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date: 18 February 2020

(p. xxxi) Chronology

(p. xxxi) Chronology

Year

Historical and Cultural

  • Textual History

  • [Publication date unless indicated otherwise]

1485

  • Battle of Bosworth.

  • Death of Richard III.

  • Accession of Henry Tudor to English throne as Henry VII.

1492

  • Arrival of Columbus in the Caribbean.

  • Jews expelled from Spain.

1493

Anon. The chastysing of goddes chyldern.

1494

Walter Hilton, Scala perfeccionis.

1496

  • John Alcock, Mons perfeccionis.

  • Denis the Carthusian (1402–71), The foure last thynges (English translation).

1502

Chairs of Divinity founded at Oxford and Cambridge by Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII.

1506

  • Richard Rolle (d. 1349), Contemplacyons of the drede and loue of god with other dyuerse tytles.

  • Jacobus de Gruytrode (d. 1472), The mirroure of golde for the synfull soule, trans. Margaret Beaufort.

1508

  • William Dunbar, The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy.

  • Richard Rolle, The remedy against the troubles of temptations.

1509

Henry VII dies and is succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII (his first son, Arthur, having died in 1502).

Two versions of The Shyppe of Fooles published (translated from Sebastian Brandt’s German original).

1510

  • Andrew Chertsey, Ihesus. The floure of the commaundementes of God with many examples and auctorytees extracte and drawen as well of holy scryptures as of other doctours and good auncient faders.

  • Richard Rolle, Speculum spiritualium.

1511

Erasmus appointed Greek Reader at Cambridge.

Desiderius Erasmus, In Praise of Folly (published in Latin).

1514

Simon (the Anchorite), The fruyte of redemcyon.

1515

Thomas Wolsey made a Cardinal and subsequently Lord Chancellor.

1516

1517

Martin Luther nails his ninety-five theses to the door of Wittenburg church.

1518

Cardinal Wolsey appointed as Papal Legate.

1519

Luther declared a heretic; Henry VIII meets King François I of France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

Erasmus, Colloquies.

1520

Sir Thomas Wyatt’s poems known to be circulating in manuscript.

1521

Luther excommunicated by the Pope. Henry awarded the title ‘Defender of the Faith’ by the Pope in response to the publication of Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (written with the assistance of Sir Thomas More).

  • John Fisher, The Sermon of John the Bysshop of Rochester.

  • St. Edmund of Abingdon (c.1170–1240), The myrrour of the chyrche.

1526

  • William Tyndale, The New Testament (complete English translation) published in Worms, Germany.

  • Margaret More Roper, A Devout Treatise upon the Pater Noster (translation of Erasmus’s Precatio Dominica, 1525).

1528

William Tyndale, The Obedience of a Christen Man (published anonymously).

1529

Wolsey is replaced as Lord Chancellor by Thomas More.

Sir Thomas More, A Dialogue Conernynge Heresyes & Matters of Religion.

1530

William Tyndale, The Pentateuch (English translation of the first five books of the Old Testament).

1531

Henry VIII declares himself Supreme Head of the Church in England and Wales.

  • Sir Thomas Elyot, The Governor.

  • William Tyndale, An Answer unto Sir Thomas Mores Dialogue.

1532

More resigns as Lord Chancellor.Henry excommunicated by the Pope.

Sir Thomas More, The Confutacyon of Tyndales Answere.

1533

  • Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury and within two months annuls Henry’s first marriage to Catherine of Aragon.

  • Henry’s second wife, Anne Boleyn, gives birth to a daughter, the future Elizabeth I.

1534

Act of Supremacy enshrines in law Henry’s role as Supreme Head of the Church.

John Colet, The Ordre of a Good Chrysten Mannes Lyfe.

1535

  • Jean Calvin arrives in Geneva to establish his Protestant community there.

  • Thomas More and John Fisher executed in London for their opposition to the King’s break with Rome.

Miles Coverdale, complete translation of The Bible in English, and Ghostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes (published with music).

1536

  • Dissolution of the Monasteries begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell.

  • Anne Boleyn executed.

  • Act of Union brings Wales directly under English control.

  • The Pilgrimage of Grace, a popular northern uprising against Henry’s religious reforms, begins in the autumn.

  • William Tyndale charged with heresy and put to death in Brabant.

1537

Henry VIII’s third wife, Jane Seymour, dies after giving birth to a son, the future Edward VI.

The Matthew Bible (based on the translations of Tyndale and Coverdale).

1539

The Great Bible (commissioned by Thomas Cromwell, based on the Coverdale Bible and intended to be made available in every parish in the country).

1543

Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.

1545

Council of Trent (Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation council), continuing in Trento and Bologna until 1563.

Katherine Parr, Prayers Stirrying the Mynd unto Heavenlye Medytacions.

1546

Protestant Anne Askew burned at the stake in Smithfield.

Anne Askew, The First Examination.

1547

  • Henry VIII dies and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son, Edward VI.

  • The country is governed by a Regency Council favouring further Protestant reformation in England and Wales.

Katherine Parr, The Lamentation of a Sinner.

1548

  • Elizabeth I (at this point still Princess Elizabeth), A Godly Medytacyon of the Christen Sowle (translation of Le Miroir de l’âme pécheresse by Marguerite de Navarre).

  • Hugh Latimer, A Notable Sermon of Maister Hughe Latemer.

1549

  • The Book of Common Prayer.

  • Certayne Sermons … appointed by the Kinges Majestie.

  • Thomas Wyatt, Certayne Psalmes Chosen Out of the Psalter of David.

1552

First Jesuit College opens in Rome.

  • Heinrich Bullinger, The Christen state of matrymonye.

  • John Hooper, A godly confession and protestacion of the christian faith.

1553

Edward VI dies (aged 15) and is succeeded by his Catholic half-sister, Mary I (Mary Tudor).

  • Richard Beard, A godly psalme of Marye Queene which brought vs comfort al, through God, whom wee of dewtye prayse, that giues her foes a fal.

  • Stephen Gardiner, De vera obedientia.

1554

  • The marriage of Mary to Philip of Spain in Winchester.

  • Execution of Lady Jane Grey.

  • English Church returns to Rome with Mary retaining title of Supreme Head.

  • Thomas Becon, An humble supplicacion vnto God for the restoring of hys holye woorde, vnto the churche of Englande, mooste mete to be sayde in these oure dayes, euen with teares of euery true and faythfull English harte (pub. in Strasbourg).

  • John Knox, An admonition or warning that the faithful Christians in London, Newcastle Barwycke and others, may auoide Gods vengeaunce bothe in thys life and in the life to come.

  • John Ponet, The humble and vnfained confession of the belefe of certain poore banished men.

  • John Standish, A discourse wherin is debated whether it be expedient that the scripture should be in English for al men to reade.

1555-6

A growing number of English Protestant martyrs burned or executed, including Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley, and Thomas Cranmer.

Edmund Bonner, Homelies.

1557

  • Tottel’s Miscellany.

  • Martin Bucer, A treatise, how by the Worde of God, Christian mens almose ought to be distributed.

1558

Mary I dies and is succeeded by her Protestant half-sister, Elizabeth I.

  • Cuthbert Tunstall, Certaine godly and deuout prayers.

  • Thomas Watson, Holsome and catholyke doctryne concerninge the seuen Sacramentes of Chrystes Church expedient to be knowen of all men.

1559

  • Act of Uniformity establishes the Church of England.

  • Second Act of Supremacy reasserts that the monarch is head of the Church.

  • William Baldwin and George Ferrers, A Myrroure for Magistrates. Nicholas Ridley, A Friendly Farewell … unto all his true lovers and frendes in God, a litl before that he suffred (posthumous, edited by John Foxe).

  • First edition in Latin of John Foxe, Acts and Monuments of the Christian Church.

1560

  • The Calvinist Geneva Bible (otherwise known as the ‘Breeches Bible’ because of its translation of the garments made from fig leaves by Adam and Eve).

  • Anne Vaughan Lok, Meditation of a Penitent Sinner (appended to Sermons of John Calvin).

1562

  • Slaving operations to Africa begun by John Hawkins.

  • First ‘War of Religion’ in France.

The Whole Book of Psalms, metrical Psalm translations into English verse by Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins to be sung in churches.

1563

Thirty-Nine Articles of Anglican Church.

John Foxe’s Actes and Monuments, otherwise known as the Book of Martyrs, published in English and placed in many parish churches alongside the Bible.

1565

Turkish siege of Malta.

The Gude and Godlie Balattis.

1566

Thomas Churchyard, Churchyardes Lamentacion of Freyndshyp.

1567

  • Dutch revolt against Spanish (Catholic) rule, leading to involvement of English Protestant troops in the Low Countries throughout the reign of Elizabeth and beyond.

  • Construction of the Red Lion Theatre in London.

1568

The Bishops’ Bible.

1570

Elizabeth excommunicated by the Pope.

1571

  • Certain Sermons or Homilies Appointed to be Read in Churches, the second ‘Book of Homilies’ (an expansion and revision of the first book of 1549).

  • Sir Arthur Golding, The Psalms of David and Others (Calvin’s Latin text ‘Rendered into English’).

1572

St Bartholomew’s Day massacre of French Protestants (Huguenots) in Paris.

1576

  • The first Catholic priests are sent back into England from Douai.

  • Construction of the playhouse, The Theatre, in London.

1577

First edition of Raphael Holinshed, The Chronicles of England, and Ireland (1577–8)

1582

The Catholic translation of the New Testament into English, known as the Douay-Rheims Bible.

1586

Philip Sidney dies as a result of a wound sustained at the Battle of Zutphen during the military campaign against the Spanish in the Low Countries.

1587

Mary Queen of Scots, Catholic cousin of Elizabeth, executed.

1588

Defeat of the Spanish Armada.

  • Y Beibl Cymraeg [The Welsh Bible], translated by William Morgan.

  • William Byrd, Psalms, Sonnets and Songs.

1589

  • Christopher Marlowe, The Jew of Malta.

  • Richard Hackluyt, Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation.

  • Marre Mar-Martin or Marre-Martins medling, in a manner misliked (anonymous verse satire).

1590

Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene Books 1–3.

1591

Philip Sidney, Astrophil and Stella (posthumously published).

1593

Murder of Christopher Marlowe at a tavern in Deptford, London.

Richard Hooker, Of The Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie.

1594

William Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece.

1595

Robert Southwell, poet and Jesuit priest, hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

Robert Southwell, Saint Peters Complaint, with Other Poems (anonymous posthumous publication).

1596

Sir Walter Ralegh, The discovery of the large, rich, and beautiful Empire of Guiana.

1597

James VI of Scotland, Daemonologie.

1599

  • Opening of the Globe Theatre.

  • Bishops’ ban on satires.

James VI of Scotland, Basilikon Doron (1st edition, seven copies published).

1600

  • Mary Sidney completes her verse translation of the Psalms (begun by her brother Philip), dedicating the manuscript to Elizabeth I.

  • William Perkins, A Golden Chaine.

1601

Rebellion against Elizabeth, led by the earl of Essex, quickly fails, leading to the earl’s execution.

1603

Elizabeth I dies and is succeeded by her Stuart cousin, James VI of Scotland, who becomes James I of England, Wales, and Ireland.

Shakespeare, Hamlet first Quarto.

1604

Hampton Court Conference on the future of the Church of England.

Thomas Wright, The Passions of the Minde in Generall.

1605

Gunpowder Plot fails in its attempt to blow up King and Parliament.

Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning, Divine and Humane.

1606

Virginia Company founded.

Thomas Middleton, The Puritan Widow.

1608

1609

Thomas Middleton, The Two Gates of Salvation.

1610

Assassination of Henri IV, King of France, a Huguenot who had converted to Catholicism but strove for religious liberty.

A briefe and plaine narration of proceedings at an assemsemblie [sic] in Glasco, 8. Iun. 1610. anent the innovation of the Kirk-governement.

1611

1612

Death of Henry, prince of Wales, champion of European Protestantism.

1614

James issues a proclamation ordering Roman Catholic priests to leave Ireland (not rigorously enforced).

Sir Walter Ralegh, The History of the World.

1616

  • Ben Jonson, Works.

  • François de Sales, An Introduction to a Deuout Life (first English translation).

1617

Scottish Church assembly refuses to implement James’s five Perth articles, which include the enforcement of kneeling at Communion.

1618

James issues his controversial proclamation known as the Book of Sports, encouraging the playing of sports and games on Sundays.

1618-19

Synod of Dort (Protestant assembly to deal with Arminianism) in the town of Dordrecht in the Low Countries, including representatives of the English Church.

1620

Frederick, the Protestant Elector Palatine, and his wife Elizabeth (daughter of James I), who had been declared King and Queen of Bohemia in 1619, lose their territory to Catholic forces and live the rest of their lives in exile.

David Calderwood, A defence of our arguments against kneeling in the act of receiving.

1621

  • Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy.

  • Mary Wroth, The Countess of Montgomeries Urania.

1622

1623

Shakespeare (d. 1616), First Folio.

1624

1625

  • James I dies and is succeeded by his second son, Charles I (his first son, Henry, having died in 1612).

  • Charles marries Henrietta Maria of France.

1627

1628

Assassination of the royal favourite, the duke of Buckingham.

  • Joseph Hall, The Olde Religion: Wherin is laid downe the difference betwixt the reformed, and Romane church.

  • William Harvey, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis (on the circulation of the blood).

1629

Charles suspends Parliament.

Lancelot Andrewes, XCVI Sermons (posthumous publication).

1632

George Wither, The Psalmes of David Translated into Lyrick Verse.

1633

  • William Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

  • Witch trials are conducted in Lancashire.

  • Charles reissues the anti-sabbatarian Book of Sports (first published by his father in 1618).

1635

Francis Quarles, Emblemes.

1637

Charles imposes The Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Church.

1638

Inigo Jones and William Davenant, Britannia Triumphans: A Masque.

1639

First Bishops’ War against Scotland.

1640

Parliament recalled after eleven years of Charles’s ‘Personal Rule’.

Bay Psalm Book, for the use of the New England colony in Massachusetts.

1641

The Arminian Nunnery, or a Brief Description and Relation of … Little Gidding.

1642

  • Charles raises the royal standard at Nottingham Castle and the Civil War begins.

  • Public theatres closed by the parliamentarian authorities.

  • Sir Thomas Browne, Religio Medici.

  • The Flaming Hart or the Life of the Glorious S. Teresa (first English translation).

1644

Queen Henrietta Maria seeks safety in France from the ongoing Civil War in England.

John Milton, Areopagitica.

1645

Archbishop Laud executed.

1646

  • Presbyterian Church system established by Parliament.

  • Charles surrenders to the Scots.

1647

  • Christopher Harvey, The School of the Heart … in 47 Emblems

  • (anonymous publication adapted from Benedict van Haeften’s 1629 Schola Cordis).

1648

Society of Friends (Quakers) founded by George Fox.

  • A Manual of the Private Devotions of the Right Reverend Father in God, Lancelot Andrewes (d. 1626).

  • Gerrard Winstanley, The Breaking of the Day of God.

  • Robert Herrick, Hesperides.

1649

  • Charles I executed at Whitehall after being found guilty of treason against his own people.

  • Commonwealth declared.

  • Eikon Basilike: The poutraicture of His Sacred Majestie, in his solitudes and sufferings (anonymous publication, known as ‘The King’s Book’).

  • John Milton, Eikonoklastes: In answer to a book intitl’d Eikon Basilike.

1650

Book of Common Prayer abolished by Parliament.

  • Richard Baxter, The Saints Everlasting Rest.

  • Jacob Bauthumley, The Light and Dark Sides of God.

  • Anne Bradstreet, The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America.

  • Jeremy Taylor, The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living and The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (1650–1).

1651

Charles II crowned King in Scotland, but later in the year defeated by Cromwell and flees to France.

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan: Or, The Matter, Forme, & Power of a Common-Wealth Eccelsiasticall and Civill.

1652

First Anglo-Dutch War (subsequent wars take place in 1665–7 and 1672–4).

1653

  • Rump Parliament dissolved.

  • Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector.

  • Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Poems, and Fancies.

  • An Collins, Divine Songs and Meditacions.

  • Thomas Middleton (d. 1627) and William Rowley (d. c.1642), The Changeling.

  • Henry More, An Antidote against Atheisme.

1654

Anna Trapnel, The Cry of a Stone.

1655

Whitehall Conference on the readmission of the Jews to England.

  • Andrew Marvell, The First Anniversary of the Government Under His Highness the Lord Protector (published anonymously).

  • Henry Vaughan, Silex Scintillans (parts I and II).

1656

Quaker James Naylor rides into Bristol in a re-enactment of Christ’s entry into Jerusalem on the first Palm Sunday; Naylor subsequently branded and imprisoned for blasphemy.

  • John Bunyan, Some Gospel-Truths Opened.

  • Sir William Davenant, The Siege of Rhodes.

  • James Harrington, The Commonwealth of Oceana.

  • Abraham Cowley, Poems.

1657

Cromwell refuses the title of King.

Henry King, Poems, Elegies, Paradoxes and Sonnets.

1658

Oliver Cromwell dies and is succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard.

  • Sir Thomas Browne, Hydriotaphia, or Urne Buriall and The Garden

  • of Cyrus.

  • Anna Trapnel, Voice for the King of Saints and Nations.

  • Gertrude More, The Spiritval Exercises of the Most Vertuous and Religious D.Gertrude More of the holy order of S. Bennet (published in Paris).

1659

Richard Cromwell resigns as Protector.

John Bunyan, The Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded.

1660

  • Restoration of the monarchy with the return of Charles II from exile on the continent (May). The king’s Declaration of Breda promises religious toleration in Britain.

  • The London theatres re-open.

  • Abraham Cowley, Ode, Upon the Blessed Restoration and Returne of His Sacred Majestie.

  • John Dryden, Astraea Redux.

  • Milton, The Readie and Easie Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth.

  • Richard Baxter, Catholick Unity: or the Only Way to Bring Us All To Be of One Religion.

1661

The Savoy Conference on the future of the Church under Charles II.

George Fox et al., A Declaration from the Harmles & Innocent People of God, called Quakers.

1662

  • Act of Uniformity restores the Church of England.

  • The newly founded Royal Society gains its charter from the king.

The Book of Common Prayer reissued and reinstated.

1664

Conventicles Act passed, forbidding religious gatherings of more than five people (except in the Church of England).

1665-6

  • Major outbreak of plague in London.

  • Second Anglo-Dutch War, 1665–7.

1666

Great Fire of London.

  • John Bunyan, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners.

  • Margaret Fell, Women’s Speaking Justified.

1667

  • John Dryden, Annus Mirabilis: The Year of Wonders, 1666.

  • Milton, Paradise Lost.

  • Katherine Philips, Poems by the most deservedly admir’d … the Matchless Orinda.

1668

John Dryden becomes Poet Laureate.

William Penn, Truth Exalted.

1670

Izaak Walton, The Lives of Dr John Donne, Sir Henry Wooton, Mr Richard Hooker, Mr George Herbert.

1672

  • Royal ‘Declaration of Indulgence’ towards Roman Catholics and Nonconformists (withdrawn after a year).

  • Third Anglo-Dutch War, 1672–4.

(1671–3) Julia Palmer, two ‘Centuries’ of Presbyterian devotional verse (preserved in manuscript, unpublished until 2001).

1673

The Test Act excludes Roman Catholics from holding public office.

1677

1678–81

The Popish Plot, fabricated by Titus Oates, stirs up anti-Catholic sentiment.

John Bunyan, The Pilgrim’s Progress.

1679

1679-81

The Exclusion Crisis (relating to the desire of leading Protestants in Parliament to exclude Charles’s brother James from the succession to the throne on account of his Roman Catholicism).

  • Richard Baxter, A Breviate (on the life of Margaret Baxter) and Poetical Fragments (1681).

  • John Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel (1681–2).

1682

Moroccan ambassador visits the court of Charles II, as well as Oxford, Cambridge, and the Royal Society.

1683

  • The Rye House Plot (to assassinate Charles and James) discovered.

  • Vienna besieged by the Turks.

  • Peter Sterry, The Rise, Race and Royalty of the Kingdom of God.

  • Hannah Allen, A Narrative of God’s Gracious Dealings with that Choice Christian Mrs Hannah Allen.

1685

  • Charles II dies and is succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James II.

  • Monmouth’s rebellion against the succession is defeated and the duke of Monmouth (Charles II’s illegitimate Protestant heir) is beheaded for treason.

1687

‘Declaration of Indulgence’ issued by James, relaxing the prohibition on Nonconformist religious preaching and worship.

1688-9

As a result of the so-called ‘Glorious Revolution’, James II is ousted from the throne, declared to have abdicated, and replaced by the Protestant monarchs William (of the Dutch House of Orange) and Mary (daughter of James II).

Richard Baxter, The Saints Everlasting Rest.

1689

Aphra Behn, The History of the Nun; or, The Fair Vow-Breaker.

1690

  • English and Dutch fleets lose to the French at Beachy Head.

  • James II defeated at the Battle of the Boyne.

  • Aphra Behn, The Widow Ranter.

  • Robert Boyle, The Christian Virtuoso.

  • George Keith, The pretended antidote proved poyson: or, The true principles of the Christian & Protestant religion defended.

  • John Locke, A letter concerning toleration and A second letter concerning toleration.

1691

Joan Vokins, God’s Mighty Power Magnified: as manifested and revealed in his faithful handmaid Joan Vokins.

1692

  • Massacre of Glencoe.

  • Witch hunts begin in Salem, Massachusetts.

  • Anne, Viscountess Conway, The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy concerning God, Christ and the Creatures (posthumous publication).

  • Richard Bentley, A confutation of atheism.

  • Henry Compton, The Bishop of London’s eighth letter to his clergy upon a conference how they ought to behave themselves under the Toleration.

  • John Winthrop, A short story of the rise, reign, and ruin of the Antinomians, Familists, and libertines that infected the churches of New-England.

1693

1694

Death of Mary II, after which William reigns alone.

  • Sir Robert Howard, The history of religion written by a person of quality.

  • John Locke, Reason and religion in some useful reflections on the most eminent hypotheses concerning the first principles, and nature of things: with advice suitable to the subject, and seasonable for these times.

  • William Wilson, A discourse of religion shewing its truth and reality, or, The suitableness of religion to humane nature.

1695

  • John Locke, The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the Scriptures.

  • William Turner, The history of all religions in the world, from the creation down to this present time in two parts: the first containing their theory, and the other relating to their practices … to which is added, a table of heresies.

1696

  • Damaris Masham, A Discourse Concerning the Love of God.

  • Richard Baxter, Reliquiae Baxterianae (posthumous

  • collection of autobiographical writings).

  • Alexander Ross, Pansebeia, or, A view of all religions in the world with the several church-governments, from the creation till these times: also a discovery of all known heresies in all ages and places.

1697

Treaty of Ryswick ends the War of the Grand Alliance, in which England fought alongside Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Dutch Republic against France.

  • William Sherlock, The danger of corrupting the faith by philosophy.

  • Edward Synge, A peaceable and friendly address to the non-conformists.

1698

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (S.P.C.K.) founded.

  • George Fox, A Collection of Many Select and Christian Epistles (posthumous publication).

  • John Goodman, The old religion demonstrated in its principles and described in the life and practices thereof by John Goodman.

1699

  • earl of Shaftesbury, An inquiry concerning virtue in two discourses.

  • Edward Ward, Modern religion and ancient loyalty a dialogue.

1700

  • Richard Claridge, Mercy covering the Judgement-seat.

  • Benjamin Coole, Religion and reason united.

  • Hugo Grotius, The truth of Christian religion in six books, written in Latin by Hugo Grotius; and now translated into English, with the edition of a seventh book against the present Roman church, by Simon Patrick.

  • Cotton Mather, A letter of advice to the churches of the non-conformists in the English nation.

1702

William III dies, and is succeeded by his sister-in-law Anne, second daughter of James II.

1705

Edward Synge, A Gentleman’s Religion.

1707

Bishoprics Crisis (highlighting ongoing struggles between royal and political patronage of the ecclesiastical hierarchy in England).

  • Daniel Defoe, The Dissenters Vindicated.

  • Thomas Emes, The atheist turn’d deist and the deist turn’d Christian, or, The reasonableness and union of natural and the true Christian religion.

  • Matthew Henry publishes the first volume of what becomes his Exposition of the Old and New Testament.

1708

Failed invasion of Scotland by the Jacobite ‘Pretender’, James Stuart (son of James II), from exile in France.

1709

  • Richard Steele, The Christian Hero.

  • Edward Stillingfleet, Origines Sacrae.

  • Jonathan Swift, A project for the advancement of religion, and the reformation of manners.

1713

Treaty of Utrecht agreed between England, France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic, to end prolonged political and religious wars on the European mainland.

Cotton Mather, Reasonable Religion.

1714

Anne I dies, and is succeeded by George I, Protestant Elector of Hanover.

Henry Matthew, A Church in the House. A Sermon concerning Family-Religion.

(p. xxxii) (p. xxxiii) (p. xxxiv) (p. xxxv) (p. xxxvi) (p. xxxvii) (p. xxxviii) (p. xxxix) (p. xl) (p. xli) (p. xlii) (p. xliii) (p. xliv) (p. xlv) (p. xlvi)