) Principles and Parameters (P&P) model 20, 165, 260, 383, 402, 430–2, 436, 925
privative features 526–7
privileged syntactic arguments (PSAs) 724–7
Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar (PCFG) 664–6
probabilistic linguistics 6, 7, 16, 20, 663–91
probability theory 664
procedural/conceptual distinction 656–7
processing, computational system 277–80
processing model in Default Semantics 749–50
processing theory 1002
production (see also language acquisition, production)
exemplar model 510
Quantal theory 507, 519
source–filter theory 518
speech 508–13
productive units 675–7, 679
productivity 466–7, 469–70, 966–7
proferring an insertable element (PIE) 188
pronominals 382–3
pronouns
binding 265–6
reflexive 278, 280–1, 284
reflexive, binding 262–5, 266–8
proof nets 86–91, 96–8
proof structure 87
proof tree, natural deduction 92
Propositional Contents in FDG 321, 337
propositional information 47–8
prosody 103, 341
in FDG 327
French types 362
in infant production 32–3
in phonology–morphology interface 457–8
processing 488
role in affix ordering 464
in signed languages 859–61, 862–3
prototypes 833–6, 957, 988 see also categorization
p-structure 400
psycholinguistics 278, 695, 697–701
lexicon 598
research 467–9
Word Grammar 1006
Q-principle 620–3, 625, 632, 637 see also neo-Gricean pragmatics
Quantal Theory of speech production and perception 507, 519
quantifier scope 97–8
quantitative sociolinguistics 194
questions
appendor 189
missing answers 176–8
negative 160
R-principle see Hornian pragmatics
radical construction grammar 7
raising, Simpler Syntax 873–80, 889
rationalism 437–40
reanalysis 409 see also language change
recurring units, recognition in infants 28–9
reducing effect of frequency 964–5
reduplication 452
REF-REC categories 415–17, 425n
referential coherence 52
referential dependencies 269–71, 278–9
Referential Subacts in FDG 320, 325, 336
referents, displaced 57–8
reflexive pronouns 278, 280–1, 284, 416
binding 262–5, 266–8
regent see heads
register variation 211–22
related disciplines 8
relatedness between languages 913–14
Relational Grammar 376, 402
relational networks 376 see also f-structures
relative clauses 835–6
relativity (linguistic) 21, 693–706
Relativized Minimality 74
Relevance Theory 619–20n, 633, 641–62
repair in conversation 171, 177–81, 184–5
repair organization 177–81
repetition of activities 955, 956, 964–7
(p. 1175) Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 320–4, 337–9, 342–3
relationship with Interpersonal Level 332
relationship with Morphosyntactic Level 333–4, 339–40
relationship with Phonological Level 334
representations, adult-based 29–30
resource, language as 346–7 see also functional linguistics
restrictive frameworks, disadvantages 295–303
rewrite rules 535–6, 537
Richness of the Base 562–3
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) 7, 12, 14, 303–4, 315, 376n, 597, 707–10, 741
complex sentences 727–35
grammatical relations 724–7
information structure 722–4, 726
neurolinguistics in 480
semantic representation 716–22
syntactic representation 710–16
syntax–semantics interface 708, 709, 735–40
roots 451
rule, language as 346–7 see also formal linguistics
SAI constructions see subject–auxiliary inversion
SALSA Project 814
Sapir–Whorf hypothesis 694
schemas 126–43, 450, 454, 499
knowledge 792–7
motion 129–30
in neurolinguistics 483–4, 485
perception 483
schema theory 474, 483–4, 490
scope 110–11, 120
scope-discourse properties 75
second language acquisition, natural 49
secondary meanings (sms) 749–51
semantic approaches 347–8
semantic bleaching see desemanticization
semantic conditions 164
semantic forms 382
semantic memory 45, 47, 52
non-human 49
semantic molecules 822, 824–6
semantic networks 151
semantic phonology in signed languages 845
semantic primes 817–18, 819–24, 830–3, 841
semantic relations, interclausal 732–5
semantic representation, Role and Reference Grammar 716–22
semantic roles 719–22, 802, 803, 808
of verbs 124–6
Semantic Specification (semspec) 122, 129
semantic structure 400
semantic templates 826–30
semantic violations 477, 479–80
semantics 12, 314 (see also Default Semantics; functions)
categorial 91–7
experimental 19, 771–6, 787–9
dynamic meaning 773, 777–80
encyclopedic meaning 773, 780–1
non-literal meaning 783–7
perspectival meaning 773, 774–5, 776–7
usage-based meaning 773, 781–3
frames approach 791–816
language acquisition 37–40, 42
linguistic relativity 696
linking role in Systemic Functional Grammar 14
pattern grammar 207–11
processing 492–4
projects 401–2
as Representational Level in FDG 320–4
Word Grammar 1001–2
semantics–morphology interface 458–60
semantics–pragmatics interface 12–13, 630–5, 649–50
Parallel Architecture 605
semantics–syntax interface 14, 867 (see also Glue Semantics)
in neurolinguistics 494–8
Parallel Architecture 609–13
Role and Reference Grammar 708, 709, 735–40
(p. 1176) semspec (Semantic Specification) 122, 129
sentence processing, models of 484–98
sentences, compositional analysis 125
Sentential Subject Constraints 391
sequences
discourse 103
frequency 965–6
hierarchical 66, 73, 77
lexical bundles as 16, 202–7
morphological 464
multiword 959–61
organization 176–8, 181–2
phonological 331, 506–7, 509, 515–16, 521
recurring 27–9
segmentation 41, 327, 533
syntactic 209–10, 498
sequent calculus 82, 91–2
short-term memory see working memory
Sign-Based Construction Grammar (SBCG) 164–6
lexical-class constructions 158–9
origins 150–5
signed languages 843–5
grammaticalization 853–4, 862
iconicity 846–8
metaphors 848–51
metonymy 848, 851–3
typology 845–6
signed languages–gestures interface 853–63
Simpler Syntax (SS) 315, 494, 865–8, 899
A’ chains 867, 894–8
control and raising 873–80, 889
ellipsis 868–73
movement 881–98
Parallel Architecture 609–13
Simpler Syntax Hypothesis (SSH) 865
simple structures 15, 46, 48
simulation, mental 122
simulation semantics 123, 139
singular, bare see bare nominals
singular/plural distinctions 568, 569, 570–1, 574, 577–86 see also pluralization
sluicing 870–1
social rules in interaction 167–82
sociolinguistics 22–3, 984
grammaticalization 427–8
quantitative 194
relevance theory 661–2
Role and Reference Grammar 709
Word Grammar 1003–4
sonority of syllable nuclei 556–60
sound change 504, 515, 523–4, 965, 977
Sound Pattern of English (SPE) model 527–8, 535–8, 563
source–filter theory of speech
production 518
space
and social distance 786
and time 590, 704, 784, 1004–7
spatial language 781
spatial metaphor 784–6
spatial reference, linguistic relativity 703–4
Spatial Structure 603–4, 608
spatio-temporally displaced referents 57
SPE see Sound Pattern of English model
Speaker’s Economy 621 see also neo-Gricean pragmatics
speech acts
declarative 57–8
theory of mind 53–5
speech management 103–4
speech perception 513–18
speech production 508–13
spreading, phonological 536
Square of Opposition 629
States-of-Affairs in FDG 322, 336, 337, 338
statistical approach see probabilistic linguistics
statistical generalizations 904–6
stemma see tree structures
stems 451
stratification 350–3
Stratificational Grammar 597, 982
stress see prosody
stress languages 328–9
strings, Lambek calculus 82–6
strong minimalist thesis 431–7, 438
Stroop task 492
structuralism 8, 44, 59, 291–2, 293, 985
(p. 1177) structural syntax theory see dependency grammar
Structural Uniformity (SU) 866–7
structural valency realization 246–8
structures
of complex words, language acquisition 36–7
differentiation between languages 100
distribution 20
grammar as 49–50
sociolinguistic effects 22–3
syntactic 86–91
treatment of 15–16, 46
subcategorization 8, 252 see also valency
subject–auxiliary inversion (SAI) 154–5, 163
subject–object distinction 18
subjects
covert 269
Extended Projection Principle 946
focus 722–4
null 15, 185–6, 190, 806, 867 see also ellipsis
universality assumption 708
subject–verb agreement 387
subordination 728–31
substitutability condition 821–2
suppletion 456
Swadesh list 539
syllabification 457
syllables 533–5 (see also weight)
sonority 556–60
structure 551
symbolic structures 103, 113–19, 120
syncategorematic words 995
synchronic approach vs. diachronic approach 21–2, 23
synchronic variation see variation
synonymy
condition 626–7
frames perspective 812–13
networks 986–8
syntactic constraint 757–8
syntactic priming 678
syntactic relations, constituency vs. dependency 16
syntactic representation, Role and Reference Grammar 710–16
syntactic structures 46, 86–91
cartographic approach 65–78
in LFG 375–83
syntactic violations 477
syntactocentric architecture 594–6
syntax 11, 314, 315 (see also grammar)
autonomy 9, 76, 231, 234
construction-based 147–50, 159–61, 165
in conversation analysis 183–90
emergentist approach 259–60
idiomatic constructions 600–1
minimalist 433–4, 436
minimalist program 444
as Morphosyntactic Level in FDG 324–6
processing 489–92
Word Grammar 999–1000
syntax–morphology interface 11, 14, 460–2, 996–7
Formal Generative Typology (FGT) 945–7
syntax–pragmatics interface 635–9
Formal Generative Typology (FGT) 947–8
syntax–semantics interface 14, 867 (see also Glue Semantics)
in neurolinguistics 494–8
Parallel Architecture 609–13
Role and Reference Grammar 708, 709, 735–40
system 351
systematic relations 807
systemic dimension in SFL 356–8
Systemic Functional (SF) Grammar 14, 346, 359–72
Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) 315, 345–6
logogenesis, phylogenesis and ontogenesis 353–4
metafunctional analysis 354–6, 359–72
stratification and instantiation 350–3
systemic dimension 356–8
Systemic Grammar 349, 981–2
taxonomies 149, 153
grammatical 421–3
Template Construction Grammar (TCG) 493, 495, 496–7, 502
(p. 1178) templates for describing language 8–9
temporal metaphor 784–6
temporal reference
linguistic relativity 704
merger representations 763–8
tense in relevance theory 660
terminology, varied across approaches 7–8, 17–19
thematic roles 75, 379, 486–7, 719, 808, 867, 878, 881
Theme role 125
THEME system 360, 369–72
theoretical frameworks see frameworks
theory
definitions 289
event-based 918, 920
theory of mind 51–5, 61–2
tiers 608, 612, 866
tonal 529
tonal marking 453
tone languages 328
distinctive features 528–30
moras 532–3
tone-bearing units (TBUs) see moras
top-down process in Functional Discourse Grammar 313–14
topic heads 75, 77
Trace-Deletion Hypothesis 480
TRACE model 517
transcription conventions 169n
transfer in dependency grammar 229–30
Transfer Semantics 402
transformational grammar 148
transformed structures 46
TRANSITIVITY system 360, 361, 365–9
tree structures 10, 148, 151, 597
dependency 226–31, 250–7
language acquisition 680–4, 687–9
Merge 434
probabilistic linguistics 667–75
valency theory (VT) 231–4
Tree-Substitution Grammar (TSG) 690
truth conditions 744, 752–3
turn constructional units (TCUs) 174–5, 178–9, 184, 186
turn-taking in conversation 169–76, 178–82
grammatical rules 183–90
typed lambda calculus 92–5
type frequency 469, 966–7 see also frequency effects
type-logical grammar 95–7
types 79–80
Lambek calculus 80–3
type-shift, laws of 81–3
typological adequacy 234, 246, 248
typological diversity 20–1
typology 308–9, 547, 921–3
approaches 901–6
case marking 906–9, 916–20
databases 470–1
distributional see Distributional Typology
diversity and universals 58–9
formal generative (FGT) 925–7, 938–45
evidence 949–50
explanations 948–9
linguistic domains 945–8
universals 927–38
functional and event-based theories 911–13
grammaticalization 423–6
influence on language acquisition 35–6, 37
metalanguages 906–11
methodology 913–16
multivariate 20, 907–10, 916, 921
Optimality Theory (OT) 560–2, 568–80
Pāṇinian approach 902–4, 922
privileged syntactic arguments (PSAs) 724–7
semantic 833–6
signed languages 845–6
sonority of syllable nuclei 558–60
variation 68–9
word order 72–3
ultrasound imaging 506, 513–14
underdeterminacy thesis 648
underspecification 527
understanding check 170–1, 180–1, 189–90
unidirectionality 408–9
(p. 1179) Unification 602
in MUC model 490–1
Unified Cognitive Science 121, 143, 145
uniformity vs. Simpler Syntax 866–8
Uniformity Principle 68
Uniqueness/Consistency principle 378
units 102–8, 114
of analysis 18
of language, usage-based theory 962
lexical vs. grammatical 117
univerbation 465
universal dependency structure 228, 231
Universal Grammar (UG) 6, 20, 282, 285, 430–2, 444–6, 691, 818, 928–32, 936
as a framework 291, 296, 300
functional projections 72
universals 21, 58–9, 62, 165–6 see also innateness
and abstractness 932–8
hierarchies 68–70, 76–8
implicational 560, 933
soft 547
two types 927–32
Unsupervised DOP (U-DOP) 680–9, 690–1
usage-based meaning 773, 781–3
usage-based theory 106, 114, 953–4
complex adaptive systems 977–9
domain generality 954–8
exemplar models 958–9
form–meaning pairs 967–70
frequency effects 964–7, 972–4
gradience 962–4
language acquisition 954, 969–70, 975–6
linguistic units 962
networks 959–61
variation 970–2, 978
usage events 102–5
use vs. knowledge of language 6
UTAH (Uniformity of Theta Assignment Hypothesis) 867–8
Utterance in FDG 327–8
valency 8, 322–3, 458–9, 832–3 (see also subcategorization)
alteration 245–6
cancellation 153
carriers 243–4, 248
polysemous verbs 244–5
change 248–9
modification 245
realization 246–8
relations 232, 241–3, 253
valency theory (VT) 16, 225, 231–4, 236–49
variation 58–9, 68–9, 280–2, 547, 907–11, 1004–7
and cognition 699–706
diachronic 22, 409, 465–7, 1004–7
diversity 707
individual in adults 975–6
in language usage, grammaticalization 428
in Optimality Theory 564–6, 568
phonetic 504–8
usage-based theory 970–2, 978
verbal derivation
conversion 453–4
denominal verbs 148
verb-final clause structure 916–20
verb–object constraint (VOC) 929–32, 933–5, 940–4, 945–6
verb phrases, aspect 197–200
verbs 114–16
actions 127–8, 244, 412
agreement 271–5, 736
argument realization 124–6
argument structure 155–8, 163–6
causative 822–3
classes 716–18
computational system 260–2
control structures 268–71
inheritance 989–90, 994
null-instantiation 159
open vs. closed class 71–2
polysemous 244–5
processing 498–501
schemas 127–8
semantic roles 719–22
semantic templates 828–30
synthetic and analytic 382
(p. 1180) VISIONS system 492–4, 495
vocal tract configurations 518–19
voicing, as distinctive feature 530–1
vowels
alternation 453
CV coarticulation 520–1
distinctive features 528–30
formant frequency 504–5
harmony 536–7
moras 530n, 532–4
nasalization 511, 516–17
weak minimalist thesis 437
weight, syllable 532 see also syllables
wellformedness conditions 383, 550–1, 821
for c-structures 384
Wernicke’s aphasia 475
Wernicke’s area 491
wh-constructions 301, 740, 895–6
idiomatic 970–1
sluicing 870–1
wh-dependencies 275–7, 279–80, 391
word classes see categories
word formation 450, 452–4, 462
diachronic 465–7
grammaticalization 465
in language acquisition 37
productivity 466–7, 469–70
Word Grammar (WG) 981–3
domains of language 990–3
goals 983–5
inheritance 988–90
language acquisition 1002–3
morphology 992–3, 995–9
networks 985–8
psycholinguistics 1006
semantics 1001–2
sociolinguistics 1003–4
synchrony and diachrony 1004–7
syntax 999–1000
word classification 993–5
word order 67, 227, 928–32, 934–5, 940–3, 948 (see also linear order)
approaches 18–19
asymmetries 297–8
framework-free description 293–4
in language acquisition 36
typology 72–3
wh-phrases 301
word-strings, Lambek calculus 82–6
word structure 945–6
working memory (WM) 45–6, 52–3, 260–2, 276–7, 487–9, 492, 495
World Atlas of Language Structures
(WALS) 21, 308–9, 933, 937, 944
WXDY? constructions 160–1, 984, 970–1
X-bar theory 66, 240, 297, 301, 385–6
x-nets (executing networks) 122
Xerox Linguistic Environment (XLE) 374, 403
zero anaphora in conversation 15, 185–6, 190, 806, 867 see also ellipsis
zero categories, treatment of 15
zero derivation 453–4 (see also bare nominals; bare plurals)
in language acquisition 37
treatment in Role and Reference Grammar 709