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date: 23 September 2019

(p. ix) List of Figures

(p. ix) List of Figures

  1. 2.1 Material and conceptual linkages between human and figural bodies at Çatalhöyük. 28

  2. 2.2 The so-called ‘face pot’ from Çatalhöyük. 30

  3. 2.3 Skeletal figurine from Çatalhöyük. 31

  4. 2.4 Horned pedestals around a platform in Building 77 at Çatalhöyük. 32

  5. 3.1 Vague similarities among selected prehistoric figurines from a huge region (Indus Valley to Sardinia). 40

  6. 3.2 A map of the signification of images. 45

  7. 3.3 Framework for comparison of collections of figurines. 47

  8. 3.4 A figurine assemblage that demands iconographic and symbolic analysis, from the Yarmukian site of Sha’ar Hagolan (Israel). 48

  9. 3.5 A figurine assemblage amenable to window-on-society analysis, from Early Formative Paso de la Amada and other nearby sites (Mexico). 49

  10. 3.6 The representational system of PPN clay figurines from Jarmo (Iraq). 50

  11. 3.7 The representational system of PPN clay figurines from Tell Aswad (Syria). 52

  12. 4.1 The ‘bird-lady’ figurine from el-Ma’amerieh. 64

  13. 4.2 Baked clay figurine of a male from tomb U.96 Abadiyeh. 68

  14. 4.3 Excavation photograph of two obese figurines from Naqada. 70

  15. 4.4 Sherd of Decorated (D-Ware) pottery from Hemamieh North Spur depicting two figures holding hands. 73

  16. 4.5 Photograph of Tomb H.41, Mahasna, showing a figurine resting upon the body of the deceased. 76

  17. 5.1 Map of relevant sites. 86

  18. 5.2 Stylized sandstone figurine from Kadruka. 88

  19. 5.3 Female figurine dated to the classical A-group. 89

  20. 5.4 Figurine from el-Kadada dated to the mid-fourth millennium bc recovered from a grave of a child. 92

  21. 5.5 Head with marked curly hair. 93

  22. (p. x) 5.6 A characteristic feature of circumcision rituals among the Fur is that many participants in the celebration are using cultural elements associated with the opposite gender. 99

  23. 6.1 Map of North Africa and the Sahara showing the distribution of the figurines. 106

  24. 6.2 Tadrart Acacus, Libya. Clay figurine of a dog from Wadi Athal. 111

  25. 6.3 Tadrart Acacus, Libya. Fragmentary clay figurine of a gazelle from Wadi Athal. 111

  26. 6.4 Tassili-n-Ajjer, Algeria. Clay figurine of a bovine from Ti-n-Hanakaten. 112

  27. 6.5 Tassili-n-Ajjer, Algeria. Anthropomorphic clay figurine from Ti-n-Hanakaten. 114

  28. 6.6 a-b) Farafra Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. Anthropomorphic clay figurine from Hidden Valley Village. 114

  29. 6.7 Schematic reproduction of zoomorphic figurines in clay. 115

  30. 6.8 Distribution map of the Saharan zoomorphic grinders representing bovines. 116

  31. 7.1 Map of Southern Africa showing sites or regions mentioned in the text. 130

  32. 7.2 Giraffe from Schroda. 132

  33. 7.3 Anthropomorphic male figurine from Schroda. 133

  34. 7.4 Cattle figurine from Schroda. 133

  35. 7.5 Stylized human figurines from Mapungubwe. 134

  36. 7.6 Figurines used during the Chinamwali female initiation ceremony. 138

  37. 7.7 Figurines with body scarification from Umfazimiti Hill (top row), Nali Hill, Rennydende Farm (second row), Magogo and Mapungubwe Hill. 144

  38. 8.1 Approximate locations of figurines in West Africa. 152

  39. 8.2 Left. Stone nomoli figurine of a male with a plaited beard, probably Sierra Leone. Right. Stone pomdo figurine possibly depicting a female, probably Guinea. 153

  40. 8.3 a) Clay ‘dog’ figurine attachment from a pot, Boyasi Hill, Ghana, b) Clay rider and horse or camel figurine, Yikpabongo, Ghana, c) Anthropomorphic clay cone figurine, Yikpabongo, Ghana, d) Clay head, Agona-Swedru, Ghana, e) Brass twinned figurine, Banda, Ghana. 154

  41. 8.4 a) Clay anthropomorphic figurine, Gajiganna, Nigeria, b) Clay ‘cattle’ figurine, Gajiganna, Nigeria, c) Clay goat figurine, Daima III, Nigeria, d) Clay ‘antelope’ or possibly anthropomorphic figurine, Daima III, Nigeria, e) Clay figurine head, Nok, Nigeria. 158

  42. 8.5 a) Clay ram’s head on a platter, Lafogido’s Compound, Ife, Nigeria, b) Clay head, possibly of a bush pig, Lafogido’s Compound, Ife, Nigeria, (p. xi) c) Clay head possibly of a ram held between a pair of hands, Igbo’Laja, Owo, Nigeria, d) Stone female figurine, Esie, Nigeria, e) Clay anthropomorphic figurine, Ilorin, Nigeria. 161

  43. 8.6 a) Clay anthropomorphic figurine, possibly representing pregnancy, Karkarichinkat, Mali, b) Clay anthropomorphic figurine, Jenné-jeno, Mali, c) Clay anthropomorphic torso, Kissi 3, Burkina Faso. 165

  44. 8.7 a) Clay cavalier figurine, Bura-Asinda-Sika, Niger, b) Anthropomorphic clay figurine, Tago, Chad, height 36 cm, c) Abstract clay anthropomorphic figurine, Goulfeil, Chad, d) Clay ‘masked dancer’, Tago, Chad, e) Clay figurine of woman giving birth with two infants, Waza, Cameroon, f) Clay assongu figurine, Ivory Coast. 167

  45. 9.1 Luzira Head, clay, Uganda. 180

  46. 9.2 Location map showing the Upemba Depression in DRC. 182

  47. 9.3 Sanga. Classic Kisalian anthropomorphous bottles. 183

  48. 9.4 Examples of antelope and goat cannon bones from various Classic Kisalian graves. 184

  49. 9.5 Balante Dikori fertility dolls made of a caprine cannon bone. 184

  50. 9.6 Sanga. Classic Kisalian grave of a newborn with five cannon bones. 185

  51. 9.7 a) Example of Luba anthropomorphic and phallic shaped dolls, or twin figures in wood, and b) example of an archaeological clay figurine from Guruwe District, Northern Mashonaland (Zimbabwe). 186

  52. 9.8 Examples of anthropomorphous metapodia from Neolithic contexts in France and Italy and from Bronze Age Jericho. 188

  53. 10.1 Map of the insular Caribbean indicating the regions and islands referred to in the text. 196

  54. 10.2 Early figurines (Saladoid): painted figurine from Hacienda Grande site, Puerto Rico, 200 bcad 600; figurine from Diamant Plage de Dizac site, Martinique, ad 400–750; red-painted torso from Lagon Doux 1 site and figurine fragment from Atagual site, Trinidad. 198

  55. 10.3 Late figurines from Banes area, northeastern Cuba, ad 1000–1500. 201

  56. 10.4 Late figurines from the Lesser Antilles, ad 800–1500, including a seated figurine from Anse Lavoutte, ad 1000–1500; two faces or masks from Comerette site, ad 800–1500; head of a figurine, Anse Lavoutte; and a head from Ilet Madame, Martinique, ad 1200–1400. 204

  57. 10.5 Selection of Ocumaroid Heterogeneous figurines from Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela, ad 1050–1500. 207

  58. 10.6 Selection of Valencioid Standardized figurines from Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela, ad 1200–1500. 207

  59. (p. xii) 10.7 Two depositional micro-contexts with figurines from Dos Mosquises Island, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela, ad 1200–1500. 208

  60. 11.1 Map of the Maya region indicating sites with Late Classic Maya figurines. 222

  61. 11.2 (Top): Examples of ceramic moulds for figurine production. (Bottom): Examples of figurine heads containing neck tenons. 223

  62. 11.3 (Top): Whistle vent construction patterns. (Bottom): The predominant vent construction technique placed at the bottom of the figurine with ocarina holes punched through the ‘shoulder blade’ area as represented in an owl figurine from Cancuén. 224

  63. 11.4 Couple figurines from sites along the Usumacinta, Pasión, and Chixoy riverways. 229

  64. 11.5 Figurines from burial 2 at the site of Cancuén. 234

  65. 11.6 Figurines from burial 21 at the site of Holmul. 235

  66. 11.7 Figurines from burial EC-burial-2 at the site of Pacbitun. 236

  67. 11.8 Figurines from burial 39 at the site of El Perú-Waka’. 237

  68. 12.1 Map of Olman with selected archaeological sites. 246

  69. 12.2 Early and Middle Formative figurines from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico. 248

  70. 12.3 Late Formative figurines from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico. 249

  71. 12.4 Drucker’s (1952) Classification of Olmec and epi-Olmec figurines. 250

  72. 12.5 Early Formative figurine heads from San Lorenzo. 251

  73. 12.6 Early Formative figurine torsos. 254

  74. 12.7 Early Formative figurines from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico. 255

  75. 12.8 Trapiche-style solid figurines from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico. 256

  76. 12.9 Early Formative hollow figurines from San Lorenzo. 258

  77. 12.10 Middle Formative torsos from La Venta. 261

  78. 13.1 Map of Formative Mesoamerica, showing sites mentioned in the text. 274

  79. 13.2 Early Formative figurines. 277

  80. 13.3 Late Early Formative figurines, Etlatongo. 280

  81. 13.4 Late Early Formative Olmec-style figurines, Etlatongo. 281

  82. 13.5 Special subjects. 282

  83. 13.6 Stylistic juxtaposition from Tlatilco burials. 284

  84. 13.7 Middle Formative figurines. 288

  85. 14.1 Flat-backed Aztec figurine from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. 300

  86. 14.2 Hollow rattle Aztec figurine from the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City. 301

  87. (p. xiii) 14.3 Flat-backed figurine depicting male seated on temple, from the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City. 302

  88. 14.4 Front half of a hollow rattle figurine mould from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. 302

  89. 14.5 Copal figurine recovered from the Aztec Templo Mayor. 303

  90. 14.6 Mud men-and-women from Xaltocan. 304

  91. 14.7 Curated figurines from Xaltocan. 305

  92. 15.1 Map of the American Southwest showing key places discussed in text. 322

  93. 15.2 Early Agricultural and early Hohokam unfired clay figurines from southern Arizona. 324

  94. 15.3 Hohokam figurines after c. ad 800. 326

  95. 15.4 Pillings figurines, a set of male and female unfired, painted clay figures, Fremont culture, twelfth century. 329

  96. 15.5 Clay Basketmaker III female figurines from south of the San Juan River, northern Arizona, c. ad 400–700. 331

  97. 15.6 Ancestral Pueblo painted sandstone figurines, c. ad 1050–1200, Chambers, Arizona. 332

  98. 15.7 Pueblo IV sandstone effigy with micaceous overtones, Pueblo Blanco, c. ad 1325–1520, Galisteo Basin, New Mexico. 335

  99. 16.1 Map of the Northwest Coast showing ethnolinguistic divisions and archaeological sites mentioned in the text. 346

  100. 16.2 Three views of a ritual spoon made of elk antler from the Pender Canal site. 350

  101. 16.3 Seated human figure bowl of the small, well-made, soapstone type from a pit-house village on the middle Fraser River, and a soapstone tubular pipe fragment from southern Vancouver Island. 352

  102. 16.4 Large antler shamanic pendants from late pre-contact/protohistoric Sites. 355

  103. 16.5 Figural art from regions adjacent to the lower Fraser-Salish Sea Region. 356

  104. 17.1 a) Doll with male labrets, Yup’ik culture, b) Doll core, female, Yup’ik culture, c) Doll core, male, Yup’ik culture, d) Transformation human/bird figure, Inupiaq culture, e) Yup’ik mortuary figure, Yup’ik culture. 368

  105. 17.2 a) Arctic culture history chart, b) North American Arctic region map. 370

  106. 17.3 a) Thule Norse figurine, known as ‘Bishop of Baffin’, Thule culture, b) Thule pendant, pair of men, Igloolik Island, Nunavut, c) Portrait of an elder, Kachemak culture, first millennium ad, d) Portrait carving, Kachemak culture, ad 600–1000, e) Drag handle carved as a human with walrus tusks, Thule/historic Inupiaq, fifteenth to eighteenth century, f) Figure with hunting visor, Punuk culture, 3.3 cm, g) Ceremonial house model, Yup’ik culture Qasgiq, h: 41 cm, h) Women carrying meat tub, Labrador Inuit, 1892–1901. 371

  107. (p. xiv) 17.4 a) Incised pebble, Koniag culture, ad 1350–1500, b, c) Birthing amulet figurine, Koniag culture, ad 1500–1750, d) Figurine in ceremonial dress, Prehistoric Aleut, e) Figurine in ceremonial dress, Prehistoric Aleut, f) Figurine in ceremonial dress, Prehistoric Aleut. 375

  108. 17.5 a) Human figurine with ‘skeletal’ decoration, Okvik culture, ad 1–500, 12.5 cm, b) ‘Okvik Madonna’, Okvik culture, ad 1–500, c) Female figurine, Okvik culture, ad 0–500, d, e) Female figurine, Okvik culture, ad 1–500, f) Pregnant female figurine, Punuk culture, ad 500–1000, g) Androgynous figure, Punuk culture, ad 800–1200, h) Composite burial mask, Ipiutak culture, ad 400–900. 376

  109. 17.6 a) Ivory maskette, Dorset culture (c. ad 1–500), b) Amulet pendant, Dorset culture, c) Mask, Palaeo-Eskimo, 1700 bc, Devon Island, d) Maskette, Dorset culture, e) Human/bear figurine, Middle Dorset, c. ad 300–600, f) Petrogylph faces, Dorset culture, Qajartalik, Nunavik, Canada, g) ‘Killed’ human figure, driftwood, Dundas Island, Dorset, h) Standing Man, Dorset culture, i) High collar figurine, Shuldham Island, Late Dorset, ad 1000, j) Male figure with high collar, Dorset culture, (c. ad 1000), Devon Island, Arctic Canada, k) Animal/woman figure, Middle Dorset culture, Baffin Island, ad 500. 378

  110. 17.7 a) Inuksuk ‘Inunnguaq’, Itiliardjuk, Cape Dorset, Baffin Island, b) Human figure with incised strap with fringes at neck and legs (calf), Thule culture, c. ad 1300, c) Female figurine pendant, Thule culture, c. 1400, d) Female figurine, Thule culture, Igloolik, Nunavut, e) Female figurine, Thule culture, Manertoq, Nunavut, f) Comb with female figure, Thule culture, c. 1500–1600, g) Swimming female figure (pendant), Thule culture, ad 1400–1500. 382

  111. 17.8 a) Male figurine with high collar, Late Dorset, c. ad 1300–1400, b) Dorset carving of a Thule woman with top-knot (right), Late Dorset, c. ad 1400, c) Tupilak figurine, East Greenland Inuit, twentieth century. 383

  112. 18.1 Map of Central Andes, and places referred to in text. 392

  113. 18.2 Spanish writers recorded that Inca kings consulted with idols (called ‘huacas’), some of whom bear human figural forms. 393

  114. 18.3 Figure showing prominent Central Andean figurine traditions through time. 396

  115. 18.4 Front and back views of effigy figure from Mina Perdida, Lurín, c.1400–1100 bp. 399

  116. 18.5 Redware effigy figurine from the Middle Horizon (ad 700–1000). 403

  117. 18.6 Miniature standing figure, depicting standing male dignitary. South highlands, Peru, Wari style, c. ad 600–1000. 404

  118. 18.7 a) and b) Front and side views of Inca female figurine (c.1450–1532). 405

  119. (p. xv) 18.8 Schematic diagram of the main ‘genres of action’ depicted on Recuay ceramics. 410

  120. 19.1 Map of Lower Amazon. 418

  121. 19.2 a) Karajá girl with her family of ceramic ‘dolls’, b) figurines represent the different stages in the life of the Karajá, c) others depict supernatural entities. 419

  122. 19.3 Marajoara rattle figurines with phallic shapes. 425

  123. 19.4 Marajoara headless figurines. 428

  124. 19.5 Santarém ceremonial vessel. 430

  125. 19.6 a) Santarém figurine of pregnant woman, b) back of seated figurine with perforated earlobes, head band with muiraquitãs, and braided hair. 431

  126. 19.7 Plate with stone ‘idol’ from the XIV Congress of Americanists in 1906 (Stuttgart) by Emil Goeldi. 434

  127. 19.8 Multi-naturalistic stone figurine found near the city of Oriximiná, a) Seated feline, b) Human face with blowing cheeks and square mouth, c) Bird with crooked beak. 435

  128. 20.1 Map of region showing key sites of published figurine data. 444

  129. 20.2 So-called ‘Mother-Goddess’ figurine, flanked by leopards, Çatalhöyük. 446

  130. 20.3 Sandstone phallus, Domuztepe. 448

  131. 20.4 Figurine with hole for insertion of separate head, Çavı Tarlası. 450

  132. 20.5 Ambiguous figures, Çatalhöyük. 455

  133. 20.6 Flat, stone figurines/pendants, Domuztepe. 457

  134. 20.7 Clay figurine head, Domuztepe. 457

  135. 20.8 Anthropomorphic vessel, Domuztepe. 459

  136. 21.1 Locations of sites mentioned in the text. 471

  137. 21.2 Figures of the Hongshan Culture. 473

  138. 21.3 ‘Kansu [Gansu] mortuary urns’. 478

  139. 21.4 Earthenware animal and human figurines excavated at Shijiahe. 480

  140. 21.5 a) Fang yi-type bronze vessel, late Shang period (Anyang), b) Taotie mask on the side of the vessel. 484

  141. 21.6 a) Guang-type vessel, late Shang period (Anyang), b) Bronze vessel in the shape of two adorsed birds, late Shang period (Anyang), c) Animal-shaped and related bronze vessels from Ningxiang. 485

  142. 21.7 Two earthenware figurines and a human head excavated at Xiaotun. 487

  143. 22.1 The Indus tradition: major sites of the Integration Era: 2600–1900 bc. 494

  144. 22.2 Sculptures and figurative representations of the Indus Civilization. 496

  145. (p. xvi) 22.3 Early Harappan figurines from the Ravi and Kot Diji Phases at Harappa (> 3700–2600 bc). 498

  146. 22.4 Harappan anthropomorphic female figurines (2600–1900 bc) from Harappa. 502

  147. 22.5 Harappan anthropomorphic male and other figurines (2600–1900 bc) from Harappa. 504

  148. 22.6 Harappan zoomorphic figurines representing domesticated animals (2600–1900 bc) from Harappa. 506

  149. 22.7 Harappan zoomorphic figurines representing wild animals (2600–1900 bc) from Harappa. 507

  150. 22.8 Harappan special form figurines (2600–1900 bc) from Harappa. 508

  151. 23.1 Regional divisions and names: prefectures, districts, and larger regional divisions. 522

  152. 23.2 Figurines of the Incipient, Initial, and Early Jomon periods. 526

  153. 23.3 Figurines of the Middle Jomon. 529

  154. 23.4 Nishida settlement, Iwate prefecture. 531

  155. 23.5 Figurines from the Late Jomon. 537

  156. 23.6 Figurines from the Final Jomon. 538

  157. 24.1 Map of Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites of the southern Levant. 549

  158. 24.2 Shifting material systems of Neolithic imagery. 550

  159. 24.3 Comparison of Anthropomorphic and Zoomorphic imagery for the PPNA and MPPNB. 550

  160. 24.4 Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period anthropomorphic busts and statues. 560

  161. 25.1 Map of Mesopotamia showing the main sites discussed in this chapter. 568

  162. 25.2 Stylized stone sexless figurine from Nemrik. 572

  163. 25.3 Seated, presumably female, figurine from Çayönü. 573

  164. 25.4 Realistic female figurine from Jarmo. 575

  165. 25.5 Seated clay female figurine from Umm Dabaghiyah. 576

  166. 25.6 Standing clay figurine from Yarim Tepe I. 577

  167. 25.7 Female figurine from Tell Songor A. 578

  168. 25.8 Standing sexless alabaster figurine from Tell es-Sawwan. 579

  169. 25.9 Small, seated female figurine from Tell Halaf. 581

  170. 25.10 a) ‘Ophidian’ mother-with-child figurine from Ur, b) ‘Ophidian’ male figurine from Eridu. 583

  171. 26.1 Figurine from Choga Bonut, baked brownish clay. 594

  172. (p. xvii) 26.2 Seated realistic clay female figurine from Tepe Sarab, reconstructed after excavation and is commonly referred to as ‘The Venus of Sarab’. 596

  173. 26.3 Standing realistic crude clay female figurine from Choga Sefid. 598

  174. 26.4 Standing sexless, stylized figurine from Hajji Firuz. 598

  175. 26.5 Standing presumably dual-sex stylized chlorite figurine from Tepe Yahya. 599

  176. 26.6 Baked clay buff figurine from Choga Mish. 601

  177. 26.7 Standing baked clay female figurine from Dum-Gar-Parchineh. 602

  178. 26.8 Violin-shaped, stylized female figurine from Tall-i-Bakun. 603

  179. 27.1 Various anthropomorphs. 619

  180. 27.2 Zoomorphs. 621

  181. 27.3 UA staff. Reimiro. 622

  182. 27.4 Ao. Mata kaokao. Rapa. 624

  183. 27.5 Moai kavakava. Moai papa. 625

  184. 27.6 Rat-man. Lizard-man (Tangata moko). 627

  185. 27.7 Bird-men. Other surrealistic constructions. 628

  186. 28.1 Two Early Cycladic figurines excavated by Christos Tsountas in Tomb 14 at the Early Cycladic cemetery of Dokathismata on Amorgos. 638

  187. 28.2 Early Cycladic head in the Louvre admired by modernist artists in the early twentieth century. 639

  188. 28.3 Map of the Cycladic Islands showing sites where figurines have been found. 640

  189. 28.4 Typological development of the Early Cycladic figurines. 643

  190. 28.5 a) Harpist and, b) flautist found on Keros. 644

  191. 28.6 Varieties of the canonical folded-arm figurine. 647

  192. 28.7 Fragmented folded-arm figurines from the Special Deposit South at the sanctuary at Kavos on Keros. 653

  193. 29.1 Clay vessel figurine from Myrtos, Fournou Korifi, Crete. Early Minoan II (c.2700–2200 bc). 663

  194. 29.2 Male clay figurine from the peak sanctuary of Petsofas, Crete. Middle Minoan I–II (c.2100–1800 bc). 666

  195. 29.3 Female clay figurine from the peak sanctuary of Atsipadhes Korakias, Crete. Middle Minoan I–II (c.2100–1800 bc). 667

  196. 29.4 Minoan male bronze figurine from Tylissos, Crete. Late Minoan I (c.1600–1450 bc). 671

  197. 29.5 Mycenaean clay female figurines. Late Helladic IIIA (c.1400–1300 bc). 673

  198. 29.6 Bronze Age terracotta figures from the House of the Idols, Mycenae, 13th century bc. Nauplion Museum, Greece. 676

  199. 30.1 Map of the region with occupation clusters highlighted (above) and detailed map with sites discussed in the text demarcated (below). 682

  200. (p. xviii) 30.2 Fragmented ceramic mammoth statuette (‘M154’) (early Gravettian/Pavlovian) from Pavlov I (Czech Republic). 686

  201. 30.3 Ivory statuette (late Gravettian) from Zaraysk (Russia). 687

  202. 30.4 Carved ivory ‘Mona Lisa’ head (early Gravettian/Pavlovian) from Dolní Věstonice I (Czech Republic). 690

  203. 30.5 Three-part ivory marionette of a male figurine from Brno II burial (late Gravettian, Czech Republic). 691

  204. 30.6 Drawing of ivory female figurine from Kostenki I, layer 1 (Russia). 692

  205. 30.7 Ivory mammoth statuette (early Gravettian/Pavlovian) from Pavlov I (Czech Republic). 693

  206. 31.1 Distribution map, with site names indicated. 706

  207. 31.2 Méhtelek. 709

  208. 31.3 Brunn. 710

  209. 31.4 Gaukönigshofen. 711

  210. 31.5 Truşeşti. 712

  211. 31.6 Szegvár-Tűzköves. 713

  212. 31.7 Falkenstein. 714

  213. 31.8 Svodin. 715

  214. 31.9 Aufhausen. 716

  215. 32.1 Map of Malta and location of major sites. 730

  216. 32.2 Earliest figurines and Zebbug statue menhirs. 731

  217. 32.3 Bronze Age figures. 733

  218. 32.4 Larger anthropomorphic figures and dynamic heads. 736

  219. 32.5 Small terracotta and stone figures. 737

  220. 32.6 Stick figures, phalli, bone carpal heads. 738

  221. 32.7 Twin and bed figures. 739

  222. 32.8 Stick figures from the Brochtorff-Xaghra Circle. 740

  223. 32.9 Massive figures. 741

  224. 32.10 Animal and other figures. 749

  225. 33.1 Clay Plank figurine from Dhenia. 756

  226. 33.2 Chalcolithic Cruciform figurine. 757

  227. 33.3 Neolithic stone anthropomorph from Khirokitia. 759

  228. 33.4 Chalcolithic ceramic anthropomorph from Kissonerga-Mosphilia. 760

  229. 33.5 Middle to Late Bronze Age zoomorphic vessel from Kazaphani-Ayios Andronikos Tomb 2B. 761

  230. (p. xix) 33.6 Late Bronze Age earring figurine from Hala Sultan Tekke (Tomb 2.3), Larnaca Museum. (Photo: D-K. Knox, reproduced with permission of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus.) 762

  231. 33.7 Late Bronze Age base ring bull from Angastina (Tomb 1.79), Cyprus Museum. (Photo: D-K. Knox, reproduced with permission of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus.) 763

  232. 34.1 Map of sites mentioned in the text. 778

  233. 34.2 The Upper Palaeolithic ‘Parabita Venuses’ from Grotta delle Veneri. 779

  234. 34.3 Mesolithic antler figurine from Riparo Gaban. 782

  235. 34.4 Stone figurine from the Early Neolithic lake-dwelling of La Marmotta. 785

  236. 34.5 Neolithic clay figurines from northern Italy. 787

  237. 34.6 Neolithic clay figurines from southeast Italy. 789

  238. 34.7 Large Early Copper Age clay figurine from a votive pit above a tomb at Piano Vento. 793

  239. 35.1 Volumetric stone figurine from Cabras, Cuccuru s’Arriu. 801

  240. 35.2 Elongated volumetric figurine made of bone from Grotta di Monte Meana, Santadi. 802

  241. 35.3 Unperforated marble plaque figurine from Turriga, Senorbì. 803

  242. 35.4 Perforated marble plaque figurine from Portoferro, Sassari. 804

  243. 35.5 Archer from Sa Costa-Sardara. 811

  244. 35.6 Capotribù from Santa Vittoria-Serri, Nuoro. 812

  245. 35.7 Figurine from Santa Vittoria-Serri, Nuoro. 813

  246. 36.1 Southern group of clay figurines and miniature shaft-hole tools from Building 2008/1 in situ at the Vinča D site at Crkvine Stubline, Serbia. 824

  247. 36.2 Profiles of heads and shoulders of several, smaller clay figurines from Building 2008/1 at the Vinča D site at Crkvine Stubline, Serbia. 824

  248. 36.3 Largest and three of the smaller clay figurines from Building 2008/1 at the Vinča D site at Crkvine Stubline, Serbia. 825

  249. 36.4 Miniature clay shaft-hole tools from the Vinča D site at Crkvine Stubline, Serbia. 825

  250. 36.5 Untitled fore-matter image of Neolithic Balkan figurine. 840

  251. 36.6 Hamangia culture (5200–4500 bp) clay figurine from southern Romania. 841

  252. 36.7 Negative print of Middle Jōmon Period (2500–1500 bp) dogū by Kuwashima Tsunaki. 842

  253. 36.8 We are Fragments of an Unknown History (2010). 843

  254. 36.9 Cover for Unearthed: a Comparative Study of Jōmon Dogū and Neolithic Figurines (Bailey et al. 2010). 844

  255. (p. xx) 37.1 The Galgenberg Venus. 855

  256. 37.2 The Hohle Fels Venus (Venus of Schelkingen). 861

  257. 37.3 Willendorf Venus II. 863

  258. 37.4 The Lespugue Venus. 864

  259. 37.5 Outlines of the Sireuil and Tursac Venuses overlain. 866

  260. 37.6 Willendorf Venus I. 867

  261. 38.1 Map showing location of principal figurine groups discussed in the text. 878

  262. 38.2 Sandstone figurine (mid-third millennium bc) discovered at Links of Noltland (Orkney) in 2009. 879

  263. 38.3 Bandkeramik figurines and figurine fragments from Bavaria (later sixth millennium bc). 881

  264. 38.4 Late fifth-millennium fired clay figurines from the Paris basin and northern France. 883

  265. 38.5 Limestone ‘eye-idol’ (third millennium bc) from La Pijotilla, Badajoz (Spain). 885

  266. 38.6 Principal varieties of figurine or idol in late fourth/third-millennium southern Iberia. 886

  267. 38.7 Regional groups of ‘eye idols’ in southern Iberia. 886

  268. 38.8 Engraved schist plaques (late fourth/earlier third millennium bc) from the Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal). 888

  269. 38.9 Distribution of engraved schist plaques in southwestern Iberia. 889

  270. 38.10 Fired clay figurine (mid/late third millennium bc) from Jettböle on the Baltic island of Åland (Sweden). 892