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date: 16 June 2019

(p. 1165) Index

(p. 1165) Index

A
Abelard, Peter 205–6
abortion 278–9, 291, 323, 435
accomplices see complicity
action theory 131–7, 457
actus reus 447–67
action, theory of 132, 137, 457
attempts 523–5, 1104–8
automatism 447, 451–5, 458, 461–2, 464–5
burden of proof 448–50, 452, 454–5
causation 470
conspiracy 456
culpability 101
defenses 447, 451–4
definition 448–51
discretion 920
duties to act 456
institutional competence, as matter of 465–6
intermediate conceptions 459–65
intoxication 447, 451–5, 458, 465
maximal/minimal conception 448, 451–8, 459, 462, 465–6
negligence 451, 457, 459–60, 462–4
omissions 450, 457, 459–60, 462, 466
practical reasoning 459–61
proof 447–55, 459
psychological states 450–1, 460
punishment 141, 460
rape and sexual offenses 751
regulatory offenses 456, 460–1, 463
Soviet criminal law 309–10
strict liability 449, 463–5, 864, 876–80
terrorism 828–9
volition 137, 448–9, 455–8
voluntariness 450–2, 454–5, 458–9, 462–3
white collar crime 844
administrative penalties 1065–78, 1082–3, 1085
adversarial and inquisitorial processes 887–912
alternative approaches 901–6
capitalism 897
civil law systems 890, 895, 899, 901–7
comparative criminal procedure 887–912
confessions 891, 896, 898–9
descriptive ideal-types 888, 893, 896–7, 902
due process 897–8, 904
fair hearing, right to a 900, 905
functions of criminal process 888, 898, 902, 904–5
historical background 889–92, 894
historical or sociological systems present in criminal procedures 888, 893–4, 902–3
individual rights and liberties 892, 896–8, 900, 905
military justice 335
mixed systems 892, 894
normative models 888, 889–90, 902
opposing interests or values 888, 897, 902
prosecutorial discretion 903, 909–11
terminology 890–1
theoretical conceptions 892–901
aesthetics 115, 124–8
(p. 1166) African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACtHPR) 993–4
aggravating and mitigating factors
comparative criminal law 1094
immigration detention 980–1, 983, 985
modernity, transition to 99–100, 103, 105–6
punishment 312–13, 972
aggression, crime of 1140, 1150, 1154–5
aiding and abetting see complicity
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) 993–4
analogy, reasoning from 207, 308–9, 385, 561–3, 576, 1099–100
Anglo-American tradition see United Kingdom; United States
anomie (strain) theory 11–12
antitrust violations 850
apostasy 209, 253, 255, 258
Aristotle 115–16, 130, 475, 704, 973
artificial intelligence 187–9, 191, 196
Ashworth, Andrew 556–7, 619–20, 731–2, 786–7, 873, 968
assault 728–35
aggravated assault 729, 732, 735
arrest, resisting 732, 733
battery 629, 642, 644–8, 728–9
bodily harm, definition of 729–30
character/status of victim 733–4
consent 629, 642, 644–8, 729, 736–9
disease, transmission of 732, 733–4, 735, 739
harassment 730–1, 739–40
hierarchy of offenses 731–5
imminence 728–9, 730–1
intention 729, 738–40
mens rea 729, 732–3, 738–9
negligence 739
psychiatric injury 730, 739–49
punishment 732, 733–4, 735
race and religion 735
recklessness 729, 738–9
sexual assault 733
single offense 729, 731–2
threats 730–1
attempts 513–14, 520–32
action, theory of 131, 133–4
actus reus 523–5, 1104–8
comparative criminal law 1095, 1104–8
completed attempts 133–4, 514, 519, 525
culpability 520–3, 530, 1107
impossibility 521–3
intention 520–1
mens rea 520–3, 1104, 1107–8
mistakes 520–3
preparatory acts 131, 133, 523–5, 1105–6
proximity tests 523–4
punishment 133–4, 522–3
recklessness 1107
retribution 523, 1105
substantial step test 524, 526, 1106
Austin, John 136, 457–8, 460, 709
Australia
death penalty 946–7
drug offenses 799 n.52
imprisonment 950, 953, 1009
indigenous people 236, 946–7, 953, 957–8
military justice 336, 338, 340
prostitution 757
punishment 950, 953, 966–8, 973, 1009
strict liability 865
terrorism 826–7, 831
automatism 162, 447, 451–5, 458, 461–5, 661–2, 671
autonomic computing 189
autonomy
definition 166–7
discretion 936
dual penal state 1018, 1028, 1034–5
public and private law 1040–1, 1044–62
regulatory offenses 1076–82
sexual autonomy 165–8, 171–2, 747–67
sociology 153, 172
B
banishment and removal 303, 309, 313, 315, 317–18, 948–50, 960–2
Beccaria, Cesare 10–11, 13, 16, 17, 40, 42, 43–4, 84, 104–7, 157, 385, 429, 990
Becker, Gary 40, 45–7, 50–1, 54, 56–7
Big Data analytics 174, 182, 187–8, 195
Blackstone, William 101, 127–8, 450–1, 456, 614, 627, 640, 705–8, 711, 864, 1020, 1051
blameworthiness see culpability
blasphemy 210, 219–20, 222, 278
Braithwaite, John 957–8, 1081–4
breach of the peace 648, 745 n.130
Brudner, Alan 1055, 1078–80
burglary 65, 285, 719, 768–9, 772, 775, 778, 781–3
C
Canada
actus reus 448–9, 451–4, 456, 464–5
assault 731, 739
Charter of Rights and Freedoms 424, 429–30, 434–40, 453, 464, 866, 999
child neglect 742
constitutional principles 424, 426, 427, 431–42
corporate criminal law 570
drug offenses 800
extradition 819 n.22
feminism 61, 64
imprisonment 950, 954, 981, 999
indigenous legal traditions 225–47, 426, 957–8
insanity 671
kidnapping 743
military justice 336
political sovereignty 395–6
punishment 944, 950, 954, 966, 968, 975, 981, 999
rape and sexual offenses 167, 631, 637
stalking 745
strict liability 865–6
territoriality principle 404
terrorism 816, 818 n.20, 819, 821–2, 824–5, 828, 831–2
canon law see medieval canon law
castration 104, 960
casuistry 221, 258, 269, 1148
Catherine II, Queen of Russia (Catherine the Great) 84, 86, 87, 104–6
causation 468–88
attribution 469–70, 472, 481, 485, 487–8
but for test 474–5, 477, 481, 548
cause, definition of 472–5
complicity 538–40, 546–50
conceptual ambiguity 471–2
counterfactual dependency 474, 477, 479–80, 488
criminal responsibility 469–71
culpability 486–7
double prevention situation 480
factual causation 472–83, 485, 487
foreseeability 484–8
harm within the risk 484–5
homicide 703, 709, 714, 716–17, 719, 724–5
imputation 470–2, 478, 482–3, 487–8
INUS account (Mackie) 474–5
intention 505–7
interpersonal transactions 481–2
intervening causes 481–2, 485–6, 488, 506, 547
legal causation 471, 486–7, 1096–7
legally relevant/legally irrelevant causes 471
limiting principles 483–8
mens rea 470
minimalism 472–3, 486–7
mistake 487
negligence 484–6
NESS account (Wright) 475, 478–81
normative criteria, need for 482–3
omissions 479–81, 725
ordinary hazards 485–6
overdetermination 477–8, 481, 548
philosophy 472–7, 481–2
pre-emption 479, 481
probability 484
proximity 483–4, 486–7
redundant 477–8, 481
responsibility for a crime, meaning of 369
result crimes 469–71, 479
risk-creating activity/materialized risk 487–8
scientific causation 472
scope of criminal liability 482–9
(p. 1168) >sine qua non formula> 474, 477–9, 482, 485
technology, conceptualization of 178
tort law 471, 475–7, 484–5
trivial or de minimis causes 478, 549–50
voluntariness 485–6
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 1122, 1130
children
age of consent 633
age of criminal responsibility 138–9, 265–6, 311
neglect 742
pornography and sexual exploitation of children 749, 1129–30
choice theory of rights 1045–6
citizen and enemy law 1018, 1037–8
codification 379–97
accessibility 388–90, 397
authority 384, 392–3
common law 379–81, 383, 385–8
completeness 384–8, 397
exclusivity 384–7
function of a penal code 393–6
general provisions 391–2
homicide 709–12
idea of codification 380–1
illustrations, use of 390
international criminal law 1139–40, 1145, 1147
Islamic criminal law 250, 260, 263–5
Jewish law 271, 289–90
modernity 380, 383, 384–93
non-fatal offenses against the person 727–8
revision 382–3, 395
simplicity 384, 388–90, 397
standards 382, 391–2
collateral sanctions 945, 961–3
colonialism 226, 230–3, 239–42, 246–7, 394, 958, 991
comity 415–16, 819
communism 296–307, 315–17, 321, 920
communitarianism 150, 554, 897, 1080
community service 859, 942, 957, 976
comparative criminal law 1089–114
adversarial and inquisitorial processes 887–912
attempts 1104–8
common law versus civil law approaches to legal reasoning 1097–9
cultural/historical barriers 1099–104, 1113
death penalty 1092
European law 1116–19, 1131–2
examples 1104–12
international criminal law, as source of 1093–4, 1113
language barrier 1094–7, 1113
legal barriers 1097–9
mens rea 1104, 1107–12
necessity/duress 1093–4
omissions 1092–3
punishment 977
recklessness versus dolus eventualis 1108–12, 1113
reform, as tool for 1091–2
strict liability 865–7
uses of comparative criminal law 1091–4
complementarity, principle of 1145, 1162
complicity 534–59
causation 538–40, 546–50
culpability 538, 543, 551, 553–4
deontology 534
derivative liability, nature and extent of 543–6
dolus eventualis 551, 556–8
facilitation offenses 538, 547
fault 555
homicide 720–1, 725
inchoate offenses 537–9, 544–5
intention 553, 557
International Criminal Court 550, 1156–8
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia 1141, 1157–8
justifications 540–1
knowledge 541, 554–6
mens rea/mental element 541, 550–4, 556–8
mode of participation 537–9, 547–8, 1141, 1157–8
moral encouragement 542–3, 555
necessity/duress 541, 558
objectivity 536–7, 541–50
perpetration 536–9
practical assistance 542–3
punishment 534–5, 539–40, 550, 554
recklessness 551, 554–9
separate crimes 537–8
Soviet law 311
structural issues 536–41
subjectivity 536–7, 550–8
unitary and differentiated models 539–40, 545–5, 550–2, 554, 558
computer crime see technology and law
consent 629–53
acquiescence 630–1
affirmative defense 629, 632, 650–1
assault and battery 629, 642, 644–8, 729, 736–9
attitudinal consent 631
boxing 629, 643, 645, 648
breach of the peace 648
cannibalism 630, 649, 652
civil law and common law systems 643
consent-plus standards 764
deception 632–3, 635–6
definition 630–2
dignity, violation of 649, 652
duration of consent 636–9
duress 632, 633
experimental medical treatment 630
expressive consent 630–1
good faith 651
HIV, transmission of 645–6, 738, 759–63, 766
homicide 630, 639–43, 647, 649–50, 652
informed consent 632, 633–6
intoxication 632–3, 750–1, 765
justification and excuses 651–2
law and social order, disrespect for 647, 648–9
legal competence 632–3
living wills 636–7
medical treatment 595–6, 630–1, 637, 642–4, 737
mental capacity 632–3, 643–4, 750
mercy killings and assisted suicide 630, 634–5, 641, 652
necessity/duress 651
objectivity 631
past and present of defense 642–5
performative consent 630, 631–2
physical harm, rationale for disallowing defense in respect of 647–53
public charge, injured person becoming a 647, 648
public policy 632, 639–42
punishment 631–2, 642
rape and sexual offenses 32, 34, 69, 629–39, 647, 650–2, 751–4, 764–6, 842
rationality 632, 634–5, 640, 644
religious flagellation 644–5
remote consent, validity of 636
revocability of consent 636–9
sado-masochism 630, 634, 644–7, 652, 737
self-defense 650–1
serious harm 646–7
sexual autonomy 750, 759–67
social morals 632
socially acceptable activities 737–8
subjectivity 631
submission 752
trafficking 73
use of force 633–4
utilitarianism 648
valid consent, requirement for 632–41
voluntary consent 632, 634–5, 642
vulnerable persons 640, 765–6
conservatism 20, 65–6, 74, 76, 80, 431
conspiracy 47, 456, 526, 528–32, 814–15, 825, 850–1
constitutional principles 422–44
anthropology of the legal subject 427–8
common law 422, 435, 437–9
court decisions 681–3
criminalization 680–5, 700–1
critical themes 424–31
defenses 438–41
democracy 176–7, 184–5, 187
discretion 423, 430–1, 437, 442–3
equality 427–9, 433–5, 440
fault 435–8
harm principle 432–5
homicide 710
(p. 1170) individual liberties and rights 681–4
involuntariness 439–40
legality, principle of 423
limits of criminal law 432–5
mens rea 435–8
necessity/duress 438–9
norms 680–1, 684
proportionality 428–30, 434, 437, 441, 443, 682–3
public law and private law 1019
punishment 425, 441–3, 680–2
religion, freedom of 427–8
self-defense 626–7
state sovereignty 425–6, 441, 444
state violence 425–6, 441
strict liability 436
substantive law 424–5, 428, 431–43
corporate criminal liability (CCL) 560–82
adaptation by other countries 564–5
arguments for and against 566–70
changes in criminal law 577–9
civil law countries 564, 576–7
collectives 560, 563, 566–74, 576–8, 580–2
comparative criminal law 1091
conceptions of corporations 573–5
conceptions of criminal law 575–7
conditions for criminal liability 570–2
consequentialism 568, 575–6
critical perspective 579–80
culpability 1091
deterrence 566–7
emergence and expansion 561–6
fairness 566–70
fault 579–80
fines 566, 568–9, 573
holistic liability model 563
identification model 563
intention 562, 567, 574
international law 564–5
legal models 570–3
literature and law 115
mens rea/mental state 571
omissions 563, 571
organizational failure 571
power structures 579–80
prevention 578–80
public interest 563
punishment 562, 566–70, 572–8, 581
regulatory offenses 563, 565, 570
retribution 576
strict liability 576
United Nations, soft law initiatives by 564
vicarious liability 562–3, 569, 571–2
white collar crime 839, 846–8, 857, 859–60
corrective justice theory 1055–6
corruption and bribery 415, 839, 841, 842–4, 853–4, 856
Council of Europe (CoE) 1118–19, 1125, 1128–31, 1136–7
counterrevolutionary crimes and crimes against Soviet way of life 316–19, 323
courts-martial 336–8, 342
crime, definition of a 365–8, 685
crimes against humanity 69, 71, 414, 1093–4, 1140, 1146, 1150–3
criminal damage 771, 779, 782 see also arson
criminalization
collective interests, protection of 694–5
constitutional aspects 680–5, 700–1
crime, definition of 685
critical race theory 28–9
democracy as substitute for criminalization theory 684
drug offenses 790–3, 797, 801–10
economic analysis of criminal law 41
fragmentary penal law 696
harm principle 186, 680, 682, 687–91, 700
indigenous legal traditions 231
individuals, protection of 680, 682, 687–92
kinds of conduct which should be prohibited 695–9
legal goods, doctrine of (Rechtsgüterlehre) 680, 682, 685, 686–7, 692, 700
mediating principles 695–9
moral values, protection of 688, 692–4
overcriminalization 694, 1066
philosophy 679–80, 684, 687–8
property offenses 770
proportionality 696, 698
punishment theory 685–6
(p. 1171) rights of others 691–2
sexual abuse in authority relations 167–8
subsidiarity 696–8
theories 679–701
ultima ratio 695–8
victimless crimes 51 n.34
criminology 3–24
empirical studies of criminal law/justice 5, 10–16, 23
miserology, history of 16–21, 23
psy knowledges, rise of 6–11, 17, 23
punishment 10–11, 13–15
research traditions 3–24
social construction of deviance/social interactionism 20–2, 23
social phenomenon, crime as a 11
social science research 6, 10, 16–18, 22
sociological research traditions 5–6, 9–13, 17, 19–21
topic, not a discipline, as 4
Critical Legal Studies (CLS) 33, 61, 156, 1047–50, 1053, 1057–8
critical race theory 25–36
crimes, defining 28–30
death penalty 27–8, 31–2, 34, 36
definition 25–6
discretion 28–30, 32
future 35–6
hierarchy and subordination 25–6, 35–6
implicit bias 26, 28–31, 34
interest convergence 26, 35
jury nullification 33
legal storytelling 26
mass incarceration 33–5
prison population 27–8
punishment 28, 32, 34
rape and sexual offenses 31–3, 34
self-defense, use of force in 30–1
white-collar crime 29
cruelty
cruel and unusual punishment 429, 442, 721, 950, 953, 992–6
Islamic law 257
modernity, transition to 84–90, 104–5
culpability
action, theory of 132
actus reus 101
attempts 514, 520–3, 530, 1107
causation 486–7
Christianity and church 86, 99–103
conspiracy 529, 530
corporate crime 1091
duty of care 140
free will 660
inchoate offenses 513–18, 520–3, 526, 530, 1107
infancy 655–6
insanity 654–60, 663, 673–4
intention 139–41
intoxication 654
mens rea 101, 138–41
modernity, transition to 86–8, 99–103, 105–7, 109–10
regulatory offenses 1071–2
responsibility for a crime, meaning of 368–70
secular law, influence on 100 n.40
strict liability 862–7, 871, 874–5, 879–83
subjective elements of criminal liability 491–3
volitional theory of action 137
culture
comparative criminal law 1099–104, 1113
cultural defense 159, 161, 165
diversity as to what forms a crime 191
drug offenses 791, 801
indigenous legal traditions 226, 235, 236–7, 239, 242
international criminal law 1140–1
self-defense 607
custodial sentences see imprisonment/prison law
customary international law 1139–41, 1148–50, 1160–1
comparative criminal law 1093
feminism 72
International Criminal Court 1142, 1145, 1161
international humanitarian law 1139, 1153
joint criminal enterprise 1155–7
jurisdiction 401
military justice 343
war crimes 1153
D
data-driven society, criminal law in a 174–5, 184–96
death penalty
abolition 14, 270, 274, 280, 306, 315–16, 680, 722, 943, 947, 1000
canon law 215
comparative criminal law 1092
criminology 10, 13–15
cruel and unusual punishment 442, 721, 1092
deterrence 13–14, 943
discretion 720–2
European law 1000
extradition 441–2, 819, 947
homicide 703–4, 720–5
human rights 316, 946–7
indigenous legal traditions 231–2
Islamic criminal law 252, 253, 257, 262, 265, 267
Jewish law 270, 273–5, 280–1, 286–7
juveniles 952–3, 1092
life imprisonment without parole 947
mental disabilities, persons with 1092
methods 946
miscarriages of justice 947–8
modernity, transition to 87, 91–2, 95, 97, 99, 104, 107, 110
public executions 257, 943, 946
racial disparities 15, 23, 27–8, 31–2, 34, 36, 720–2, 947, 975
self-defense 704
decretists 206–9, 212–14, 220–1, 222
deductive/inductive reasoning 561–3, 1098–9
defenses see also particular defenses (e.g. consent)
actus reus 447, 451–4
constitutional principles 438–41
international criminal law 1141, 1151, 1161
Jewish law 272, 282–93
military justice 333–4
strict liability 880–1
terrorism 815, 829–31, 833–4
democracy 147–8, 176–7, 184–5, 187, 684
deontology 143–5, 562, 575, 576–7
deportation 949–50, 962
detective stories 113–14, 123, 129
detention see also imprisonment/prison law
administrative detention 816, 817–18, 820, 830, 833
Guantánamo Bay 343, 426, 813, 816, 834, 1010
immigration detention 817–18, 830, 950
military justice 330, 334–6, 816–17, 819–20, 833
preventive sanctions 960
psychiatric detention 656, 658–9, 665, 675, 950
security detention 960
Soviet law 313–15, 318–20
terrorism 816–18, 819–20, 830, 833
deterrence
corporate criminal liability 566–7
death penalty 13–14, 943
discretion 936
drug offenses 796, 798, 803, 808–9
economic analysis of criminal law 41–5, 48–9, 51–8
homicide 708–9, 721–2
instrumentalism 186
Islamic criminal law 257
Jewish law 276, 417
modernity, transition to 87, 108
punishment 371, 375, 942–3, 944, 965–6, 968–9
Soviet law 301, 304–5, 307
strict liability 872
technology and the law 176
terrorism 830
tort law and criminal law, boundaries between 1052
white collar crime 851–2
deviance 20–2, 23
Devlin, Patrick 149–50, 432, 665, 679–80
Dicey, AV 620, 1020, 1031
diminished responsibility 67, 153–4, 160–72, 674, 724
discretion 913–38 see also prosecutorial discretion
(p. 1173) abuse of power and tyranny 913
actus reus 920
arbitrariness 923
autonomy 936
auxiliary element 928
canon law 208–10
constitutional principles 423, 430–1, 437, 442–3
construction of offenses 920–1
critical race theory 28–30, 32
death penalty 720–2
definition 922–4
deterrence 936
drug offenses 796, 798–9, 802
European law 936
functions 927–9
gap-filling 928–9
holders of discretionary authority 914–22
human rights 928, 936
individualized justice 920–1, 927, 931, 933, 935
international criminal justice 918–19, 921
interpretation 920, 923–4, 927–9
Islamic criminal law 260, 263
Jewish law 275, 279–83, 290f
judiciary/courts 308–9, 919–24, 927–31, 935, 969
justice 930–2
justifications 928–30, 937
law-determining function 928
legality, principle of 927, 932–3, 934
legislative decisions 922, 924, 969
legitimacy 914
limits and control 930–6, 937
managerial flexibility 928
manifestations and types 914–22
Marxist law 301
mediation between jurisdictions 928
minority rights 928
pardons and mercy 922
plea bargaining 915
prisons 922
probation and parole 922
procedural law 913, 919
regulatory agencies 915
rule of law 913–14, 933–6
separation of powers 929, 934–5
substantive law 913, 915, 919–20, 929–31, 935, 937
terrorism 820, 825, 831–2
treaty law 936
types of discretion 925–7
victims 915, 970
white collar crimes 847, 850–3
disease, transmission of 22, 23, 645–6, 732–5, 738–9, 740 n.97, 759–63, 766
distributive justice 185–6, 190–1, 193, 196, 1045, 1050–2, 1062
diversion 13, 312, 926, 942, 977, 979
dolus eventualis 498–502, 509, 551, 556–8, 1108–13, 1156–7
domestic violence
abuse excuse 616–17
banishment 960–1
Battered Woman Syndrome 60, 66–8, 79, 118–19, 153–4, 159–72, 440
conservative criminology 65–6
de facto divorce, state-imposed 65–6
diminished responsibility 67, 153–4, 160–72
feminism 14, 60, 65–8, 78–9, 621–3, 626
gender stereotypes 614, 623
imminence 608, 611, 613–15, 623
literature and law 118–19
objectivity 616–17
protection orders 65–6
provocation 164–5
reasonable man test 618–19, 622
reform 60, 65–8, 118–19
retreat 614, 623, 626
sexual infidelity exclusion 67–8
shelters 622
subjectivity 616–17, 618, 623
doom scenarios 178
double jeopardy 215, 222–3, 1032 n.31
drug offenses 789–811
administrative to criminal control, shift from 796–8
black market-related crimes 809–10
classification and lists of substances 791, 798–9
controlled substances 791, 798–9, 801, 805
courts, special 954–5
criminalization 790–3, 797, 801–10
culture 791, 801
decriminalization 793, 804, 807, 809–10
demand-side countries 791, 795
designer drugs (new psychoactive substances) 799
deterrence 796, 798, 803, 808–9
discretion 796, 798–9, 802
drug-related crime 792, 795, 809
drug treatment orders 15
ethnographies of drug-dealing and drug-using urban communities 19
extradition 797
harm principle 149
harm reduction 791, 793, 794–5
international law 791–2, 796–803
intoxication 809
legality, principle of 799–800
legalization 789–91, 793–4
liberalism 149
liberalization 791, 793–5
medical use of drugs 790
negligence 801
paternalism 806
policies 791–5
possession for personal use 793, 800, 802–4
preliminary acts, criminalization of 801–2, 804
protection of drug users 804, 805–7
protection of non-users 804, 807–10
race 27–8
recreational use 790–1, 794, 797–8, 800, 803–10
regulation 796–803, 810
religion 791, 801
restricted purposes for authorized use 800–1
social construction of deviance/social interactionism 22
strict prohibition 791, 792–3
supply-side countries 791, 795
traditional and ritual drug use 800
UN treaties 796–803
voluntariness 805
war on drugs 792–5
dual penal state and penal dualisms 1018, 1028, 1033–9
dual state (Fraenkel) 1033, 1036
due process
adversarial and inquisitorial processes 897–8, 904
constitutional principles 443
human rights 327–8
military justice 326–7, 341, 346
penal law 1018, 1037
self-defense 626–7
Duff, Antony 419–20, 459–63, 552, 692–3, 770, 814, 824
duress see necessity/duress
Dworkin, Ronald 149–50, 270, 747, 924, 969
E
economic analysis of criminal law 38–58
additional sanctions 55
behavioral economic analysis 48–9, 50
bypassing the market 47–8
certainty 44, 47
core insights 50–7
cost-benefit analysis 45–6, 51–2
crime prevention 41
criminalization 41
criminology 16
damages 39
deterrence 41–5, 48–9, 51–8
efficiency 39–40, 45, 47, 50–1, 54, 56–7
imprisonment 52–3, 56–7
incentives 38–9
instrumentalism 39, 42
intangible costs 39
intellectual foundations 41–9
law and economics movement 40
low-probability, maximal-penalty model 56–7
(p. 1175) marginal deterrence, concept of 57
missing market 51
multiplier principle 41, 54–5
negative externality, crime as a 50–1
normative approach 39–40
opportunity costs 40
Pigouvian tax 51–2, 54
positive theory 39–40
probability-severity tradeoff 55–7
proportionality 44, 55–6
psychology 48–9
punishment 40–7, 52–7
rational choice theory 48, 57
rational maximization assumption 39–43, 46–9, 57
retributivism 41–2, 57–8
social contract theory 42–3
social science 38–9
tort-crime distinction 41, 47, 51–3
utilitarianism 40–1, 44–5, 50–1
white collar crime 845
economic crimes 278–80, 317, 321–2
electronic supervision in community 954
embezzlement 774–5, 839–41, 848
emergency, states of 326, 328, 347–8
empirical studies of criminal law/justice 5, 10–16, 23
employment or holding office, restrictions on 959, 962–3
endangerment 515, 518–19, 694–5, 741, 782, 1082
enemy criminal law 299, 301–4, 306, 313–14, 814
Engels, Friedrich 18–20, 295–8, 300, 304
English law see United Kingdom
entrapment 815, 829–30, 831, 833–4
equality of arms 193
ethics and philosophy 142–6
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
criminal law, definition of 1125
death penalty 316, 947 n.5
emergency, states of 348
European law 1136–7
fair hearing, right to a 900, 1075 n.28
imprisonment 953, 993–6, 1001–2, 1005–7
liberty and security, right to 327
military justice 335
presumption of innocence 492
prison law 994–6, 1001–2, 1005
private and family life, right to respect for 737
terrorism 817
voting rights 962
European criminal law 1115–38
approximation of laws 1116, 1119, 1123–4, 1126–32, 1136
area of freedom, security and justice 1116, 1125–7
child pornography and sexual exploitation of children 1129–30
comparative criminal law 1116–19, 1131–2
competences 1117, 1122–5, 1136
Council of Europe 1118–19, 1125, 1128–31, 1136–7
cybercrime 1129–30
death penalty, abolition of 1000
definition 1116–17
discretion 936
emergency brake mechanism 1131, 1136
enforcement 1117, 1119–21, 1123, 1127–8, 1136
Eurojust 1127
European Arrest Warrant 1119, 1122, 1134
European Commission communication on policy 1122
Europeanization 1121, 1123, 1125–6, 1131–2
Europol 1127
federal law, as 1126
Framework Decisions 821, 1116–17, 1121–4, 1126–30, 1134–5
fraud against the budget 1116, 1119
general principles of law 1133–5
Gesetz to Recht, from1132–7
globalization 1119
insider dealing 564
interpretation 1123, 1126, 1132–7
legality, principle of 1132, 1134–5
mutual recognition principle 1119, 1136
national laws 1116–29, 1132–6
organized crime 1116, 1129–31
Pupino doctrine1134–5, 1137
regulation 1116, 1122, 1124, 1128, 1131, 1133
regulations 1119, 1126, 1128
Schengen area 1116
single-state perspective 1116
Stockholm Programme 1121, 1130
subsidiarity 1128
terrorism 821, 1116, 1120, 1122, 1127, 1130–1
transnational criminal law 1116–17, 1121, 1126–36
treaties, legal basis of foundational 1123–4
treaty law 1133, 1137
victims’ rights 936
extortion 742, 774, 839, 841, 843, 856
extradition
death penalty 441–2, 819, 947
discretion 936
drug offenses 797
European Arrest Warrant 1119
jurisdiction 407–8, 411–12
non-extradition, rule on 407–8
terrorism 818–19, 833–4
torture 736
Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) 1140, 1144–5, 1156
extraterritoriality 191, 332–3, 339, 399–420, 815, 822–3
F
fair hearing, right to a 70, 185–6, 190
ad hoc tribunals 1143–4
adversarial and inquisitorial process 900, 905
European Convention on Human Rights 900, 1075 n.28
military justice 327, 346
terrorism 824, 829 n.62
false imprisonment 743–4
fault
actus reus 451
complicity 555
constitutional principles 435–8
corporate criminal liability 579–80
regulatory offenses 1065
strict liability 862–4, 880–3
subjective elements of criminal liability 491–2
terrorism 814–15, 825, 827–9, 831, 833
Feinberg, Joel 135, 641, 688, 690, 805–6
felony murder rule 706–8, 709–13, 715, 719–21, 723, 725
feminist approaches 59–82
Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) 60, 66–8, 79
carceral feminism 77
coercion 65, 69–70, 74, 76–8
conservatism 65–6, 74, 76, 80
critical gender theory 158
Critical Legal Studies 61, 1053
domestic violence 14, 60, 65–8, 78–9, 621–3, 626
family as protecting and reinforcing gender hierarchy 1054
feminist project 59–62
future 80–2
governance feminism 76–80
human rights 68, 69, 73–4
international criminal law 59, 62, 68, 69–72, 76, 81
legal realism 79–80
Marxism 1047, 1053–4
pornography 80, 1054
public-private divide 61, 1043, 1053–5, 1057
radical feminism 61, 65, 70–1, 73, 76–8, 158, 169
rape and sexual offenses 59, 63–4, 68, 69, 78, 158
reform of criminal law 59–68, 79, 81, 158
repeat patterns 77–9
self-defense 621–4, 626
sex work and prostitution 73–5, 77–9
(p. 1177) sexual autonomy 169, 748–9, 766
trafficking 73–5, 77–8, 80
transnational criminal law 59, 62, 68, 72–5, 76, 81
transnational diffusion of feminist ideas 68
violence 60, 65–8, 76, 78–9, 81
will to power 76–80
Feuerbach, Paul Johann Anselm von 84, 207, 385, 537, 680, 691, 1029–30, 1066–8, 1118
financial sanctions
ability to pay 956–7
corporate criminal liability 566, 568–9, 573
economic analysis of criminal law 56
homicide 704
strict liability 863, 867, 872
tort law and criminal law, boundaries between 1051–2
Fletcher, George 424, 544, 616, 650, 773–4, 1095, 1097, 1133, 1141
force majeure 491
forced labor 75, 299, 313–14, 321, 322, 324, 1006
forced marriage 744
foreseeability
causation 484–8
homicide 716, 719–20, 723–5
intention 506–7
joint criminal enterprise 1156–7
knowledge 498
negligence 510
responsibility for a crime, meaning of 368–70
strict liability 881
subjective elements of criminal liability 496
surveillance societies 193
forfeiture 608–9, 611–12, 627, 703, 943, 957
Foucault, Michel 6–7, 22, 85, 88–91, 94–5, 103–5, 156–8, 425, 1035, 1054
fraud
accounting fraud 842, 847
consent 632–3, 635–6
counterparty fraud 848
employees 848
European law 1116, 1119
fraude á la loi 411, 412–14, 420
government, fraud against 839, 850–5, 856–7
investment fraud 847
kidnapping 743
punishment 859–60
tax fraud 850–1
theft 774, 776–7
white collar crime 839–40, 842–4, 846–53, 856, 857–60
free will 11, 193–4, 206, 254–5, 259, 481, 657, 660, 923, 966
freedom of expression 532, 681
G
gender 158, 267, 614, 623 see also feminist approaches
Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols 341–5, 347, 1010, 1140, 1153
Germany
assault 739
automatism 662
canon law 218
causation 477, 482, 487
complicity 535, 536–7, 539–40, 547, 556
consent 639, 643
Constitution 680, 682–3, 685, 697–8
corporate criminal liability 565–6, 574–6
criminalization 696–7
culpability 656, 660
discretion 917, 931, 935
drug offenses 789 n.2, 799 n.49, 800, 803
European law 1123
imprisonment 950, 952, 988, 992, 997–8, 1003–4, 1006–7
insanity 656, 659, 660–3, 674
intention 504, 506
international criminal law 1141, 1160
intoxication 657, 666, 671
language barriers 1095–7
legal good (Rechtsgut) 680, 682, 685, 686–7, 692, 700, 1029–30, 1069–71
necessity/duress 584, 589–90, 595, 596, 601, 603, 1102–3
(p. 1178) Nuremberg Military Tribunal 1139–40, 1143, 1148, 1150, 1152
police and law 1031–2
public and private law 1019–20, 1026–7
regulatory offenses 1066–73, 1085
rule of law 934
strict liability 866–7, 877
Goldschmidt, James 1068–73, 1077, 1079
governance 1018, 1023–8, 1030–6
government, fraud against 839, 850–5, 856–7
grace 86, 99–107, 109
Guantánamo Bay 343, 426, 813, 816, 834, 1010
H
Hague Regulations 341, 344
harm principle
constitutional principles 432–5
criminalization 186, 680, 682, 687–91, 700
punishment 148–9
sexual autonomy 747
wrongfulness 366–7
white collar crime 840
harassment 730–1, 739–40
Hart-Devlin debate 149–50, 432, 679–80
healing 237–9, 244, 958
Hegel, GWF 373, 487, 1029, 1044, 1055–7, 1079
heteronomy 1018, 1028, 1034, 1036
Hobbes, Thomas 42–3, 627
homicide 702–26, 727
accomplices 720–1, 725
act element 712, 714–17
agency rule in felony murder cases 719
aggravating factors 715, 720–2
burden of proof 714, 715–16, 724
causation 703, 709, 714, 716–17, 719, 724–5
clergy, benefit of 704–5
codification 709–12
cognition, crime of 703
constitutional law 710
corporate criminal liability 562
death penalty 703–4, 720–5
deterrence 708–9, 721–2
diminished responsibility 724
felony murder rule 706–8, 709–13, 715, 719–21, 723, 725
fines 704
foreseeability 716, 719–20, 723–5
forfeiture of property 703
grades of homicide 711–13, 715, 717–21, 723
insanity 674–5
intention 704–13, 715–18, 723, 725
Islamic law 971
Jewish law 281–7, 290–3
joint ventures 723, 725
manslaughter 705–8, 709, 712–19, 723–5
mental element 704–18, 723, 725
mitigation 705–6, 713, 715–18, 721, 723
monopoly on legitimate force, state’s 703, 709
necessity 290–3
presumption of innocence 716
production of suspects 704
provocation 704–8, 710, 716–17, 723–4
punishment 702–4, 708–9, 720–5
retribution 721
risk-taking, homicide by 718–19
royal courts 704
self-defense 285–7, 704, 707–10, 714
Soviet law 323
special verdicts 704
status contests 702
strict liability 720
threats to kill 731
utilitarianism 703, 708–10, 712–15, 725
weapons 708, 716, 725
(p. 1179) homosexuality 61, 149–50, 319, 649, 748, 761, 763
Honoré, Tony 474, 546, 769
human rights see also European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); particular rights (e.g. fair hearing, right to a)
banishment and removal 948
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 1122, 1130
civil and political rights 327, 347, 993–4
constitutional aspects 187, 681–4
criminalization 680, 682, 687–92
death penalty 946–7
discretion 928, 936
economic, social and cultural rights 993
European law 1119, 1122, 1125, 1130, 1132, 1136–7
feminism 68, 69, 73–4
imprisonment 989–1009
international law 68, 69, 1140–1
military justice 327–8, 335, 346–9
neutrality under rule of law 184
public authorities 836
punishment 936, 943, 946
reservations and derogations 328
self-defense 620
transitional justice 145
transnational human rights 73, 74
treaties 327–8, 335, 346–9, 943, 945, 948
Hume, David 468, 473–5
Husak, Douglas 459, 462–5, 517, 639
I
ideal theory 356–64
ideal type 358, 888, 893, 896–97, 902, 909, 916, 1034–6
immigration detention and sanctions 817–18, 830, 832–3, 950
impossibility 521–3
imprisonment/prison law 944–5, 949–54, 988–1011 see also detention
aggravating factors 980–1, 983, 985
banishment and removal 949
birth of prison 88–9
common law 988, 1009
conditions 990–1, 993–4, 996, 998, 1000–1
criminalization 696
determinate sentences 920, 951–2, 956, 964, 980–6
discipline 991, 995
discretion 922, 950, 980–1
drug offenses 27–8, 789 n.2
economic analysis of criminal law 52–3, 56–7
emergence of prison law 989–1002
European Court of Human Rights 953, 994–6, 1001–2, 1005
European law 1000
European Prison Rules 995–6, 1001, 1010
external and internal elements 1002–3, 1007
family life 1006–7
guidelines 951, 953–4, 980–1, 983, 985
human rights 989–1009
indeterminate sentencing 817, 830, 919–20, 951, 978, 980–4
indigenous people 234–6
intermittent custody 951–2
international imprisonment 1009–10
international law 993–7
judiciary 980–1
labor in prison 1005–6
leave from prison 952
length of sentences 947, 951–2
life sentences 947, 952–3, 982–3, 1007–8
mass incarceration 33–5
mitigation 980–1, 983, 985
modernity, transition to 84–90, 98, 103, 110
national law 994, 997–1000
overcrowding 1008–9
panopticon 89, 90, 395
population 27–8, 952–4, 977
prisoners’ rights 999–1003
privatization 950, 1009, 1060
procedural criminal law 1002–3
property offenses 786–7
proportionality 950, 953, 990, 1003–4
public administration 989, 990–2, 1003, 1008
punitiveness 949–50, 952, 954, 977–9, 1004–5
(p. 1180) racial disparities 27–8, 33–5, 953
reform 157–8
rehabilitation 981–3, 1004–7
release 950–1, 953, 982–3, 1008
remand prisoners 1001
retribution 34, 983–4, 1003
risk assessments 950
shock incarceration 951–2
slopping out 1001–2
social control 24–5, 1001–2
socioeconomic backgrounds of offenders 158–9
theories 1002–8
torture 993–4, 996–7, 1001
UN Standard Minimum Rules 994–5
whole life sentences (without parole) 27, 305, 816, 947, 952–3, 958, 989, 1007–8
incapacitation 942, 945, 949, 950, 965–6
conduct
apprehension-based view 513–14
conspiracy 456, 528–32
culpability 513–18, 526
drug offenses 801–2, 804
intention 515–17, 527
intervention-based view 513–14, 518–20
mens rea and actus reus 513
multiple actors 528–32
objectivity 513, 516
penumbral offenses 514–15, 519, 525–7, 530, 533
possession 525–8
proxy conduct 515, 518, 526–8, 532–3
punishment 514–16, 527
renunciation defense 519–20
risk-based view 513, 517–18
solicitation 531–2
Soviet law 311
subjectivity 513
temporal perspective 513–14
terrorism 814–15, 824–8
independent and impartial tribunal 327, 336–7, 343, 345, 348–9
Indian Penal Code (IPC) 379, 390, 394, 965
indigenous legal traditions 225–47, 957–8
aboriginal justice initiatives 235–7, 242
AJR (Accessing Justice and Reconciliation) Project 244
analogy 229–30
colonialism 226, 230–3, 239–42, 246–7
court processes 236–7
Cree and Anishinabek societies 226, 229–31, 243–5
culture 226, 235, 236–7, 239, 242
customs 226, 237
diversity 226, 227, 229–30
failure of state criminal justice systems 234–5
Family Group Conferencing 236
healing 237–9, 244, 958
idealized values as state critiques 239
imprisonment, rates of 234–6
intellectual shifts 242–3
legal education 240–1
minimal content 228
peacemakers 237
principles 241, 243–6
punishment 231–7, 239, 975–6
recovery and revitalization 234–40
rehabilitation 239
renaissance 226, 240–6
repression 230–3, 234, 246
research 243–6
resilience and perseverance 233–5, 246
restorative justice 237, 238
roots of traditions 226–30
Sentencing Circles 236
separation 231, 233, 237, 245
shaming 957–8
spirituality/religion 229, 232, 244
state, impact of 231–3
state sovereignty 426
structured circle processes 237
use of force 231, 237–8
violence and vulnerability 225–33, 238–47
wetiko (windigo) example 226–33, 238, 242–5
individual criminal responsibility 153, 203–4, 216–17, 333, 1139, 1153
individualized justice 617–19, 920–1, 927, 931, 933, 935, 972–6
(p. 1181) infamia procedure 212, 222
infancy 655–6, 662
information society to a data-driven society, from 187–90
inhuman or degrading treatment 993–4, 996, 999, 1001–2, 1005–8
inquisitorial processes see adversarial and inquisitorial processes
insanity 440–1, 654–76
addiction type disorders 657, 668, 675–6
affect 671, 675
alcohol or drug treatment 675–6
automatism 452, 661–2, 671
burden of proof 660, 673–4
civil law systems 656, 660–3
classification systems 663, 667
common law systems 656, 658–65, 672, 676
conform conduct to requirements of law, ability to 673
culpability 654–60, 663, 673–4
determinism 657
detention in psychiatric institutions 656, 658–9, 665, 675
diminished responsibility 674
fitness to plead/stand trial 655, 658
heat of the moment, acting in the 671
historic development 659–61
hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia 667–8
infancy 655–6, 662
International Criminal Court, Rome Statute for the 664
intoxication 667–8, 670–1, 674–5
Jewish law 283–4, 287
legal consequences 673–6
loss of control 661, 672
medical experts 655, 656, 658, 660, 665, 673–4
mens rea 655
mental diseases 667–70
mistake of law 662–3, 672
M’Naghten Rules 659–61, 663, 664–5, 667–8, 671–2, 674
murder 674–5
normative aspects (cognitive and volitional capacity) 663, 664, 672–3
personality disorders 668–70, 675
perversion-type disorders 668
procedural issue, as 658
psychiatric aspects (mental defects) 663–72, 675
psychiatric treatment 675
punishment 656, 658–9, 673–5
relation to other grounds for exclusion of liability 661–3
somnambulism 671
structure 663–4
systematic framework 658–9
temporal disabilities 670–2
theoretical foundation 655–8
time of defect 666–7
total or partial excuse 674–5
wrongfulness of conduct, appreciation of 672–3
insider dealing 564, 840, 848–50, 860
intangible and semi-tangible property 772, 779–81, 785–6
intellectual property 780–1, 785–6
intention 491–508
actus reus 503
assault 729, 738–40
attempts 520–1
belief principle 503
canon law 203–4
causation 505–7
complicity 553, 557
conspiracy 530
corporate criminal liability 562, 567, 574
culpability 139–41
distinction between intentional and non-intentional offending 492–6
dolus eventualis 498–9, 500–2, 509
factual and normative circumstances 503–5
foreseeability 506–7
genocide 1150–1
homicide 704–13, 715–18, 723, 725
ignorance of the law is no defense 507
inchoate offenses 515–17, 527
intervening acts 506
Islamic criminal law 254–5, 259, 261–2
Jewish law 284–5
knowledge 494–8, 503, 507–8
legal norm, knowledge of the 507–8
literature and law 123–4, 127–30
mistake 503–5, 507–8
modes 496–502
motives 498
negligence 493, 500–1, 503
object of intention 503–8
possession 527
pre-emption of inferred intent 174
proof 491
punishment 492–4
recklessness 498–500, 1109–11
remoteness 506
result 505–7
Soviet law 309, 310
territoriality, principle of 404–5
terrorism 814, 822–3, 827–8, 833–6
timing 502–3
transferred intent 506
volitional element 136–7, 494–7, 500–2
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 399, 1141–2, 1146
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 327, 347, 993–5
International Criminal Court (ICC) and Rome Statute 1140, 1142–6
aggression, crime of 1154–5
codification 1145
comparative criminal law 1093–4
complementarity, principle of 1145, 1162
complicity 550, 1156–8
corporate criminal liability 564
crimes against humanity 1151–3
customary international law 1142, 1145, 1161
delay 1146
dolus eventualis 500 n.47, 1157
Elements of Crime 1142–3, 1145, 1151–2, 1154
general principles of law 1142
genocide 1151
hierarchy of sources 1142–3
imprisonment 1010
insanity 664
international humanitarian law 71–2
intoxication 666–7
jurisdiction 821, 1145–6, 1155
knowledge 497–8
military justice 334
mistake 504
modes of liability 1156–60
necessity/duress 1161
non-parties, jurisdiction over nationals of 1145–6
precedent 1142–3
prosecutorial discretion 918–19
Prosecutor, position of 1145
rape and sexual offenses 71–2
superior orders defense 334, 1161
superior responsibility 1159–60
tribunals, decisions of other 1142–3
war crimes 1145
weaknesses 1146
international criminal law (ICL) 1139–63 see also customary international law;
International Criminal Court (ICC) and Rome Statute; International Criminal
Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR); International Criminal Tribunal for the former
Yugoslavia (ICTY); international humanitarian law (IHL)
ad hoc tribunals 1140–5, 1161–2
aggression, crime of 1140, 1150, 1154–5
codification 1139–40, 1147
comity 415–16, 819
comparative criminal law 1093–4, 1112
core crimes 1140, 1150–5
corporate criminal liability 565
crimes against humanity 69, 71, 414, 1093–4, 1140, 1146, 1150–3
crimes against peace 1140
customary international law 72, 1140, 1142, 1148–50, 1156–7, 1161
defenses 1141, 1151, 1155, 1161
discretion 918–19, 921
drug offenses 791–2, 796–803
feminism 59, 62, 68, 69–72, 76, 81
flexibility 1147–8
general principles of law 921, 1142, 1149
human rights law 68, 69, 1140–1
(p. 1183) hybrid or internationalized tribunals 1144–5
imprisonment 993–7
joint criminal enterprise 1147–8, 1155–7
judicial law-making 1146–50
jurisdiction 400, 402–3, 408, 414–16, 420
leadership liability 1154
legality, principle of 1147–50, 1162
merger of disciplines and cultures 1140–1
modes of liability 1155–61
nature of ICL 1140–1
prosecutions 1142–6
public international law 1140–1, 1162
rape and sexual violence 69–72
remedy, right to a 1141
sources of ICL 1141–3
superior orders defense 1155, 1161
superior responsibility 1159–60
terminology 1140
Tokyo Tribunal 341, 1143
transnational criminal law 72, 1140
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
comparative criminal law 1093
completion strategy 1144, 1162
imprisonment 1010
joint enterprise liability 1156
modes of liability 1155–6
prosecutorial discretion 918–19
rape and sexual offenses 69–71
Statute 1140, 1145
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 1093, 1143–5
accomplices 1158
aiding and abetting 1157–8
armed conflict nexus 1152
completion strategy 1144, 1162
co-perpetration 1141
feminism 69, 71
genocide 1151
immunity for heads of state or leaders 1155
imprisonment 1010
international and non-international armed conflict, distinction between 1153
modes of liability 1147–8, 1155–8
necessity/duress 1141, 1161
prosecutorial discretion 918–19
Statute 1140, 1145, 1155
superior orders defense 1155, 1161
superior responsibility 1159
war crimes 1153–4
international humanitarian law (IHL) 1139–41, 1147, 1153
customary international law 1139, 1153
Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols341–5, 347, 1010, 1140, 1153
Hague Regulations 341, 344
International Criminal Court, Rome Statute of 71–2
military justice law 328, 332–3, 342, 344–7
Nuremberg Military Tribunal 1139–40, 1143, 1148, 1150, 1152
terrorism 821
intervening acts 481–2, 485–6, 488, 506, 547
intoxication
actus reus 447, 451–5, 458, 465
addiction-type disorders 668
alcohol or drug treatment 675–6
canon law 206
consent 632–3, 750–1, 765
culpability 654
diminished responsibility 674
drug offenses 809
extreme intoxication 447, 451–3, 458, 465
involuntary intoxication 670
mens rea 670
mental capacity 138
personality disorders 668, 670
punishment 657–8
sexual offenses 63, 632–3
Soviet law 310–11
theoretical foundation 657–8
voluntary intoxication 454–5, 666–7, 670
Islamic criminal law 248–68
age of criminal responsibility 265–6
alcohol 252
apostasy 253
blood money 258, 260–1, 267
codification 250, 260, 263–5
(p. 1184) confessions 255–6, 260
death penalty 252, 253, 257, 262, 265, 267
deterrence 257
discretion 260, 263
exemption from punishment 255
false accusations of illegal sexual intercourse 252–3
gender inequality 267
homicide 971
intention 254–5, 259, 261–2
legality, principle of 263–5
life and bodily integrity, crimes against 251, 258–62
necessity/duress 255, 259
procedural law 260
proofs, system of 255–6, 260, 943
public punishments 257
punishment 250–67, 943, 946, 970–1
retaliation 258, 260–1
retribution 257
schools of law 249–50, 252–3, 259–61, 264–5, 267
self-defense 259
sexual offenses 252–3, 255–6
Shariʿa law248
sources of law 248–9
structure of criminal law 250–62
substantive law, characteristic features of 254–5, 258–9
victims 970–1
weapons 259
Western law 249–50
witnesses 255–6, 260
J
Jakobs, Günther 301, 693, 814, 824, 1018, 1035, 1037–8
Jewish law 269–94
abortion 278–9, 291
atonement 282, 284
codification 271, 289–90
death penalty 270, 273–5, 280–1, 286–7
defenses 272, 282–93
deterrence 276, 417
discretion 275, 279–83, 290
disobedience to God’s law 272, 275–6, 284
dual aspect 271–3
economic crimes 278–80
eye for an eye 276–7
flesh torn from a living animal 278–9
homicide 281–7, 290–3
idolatry and blasphemy 278, 288
ignorance and mistake of fact and law 284–5, 287
insanity 283–4, 287
intention 284–5
internal criminal law 273–6
Israel 270, 277–8, 292
King’s law 277–8, 279–83
lex talionis 276–7
mens rea 275–6, 284
Mishna Torah 274, 286–7, 290
necessity/duress 272, 283, 287–90
Noahide laws 271, 273, 278–81
precedent 269–70
prior warning, general rule of 274–6, 281
punishment 273–81, 285–90
rabbinic judges/scholars 269–71, 274–87, 291–3
rape and sexual offenses 278
redemption 276
refuge, exile to cities of 281–2, 284
religious offenses 278
retaliation 276
secularization 271
self-defense 285–7, 292
sources of law 269–72, 274, 276, 279–84, 290–1
theft 278–9
witnesses 273, 279, 286–7
joint ventures/enterprise 723, 725, 1147–8, 1155–8
judges
comparative criminal law 1099–101
imprisonment 980–1
law-making 1146–50
military justice 336–8
prosecutorial discretion 926, 929, 934
punishment 919–20, 973–5
strict liability 868–73
white collar crime 844, 856–60
writing 121–3
judgments, recognition and enforcement of foreign 564, 1117, 1119
jurisdiction 399–421
armed forces abroad 411
basic framework 403–10
canon law 218–19, 222
circumvention jurisdiction 411, 412–14, 420
conflict of laws 928
Corruption Convention 415
criminal jurisdiction, definition of 402
customary international law 401
cybercrime 411, 415
extraterritoriality 399–415, 419–20
fraude á la loi 411, 412–14, 420
International Court of Justice 399
International Criminal Court 821, 1145–6, 1155
international law 400, 402–3, 408, 414–16, 420
Lotus case399–402, 408
military justice 339–40, 344, 348
nationality, principle of 401, 403, 404, 405–9, 413, 418, 420
organized crime 401, 411, 414
passive personality principle 401, 403, 408–9, 413, 418, 420
protection, principle of 401, 403, 409–10, 418, 420
punish, right to 402, 417–18
relational structure of criminal responsibility 419–20
scope of criminal law, general accounts of 415–20
technology and law 190–2
territoriality, principle of 401–5, 419–20
terrorism 400, 404, 411, 813, 819, 822–3, 834
theoretical approaches 401–3
Trafficking Convention 415
transnational crime 400–1, 404, 411, 414–15
treaty law 400
universal jurisdiction 401, 403, 409, 412, 414, 736, 813, 819, 822–3, 834, 910
venue, issues of 403
vicarious/representational jurisdiction 401, 411–12, 420
jury nullification 33
justification of crime and punishment 365–78
Justinian 221, 1022, 1025, 1028, 1031
K
Kant, Immanuel 41, 84, 87, 104, 107, 108, 150–1, 373–4, 468, 590, 660, 1029, 1044, 1055–7
kidnapping 743–5, 771
King’s Peace 10, 702–3, 704, 1020, 1025–26, 1033
knowledge
canon law 206
complicity 541, 554–6
culpability 139
intention 494–8, 503, 507–8
knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) 187 n.31, 188–9
legal norm, of 507–8
penal reform 157–9
strict liability 868–70, 873, 876, 880
subjective elements of criminal liability 491, 494–6
superior responsibility 1160
L
Lacey, Nicola 60, 80–1, 87, 779
Langbein, John 85, 88, 91–4, 213, 917
language barrier 1094–7, 1113
objective imputation theory 1096–7
unknowingly justified actors 1095–6, 1097
law and economics movement 20, 40, 1050–3
law in books and law in action, disparity between 155
legal good (Rechtsgut) 680, 682, 685, 686–7, 692, 700, 1029–30, 1069–71
(p. 1186) Legal Realism 155, 1043–4, 1048
legality, principle of
attempts 523
codification 385
comparative criminal law 1099–101
complicity 540
constitutional principles 423
discretion 927, 932–3, 934
drug offenses 799–800
European law 1132, 1134–5
international criminal law 1147–50, 1162
Islamic criminal law 263–5
military justice 346
prosecutorial discretion 917–18, 932
regulatory offenses 1077
Soviet law 308–9
white collar crime 842
legislature, role of 969, 1100–1
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 297, 299, 302, 304, 314–16, 318
liberty and security, right to 327
literature and law 111–30
actus reus and mens rea, distinction between 127
aesthetics 115, 124–8
autobiographies of criminals 111–12, 114
cognitive literary studies 128
confessions 111–12, 117
corporate criminal liability 115
counsel in felony cases, allowing defendants 112, 125
courtroom novels 113–14, 125
detective stories 113–14, 123, 129
domestic violence 118–19
explanation and inquiry, subjects of 124–5
future 128–30
intention 123–4, 127–30
judicial writing 121–3
law in literature, literature in law 116–24, 125–6
legal education, use in 117–22, 128
literatures of criminal law 111–17
Newgate Novels 112, 113, 117
psychology 112–13
punishment 111–12
reform 112, 115, 118–19, 125
research 115–17, 122 n.33, 126, 129
true crime 111–12, 114–15, 117
Locke, John 17, 627, 1044–5
loss of control defense 67, 160, 163–4, 661, 672, 723
M
Macaulay, Thomas 390, 393–4, 709–10, 713
machine learning 188–9
MacKinnon, Catharine A 70, 76, 80, 749, 1053–4
Maimonides 271, 275, 279, 283, 286, 288–90
manslaughter 705–8, 709, 712–19, 723–5
Marx, Karl 295–300, 304, 324, 1046–7
mediation 916, 958, 970
medical treatment, consent to 595–6, 630–1, 637, 642–4, 737
medieval canon law 201–24
12th century reform 201–4
adversarial/inquisitorial procedure 204, 211–13, 217–18, 222–3
benefit of clergy 208–9, 218–19
blasphemy 210, 219–20, 222
church courts (external forum) 204–5
concept of crime in law and philosophy 204–8, 220–2
confession 204, 214
criminal procedure, development of 203–4, 211–16, 222–3
custom 218–19
death penalty 215
discretion 208–10
double jeopardy 215, 222–3
ecclesiastical crimes and punishments 208–11, 222
excommunication 207, 209, 211, 220–1
Gregorian Reform 201–2, 209
guilt 206, 217
(p. 1187) individual responsibility 203–4, 216–17
infamia procedure 212, 222
jurisdiction 218–19, 222
mens rea 206
necessity/duress 206–7, 222
oaths and ordeals 204, 213–14, 222
papacy and Catholic Church 201–3, 207, 209–12, 219–21
presumption of innocence 215–16, 223
proof, law of 204–5, 214, 222
punishment 203–4, 208–11, 215, 219, 222
reform 219–20
secular courts 208–10, 215
secular law, impact of canon law on 204, 216–19
self-defense 206–7, 222
sexual offenses 211, 222
simony 209, 212, 219
torture 214–15, 223
venality and immorality 219
mens rea/mental element 490–3, 508 see also intention; recklessness
assault 729, 732–3, 738–9
attempts 520–3, 1104, 1107–8
canon law 206
causation 470
comparative criminal law 1104, 1107–12
complicity 541, 550–4, 556–8
constitutional principles 435–8
corporate criminal liability 571
culpability 101, 138–40
dolus eventualis 1111
homicide 704–18, 723, 725
inchoate offenses 513
insanity 655
intention 493
intoxication 670
Jewish law 275–6, 284
literature and law 113, 127
negligence 509
socioeconomic backgrounds of offenders 158–9
Soviet law 310–12
strict liability 862–75, 882
superior responsibility 1159–60
terrorism 827–9, 835
white collar crime 844, 851, 855
mental capacity/disabilities see also insanity
accountability 138–9
age of criminal responsibility 138–9
consent 750, 632–3, 643–4
death penalty 1092
intoxication 138
mind, philosophy of 138–9
moral agents 138
rape and sexual offenses 752, 753–4
self-defense 616
Soviet law 310–11
tax fraud 850–1
terrorism 830
mercy killings and assisted suicide 435, 630, 634–5, 641, 652
military justice 326–49
ad hoc military tribunals 336–8, 345
adversarial procedure 335
ambit of the law 332–3
appeals 336–8, 341, 347
armed conflicts 328, 333–4, 340–7
assimilation, principle of 341–3
civil law systems 339
civilian courts 336, 337–40, 342, 348
civilians 327, 332, 344–8
commander, role of the 334–7, 346
common law systems 339
courts-martial 336–8, 342
criminal offenses 329–30, 339–41
customary international law 343
defenses 333–4
discipline 328–40
due process 326–7, 341, 346
emergency, states of 326, 328, 347–8
enemy belligerents 326, 340–3
extraterritoriality 332–3, 339
fair hearing, right to a 327, 346
Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols 341–5, 347, 1010, 1140, 1153
Guantánamo Bay 343, 426, 1010
human rights treaties 327–8, 335, 346–9
immunities 332
(p. 1188) independent and impartial tribunal 327, 336–7, 343, 345, 348–9
inquisitorial procedure 335
international humanitarian law 328, 332–3, 342, 344–7
judicial proceedings 336–8
juries 336, 338
jurisdiction 339–40, 344, 348
legality, principle of 346
liberty and security, right to 327
military courts/tribunals 336–49
military offenses 330–4
occupation, trial of civilians in territories under 326, 344–7
permanent military courts 336–8
prisoners of war 340–3
procedure 334–41
prosecutorial discretion 334
punishment 326, 330, 335, 341, 343
separate military justice system, rationale for 338–9
service connection test 339–40
service status test 339–40
specialized civilian courts 336, 337–9
substantive law 330–4
superior orders defense 333–4
territorial application 332–3, 339
war crimes 333, 341–2, 817
Mill, John Stuart 147–9, 432, 434, 473–5, 480, 687–8, 747
Milsom, Toby 422–4, 443
mind, philosophy of 137–41
miscarriages of justice/wrongful convictions 812–13, 896, 947–8
miserology, history of 16–21, 23
mistake
attempts 520–3
causation 487
ignorance and mistake of fact and law 284–5, 287
insanity 662–3, 672
intention 503–5, 507–8
Jewish law 284–5, 287
rape and sexual offenses 635
M’Naghten Rules 659–61, 663, 664–5, 667–8, 671–2, 674
modernity, transition to 84–110
Christianity and church 86, 89–92, 98–103, 107–10
codification 380, 383, 384–93
criminal procedure 87, 108–9
cruelty 84–90, 104
death penalty 87, 91–2, 95, 97, 99, 104, 107, 110
deterrence 87, 108
dilemmas 108–9
Enlightenment 85–8, 90–1, 94–5, 103–9
imprisonment 84–90, 98, 103, 110
legal reasoning, styles of 87–8
literature and law 114
monarchical state 85–6, 95–7, 100, 107
monopolization of violence 95–103, 108, 110
mutilation 84–5, 87, 91–2, 95, 99, 104, 107, 110
nobles 90, 96–8, 103, 106, 110
pardons 85–6, 92, 99–107
princely justice 85–6, 90, 97–9, 101 n.47, 103–10
proof, system of 91–4
reform 84, 103–8
reluctance to punish 90, 92
retributivism 87, 107–8
rise of modern criminal law 84–6
secularization 85–6, 89, 92, 99–100, 103, 107, 109–10
torture 84–6, 88, 91, 93–5
violence, decline in taste for 90
monarchical state 85–6, 95–7, 100, 107
Moore, Michael S 136, 455, 457–8, 543, 547, 692
mutilation 84–5, 87, 91–2, 95, 99, 104, 107, 110
N
nationality, principle of 401, 403, 404, 405–9, 413, 418, 420
natural law 207, 216, 221, 392, 575, 691, 1139
(p. 1189) necessity/duress 583–606
balancing 598–600, 605
blame for predicament 593–4, 600, 605–6
canon law 206–7, 222
circumstances, duress of 584, 604
coercive necessity 596–7, 604
collective interests 594–5
comparative criminal law 1093–4, 1101–4
complicity 541, 558
conflicting interests 586, 595–6, 605
consent 632, 633, 651
constellations 594–6, 600–4
constitutional principles 438–9
contractual reasons 590–1
currency of the danger 596–7
defensive necessity 586–7, 603, 605
differentiation theory 587
egotistic and altruistic rescue 585
failure to give assistance 589–90
group of persons 605
homicide 290–3
individual questions 584–606
intensity of threatened violations 599
interests involved 585–6, 594–5
International Criminal Court 1161
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia 1141, 1161
Islamic criminal law 255, 259
Jewish law 272, 283, 287–90
justification and excuses 584–606
legally protected interests 595, 599, 604–5
life against life 600–1
loyalty principle 591–2
medical treatment, consent to 595–6
mitigation 1094
most sparing means 597–8
natural causes 584
necessity of the necessity action 597–8, 604
objectivity 597
personal legal interests 604–5
phenomenology of necessity situations 584–6
prerequisites 604–6
probability of interference 600
proportionality 605
reasons 587–94
rescue operations 603, 605
same person, conflicting interests of 595–6
self-defense 586–7, 603, 605, 608, 610–13, 620
simple or significant preponderance 598
social need, exclusion of 596
solidarity principle 589–91, 594–5, 601
sources of the danger 596
subjectivity 597, 603
terrorism 830
negligence
actus reus 451, 457, 459–60, 462–4
assault 739
causation 484–6
conscious negligence 509, 1109–12
dolus eventualis 500, 509
drug offenses 801
duty of care, breach of 510
foreseeability 510
gross negligence 510–11
inadvertent negligence 509–10
intention 493, 500–1, 503
mens rea 509
omissions 725
prerequisites for criminal negligence 510–11
reasonableness 724
Soviet law 310
strict liability 867, 881, 882–3
subjective elements of criminal liability 491–3, 509–11
superior responsibility 1160
neo-Kantian formalism/neo-Hegelian theory 1055–7
neoliberalism 13, 20, 64, 76–7, 941, 1081, 1085
neuroscience 193–4
neutrality under rule of law 174, 179–84, 814, 821, 827, 835
nicolaitism 212
nobility 90, 96–8, 103, 106, 110
non-fatal offenses against the person 251, 258–62, 323–4, 727–46 see also assault
(p. 1190) nulla poena sine lege principle see legality, principle of
Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) 1093, 1139–40, 1143, 1148, 1152
O
oaths and ordeals 204, 213–14, 222
obstruction of justice 839–40, 842–4, 851–3, 856–7
occupation, trial of civilians in territories under 326, 344–7
offenses against the person 251, 258–62, 323–4, 727–46 see also assault
omissions
action, theory of 131, 133, 134–7
actus reus 450, 457, 459–60, 462, 466
causation 479–81, 725
child neglect 742
comparative criminal law 1092–3
complicity 542–3, 558
corporate criminal liability 563, 571
negligence 725
possession 525, 527
punishment 135, 137
responsibility for a crime, meaning of 369
superior responsibility 1159
volitional theory of action 136
opportunity, principle of 971
organized crime 401, 411, 414, 1116, 1129–31
P
Packer, Herbert 904, 1018, 1036–8
panopticon 89, 90, 395
papacy and Catholic Church 201–3, 207, 209–12, 219–21
parasitism 318–19
pardons and mercy 85–6, 92, 99–107, 430–1, 442–3, 922, 943
Pashukanis, Yevgeniy 299–300, 304
passive personality principle 401, 403, 408–9, 413, 418, 420
paternalism 149–50, 688–90, 700
patriarchy 59, 63, 69–70, 76, 78, 95–6, 102, 110, 164, 748, 1027–8, 1032–5
penal law, paradigms of 1017–39
citizen and enemy law 1018, 1037–8
critical analysis 1017–18, 1038–9
dual penal state and penal dualisms 1018, 1033–9
governance 1018, 1023–8, 1030–6
police 1018, 1028–33
public law and private law 1017–28
state action 1018, 1023, 1028, 1034–6, 1038
penance 203, 210–11
philosophy 131–51
action theory 131–7
canon law 204–8, 222
causation 472–7, 481–2
criminalization 679–80, 684, 687–8
ethics 142–6
harm principle 687–8
mind, philosophy of 137–41
political philosophy 147–51
punishment 132–8, 141–8
physical punishments 946–8 see also death penalty
blood punishments 84–6, 88–95, 98–9, 103–4, 107, 110
cruelty 84–90
Islamic law 943, 946
modernity, transition to 84–95, 98–100, 103–10
mutilation 84–5, 87, 91–2, 95, 99, 104, 107, 110
preventive sanctions 104, 960
public, in 87–8, 90, 203, 702, 709, 943
plea bargaining 94, 109, 915–17, 926, 943, 970
police
assault on police officer in execution of duty 734
discretion 914–15, 926–7, 971
dual penal state 1033–6
law state (Rechtsstaat) 1028, 1034–5
legal good (Rechtsgut) 1029–30
legitimacy 1028–31
nullification 915
penal law, paradigms of 1018, 1028–33
police and law, distinction between 1029–32
(p. 1191) police state (Polizeistaat) 1027–35
public and private law 1028–32
punishment 942
regulatory offenses 927, 1066–8
rule of law 1030
state power 1028–32
political constructivist theory 361–5
political philosophy 147–51
Ponzi schemes 787, 838, 842, 847, 856
pornography 80, 1054, 1129–30
Posner, Richard 47–8
predictive analytics 187–9, 193–4
preparatory acts/preliminary conduct 513–18, 801–2
actus reus 456
attempts 131, 133, 523–5, 1105–6
burglary 778
conspiracy 528
drug offenses 804, 805–7
grooming 749
possession 526–8
preliminary conduct 514–18, 526–8
terrorism 812, 825, 827, 829
presumption of innocence
canon law 215–16, 223
design, by 192–6
due process 1037
homicide 716
procedure, development of criminal 215–16, 223
strict liability 866
subjectivity 492
technology 174–5, 181, 183–8, 192–6
terrorism 824, 826–7, 833
preventive sanctions 104, 685–6, 959–63
princely justice 85–6, 90, 97–9, 101 n.47, 103–10
printing press 179–83, 196, 220–1
prisoners of war 340–3
privacy 112, 183, 193–5, 433, 737, 748, 761
private and public law see public law and private law
privatization 950, 1009, 1041, 1058–60, 1062
profiling 8–9, 23, 28, 184, 188, 193–5, 830
proof, theory of 204, 214, 222
property offenses 768–88 see also particular offenses (e.g. theft)
civil law systems 772–3
civil law wrongs 769–70, 777
classification as property offenses 768–71, 781
compound offenses 781–3
distinguishing among the offenses 771–2
hybrid offenses 772, 781–3
imprisonment 786–7
intangible and semi-tangible property 772, 779–81, 785–6
ownership 769
personal injuries 781–2
punishment 786–7
pure offenses 772
rape and sexual offenses 32–3, 771
social injustice and property law defiance 783–6
Soviet law 317, 320–1, 324
proportionality of punishment 966–8
constitutional principles 429, 441, 443
discretion 919–20, 936
economic analysis of criminal law 44, 55–6
imprisonment 950, 953, 990, 1003–4
liberalism 150–1
modernity, transition to 99, 103, 104–7, 110
regulatory offenses 1084
retribution 966–8
strict liability 874–5
terrorism 813–15, 817, 826, 830–5
prosecutorial discretion 909–11, 915–19, 925–31, 970
administration of judicial and regulatory systems 851–2
adversarial and inquisitorial processes 903, 909–11
charging 916–17, 925, 971
civil law systems 916, 925, 931
equality 903
extradition 936
implementation function 926
judicial deference 934
judicial function 926, 929
legality, principle of 917–18, 932
(p. 1192) managerial discretion 925
military justice 334
plea bargaining 916–17, 926
separation of powers 929, 935
terrorism 820, 825
white collar crimes 847, 851–3
prostitution
brothels, running 756
constitutional principles 435
decriminalization 755
feminism 73–7, 77–9
licensing 755, 758
regulation/abolition dichotomy 756–8
sexual autonomy 748, 754–9, 763, 765–6
street toleration zones 756
strict liability 756
trafficking 73–5, 756, 759
protection, principle of 401, 403, 409–10, 418, 420
proximity 483–4, 486–7, 525
psychiatric detention 656, 658–9, 665, 675, 950
psychiatric injury 730, 739–49
psychiatry/psychology 6–11, 17, 23, 48–9, 112–13, 160–5, 168–71
public administration 322, 989, 990–2, 1003, 1008
public law and private law 1017–28, 1040–63
Athens 1023–7, 1035
autonomy of private law 1040–1, 1044–58, 1062
autonomy of public law 1041, 1058–61
classification of entities 1043
constitutional law 1019
critical theory 1043–4
definitions 1041–4
descriptive dimension 1043
feminism 61, 1043, 1053–5, 1057
household governance in Athens 1023–6
indeterminacy argument 1049–50
instrumentalization of private law 1040–1
law and economics movement 1050–3
legal realism 1043–4
libertarians/liberals 1040, 1044–6, 1055, 1057
neo-Kantian formalism/neo-Hegelian theory 1055–7
normative dimension 1043
patriarchal conception of state power 1027–8
penal law 1017–28
police and law, distinction between 1028–32
political values and ideology 1043–4
privatization of public services 1041
public good 1042–3
public wrong, crime as a 1020–1
Roman law 1022–3, 1025–7
rule of law 1020
sectarian argument 1049, 1050
state sovereignty 1022
public nature of crimes 366–8
public welfare/strict liability offenses 862–83
actus reus 449, 463–5, 864, 876–80
burden of proof 865–6, 868–70, 873, 880–2
central state administrative capacity, limits on 878–9
change of normative position 874–5
civil law systems 866
comparative status 865–7
constitutional principles 436
corporate criminal liability 576
culpability 862–7, 871, 874–5, 879–83
defenses 880–1
definition 863–5, 867
deterrence 872
due diligence 865, 866–7, 880
explanations for strict criminal liability 874–9
fines 863, 867, 872
foreseeability 881
history 868–73
homicide 720
industrialization and urbanization 868, 876–9
judiciary 868–73
knowledge 868–70, 873, 876, 880
mens rea 862–75, 882
(p. 1193) mind, philosophy of 141
minor offenses 871–3
negligence 867, 881, 882–3
notice from regulated nature of activity 882
presumption of innocence 866
proportionality 874–5
prostitution 756
public health, public safety, public morals or public order 863, 868–9
punishment 862–3, 865, 867, 870–5, 883
pure strict liability 865
reasonable care 865
recklessness 867
serious crimes 871–3
social duties in modern societies 876–8
Soviet law 310
subjective elements of criminal liability 491–2
vicarious liability 869, 880, 882
physical punishments; proportionality of punishment
abolitionists 143
action, theory of 132–7
actus reus 141, 460
administrative penalties 1065–78, 1082–3, 1085
agents providing public goods 1060–1
aggravating circumstances 312–13
assault 732, 733–4, 735
attempts 133–4, 522–3
canon law 203–4, 208–11, 215, 219, 222
causation 470
civil law systems 945, 968–9, 972
class 311–12
clemency 105–6
collateral sanctions 945, 961–3
common law systems 969, 971–2
comparative sentencing analysis 977
complicity 534–5, 539–40, 550, 554
consent 631–2, 642
consequentialism 142–6, 932, 964, 965, 967
conspiracy 528–9
constitutional principles 425, 441–3, 680–2
corporate criminal liability 562, 566–70, 572–8, 581
criminalization 685–6
criminology 10–11, 13–15
democracies 147–8
deterrence 942–3, 944, 965–6, 968–9
disparities 972–6
diversion 13, 312, 926, 942, 977, 979
drug offenses 789, 792–3, 797–8, 801–3, 809
economic analysis of criminal law 40–7, 52–7
equality 973–5
ethics 142–6
Europe 965, 977–9
eye for an eye 276–7, 943
families, impact on 943, 945
federal and sub-national jurisdictions 974
fraud 859–60
guidelines 969–70, 980–1
harm principle 148–9
homicide 708–9
human rights 936, 943, 945
humane punishments 106–7
incapacitation 942, 945, 965–6
inchoate offenses 514–16, 527
indigenous people 231–7, 239, 975–6
individualization 972–6
insanity 656, 658–9, 673–5
integrative and disintegrative sanctions 957–9
intention 492–4
intoxication 657–8
Islamic criminal law 250–67, 943, 946, 970–1
Jewish law 273–81, 285–90
judiciary 919–20, 973–5
jurisdiction 402, 417–18
legality, principle of 137, 932
liberalism 149–51
literature and law 111–12
mental capacity 138
(p. 1194) military justice 326, 330, 335, 341, 343
mind, philosophy of 137–8, 141
mixed approaches 966–7
morality, defense of 686
necessity/duress 585, 593
non-legal rules or orders 142
offenders, punishment of persons who are not or not supposed to be 142–3
omissions 135, 137
over-punishment 147–8, 150
pardons and mercy 85–6, 92, 99–107, 430–1, 442–3, 922, 943
parsimony in punishment, principle of 1081–2
philosophy 132–8,