Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 18 October 2019

(p. 901) Index

(p. 901) Index

a Campo, A.-L. 768, 769
Abadiyeh tombs, Egypt:
B101 69–70, 72, 73
U.96 male figurine 68f
Abasi Edem Street, Calabar, Nigeria 163
Abeter, Wadi Bergiu, Libya 117
Abydos tombs, Egypt 69, 70
U-239 beaker 73
U502 pottery bowl 65–6, 72–3
Adaima, Egypt 66
Addison, F. 94
Afalou Bou Rummel, Algeria 108, 120, 121
Agona-Swedru clay head, Ghana 154f, 155, 156
Agorass n’Tast, Sahara 109
Aguateca, Maya site 231
Ain Ghazal figurines and statues, Levant 552, 553–4, 558, 560, [link] f
Akan ‘asensie’/place of pots, Ghana 155–6, 172
Akan funerary rites, Ghana 155–6
Akreijit, Mauritania 112
Alaska (cultural history) 374–7, 375f, 376f
Alawniyeh bird-headed figurines, Egypt 69, 75
Aldeia site, Santarém, Amazon 429–33, 430f, 431f
Alegría, R. E. 198
Alentejo and Algarve schist plaques, Portugal 888f, 888–91
Ali Kosh, Iran 595
Almagro Gorbea, M. J. 885
‘altar’ sites, Zimbabwe 135
Alutiiq people, South Alaska 373
Amazon traditions 417–37
altered states and hallucinatory imagery 422–4
Amerindian perspectivism 420, 421–2, 432
figurine decapitation 427, 428f
Guyanese Arawak groups 423
human body 420–2, 426
Incise-Punctuate Tradition 418
Jamundá and Trombetas rivers 433–6, 434f, 435f
Karajá ‘dolls’ 419f, 420
Kayapó Xikrin people 424
map of Lower Amazon 418f
maracas 424, 427
Marajoara figurines 418, 424–9, 425f, 428f
Marajoara/ Santarém stylistic differences 432–3
Maués Indians 433
muiraquitās 418–20
Panoan tribes 426
paricú snuff trays 433
Polychrome Tradition 418, 427–8, 433
Santarém ceramic complex 418, 424
Santarém figurines 429–33, 430f, 431f
Santarém ‘retention’/‘memory pits’ 430
shamans and shamanism 421, 423, 424, 427, 435
tangas 426
Tapajó Indians 418, 429, 432, 436
Tropical Forest Culture Model 436
Valdivia complex, Ecuador 417, 423
Warao people 424
Amerindian society and rituals 196, 208–9, 211
perspectivism 420, 421–2, 432
Ammassalik Innuit, Greenland 384
Amorgos island 651, 654
Anatolia (Turkey) 443–61, 580
ambiguities and relationships 452, 455f, 455–6, 458–60, 459f
bone figurines 449
(p. 902) Ceramic Neolithic 444t, 448, 452, 456
chronology of main sites 444t
communication between areas 458
Domuztepe 456–60
Early Aceramic 444t
‘figurine worlds’ 447
Halaf tradition 444t, 452, 456–60
Halaf feet and hand seals 450
heads and body parts 449–52, 450f
Late Aceramic 444t, 452
manufacture and materials 447–9, 453–5, 456–8, 459f
map 444f
‘Mother Goddess’ narrative 445–6
sources and methods 445–7
stone figurines and phalluses 448, 448f, 454
see also separate entries for Çatalhöyük; Domuztepe
Andernach female figurines, Germany 860t, 872
Andes, South America 391–42
camay/camaquem 393
Chancay cuchimilcos 398
Chavín culture 395–6, 402, 407
Chimú culture 397–8
contexts and functions 407–8
dedicatory offerings 407
dualism 408
Early Horizon 395–6
Early Intermediate period 396–7
emerging traditions (Late Pre-ceramic Period – Initial Period) 398–400, 399f
enduring structures 408–9
‘horizons’ 395, 407
Huaka/Huacha idols 392, 393f
huauque images 394
Inca capacocha sacrifices 406, 407
Inca culture 398, 404–6, 405f, 407
Initial Period 399–400
‘intermediate’ periods 395, 407
key issues for further work 412
Late Horizon 398, 404–6
Late Intermediate Period 397–8
Late Pre-ceramic Period 395, 398–9
Manchay culture 399f, 399–400
map 392f
meanings of small-scale models 408–9
Middle Horizon 397, 401–4
Moche networks 400–1, 408
Moche ‘Warrior Narrative’ 401
mortuary contexts 407
Nasca culture 397, 402–3
Recuay culture 397, 400–2, 402–3
Recuay ‘genres of action’ 409–10, 410f
residential contexts 408
Sicán culture 397–8
small worlds and intermediality 409–11
Spanish accounts 392, 393f, 406
timeline 395–406, 396f
Wari ceramic figurines 402, 403f
Wari culture 397, 401–4, 403f, 404f
Wari stone figurines 402–3, 404f, 407
words and concepts 391–5
Angastina base ring bull, Cyprus 759–60, 763f
Anse Lavoutte, St Lucia 203
head 204f
seated figurine 203, 204f, 204–5
anthropomorphous metapodia see cannon bones
Antigua 199, 205
Aphaia sanctuary, Aegina 674
Aphrodite (Greek goddess) 755–6
Apollo II, Namibia 107
Arangi kotekote (woman from Easter Island mythology) 623
Arauquinoid people, Orinoquia 210
archaeology of figurines, and the human body 17–33
ageing bodies 26, 31
anthropomorphic/zoomorphic separation 19
Çatalhöyük figurines 27–33, 28f, 30f, 31f, 32f
categorization and classification 19
embodied lives 25–7
‘figurine essentialism’ 21
figurines as process 23–5
fragmentation studies 22
gender 20–1
holistic/interdisciplinary approaches 21–3
importance of absence 26
interpretation problems 19–20
malfunctionality 20
(p. 903) Mother Goddess explanation 21
multiple viewpoints 24–5
painting and decorative ‘additions’ 23–4
phallic female figurines 27
representation 18
self and personhood studies 26–7
things in themselves 18–21
‘Venus’ figurines 26–7
Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt), Denbigh culture 377
Arena Candide anthropomorphous metapodia, Finale Ligure, Italy 187, 188f
Argyle Lagoon site, San Juan Islands 351
Arnold, P. J. 253, 256
Arpachiyah standing figurines, Iraq 582
Arsenijević, J. 835, 836
Aruba, Caribbean 197, 206
Asclepios (Greek healing god) 668
Ashby, T. 732
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 69, 73
Aspero figurines, Peru 398–9
assongu figurines, Ivory Coast 172
Atagual early Saladoid figurines, Trinidad 198f, 199
Atherton, J. F. 153
Atsipadhes, Crete 665–6, 667, 668
Attenborough, David 628
Atua Metua (Easter Island god) 630
Aufhausen anthropomorphic vessel, Germany 716f, 716
Avdeevo figurines, Russia 682, 683, 687, 688, 691
Ayios Constantinos sanctuary, Methana 674
Aymara language 391–2
Aztec 5, 11, 299–316
chronology 304
cihuapipiltin 306, 310
colonial 300
copal 301–3, 303f
curated figures 305f, 305–6, 307, 310, 312–13
definitions 300–6
flat-backed 300, 300f, 302f, 304, 310, 312, 313
future of studies 315–16
gender ideologies 308–9
great and little traditions 309
hollow rattle 300, 301f, 307, 311, 312, 313
hollow rattle mould 302f
household archaeology 308–10
materialities 314–15
monumental ritual contexts 309–10
mud men and women 304f, 304–5, 312–13, 314
paper figurines and vestments 303
production and exchange 310–12
and social identity 312–13
sweatbaths 13
types and deity images 306–8
Bad Nauheim-Niedermörlen figurines, Germany 709
Badarian period, Egypt 66, 72
cemeteries 67–8
Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe 642–3
Baga people, West Africa 183
Bagasara figurines, India 511
Baggara Arabs 95
Bahamas 195, 197, 205
Baiyinchanghan site, northeast China 472
Bailey, D. W. 129, 560, 562, 660, 661, 777
Balanta Dikori fertility dolls, Equatorial Africa 183, 184f
Balkan traditions 3, 785, 786
see also individual sites and countries
Ballas, Egypt 70, 72
Banawali figurines, India 510, 511
Banda brass twinned figurine, Ghana 154f, 155, 157
Bandiagara Escarpment, Mali 165–6
Bandkeramic farmers, European 10, 880–4, 881f, 883f, 893t
figurines, Bavaria 881f
Banes area late figurines, Cuba 200–1, 201f, 202
Bantu languages 134–5
Barbados 199, 203, 205
Barnes, J. R. A. 142
Barrancoid Amerindians 197
female figurines 199
pottery 197
Barrier Canyon Style rock paintings, North America, Southwest 323
Bateson, G. 96
Beach Grove site, British Columbia 354
Beazley, John 653
(p. 904) Becker, V. 829
Békásmegyer-type ‘Janus-faced’ vessels, Central Europe 712–13
Bell site antler figurines, Fraser River, British Columbia 356, 356f
Bemba female initiation 142
Ben-Amos, P. 162
Benavides Castillo, A. 233
Benin 161f, 162
Bent, J. T. 129, 640
Bergoffen, C. 769–70
Berns, M. C. 173
Berry-au-Bac anthropomorphous metapodia, France 188f
Biehl, P. E. 188, 828–9, 830–1, 834, 837
Bienert, H. D. 552
‘bird lady’, Brooklyn Museum, US 63, 64f
‘Bishop of Baffin’ figurine, Thule culture 369, 371f
‘Black Venus’, Dolní Věstonice I, 689, 866
Blatné anthropomorphic vessels, Slovakia 711
Bliss collection, Dumbarton Oaks, US 228
Blomster, J. P. 257–8, 267
Blue Jackets Creek, British Columbia 348
Boas, F. 346, 360
Bolger, D. 129, 605, 765, 769
Bonaire Island, Southern Caribbean 197, 206
Boomert, A. 196
Bornier, Onésime Dutrou 614
Bosinski, G. 867
Bouqras seated figurines, Syria 573
Bout-Al-Kabir, Chad 168–9
‘Boyasi Hill dog’ figurine, Ghana 154, 154f
Boyko, A. R. 117
Brancusi, Constantin 637, 654, 655
Braque, George 637
Brassempouy Venuses, France 781, 858t, 862–3, 864, 865
Breunig, P. 157
Bright, A. J. 205
Brillenhöhle Venus 859t, 865–6
Britain and Ireland 879–80, 879f
‘Good-Dolly’, Somerset Levels 880
Folkton drums, Yorkshire 879–80
Noltland figurines, Orkney Islands 879
Brno II burial, Czech Republic 685
ivory marionette 690, 691f
Brochtorff- Xaghra Circle, Malta 732, 733f, 734, 739f, 740f, 741f, 742, 743–4, 745–6, 747
bed figurines 739f, 745–6
stick figures 743–4, 740f
terracotta snail 749f
Broman Morales, V. 605
Brooman Point, High Arctic, Dorset culture 379
Brumfiel, E. M. 304, 307, 308–9, 313, 314
Brunn large figurine, Vienna 709, 710f
Bulgaria 22, 829
Bullen, A. K. 204, 205
Bullen, R. P. 204, 205
Bura-Asinda-Sika complex, Niger 166–8, 167f, 172
Burke Museum, Seattle 353–4
Burkina Faso 166
Butana region, Sudan 91
Butler, J. 18, 25, 547
Cabras, Cuccuru s’Arriu figurines, Sardinia 801f, 803, 804
Calakmul, Maya site 226, 227
Caliviny Island, Caribbean 205
Cameroon 167f, 169
Campo Ceresole mushroom-headed figurine, Italy 786, 787f
Camps, G. 117
Camps-Fabrer, H. 112–13
Canadian Paleo-Eskimos 377–8, 378f
Cancuén, Maya 227
burial 2 figurines 233, 234f, 238, 239
ceramic moulds 222–4, 223f
couple figurines 228–31, 229f
figurine head with neck tenon 223f, 224–5
whistle vent construction patterns 224f, 225
Cannas di Sotto necropolis female figurine, Sardinia 805
cannon bone (anthropomorphous metapodia) usage as dolls (west/equatorial Africa and Europe/middle east) 183–7, 184f, 185f, 187–8, 188f
Cantón Corralito, Mexico:
ballplayer figurine 292
Olmec-style figurines 266–7, 268
Capilco Aztec site, Mexico 305, 309
Caral figurines, Peru 398–9
(p. 905) Caribbean 195–212
Amerindian society and rituals 208–9, 211
Amerindian women 209
animal figurines, Cuba 201
Barrancoid female figurines 199
cohoba ceremony 200, 202
cohoba trays 204–5
Dabajuroid pottery-making sites 206
early figurines (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles) 198–9, 198f
future research 210–12
gender, social and ritual roles 209, 211
late figurines (Cuba, Greater Antilles) 200–2, 201f
late figurines (Los Roques Archipelago) 206–10, 207f, 208f
late figurines (St Lucia, Lesser Antilles) 203–5, 204f
Macao figurines 202
map 196f
Ocumaroid pottery-makers 206–10
placatory rituals, Los Roques 208–10
precolonial archaeology 195–7
queen conch 208–9
shamanic ‘ritual kits’ 207–10
shamans/caciques and shamanism 197, 200
Suazan Troumassoid ceramics 197, 203–4, 205, 210–11
Taíno culture and iconography 195, 197, 200, 202, 204–5
Valencioid culture 206–10
Venezuelan coast 197
Carpathian Basin 707, 708, 709–10, 714–15, 717, 723, 724
Carpenter, E. 381
Carriacou, Caribbean 205
Çatalhöyük figurines 7, 18, 22–3, 24, 27–33, 28f, 316, 445, 449, 452–6, 460, 548, 554–5
ambiguities and relationships 455–6, 455f
clay heads 449
‘face pot’ 29, 30f
gender 454–5
Goddess imagery 556
‘History Houses’ 453
horn cores 555, 556, 562
horned pedestals 31, 32f
human/cattle parallels 28–9
manufacture and materials 453–4
microscale mapping and analysis of bodily zones 25–6
‘Mother Goddess’ figurine 446f
myth and storytelling 29
‘phallomorphic’ figurines 451
skeletal figurine 29–31, 31f
Catignano, Italy 785, 790
Caton, Shaun We are Fragments of an Unknown History 841–2, 843f, 845
Cauvin, J. 553–4, 555, 556
Caverna della Arene Candide, Italy 786, 789
Çavı Tarlası figurines, Turkey 580
with hole for insertion of head 449, 450f
Cayo pottery, Caribbean 197
Çayönü site, Anatolia 445, 456
model houses, Syria 569
seated figurine 573
zoomorphic head figurine-pendants 450
Centner, T. 186
Central and Eastern Europe, Palaeolithic 681–98
artistic traditions and climates 685–6
art production and techno-artistic innovation 688–9
Aurignacian figurative art 681, 684, 685
chrono-climatic contexts, Eastern Europe 686–7
comparing regional and temporal records 687–8
contextualizing: climate and chronology 684–8
discard, deposition and internment 689–92, 691f, 692f
‘Gönnersdorf-type’ 683, 684
Gravettian ‘Venus horizon’ 697
Gravettian culture 683, 685, 686, 688, 690, 694
‘long term’/’short term’ hypothesis 691–2
mammoth ivory 683
map 682f
materials: Early and Mid-Upper Palaeolithic 683
materials: Late Upper Palaeolithic 684
Pavlovian culture 685, 688–9, 689–90, 693f, 693–4, 695–6, 697
portability and stasis 695–6
(p. 906) public vs. private art 696
regional and chronological overview 681–3
ritual, religion and shamanism 694–5
seriation, repetition, and individuality 693f, 693–4
subject matter 683
‘Venus horizon’ 685
Cerro Portezuelo Aztec site, Basin of Mexico 311
Cesarino, F. 117
Cesnola, L di P. 755, 762
Ch’uumat’a site, Vancouver Island 249
Chad 167f, 168–9
Chagar Bazar Late Halaf female figurines, Syria 580
chaînes opératoire approach 22, 688, 689, 692, 767
Chalandriani cemetery, Syros 640
Chalcatzingo, Mexico 289, 290, 305
Chalchiutlicue (Aztec goddess) 303, 307
Chalcolithic ceramic anthropomorph, Cyprus 758–9, 760f
Chambers ancestral Pueblo painted sandstone figurines, Arizona 332f, 332–3
Chancay cuchimilcos, Peru 398
Chanhu-daro figurines, Pakistan 510
Chapman, J. 22, 155, 827–9, 830, 831, 836, 837, 839, 844
Charlton, T. H. 310
Chase Burial site, mid-Fraser region, British Columbia 353
Chavín culture, Peru 395–6, 402, 407
Chavín de Huántar site, Peru 395–6
Cheetham, D. 252, 257, 263, 264, 266–7
Chen, X. 475
Cherry, J. E. 653
Chesson, M. 20
Chewa people 137–8, 138f
Chicomecoatl (Aztec goddess) 303
Chiconautla, Aztec site 304, 307, 310
Chimú culture, Peru 397–8
China 3, 4, 5, 469–89
ancestor worship 476–7
animal domestication 481
Anyang period 484, 484, 486–7, 488
background to developing a new approach 469–70
before the Neolithic 470–2
bronze ritual vessels, importance of 483–4, 484f
bronze vessels and figurative imagery 484–6, 485f
Central 476–8, 478f
‘Central Plains Bronze Age’ 483
cropping of sexual body parts 477
early Bronze Age figurines 483
Erligang Culture 484, 486
Erlitou Culture 483–4, 486
female ancestor worship 475
gender debates 474–5
Goddess/‘Female Spirit Temple’, Niuheliang 473f, 473–4
Hongshan Culture 472, 473f, 475, 476, 488
Houtaizi 476
human heads in northwest China 477–8, 478f
jade and other Bronze Age figurines 486–7, 487f
Majiayao Culture 479
map of site locations 471f
northeast (early China) 472–5, 473f
religious practices 482
shamans and shamanism 475, 477–8
Shang dynasty 484f, 484–5, 485f
Shijiahe site, Yangtze River 479–83, 480f, 489
stone and pottery phalluses 476–7
three-dimensional figurines and a two-dimensional world 479
Western Zhou period developments 487–8
Xinglongwa Culture 472
Yangshao Culture 479
Zhaobaogou Culture 472, 476
Chinamwali female initiation ceremony, Southern Africa 138f, 139
Chinchorro peoples, Andes 395
Chippindale, C. 644, 645, 652
Chivi district, Zimbabwe 136
Choc Point, St Lucia 203–4
Choga Bonut figurines, Iran 594, 594f, 595
Choga Mami figurine fragments, Iraq 579, 600
Choga Mish figurines, Iran 597, 598, 600, 601f, 602
(p. 907) Choga Sefid standing female figurine, Iran 597–8, 598f
Chogha Golan figurines, Iran 594
Cihuacoatl (Aztec goddess) 306, 307
Cihuatecpan, Aztec site 308, 315
Clark, R. 785
Clark, S. 19
Clark, T. J. 44, 46
Clerk’s Quarters, Benin City 162
Clottes, J. 694–5, 853
Coapexco Olmec-style figurines, Mexico 267, 268
Coatlicue (Aztec goddess) 307
Coe, M. D. 252, 253, 255–6, 257, 258, 264, 265
cohoba powder 197
Comalcalco, Maya site 227–8, 232
Comerette faces/masks, St Lucia 203, 204f
comparative perspectives in interpretation 37–57
analytical models, choosing between 47f, 50–1, 52f
context and comparison in current practice 39–41, 40f
contextualist misgivings about comparison 38–9
contextualization 37–8, 41
convergence of interpretations 42–3
deity as outcome of interpretation 55
direct transfers of information linkages 42
framework overview 52–3
Goddess construct 37–8, 40, 40f, 41, 54–5, 57
heuristic/substantive comparisons 39
iconographic mode 46, 55
linking contexts 42–3
logic of the framework for comparing collections 43–4
map of the signification of images 44–6, 45f
modes of analysis 46–9, 47f, 48f, 49f, 50f
Neolithic figurines from Jarmo and Tell Aswad compared 50f, 52f, 53–4, 55–7
plan for a more ambitious analysis 54–5
process of interpretation linkages 42
purpose/use analysis 46–7
results for the Neolithic of the Near East 55–7
surface/structural phenomenon 44–5
symbolic analysis 46–7, 55
symbolic/stylistic analysis 45–6, 49
synchronic vs diachronic perspectives 51
universals in human response linkages 42
window-on-society analysis 46, 54
Conca Illonis, Sardinia 803–4
Conkey, M. W. 688
Connah, G. 162, 172
Cook, A. G. 403
Cook, J. 852
Cook, James 369, 613, 615
Cooney, G. 457
Copper Age state/s, Iberia 884
Costa Rica 206
Cowboy Cave, Utah 322
Crawford, O. G. S. 877–8
Crkvine, Stubline, Serbia:
clay figurines and shaft-hole tools 823–6, 824f
miniature clay shaft-hole tools 823–6, 825f
smaller clay figurines 823–6, 824f
Crnobrjna, A. 834, 835
Croucher, K. 577
Cuauhtitlan, Mexico 312, 314
Cuba 196, 200–2, 201f
Cubagua Islands, Caribbean 197, 206
Cuexcomate Aztec site, Mexico 305, 309
Cuextlaxtlan, Veracruz 312
Cullen, T. 767
Cult Centre (House of Idols), Mycenae 675f, 676
Cuming, H. 615
Curaçao 197, 206
Cycladic figurines 6, 637–56
aesthetic questions 654–6
‘Akrotiri subvariety’ 654
Apeiranthos type (Type VI) 648
canonical figure 652–4, 653f, 655
‘centre of congregation’, Keros 650
Chalandriani variety 647, 647f
classification 645–8
development of research in the field 639–45, 643f, 644f
Dokathismata variety 638f, 647
Early Bronze Age 641–2, 643f
Early figurines 637–9, 638f, 641, 642, 648
Grotta-Pelos culture 641, 643f, 645–6
influence on avant-garde art 637
kandila 641
(p. 908) Kapsala variety 646, 647f
‘Kavos subvariety’ 654
Keros-Syros culture 641–2, 643f, 646–8, 651
Koumasa variety 634f, 647
Late Bronze Age 648, 650, 651
Louros type (Type III) 646
map 640f
‘masters’/sculptors 652–4
painted decoration 648–9
Phylakopi I culture 643f, 648
problems of authenticity 642–5, 644f
remaining problems 651
Saliagos culture 641
Special Deposits, Kavas, Keros 642, 649–50, 651, 653f
Spedos variety 647, 647f
Type V 644, 644f, 647–8
typological development of Early figurines 643f
uses and roles of 649–51
cylinder seals 78
Cyprus 4, 755–72
Aphrodite-like goddesses 760, 762
Astarte/Inanna-Ishtar interpretations 762, 763
Bronze Age 759–62, 764, 766–7, 770, 772
Chalcolithic cruciform figure, British Museum 757, 757f, 758
Chalcolithic period 758–9, 760, 765–6, 769
Cruciform figurines 27, 761–2, 765, 771
deities debate 764, 765
Early Cypriot Bellapais-Vounous 766, 767
figurine record 756f, 757f, 757–62, 759f, 760f, 761f, 762f, 763f
funerary contexts 766–8
gender 8, 768–70
Horned and Ingot Gods, Enkomi 767
identity 770–1
Kition Area II 767
Late Aceramic 758
‘Lemba Lady’ 765
Neolithic phase 758
Neolithic stone anthropomorph 758, 759f
oxhide ingot exports to Sardinia 818
plank figurines 10, 756f, 757, 759, 762
plank figurines and gender 768, 769–70
plank figurines and identity 770–1
plank figurines and ritual practices 763, 764, 765, 766, 766
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A/B periods 757–8, 760, 765
ritual practices 763–8, 772
White Painted Wheelmade III ware 767
Dabajuroid pottery-making sites, Caribbean 206
Daboya, Ghana 155
Dacal Moure, R. 200
Daems, A. 593
Dagora kôtomè figurines, Burkina Faso 171
Daima figurines, Nigeria 158, 158f, 159–9
Dall, W. H. 372
Dalmeri, G. 785
Dart, R. A. 138–9
Davaras, C. 665
Davis, Lucille Antowak (Kodiak Island elder) 373
Dawu, Ghana 156
De Lucia, K. 312–13
DeCorse, C. R. 157
Dederen, J.-M. 27, 142, 143
DeMarrais, E. 697
Derefaka, A. A. 163
Descola, P. 422
Devolved Urewe ware, Equatorial Africa 181
Dexter, M. 832–3
Dezhnev, Semyon 369
Dhang Rial, Sudan 94–5
Dhaskalio, Greece 642, 648, 650
Dhenia clay plank figurine, Cyprus 756f, 757, 759
Dholavira, Gujarat, India 493, 497, 511
Dhra’, Levant 556, 557, 559
figurines and phalli 548–9, 551, 554
Diamant Plage de Dizac early Saladoid figurines, Martinique 198f, 199
Diana Bellavista ‘cultures’, Italy 734
DiCapua, C. 41
Diehl, R. A. 252, 253, 255–6, 257, 258, 264, 265
Dikaios, P. 764
Dilley, R. 39
Dja’de el Mughara Equus bone figurines, Syria 571–2
(p. 909) Djaffarabad figurines, Iran 600
DNA analysis 13, 109, 117, 377, 381, 724, 731
Dogomboulo, Niger 109
Dogon wooden figures, West Africa 169–70
dogs 117, 121–2
Dokathismata, Amorgos Early Cycladic figurines 637, 638f, 654
Dolní Vĕstonice, Czech Republic 688–9, 690f, 693–4, 695, 866
Domuztepe, Anatolia 456–60
ambiguities and relationships 458–60, 459f
gender 458
manufacture and materials 456–8, 459f
sandstone phallus 448f
zoomorphic head figurine-pendants 450
Dongola, Sudan 88, 90, 91
Dongshanzui site, northeast China 474–5
Dorset culture, Canadian Paleo-Eskimo 12, 377–80, 378f
Dos Mosquises Island micro-contexts with figurines, Caribbean 208f
Douglas, M. 78
Doumas, C. 641
Dransart, P. 406
Drucker, P., classification of Olmec and epi-Olmec figurines 246–7, 247t, 250f, 252, 257, 259, 260, 261, 265
Duff, W. 346, 355
Duhard, J.-P. 863, 865
Dumeşti figurines, Romania 712f
Dum-Gar-Parchineh standing female figurine, Iran 601, 602f
Dümmler, Ferdinand 640
Durán, F. D. 308, 312
Easter Island 4, 8, 613–32
anthropomorphs, naturalistic 620f
anthropomorphs, stereotyped 624f, 625
ao 618, 624f, 625
beings with two heads or two bodies 622–4
bird man ceremony 621
carvers (Tahonga), place in society 629
carver’s tools 629
clear message of figurines 632
common characteristic of different types of statuette 618–20
driftwood 631
ethnohistorical documentation 615–17
knowledge of figurines 613–14
makoi wood 630–1
mata kaokao 624f, 625
moai kavakava (ribs) 618, 625, 626f, 626–7, 630, 631
moai moko (lizard man) 618, 619, 625, 627, 628f, 630
moai papa (flat) 618, 619, 625–6, 626f, 631
moai tangata (man) 618, 620, 621, 630
moai tangata manu (bird-man) 618, 619f, 620, 625, 628–9
myth of the origin of wooden statuettes 614–15
non-stereotyped chimaeras 628–9
rapa 618, 624f, 625
rat-man 628f, 628
reimiro pendant 618, 623f, 623–4
‘rongorongo’ writing 614, 632
Santiago Staff 614
social ‘collapse’ 632
Sophora toromiro wood 630
stereotyped chimaeras 627–8, 628f
supernatural beings and chimaeras 625–7
trees and missionaries 631
types of wood used 629–30
ua staff 514, 622–3, 623f
zoomorphs 621, 622f
Eastern and Central Europe, Neolithic 705–24
anthropomorphic vessels 708, 710–11, 712–13
archaeological contexts 717–20
Balkanic (Southeast European) impact 707, 708, 709–10, 711–13, 714, 723–4
burials 719–20
centaur figures 710
Cucuteni-Tripolje cultural complex 713, 716, 721
cult corners 719, 721
decline of figurine production 717
fifth millennium in the North 716–17
geographic and temporal considerations 706
‘goddess’ figures 708
implications for archaeological finds and cultural change 722–4
(p. 910) Körös- Criş culture 708
Later Neolithic figurines, Central and Northwest 714–16, 716f
Later Neolithic figurines, South 714
Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture 707, 716, 720, 721, 723
Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Earlier 709–10
Linearbandkeramik (LBK) LBK, Later 710–13
Lengyel culture 714–15, 715f, 716, 720
local impacts 708, 710–13, 712, 717, 723–4
Magna Mater cult 705
map 706f
Méhtelek group flat figurines 708, 709f, 712
‘Notenkopf’ group 713
overview of finds 707–17
problematic research history 705–6
settlement 718–19
Starčevo culture 708, 720–1
Starčevo-Körös cultures 709
Szakálhát group 713
‘transitional’ representations 720–2
Tisza culture 714, 716, 717, 721
‘Venus of Gorzsa’ 708
Vinĉa cultural complex 711, 721
Edwards, D. N. 93, 94
Egede, Hans 384
Eghazer, Niger 113
Egypt, Early Dynastic period 66
Egypt, predynastic 3, 10, 118–19, 63–79
absence of figures 77–9
Badarian cemeteries 67–8
‘bird-headed’ figurines 68–9, 72, 73, 74–5
‘bird lady’, Brooklyn Museum 63, 64f
‘body turn’ in social sciences 74
coarse-ware vessels 78
chronology 64t
contextual and material performances 71–7, 73f, 76f
defining the corpus 65–7
‘doll’ references 64–5
emotional attention within ritual practice 65, 75
Levantine imports 78
pit burials 66
production, form and decoration 67–71, 68f, 70f
sets of objects 72
‘vegetable paste’ 69–70, 75
Egyptian New Kingdom 91
el-Amrah, Egypt 66, 72
el-Ghaba, Sudan 91, 93
el-Kadada, Sudan 91–2, 92–3
figurine from grave of a child 92f, 92–3
el-Khiam, Levant figurines 549
el-Ma’amerieh tombs, Egypt 186 72
bird-headed figurines 69, 70, 72, 75
‘bird-lady 63, 64f
tomb 2 72
el-Mahasna Tomb H.41 figurine, Egypt 75–7, 76f
El Mirador, Maya site 225
el-Muweis, Sudan 94, 95
El Perú-Waka burial 39 figurines, Guatemala 235–7, 237f, 239
Enkomi Horned and Ingot Gods, Cyprus 764, 767
Ensisheim ‘les Octrois’ anthropomorphous metapodia, France 188f
Entebbe figurine, Uganda 181, 187
equatorial Africa 179–89
cannon bone usage as dolls 183–7, 184f, 185f, 187–8, 188f
Classic Kisalian period 182–7, 183f, 184f, 185f
comparative perspectives 187–8, 188f
Tandou-Yombi clay figurine 181
Erfurt anthropomorphic vessels, Germany 711
Eridu ‘ophidian’ figurines, Iraq 582, 583f
Erligang Culture, China 484, 486
Erlitou Culture, China 483–4, 486
Esie stone female figure, Nigeria 161f, 162
Esilao figurines, British Columbia 355–6
es-Sifiya figurines, Levant 552, 558
es-Sour figurine fragments, Sudan 92, 93f
pot burials 92
Estella, Bienvenido de 617
Etlatongo, Nochtixtlán Valley, Mexico 278
ballplayer figurines 282, 282, 292
contortionist figurine (LEF) 282, 282f
EEF figurines 277f, 278
LEF figurines 278, 279–81, 280f
MF figurine 288f
(p. 911) Olmec-style figurines (LEF) 267, 281f, 282–1
sex and gender 279–80
Eurasian wolf 117
Evans, A. J. 661, 669
Evans, C. 424
Evans, S. T. 308
Everton Farm, Zimbabwe 135, 144
‘eye idols’, Iberia 884–7, 885f, 886f
Eyo, E. 170
Eyraud, E. 613–14, 615–16
Fábrica San José figurines (MF), Mesoamerica 286–7
Fali people, Cameroon 171
Farafra Oasis anthropomorphic clay figurines, Hidden Valley, Sahara 113, 114f, 118–19, 120
Field (Gormley sculptures) 660–1
figurine research 3–14
as ‘art’ 5
context and use 6
definition and ‘meaning’ 4–6
‘figurines as process’ 5
gender, sex, age, the body and personhood 8–9
interdisciplinary approaches 13
magical role 13–14
manufacture 11–12
materiality 7
medicine and healing 13
miniaturization 8–9
power 9–10
ritual roles 5
senses and performance 11
‘state’ of 12–14
toys 5
visual ‘synecdoche’ 13, 689
Flinders Petrie, W. M. 69, 73
Folkton drums, Yorkshire, UK 879–80
Follensbee, B. J. A. 252, 253, 256, 263
Forster, G. 615, 616
Fourie, H. C. M. 139
Fowler, C. 155
France:
Mid Upper Palaeolithic ‘Venus’ figurines 858t, 861–70
Paris basin clay figurines 882–4, 883f, 893t
‘vase supports’ 882
Franchthi Cave, Greece 20, 639–40
Freedberg, D. 42
Freidel, D. 237
Fremont culture, Utah 329f, 329–30
Pillings figurines 329f, 329–30
rock paintings 329–30
French, E. 673
Fugazzola Delpino, M. A. 788
Fumane cave stone spalls, Italy 684
Fur people, Sudan 97–9, 100
circumcision rituals 99f
Furumark, A. 672
Gajiganna clay figurines, Nigeria 157–8, 158f
‘Galgenberg Venus’ 685, 853–6, 854t, 855f
Gallegos Gómora, M. J. 232
Gamble, C. 689, 853, 870
Ganj Dareh figurines, Iran 594
Gao region, Mali 166
Garciá Payón, J. 256
Garlake, P. 161
Garstang, J. 554
Garstang, J. B. E. 554
Gaukönigshofen figurine, Bavaria 711f
Gaussen, J. 112, 166
Gaussen, M. 112
Gauthier, J. G. 171
Gaydarska, B. 155, 827–9, 830, 831, 836, 837, 839, 844
Gebel, H. G. 552
Gebelein, Egypt 72
Geertz, C. 86, 96
Geiseler, Wilhelm 616
Geissenklösterle Cave relief, Germany 853, 854t, 855–6, 857
Gell, A. 275, 332, 337, 670
Germany, Mid-Upper Palaeolithic Venus figurines 859t, 861–70
Getz-Preziosi, P. 652–4, 655
Gezer, Israel 187
Ġgantija, Malta 735, 736f, 746
Ghana 154f, 154–7, 172
Koma Land 155, 160, 170–1, 173
Koma mounds 24
Ghelăieşti assemblage, Romania 713
Gheorghui, D. 827
Gill, D. W. J. 644, 645, 652
Gillespie, S. 290
(p. 912) Gimbutas, M. 5, 37, 555, 556, 705, 720, 733, 748, 830–1, 832, 835, 844
Giraudy, St Lucia 203
Gism el-Arba, Sudan 90–1, 95
Gladwin, H. S. 325
Glenrose Cannery site, Fraser River, British Columbia 349, 351
Göbekli Tepe, Turkey 443, 448, 718
carved pillars 452, 554–5, 562
stone carvings 571
Goldstein, M. M. 226
Gönnersdorf female figurines, Germany 860t, 872
González, Felipe 613, 615
González Morales, M. R. 695
Gonzalez-Ruibals, A. 839
Goodison, L. 662
Goring, E. 766
Gormley, Anthony 660–1
Gottschling, E. 137
Goulfeil figurines, Chad 167f, 169
Graziosi, P. 784
Great Enclosure, Great Zimbabwe 135–6
Greenland, and Late Dorset culture 383f, 383–5
Gritille Höyük, Anatolia 448, 548
Grooved Ware, Late Neolithic 879
Grotta della Beata Vergine de Frasassi, ‘Frasassi Venus’, Italy 780–1
Grotta delle Veneri ‘Parabita Venuses’, Italy 779f, 779–80
Grotta di Cala Scizzo, head with ‘vulva’ motif, Italy 788–9, 793
Grotta di Monte Meana plaque figurine, Santadi, Sardinia 802f
Grotta di Sa Ucca ‘e su Tintirriolu plaque figurine, Sardinia 803
Grotta Pacelli, Italy 789f, 790
Grotta Patrizi anthropomorphous metapodia, Cerverteri, Italy 187, 188f
Grotta Pirosu-Su Benatzu, Sardinia 817–18
Grove, D. 290
Guadeloupe 205
Gualupita, Mesoamerican site 283, 285
Guilliem Arroyo, S. 306, 310
Guinea 152–3, 153f
Guthrie, R. D. 852
Haaland, R. 91, 93–4
Hachi, S. 108, 120
Hacienda Blanca figurines (EEF), Oaxaca Valley 276–7, 277f, 287, 293
Hacienda Grande early Saladoid figurines, Puerto Rico 198, 198f
Ħaġar Qim, Malta 732
sea monster head 749–50f
stone heads 735, 736f, 746
terracotta ‘Venus’ 735, 737f
twinned figures 746
Haida people, Pacific Northwest Coast 345, 360
Hajji Firuz, Iran 548
stylized sexless figurines 598f, 598–9
Ħal Saflieni, Malta:
animal and other figurines 747, 748, 749–50f
Hypogeum 732
‘Sleeping Lady’ 735, 739f, 745
stone heads 735, 736f, 746
Hala Sultan Tekke earring figurine, Cyprus 759, 762f
Hall, S. L. 145
Hallan Çemi, Anatolia 443
Hallstatt period Hochtorf burial, Germany 744
Halperin, C. T. 226–7
Hamangia clay figurines, Romania 839, 841f
Hamilton, C. 135
Hamilton, N. 453, 454–5
Han dynasty, China 480
Hanisch, E. O. M. 131
Hansen, S. 831, 835, 836, 837
Hanwa inselberg, Nigeria 164, 171
Harappa, Punjab, Pakistan 4, 497
anthropomorphic figurines 501–4, 502f, 504f, 512, 514
Archaeological Research Project (HARP) 493
figurines 12, 497–9, 498f, 500
special forms figurines 507–9, 508f
zoomorphic figurines 505–7, 506f, 507f
Hardie, R. 831
Hattingh, S. 145
Haury, E. W. 321, 328, 324–5, 327
Hay, C. 278
Hayashioji globular jar, Japan 529f, 532
(p. 913) Hays-Gilpin, K. 331
Hendon, J. 230–1
Hendrix, E. A. 648
‘henwas’ (stone sculptures), Klamath Basin 358–9
Hera (Greek goddess) 672
Hewitt, G. 354
Heyerdahl, T. 360
Hierakonpolis, Egypt 66
HK6 72
Highland Formative (Early to Middle Formative), Mesoamerica 275–8
concepts 274–5
map 274f
synthesis 290–3
‘tonsured caciques’ 291
Highland Formative Early Formative figurines (EEF), Mesoamerica 275–86, 290–1, 294
Central Mexico contexts 278
Central Mexico form and style 278
Hay-Vaillant figurine typology 278
Oaxaca contexts 276–8, 277f
Oaxaca form and style 276–8
‘Olmec style’ 276, 291–2
Texi figurines 278
Yoxi figurines 277–8
Highland Formative Middle Formative (MF) figurines, Mesoamerica 286–90, 292–3
Central Mexico contexts 289–90
Central Mexico exotic styles and special subjects 290
Central Mexico form and style 289
Oaxaca contexts 286–8, 288f
Oaxaca exotic and special subjects 288
Oaxaca form and style 287–8, 288f
Type Zaa figurines 287, 288f, 289
Highland Formative Late Early figurines (LEF), Mesoamerica 278–86
Central Mexico contexts 283–6, 284f, 291, 292
Central Mexico exotic styles and special subjects 285–6
Central Mexico form and style 283–5
Central Mexico Olmec style 285–6
Huayo figurines 281
hollow figurines 279, 282
Niyo figurines 281
Oaxaca contexts 278–82, 280f, 281f, 282f, 291–2, 293
Oaxaca exotic styles and special subjects 281–2
Oaxaca form and style 279–81
Pilli group figurines 285, 286
Piye figurines 281
sex and gender 283
Himba people, Equatorial Africa 183
Hina-kauhara (first woman, Easter Island) 623
Hispaniola 196, 197, 200, 202
Hodder, I. 27, 54, 453, 456, 554–5, 555–6
Hoffman, G. L. 648, 649
Hoggar, Algeria 108, 113
Hohle Fels, Germany:
‘lion man’, 854t, 856–7
‘Venus’, Germany 684, 685, 854t, 857–61, 859t, 861f
Hohlenstein-Stadel Lowenmensch 9, 854t, 856
Hohokam culture and their predecessors 10, 323–8, 324f, 325t, 326f, 338, 339
breakage 327
chronological periods and phases 325t
Colonial Period 327, 328
Gila Butte Phase 326f, 327–8
Pioneer Period 324f, 328
Sacaton Phase 7, 326f, 327–8
Sedentary Period 326f, 327
sites 21–2
Vahki Phase 324f, 328
Hoko site, Washington State 357–8
Holguín, Cuba 200
Holm, B. 346, 348
Holmes, K. 777, 786, 788, 790
Holmul burial 21 figurines, Maya 233–4, 235f, 239
Holy, L. 39
Hongshan Culture, China 472, 473f, 475, 476, 488
Hooper Ranch cache, New Mexico 3–4, 335f
Hopi kachina carvings 333
Hopi kachina dolls 338
Horcajada Campos, P. 227
Horvat ‘Illin, Israel 187
Hotu Matua (legendary king of Easter Island) 614, 629, 630
Hou burial site, Cameroon 171
(p. 914) Houston, S. 231
Houtaizi site, China 476
Höyücek Höyük bone head on clay figurine, Levant 449
Huaka/Huacha idols 392, 393f
Huexotla, Aztec site 308–9
Huffman, T. N. 131, 135–6
human sacrifice 87, 401
Inca capacocha sacrifices 406, 407
Huntington, R. 100
Iberia:
‘eye idols’ 884–7, 885f, 886f
betilos/baetyls 887
‘idols’ 884–8, 885f, 886f
Schematic Art 890
Iberomaurusian cultural sphere 107, 108
Ichik Wilkawaín effigy figurine, Peru 403f
Igbo’Laja clay head, Owo, Nigeria 161f, 162
Igloolik Island, Thule pendant 371f
Ilet Madame head, Martinique 204f, 205
Ilorin anthropomorphic figurine, Nigeria 161f, 163
Imojiya fantastical figurine, Japan 529f, 530, 532
Inca culture, Peru 398, 404–6, 405f, 407
capacocha sacrifices 406, 407
Indus civilization 4, 5, 6, 12, 493–514
anthropomorphic figurines, Harappa 501–4, 502f, 504f
archaeological contexts 496f, 499–500
chronology and Harappa 495t, 495–7, 496f
‘Dancing Girl’ bronze figure 496f, 500
‘Figure 8’ forms 502f, 503
gender 501, 503, 512
Gomal Valley-type figurines 498f, 499
hairstyles and headdresses 501–2, 502f, 503, 510
Harappa Phase 500–11
Kot Dijian Period 497–9, 498f, 501
Kulli-type figurines 498f, 499
map of major sites of the Integration Era 494f
materialization of the Indus body 511–13
Mohenjo-daro sculptures and figurines 496f, 500, 509–10, 511
‘Mother Goddess’ figurines 510, 513
musical performance 514
origins 497–9, 498f
other Indus sites 509–11
pet birds 506f, 506
‘Priest King’ stone bust 496f, 500
Ravi Aspect, Hakra Phase 497, 498f
religion 513–14
shamans and shamanism 513, 514
special form figurines, Harappa 507–9, 508f
unicorns 508f, 509
water buffalo figurines 501
Zebu figurines 498f, 499, 501, 505, 509, 510
Zhob-type figurines 498f, 499
zoomorphic figurines, Harappa 505–7, 506f, 507f
Ingold, T. 817
Ingombe Ilede, Rydings Farm, South Africa 140
Inland Niger Delta terracottas, Mali 164, 173–4
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) 13, 305, 311, 315
Inugat 367–85
Alaska cultural history 374–7, 375f, 376f
Aleut culture 369
Ammassalik Innuit, Greenland 384
Arctic culture history chart 370f
Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) 369
Arctic Small Tool tradition Denbigh culture 377
Birnik culture 377
Canadian Paleo-Eskimos 377–8, 378f
Dorset culture, Canadian Paleo-Eskimo 369, 377–80, 378f
ethnography of human figurines 372–3
gender indicators 373
Greenland and Late Dorset culture 383f, 383–5
hooded parkas 373, 380, 382
inuksuk, Thule culture 381, 382f
Inupiaq culture 368f, 368, 369, 371f, 377
Inupiaq culture drag handle 371f, 372
Kachemak culture 374
Kachemak culture, portrait carving 371, 371f
Kachemak culture, portrait of an elder 371, 371f
(p. 915) Koniag culture 369
Koniag culture birthing amulet figurine 374, 375, 375f
Koniag culture incised pebble 374, 375f
Labrador Inuit women carrying meat tub 371f, 373
map 370f
Norse contact 384
Ocean Bay II culture 374
Okvik culture figurines 374–7, 376f
Old Bering Sea culture 377, 368–9
Pre-Dorset culture 369
Prehistoric Aleut figurines 374, 375f
Punuk culture figurines 375–6, 376f
Punuk culture figure with hunting visor 371f, 372
Saqqaq culture 369
shamans and shamanism 376f, 376–7, 379–80, 384
Spirit of the Person of the Universe’ (Slaowikmiu- Tomerak [Ellam Yua Tuunraq) 373
Thule culture 369, 371f, 372, 377, 380–2, 382f, 384
Tuniit people 380
tupilaq figurines 383f, 384–5
Yup’ik culture 368f, 368, 369, [link] f, 372, 373, 374, 375, 384
Yup’ik ceremonial house model 371f, 373
Yup’ik dolls 373
Inupiaq people 369
human/bird figure 368f, 369, 372
Inupiat of Point Barrow, Alaska 372
Ipiutak culture, North American Arctic 369
baby walrus 374
Ippolitoni-Strika, F. 593
Ipponmatsu slab-shaped figurine, Japan 529f, 530, 535, 536, 537
Iran 591–606
defining figurines 592–3
Early Ceramic to Middle Neolithic 595–9, 596f, 598f, 599f
Early to Middle Chalcolithic period 600–3, 601f, 602f, 603f
gender 592, 604
interpreting the figurines 603–6
‘ophidian’ figurines 601, 602
Proto-Neolithic and Aceramic Neolithic 594f, 594–5
women’s life cycles 604–6
Italy 777–94
Balkan tradition 785, 786
Balzi Rossi figurines 781
‘coat-hanger’/’crutch’ type 786–7, 792
‘Frasassi Venus’ 780–1
map 778f
Mesolithic 782f, 782–3
Neolithic and Early Copper age 783–93, 785f, 787f, 789f, 793f
painted pottery 791
‘Parabita Venuses’ 779f, 779–80
‘Savignano Venus’ 781
Sicilian figurines 788
Square-Mouthed Pottery Culture (VBQ) 786, 787, 788, 789, 791–2
‘Trasimeno Venus’ 781
Upper Palaeolithic 777–81, 779f
‘Venus of Chiozza’ 784
Vhò culture 786, 788, 791
Ittiri bronzetto, Sassari, Sardinia 813
Itzamna (Sun God) 230
Iuktas, Crete 666
Ivic de Monterroso, M. 225
Ivory Coast assongu figurine 167f
Iwinrin Grove, Ife, Nigeria 160
Ixchel, moon goddess 229–30
Jabobsen, J. 373
Jaina Island, Maya site 232–3
Janruwa area, Nigeria 159
Jansen, G. 171
Japan, Jomon period 9, 11, 521–41, 840, 841, 842f
chronological periods 521
Chubu region 523, 528, 534, 535, 536, 539
climax 528–35, 529f, 531f
decline and continuation 535–6
Early period 521, 526f, 528, 530
emergence and development 525–8, 526f
Ento-kei-kaigara-mon horizon 525
fantastic/transformative figurines 524, 529f, 530, 532, 534, 535, 539, 540, 541
female figurines 424, 525–6, 526f, 527–8, 529f, 529, 531, 534, 536, 540–1
(p. 916) Final period 521, 536, 538f, 540, 541
free-standing figurines 528–9, 531, 534–5
‘goggle-eyed’ figurines 536, 538f, 540
Honshu island 523, 528
Incipient period 521, 525, 526f, 532
Initial period 521, 525–7, 526f, 532
Kanto region 521, 525, 528, 532, 536, 538, 539, 540
Kinki region 522, 525, 528
Kyushu region 523, 525, 528, 532, 536, 539
Late period 521, 523, 536–40, 537f, 541
Middle period 521, 523, 528–36, 529f, 537, 539, 541
masked figurine 537f, 537, 539, 540
mobility patterns 526–7, 528, 532–3
regional divisions and names 522f
settlement ‘collapse’ 523, 535, 539
settlement patterns and hierarchies 523, 530–1, 531f, 532–4, 538–40
slab-shaped figurines 530
‘squatting’ figurines 537f, 538, 539, 540
Tohoku region 523, 528, 530, 535, 536, 537, 538, 540
transformation and disappearance 536–40, 537f, 538f
unmediatedness 525–6, 528
Yori-ito-mon horizon 525
Jarmo, Iraq:
female figurines 574, 575f, 575
PPN clay figurines 49, 50f, 53–4, 55–7
Jebel Moya, Sudan 94, 95
Jebel Uweinat, Sahara 118
Jenné-jeno figurines, Mali 164–5, 165f, 172
Jericho 554
Palestine anthropomorphous metapodia 187, 188f
statues 558, 560f
Jessup North Pacific Expedition 346, 360
Jettböle fired clay figurines, Åland islands 891–2, 892f
John, Paul (Yup’ik elder) 373
Jolly, P. 135
Jonuta, Maya:
couple figurines 228–31, 229f
whistle vent construction patterns 224f, 225
Joyce, R. 5, 25, 74, 129, 447, 451–2, 660
Jullien, Louis Alexandre 781
Kadero, Sudan 91, 93, 94
Kadruka, Sudan 87–8
sandstone figurines 87, 88f
Kalabari people, Opongi mask, West Africa 163
Kalous, M. 153
Kamikurokoma animal-faced figurine, Japan 529f, 530, 532
Kansu (Gansu) mortuary urns, China 477–8, 478f
Kaplan, F. 306–7
Kapova cave paintings, Russia 683
Karageorghis, J. 755, 756, 672
Karajá ‘dolls, Amazon’ 419f, 420
Karanovo VI culture site, Dolnoslav, Bulgaria 827–8
Karkarichinkat figurines, Mali 121, 164, 165f, 172
Karlsruhe exhibition (1976) 652
Kayapó Xikrin people, Southern Amazon 424
Kayumi-Ijiri figurine, Japan 525, 526f
Kazahari squatting figurine, Japan 537f, 538
Kazaphani- Ayios Andronikos zoomorphic vessel, Cyprus 759, 761f
Ke ‘mask head’, Nigeria 163
Keding, B. 90
Keech McIntosh, S. K. 170
Kephala burials, Kea 641
Keresan Town chiefs, North America, Southwest 338
Kerma kingdom, Sudan 90–1, 95
Keros 10
‘centre of congregation’ 650
Cycladic head 637, 639f, 654–5
harpist and flautist 644f
Special Deposits, Kavas 642, 649–50, 651, 653f
Kerr, J. 230
Khami ruins, stylized human figurines, Southern Africa 134f, 142
Kharabeh Shattani, Iraq 580
Khirokitia Neolithic stone anthropomorph, Cyprus 758, 759f
Ki te Vuhi o Atua (Easter Island goddess) 630
(p. 917) King, J. H. 327
Kinone-Takumi figurine, Japan 525, 526f
Kintampo tradition, Ghana 154
Kissi area, Guinea 152–3
Kissi 3 anthropomorphic torso, Burkina Faso 165f, 166
Kissonerga-Mosphilia, Cyprus 762, 765–6
Chalcolithic ceramic anthropomorph 758–9, 760f
Kissonerga-Skalia, Cyprus 761
Klein, C. F. 302, 303, 307
Knapp, A. B. 770
Knappett, C. 660
Knoche, Walter 617
Knossos, Crete 661, 669
Kofinas, Crete ‘figures’ 667
Koma Land, Ghana 155, 160, 170–1, 173
mounds 24
Kontoleon, Nikolaos 641
Koriabo pottery, Caribbean 197
Körös culture, Hungary 4, 708
Körtik Tepe carved stone plaques, Mesopotamia 571
Köşk Höyük, Anatolia 449, 450, 456, 460
Kostenki ‘head’, Markina Gora 684
Kostenki I ivory female figurine, Russia 691, 692f
Kosugi, Y. 529
kouroi, ancient Greece 655
Kozlowski, S. K. 785
Krzyzaniak, L. 93
Kubler, G. 44
Kuijt, I. 20
Kulubele, South Africa 143–4
Kuntasi figurines, Gujarat 511
Kushite kingdom, Napata 91
Kuwashima, Tsunaki, negative print of Middle Jōmon Period 840, 842, 842f, 845
Kwakwakawak’w (Kwakiutl) people, Pacific Northwest Coast 357, 360
Kwatna figure, British Columbia 354, 355f, 360
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa 137, 144
La Blanca, Maya site 227
La Joya, Olmec site 254–5, 257
La Marmotta stone figurine, Italy 784, 785f
La Monserrate figurine, Luquillo 199
La Patana, Cuba 200
La Pijotilla, Spain 887
limestone ‘eye idols’ 884, 885f
La Venta, Mexico 262, 265
Middle Formative torsos 260–2, 261f
Offering 4 404
Olmec and epi-Olmec figurines 246–52, 250f, 259, 260
Lacqueur, R. 547
‘Lady of Comalcalco’ figurines, Maya 232
Lafogido’s Compound figurines, Ife, Nigeria 160, 161f, 161–2
Lagon Doux early Saladoid torso, Trinidad 198f, 199
Lamp. F. J. 153, 170
Landuman people, West Africa 183
Lapérouse, Jean-François Galaup de 613, 615, 630
lapis lazuli 78
Lapithos-Vrysi tou Barba cemetery, Cyprus 770
Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 107, 684, 685, 687, 688, 697
Lathrap, D. 436
Latour, B. 314
Lavachery, Henri 617
Lazarovici, C. M. 833, 835
Lazarovici, G. 833
Le Quellec, J.-L. 113, 121
Leach, E. R. 97
Lee, M. 385
Leggett, J. 164
Lemba people, Southern Africa 143
Leopard’s Kopje, Zimbabwe 136, 140, 143
Leroi-Gourhan, A. 864, 868, 869
Les Roques Archipelago Ocumaroid/Valencioid figurines, Venezuela 206–8, 207f, 210
Lesotho women 142
Lespugue Venus, France 858t, 862, 863, 864f, 865
Lesure, R. G. 5, 85, 268, 547, 574
Levantine Neolithic 12, 545–63
ambiguity and signalling 558–9
bodies and identities 546–7
changing social and ritual roles 557–8
(p. 918) emerging face: personhood and identity 559, 560f
Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (EPPNB) 551
frequency, size and archaeological interpretation of figurines 555–7
Goddess and Bull 553–4
Goddess worship 555–6
interpretation and miniaturization 559–61
Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B/Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (LPPNB/PPNC) 548, 551, 552, 553, 557, 558, 561
map of Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites 549f
Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (MPPNB) 551–2, 553–4, 557–9, 560, 560f, 561, 562
Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (MPPNB), anthropomorphic/zoomorphic imagery 550f
mortuary practices 558–9
phallocentrism 554–5, 555–6, 556–7, 562
Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) 548, 559
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) 548–51, 553, 554, 556–7, 560, 561
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), anthropomorphic/zoomorphic imagery 550f
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), Natufian compared 553
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) 551–2, 553–4, 562
sex and gender 547, 558
shifting material systems of imagery 550f
socio-economic contexts 548
tracking imagery 547–8
zoomorphic figurines 561, 552, 553–4
Lévi-Strauss, C. 189, 409
Lewis-Williams, D. 694–5
Liberia 152–3
Ligers, Z. 164
Lillios, K. 890
Lilliu, G. 800, 804, 809, 812
Linn, A. J. 385
Lisle de Dreneuc, P. 433
Liu, L. 472, 477
Lo Schiavo, F. 811, 816
Looper, M. G. 230
López-Varela, S. L. 227
Los Millares funerary idols, Spain 886–7
Lothal figurines, Gujarat 511
Loti, P. 615, 616
Loubser, J. H. N. 136
Louvre Museum, Paris Keros Cycladic head 637, 639f, 654–5
Lower Pecos, Rio Grande, Texas 323
Loze, I. 831, 834, 835
Luba people, Central Africa 182, 186
phallic-shaped dolls 186f, 187
Luzira Head, Kampala, Uganda 180f, 180–1
Lydenburg Heads, Zimbabwe 135, 136
Macao figurines, Santo Domingo 202
MacDonald, G. 360
Macdonald, R. 429
Machaquilá region, Guatemala:
ceramic moulds 222–4, 223f
couple figurines 228–31, 229f
MacIntyre, A. 96–7
Mack, J. 660
MacLachlan, B. 769
MacRae, I. 380
Macuilxochitl (Aztec god) 307
Macuixochitl-Xochipilli (Aztec god) 303
Madella, M. 89
Madjari, Macedonia 718
Maedakochi, Tokyo, Japan 527
Magogo figurines with body scarification, Southern Africa 144f
Mahasna, Egypt 72
block 3 66–7, 71
Mahasneh, H. 552
Mainz Linsenberg Venuses, Germany 859t, 866
Majiayao Culture, China 479
Makah people, Washington State 354, 357
Makemake (Easter Island creator god) 623, 627, 628
Makhoakhoa goatherders, Southern Africa 135
Makinde people, Tanzania 99
Mali 164–6, 165f
Malta 729–50
abbreviated and symbolic figurines 747–8, 749f
(p. 919) animal and other figures 748, 749–50f
bed figures 739f, 744–6
dynamic figures and large statues 736f, 741f, 746–7
evolution of figurines 734–42, 736f, 737f, 738f, 739f, 740f, 741f
Għar Dalam tradition 734
map of locations and sites 730f
mother goddess 733
range and interpretation 732–3, 733f
Red Skorba phase 731f, 734
skirted figurines 741f, 742–3
skirted stick figures 738f, 740f, 743–4
small terracotta human figures 737f, 742
Tarxien cemetery culture 734–5, 742
Temple Period 6, 730, 732, 734–5, 747
time, place and context 729–32, 731f
Zebbuġ phase 733f, 734
Manchay culture, Andes 399f, 399–400
Mantegna, A. 43–4
Mapungubwe Hill, South Africa 135, 136, 143
figurines with body scarification 144f
stylized human figurines 134f, 142
Maracá burial urns, Brazil 205
Marajoara figurines, Amazon 8, 418, 424–9, 425f, 428f
stylistic differences with Santarém 432–3
Marcus, J. 267, 277, 287
Margarita, Caribbean 197, 206
María de la Cruz Cave, Puerto Rico 198
Maria Moaçara (Tapajó princess) 432
Maritime Beaker pottery 890–1
Marler, J. 831–2, 833, 844
Marondera, Zimbabwe 136
Marpole site, Vancouver, British Columbia 352–3
Marshack, A. 853, 865, 869, 870
Marshall, J. H. 507
Martin, L. 27
Martinique 198f, 199, 204f, 205
Massacré, St Lucia 203
Matenga, E. 135, 142
Maués Indians, Brazil 433
Maya, Mesoamerica 10, 11, 221–39
aspects of construction 225, 223f, 224f
background 221–2
couple figurines 228–31
figurine paste characteristics 225–8
figurines and sound 225
figurines as indicators of ritual meaning 238–9
gender assignment 228
hieroglyphic inscriptions 228
imagery: subject, depiction and theme 228–31, 229f
Jaina Island style 226
map 222f
Museo de Jonuta collection 227
ritual economy, aspects of 232
ritual occurrences with figurines 232–7, 234f, 235f, 236f, 237f
social roles for figurines 231–2
Mazapan figurines, Aztec contexts 304, 314
Mazatán region Olmec-style figurines, Mexico 266
Mboma people, Congo region 181
McDermott, L. 26, 869–70
McIntosh, R. J. 170
McKusick, M. B. 203, 204
Meggers, B. 423, 424
Mehrgarh, Balochistan 497
Méhtelek flat figurines, Hungary 708, 709f
Mekiri supernatural figurine, Japan 530
Mellaart, J. 27, 453, 555, 556
Melos 639–40
Mercer, B. 358
Merimde, Egypt 67
Meroe, Sudan 95
Meskell, L. 5, 129, 143, 316, 447, 451, 453, 454, 456, 554–5, 555–6, 557, 770
Mesopotamia 12, 567–85
Aceramic Neolithic 571–4, 584
animal figurines 569
breakage of figurines 570
Ceramic Neolithic 574–6, 584, 596–7
gender 570, 584
Late Neolithic: Hassuna/Samarran/Halaf 576–81
map 568f
mother goddesses 570, 580
‘ophidian’ figurines 579–80, 582–3, 583f
Ubaid 9, 579, 581–3
Metcalf, P. 100
Métraux, Alfred 617
(p. 920) Mezhirich, Eastern Europe 696
Mezraa-Teleilat phallic pieces, Anatolia 448
milayo teachings, Southern Africa 143
Milenković, M. 835, 836
Miller, M. E. 229–30
Millian, A. C. 306, 307
Milliken site, British Columbia 350, 355–6
Mina, M. 835–6
Mina Perdida, Peru:
effigy figure 399f, 399–400
Manchay figurine 7
minkisi, Congo people, Equatorial Africa 179
Minoan (Bronze Age) 659–72, 676
Aegean figurines 661–2
ancestor worship 664
bronze 670–2
Early period vessel figurines 662–4
elite figures and figurines 669–72
faience 669–70
‘figurines’ and ‘figures’ 659–60, 676
forming figurines 666–7
gesture 668
‘Goddesses with Upraised Arms’ 676
hair and headgear 667–8
healing (medical votives) 668–9
human-animal relations 662
ivory 670
lost wax technique 670
miniaturization and distillation 660
‘Mother Goddess’ figurines 661–2, 669
peak sanctuary figurines 13, 664–9
production 665–6
‘salute’ 671–2, 672f
Snake Goddess figurines 5, 661, 669–70
vertically-split body 668–9
mintadi/bitumba stone statues, Congo region 181–2
Mitchell, W. J. T. 17–18
Mithen, S. 555
Mnajdra temple symbolic figurines, Malta 13, 747, 749–50f
Moche culture, Peru 400–1, 408
‘Warrior Narrative’ 401
Modigliani, Amedeo 637
Mohenjo-daro sculptures and figurines, Indus civilization 4, 496f, 500, 509–10, 511
‘Mona Lisa’ head, Dolní Vĕstonice I, Czech Republic 689, 690f
Mongelluzzo, R. W. 233
Monpazier Venus, France 858t, 865
Monté Albán figurines, Mexico 273, 293
Monte Canne figurine, Italy 789f, 789–90
Monte Prama-Cabras, Oristano stone figure, Sardinia 813–14
Moore, A. D. 676
Moore, H. 131
Moore, Henry 637, 654
Moorey, P. R. S. 447
Moran Girracca, L. 233
Morbán Laucer, Fernando 202
Morelos, Mexico 283, 289, 304, 305, 309
Morgan, A. 394
Moro Abadía, O. 695
Morris, C. E. 668
Morris, E. 321, 330–1
Morsch, M. G. F. 571
Morss, N. 321
Mostagedda, Egypt 67–8
Motul de San Jose, Maya site 226–7, 231
Murder on the Orient Express (Christie) 37, 57
Murdoch, J. 372
Mureybet, Syria 571
auroch skulls 553
Equus bone figurines 572
Musquean NE site, Fraser River, British Columbia 350, 351
Mussi, M. 781
Mutare Altar, Zimbabwe 135
Mycenaean (Bronze Age) 651, 659–62, 672–6, 673f, 675f
Aegean figurines 661–2
cattle and sheep figurines 672
gender 661–2
human-animal relations 662
‘Lady of Phylakopi’ 675
kourotrophoi 674
miniaturization and distillation 660
‘Mother Goddess’ figurines 661–2, 672
typology 672–3
uses and contexts 674–5
Myres, J. L. 664–5
Myrtos vessel figurine (‘Goddess of Myrtos’), Crete 662, 663f, 663–4
(p. 921) N. P. Goulandris Museum of Early Cycladic Art 644, 652
Nabta Playa-Bir Kiseiba, Egyptian Sahara 110
Nahal Hemar status/busts, Levant 560f
Nahuas modern pilgrimage rituals, Veracruz 303
Nakamura, C. 27, 447, 453, 454, 456, 556
Nakappara masked figurine, Japan 536, 537f
Nali Hill figurines with body scarification, Southern Africa 144f
Nanoglou, S. 5, 18, 19, 20, 828, 831, 835, 836, 837–8, 839
Napata, Sudan 91
Naqada sites, Predynastic Egypt 66, 69, 72
I–IIB 66, 68, 78
I C-ware 73, 78
IIA–B tomb 73 72
IIC–D 64, 65, 77–9
IIC–D D-ware pottery 72, 73f
III 66
obese figurines 70–1, 70f, 76–7
tomb 1488 72
Nasca culture, Andes 397, 401–2
Natamotao, Mali 165
Naumov, G. 828, 834
Nausharo figurines, Indus civilization 497, 499, 510
Ndondondwane, Zimbabwe 135, 136, 144
Ndzundza Ndebele people, South Africa 137, 139
Nea Nikomedeia, Greece 718
Neitzel, J. 326
Nelson, E. W. 372, 373
Nemrik figurines, Iraq 572f, 572–3
Netiv Hagdud figurines, Levant 551, 557, 559
Nettleton, A. 137
Nevalı Çori figurines, Syria 571, 584
anthropomorphic pillars 452
Newsome, E. 332
Nexpa LEF figurines, Morelos, Mexico 283
Ngombela, Kinshasa 180
Nichols, D. L. 310, 311
Nietzsche, F. 19
Niger 166–8, 167f
Nigeria 157–64, 158f, 161f
Esie 162–3
Ife 160–2, 161f
Nok 158f, 159
northeast 157–9, 158f
other sites 163–4
nilo-Saharan language family 91
Nilotic tribes, Sudan 95
Nimuendaju, C. 429
Ningealook, Jack Herman 376
Nippur ‘ophidian’ figurines, Iraq 582
Nishida settlement, Iwate, Japan 531f, 533
Nishinomae figurines, Japan 529f, 529
faceless figurine 529f, 530, 532
Niuheliang site, northeast China 472–4, 473f
Nochixtlán Valley, Etlatongo 274
Nok clay figurine head, Nigeria 158f, 158, 171
Noltland figurines, Orkney Islands 879
nomoli figurines, West Africa 152–3, 153f
Nonoalco, Aztec site 307
Nooksak tribe, Pacific Northwest 353
Nordstrøm, H. Å. 89
Norris, M. W. 171
North America, Northwest Coast (NWC) 345–62
art tradition 347–8
clay figurines 359
cremation figurines 359
early geometric art 348–9
figural art of bone and wood 360
figurine pendants 359
Fraser River-Salish Sea region 349–57, 361
hafts for carving tools 351
human figure pendants and figurines 354–5, 355f, 361
lower and middle Columbia River sculpture 358–9
map 346f
Middle Fraser River figurines 355–6, 356f
northern and central art 360
ocean coast of Washington and southern British Columbia 357–8
pecked stone figures 353–4
potlatches 361–2
power, competition and display 361–2
religious ideology 353
ritual spoons [link] f, 350–1, 361
seated human figure bowls 351–3, 352f, 362
shamans and shamanism 351, 352, 361
(p. 922) Simon Fraser University symposium (1976) 346
Skagit atlatl 357
stone figural art 358–9
North America, Southwest 321–39
figurine/rock art parallels 337
Fremont culture, Utah 329f, 329–30
further avenues to interpretation 336–9
Hohokam and their predecessors 7, 10, 21–2, 323–8, 324f, 325t, 326f, 338, 339
‘Horseshoe Shouldered style’ 323
hunter-gatherers 322–3
Pueblo, ancestral 330–6, 331f, 332f, 335f, 338–9
shamanic ritual practices 323
Northern Europe 891–2, 892f, 893t
Combed Ware 891–2, 893
Pitted Ware 891–2, 893
Ntereso, Ghana 154
Nuer people, Nile Valley 95
Nuraghe Adone-Villanovatolu bronzetto, Nuoru, Sardinia 813
Nuu-chah-nulth people, Vancouver Island 357, 360
Nuxalk (Bella Coola) people, British Columbia 354, 355f,