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date: 10 July 2020

(p. 599) Index

(p. 599) Index

Adams, R. 114
adaptation:
capacity of a species for climate change 192–3, 194–7
concept 4
misappropriation problems 35–6
adaptive cycle concept xxiii, xxiv, 11–12, 50
Adger, W. N. 63, 498
Africa, state-sponsored land reforms 246
AfricaMap 220
agave 26, 27
agent-based modelling (ABM) 286, 289, 296, 306
agricultural features and landscape evolution 31–45
adaptation: misappropriation problems 35–6
Anthropocene: misappropriation problems 34, 45
expedience, coping, and hazards 36–9
impermanence 39–41
risk-minimization/benefit-maximization 36
sustainability: misappropriation problems 35
terminology, problems with 32–3
unplanned obsolescence 44–5
agricultural infrastructure (pre-Hispanic) rehabilitation, Peruvian Andes 391, 392, 393, 422–39
agrarian reform programmes 426
amunas system 438
camellones/waru waru (raised fields) 422–3
canals 427–8
cement 435
civilization and climate change 423
climate change and severe weather events 438
community concerns 426–7
community conflicts 431
community involvement 429
Cusichaca restoration project 391, 392, 425–32, 428f, 430f
Cusichaca Trust 391, 392, 425–7, 434, 437
environmental damage 433
fallow sectors 436
fertilizers and pesticides role 431
gravity-based irrigation 423
health concerns 433
inauguration of project (September 1983) 429–30
Inca terracing and soil humidity 427
irrigated terrace systems 423, 424f
Irrigation Committee (formed 1983) 431, 432
lack of integrated planning at the local level 436
layme system 436
livestock production 435
mit’a system 423
mit’a workforce, Inca 436
Pampachiri project (1998–2003) 434f, 434–9, 437f
Pata Raymi sowing festival, Andamarca 436–7, 437f
Patacancha Valley project (1987–1997) 432–4
pollen core analysis 424
pre-Hispanic warming period 423–4
rehabilitation of 391, 392, 393, 422–39
Sendero Luminoso (‘Shining Path’) insurgency, Peru 433, 434
Spanish conquest of the Incas 424–5
tourism 434
agriculture and utilitarian-perspective archaeology 25–7
(p. 600) Aguas valley, south-eastern Spain 264, 265f
Aksum Kingdom, Ethiopia 266–7, 267f
alder 423–4
Allen, T. F. H. 27, 238
Allen valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset 268–70, 270f, 271f, 274, 275
alpacas 468
Alvarado, General Velasco 426
Amazon basin biodiversity 14
Amazonia, pre-Columbian 5, 91–102
agroforestry 95, 100–1
anthropic landscape transformation and landscape evolution 98–9
culture/nature dichotomy 98
environmental manipulation and anthropic impact 94–6, 96f
house gardens 95
Ka’apor people case study 366–85
landesque capital, landscape legacies and agricultural intensification 100–1
landscape domestication and the construction of human niche 99–100
landscape engineering and anthropic impact 92–4, 93f
‘rainforest islands’ 95
soilscape transformations and anthropic impact 93f, 96f, 97
Amazonian Dark Earths (terras pretas de indio/terras mulatas) 96f, 97, 99, 100, 101, 547
Amazonian rainforests xx
Amboseli National Park elephant isotope analysis, Kenya 214–16, 216f
Ammerman, A. 284, 285
amuna (run-off harvesting) 466
Anderson, M. K. 28
Aneityum island, New Hebrides 396–409
Angostura Entrenchment (1400 BCE), Mexico 122
Ankober highland region, Ethiopia 80
Annales school of history xxii, 9–10
annica doctrine 40
Anthropocene xx, 4
misappropriation problems 34, 45
‘paradox’ 62
studies 99–100
Anthropocene, applying historical ecologies to the human future 3–4, 6–15
ecology, systems, complexity and change 10–13
landscapes, history and heritage 7–10
paths into the Anthropocene 13–15
apartheid 336
application of applied research 587–91
African elephants 589
anthropogenic climate change 590
challenges involved 587–8
computer modelling 590
dissemination strategies 588
fossil fuels 590
indigenous knowledge 588–9
inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation 588
‘long-term’ data 589
prehistoric agrotechnologies 588–9
resource management strategies 589–90
time frames 590–1
applied archaeology xxix–xxx, 391, 581–2, 584–7
African communities, racism against 586
in the Americas 393, 441–53
definitions 584–5
ethical considerations 586–7
farming practices and soil erosion 585
future of xxx–xxxii
‘indigenous orchards’, Amazonia 585
power relationships, colonial Africa 586
science-led policy 587
and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 592–5
‘the usable past’ 586
applied archaeology in the Americas:
Caribbean ecological knowledge 445–6
cholera outbreaks 452
climate change and extreme weather events, Caribbean 393–4, 445, 446
defining 442–5, 444f
disaster management 452
food networks 449–50
food security 449
hurricane devastation 448, 449, 451–3
implementation 451–3 (p. 601)
La Isabela, northern Hispaniola 451
labour organization 443
Los Buchillones community 450–1
national hurricane management strategy, Cuba 452
need for action 446
postcolonial legacy of landscapes 445–6
pre-Columbia house structures 447–9, 448f
raised field research projects 442–3, 444f
reconceptualised threats and solutions 447–51
scale 443–4
settlement patterns 450–1
social relationships, importance of 443
Aragon, Ignacio 429
Arawe society 102
archaeology:
differences between Classical and ‘Anthropological’ archaeology 111, 112, 114, 127
and geoarchaeology integration 110–28
interpretation difficulties 24
archaeology, extending archaeological explanation beyond 134, 279–97
challenges to an archaeology of social dynamics 295–7
data and research protocols 280–2
diffusion models 286
ecology and regional abandonment 288
human behavioural ecology (HBE) 285–6, 296
mathematical training 296
modelling as laboratory 288–93, 290f, 292f, 293f
models beyond farming 283–5, 294f
models in archaeology 282–4
palaeoclimatic models 291–3
simple rules and complex systems 286–8, 287f
social dynamics and 279–80
social processes 283, 284, 289, 296
spread of farming 284–5
testing computational models against the archaeological record 296
‘tipping points’/’thresholds’ 290, 291
arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) 227
arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) 228
arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) 228
Argolid Exploration Project (1979-82) 114
‘Artificial Anasazi’ model 288
Asociación Andina Cusichaca (AAC) 438
Astrocaryum vulgare (tukumã) 373
Asurini society 102
attoid ants 561–3
Augustus, emperor 564
Australia National University (ANU) 404
Axtell, R. 288
Axum site, Ethiopia 121
Aztec Empire 499
Bactris gasipaes 94
Bailey, G. N. 51, 60
Bajio, Mexico 122
Balau 408
Balée, W. xxii, 7, 102, 371, 583–4
Bali:
irrigated rice fields 287f
water management 286–8, 287f
Barnes, I. 185
Barnovsly, A. 540
Barrow’s goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) 235
Barton, C. M. 275
baselines xxviii
Baxter, J. 350
Bayliss-Smith, T. 397
Beach, T. 309, 508
Belaunde Terry, President F. 426
Belize River Archaeological Settlement Survey (BRASS) 167
Belterra Plateau, Brazil 94
Benediktsson, J. 237
Bengtsson, J. 54
Berger, A. 58–9
Berkes, F. 239
Bethlemite order 426
Bettinger, R. 285
bibliometric analysis 54
Biggs, D. 45
(p. 602) bighorn sheep 194, 195
Binfordian ‘middle-range theory’ 114
bio-fertilizer 510
biodiversity 14, 54, 59, 81, 84, 86, 138, 184–5, 191–3, 199, 212, 546, 593
and climate change 192, 193–4
importance of disturbance and heterogeneity 74–6
in palaeozoology 193–8
bison (Bison bison) 195
Blaikie, P. 360
Blight, L. K. 208
Blois, J. L. 190–1, 197
Bogges, L. 497
Bolivia xvii
Suka Kollu Programme (PROSUKO) 467–8
Bonneville Basin, Utah, US 194
Boone, J. 285
Boserup, E. 147
Boserupian model of agricultural intensification 101
Botswana 332, 340
Bowles, S. 492–3, 496
Braidwood, R. 113–14
Brenac, P. 77
Briggs, J. M. 37, 59–60
Brookfield, H. 100, 360
Brooks, N. 62
brown trout (Salmo trutta) 227
Brundtland Commission (1987), UN 35
Budowski, M. 494–5
Buitenwerf, R. 54
Bulawayo 532, 534
Burgi, M. 9
Burgundy, France 13
Bushman Rock Shelter, Transvaal 118–19
Butzer, K. W. 32, 249, 250, 251
Caana Maya architectural complex, Caracol, Belize 304
cacao (Theobroma spp.) 367
California Pleistocene-Holocene transition 190–1
camellones/waru waru (raised fields) 422–3
Canahua, Alipio 467
Canuto, M. A. 493–4
capabilities approaches 484, 488–9, 490–1, 495
Carballo, D. 496
Caritamaya raised field construction, Puno, Peru 472–3, 472f
cascade effects xxvii, 191
Caton-Thompson, G. 113
Cavalli-Sforza, L. 284, 285
Cave Creek, Phoenix, Arizona 38, 39f, 40f
Cebolla-Badie, M. 371
Cerling, T. E. 215, 216
Charolais beef cattle 13
chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri var. jonesianum) 26
Cherel, Y. 208
Chibuene landscape, Mozambique 78, 79f
chicken, domestic (Gallus gallus) 235
Childe, V. G. 395
chinampas raised fields 27
Chittick, N. 121
Cho, J. 348, 350
Chuqñaquta experimental raised fields, Peru 460f
Cioffi-Revilla, C. 294
Clegg, B. W. 212
Clements, F. E. 11
climate change xx, 12–13, 59, 423, 438, 590
Aneitym island irrigation practices, New Hebrides 407–8, 409
and biodiversity 192, 193–4, 436
capacity of species to adapt to 192–3, 194–7
Caribbean 393–4, 445, 446
evaluating archaeological solutions 393, 441–53
genetic changes and 195–6
prediction of landscape changes 83–4
and regional climates 543
time-scales 62–4
climate excursions 13
cocoa, commercial production of 398
coconut, commercial production of 398
co-design projects xxxi–xxxii
Codron, J. 214, 215, 216, 219
collcas (storehouses) 423
community and conservation at Lake Mývatn, Iceland 135, 226–39
bird bones 233, 234t
diet, economy and ecology 230–1 (p. 603)
egg harvesting 229, 231, 236–7
environmental setting 227–9, 228f
ethnographic and historical records 236–7
excavation, sampling and the osseous remains 232–3, 233f
findings 235–6
Icelandic volcanic ash layers (tephra) 229–30
improving the identification of eggshells 233–5, 235f
local and traditional ecological knowledge (LTK) 226–7
management and long-term sustainability 226–7
Mývatn research history 229–30
recent wildfowl populations and collection practices 237–8
Skútustadir long-term archaeological records 231–6
waterfowl management 231
Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), Namibia 326
complex adaptive systems (CAS) 10–11
conjoncture (their cultural and historical context) 10
conservation xvii, xxviii, 76, 138 see also environmental conservation
Constantine, emperor 565
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 210
Conway, D. 63
Cordell, L. S. 31, 32, 36, 37, 44
Corinth 124
cormorant, double-crested (Phalacrocorax auritus) 195
Corniglia rock terrace, Italy 42f, 43f, 44f
Cottam, H. R. 488
Coutu, A. N. 219, 220
Cowgill, U. M. 162
Crumley, C. L. 51
Crutzen, P. 62
Cusichaca Archaeological Project (CAP) 391, 392, 425–32, 428f, 430f, 435
Cusichaca Trust 391, 392, 425–7, 434, 437
Cutter, S. L. 63
Darwinian evolutionary theory 188, 192, 285
Darwinian natural selection 192
Dawson, T. P. 192, 194
de Certeau, M. 413
Dean, J. 288
Dearing, J. A. 60–1, 62–3
Dearing, N. 311
Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), Gulf of Mexico 558, 561
deforestation 85
Guinean West African forests 77, 80
Maya civilization 513–14, 544, 545
Mediterranean Basin 123, 125
Mexico 122
degradation narratives xxiv–xxvi, xxvii
demic diffusion 284
Democratic Republic of the Congo 220
Denbow, J. 329
Dessai, S. 63
Devil’s Tower, Black Hills, Wyoming, US 8
diffusion models 286
Dillehay, T. 543
Diocletian, emperor 565, 574
Dirzo, R. 34
DNA, ancient 27, 192
Doheny, E. 561
domestic chicken 235
Dorset Cursus, UK 269
Dorsland trek (1877), Southern Africa 329
Dublin, H. T. 80
Duffin, K. I. 83
Dugmore, A. J. 239
Dunning, N. P. 305, 518, 544–5
dynamic equilibrium/non-equilibrium 74–6
East African landscape histories 79–80
Eastern Bushmanland 335
Eastern Communal Area (ECA), Kalahari, Namibia 323, 324f, 325–41
ecological thresholds of potential concern (TPCs) 83
ecosystems defined 10–11
Egyptian Dynastic sites 119
Egyptian Expedition, Napoleonic (1798-1801) 112
Eidt, R. C. 92, 102
(p. 604) Ekblom, A. 62
El Niño 543
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (1982) 467
El Pilar Maya agriculture/population study, Mexico 158f, 158–9, 164–7, 166f, 167–70, 168f, 169t, 170t, 171–5, 172f, 172t, 173t, 174f, 176
Eldredge, N. 187
elephant populations, Africa 208–21, 209f, 589
poaching 210–11
elk (Cervus elaphus) 195
energy gain and the evolution of organization 485, 558–75
agriculture yields, Roman 564, 565–6
coal 568–9
complexity 559–60
conquest phase 563–4
denarius, Roman 563–4, 564f, 565
energy and complexity links 559f, 559–60
energy gain and organization 567
energy gradient 568
energy quality and energy gain 570–1
energy transformation in fungus-farming ants 561–3, 570, 571
EROI and complexity in ant colonies 563
EROI transitions 561–75
fluctuations 571
follis introduction, Rome 565, 566f
fossil fuels 568
fossil fuels and EROI 573
fracking 573
fungus-farming emergence 562–3
general propositions 567–72, 568t
high-EROI resource 568–9
high-gain systems 568–72, 569f
hot spot resources 569
implications 572–4
Industrial Revolution 569
industrialism and agriculture 571
inflation, Roman Empire 565, 566f
leaf-cutting ant societies 562, 563
low-gain systems 568t, 568–72
new system emergence 571
offshore wind production 573
petroleum production 560–1
renewable energy sources 573
Roman Empire crisis (235–284 AD) 565–7
solar energy 573
solar radiation 558–9
speciation 565
taxation systems, Roman 564, 572, 574
transformation in the Roman Empire 563–7, 564f, 566f, 570, 571
war on drugs 572
energy returned on energy invested (EROI) xxiv, 525, 526, 527, 529–30, 532, 533, 535, 560–1, 567, 570–2
and complexity in ant colonies 563
fossil fuels and 573
high resource 568–9
transitions 561–75
Engaruka, Tanzania 140–3, 151–2
stratigraphy 144–6, 145f, 146–8
environmental change, implications for understanding global 485, 540–51
Amazonia research 546
Amazonian Dark Earths 547
anthrosol recording and research 549, 550
Classic Maya ‘collapse’ 544–5
climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation 436
culture 542–4
deforestation 544, 545
El Niño 543
fallows 548–9
global warming impact regional climates 543
history 545–6
holistic research 541–2
Honduras hillside farming 548–9, 548f, 549f
La Niña 543
natural disasters 540, 543
planetary-scale ‘tipping point’ 540
power 544–5
Puuc region, Maya 545
slash-and-burn (swidden) agriculture 546
sustainability of slash-and-burn farming 547–50, 548f, 549f
swidden soilscape legacies timescales 549–50 (p. 605)
time scale trajectories 541
water security 543–4
environmental conservation, archaeology, historical sciences and 72–86, 73f
climate change, prediction of landscape changes 83–4
cultural landscape management 84–5
East African landscape histories 79–80
ecosystem function and environmental management 82–3
importance of disturbance and heterogeneity for biodiversity 74–6
management and landscape planning 81–5
protection of species and habitats 81–2
revised landscape histories examples 76–80
savannah-forest dynamics, Mozambique 78–9, 79f
environmental history 9
Enyamuco Jagüey reservoir, Santa Elena, Ecuador 470f
Epstein, J. 288
Epukiro Native Reserve, Namibia 333, 335, 336, 339
equilibrium theory 74
erect knotweed (Polygonum erectum) 26
Erickson, C. 391, 404–5, 407, 467, 584
Eriksson, A. 329
Eritrea 274f, 247–9
Erlandson, J. M. 187
Ethiopia 247f, 247–9
forest cover decreases 80
highlands 266–7, 267f see also Aksum Kingdom, Ethiopia
ethnobotany 7
Etruscan cuniculi sustainable water systems, Italy xxix, 392–3, 412–20
engineering 413–17, 414f
gravity-based movement 418, 420
key points 418–19
new/old water system 419–20
in other regions and cultures 414–5
photovoltaics and plastic piping 420
San Potente 412, 413, 416f, 417f, 418
understanding water systems 413–17, 414f
événement (event) 10
evolutionary theory, Darwinian 188, 192, 285
Exploring Solutions Past group, Maya Forest 14
extinctions 192
Eyles, J. 350
Faber, F. 237
Faculty of Agronomy for Agricultural Research (KAYRA), National University San Antonio Abad of Cuzco 429, 430
Fairhead, J. 77
Farrington, I. 404
Faust, B. B. 164
Fayum Oasis 113
Fazenda Colorado geoglyph, Acre, Brazil 93–4, 93f, 98–9
Fedick, S. L. 171
fire-managed landscapes 77, 78, 84–5 see also slash-and-burn (swidden) agriculture
Fitoussi, J.-P. 488
Folan, W. J. 306
Foley, R. 285
Ford, A. 367
Ford, R. I. 403
forest gardens xxv, 95
Fowler, C. S. 28
Fox-Dobbs, K. 208
France xvii
heatwave (August, 2003) 13
freelisting as a tool for assessing cognitive realities of a landscape transformation 135, 366–85
C cluster measure 376
cluster analysis of fallow and high forest tree freelists 375–7
cluster calculation of fruit trees in a freelist of fallow tree types 378t
clustering in the fallow forest and high forest freelists 377
clustering in the kin term freelists 388–81, 379t, 380t
constituents of ecological domains 371–5, 373t, 374t
cultural forests 371, 372
Dravidianate system 378, 379
fallow forest (sypo-ty) 366, 371
fallow forest (taper) 366
fallow forests 372–5
fallows as indigenous orchards 367
freelist of high forest trees 383t
(p. 606) freelist of Ka’apor kin terms 384–5t
freelist of old fallow trees 381–2t
freelisting and emic understanding 368–71
freelisting concept assumptions 369
geoglyphs of Acre, Upper Amazon 367
high forests 372
ka’ate (‘true forest’) 366
kyáni (well-drained forest) 366–7
respondents, sample size 369–70
semantic domains 368–9
semi-domesticated dicotyledonous fruit 367
semi-domesticated palms 367
subsets/subgroups within cultural domains 376
swamp forests 372
Xiepihun and environs 367, 358f
Fujimori, A. 468
Galton, F. 327
game theory 285
Gardner, E. 113
Gatas, near Turre, south-eastern Spain 265f
genetic changes and climate change 195–6
genetic diversity 22, 25, 192, 197
genetic engineering 25
geoarchaeology: data and technical parameters 117–19
cave sites 118–19
landscape elements and spatial arrangement 119
‘open up’ sites 118
site formation/accumulation 118–19
site profiles 117–18
geoarchaeology and archaeology integration for the understanding of societal-environmental relations 111–28
analytical follow-up 116, 127
collaboration, early steps to multidisciplinary 112–13
comprehension of problems 116, 127
discussion and recommendations 126–8
ecological impairment and degradation 125–6
environmental history applications 119–20
excavating in foreign countries 117
‘explanation’ in long-term landscape histories 124–6
funding programmes 115
global degradation problems applications 120–4
Greece, soil erosion 124
Mediterranean world: Greece 123–4
Mexico 122
persistent limits to interdisciplinary comprehension 115–17
quality control 116–17, 127
science in archaeology: Fayum, Jarmo and Argolid 113–14
South-Eastern Australia 122–3
sub-Saharan Africa 121
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based modelling techniques 263, 268, 269, 271f, 309
applications 275
framework 290
landscapes 267
soils data 310
visualization 306
Geographic Resource Analysis and Support System (GRASS) 275
‘giganton’ cactus (Echinopsis peruviana) 428
Gillson, L. 62, 83, 211
Gimmi, U. 9
Gintis, H. 492–3, 496
Girmay, G. 61–2
Giza, Egypt 120
Global Human Ecodynamics Alliance (GHEA) 15, 444, 453
Global Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) 141
global warming see climate change
Golitko, M. 317
Goma Division, Kondoa District, Tanzania 352–5
goosander (Mergus merganser) 228–9
goosefoot (Chenopodium) 273
gophers, northern pocket (Thomomys talpoides) 197
Gould, S. J. 187
Grágás law code, Iceland 236
Graham, S. 294
grasses (Poaceae) 273
Pooideae/Chloridoideae 251, 252
Grayson, D. K. 199
great northern diver (Gavia immer) 228
(p. 607) Groube, L. 396
grouse (Lagopus muta) 228
Gudmundsson, F. 237
Guianese pre-Columbian raised fields 93–4, 93f, 98–9
Guillen, J. 432
Guinean East African forest 81
Guinean West African forests and savannization 76–8
Gummerman, G. 288
Gunderson, L. H. 51
Hadly, E. A. 197
Haff, P. 45
Hall, C. A. S. 573
Harare, Zimbabwe 532, 534
Hardin, G. 227
harp seals 230
Harper, D. 355
Harris, E. C. 144
Hartt, C. 102
Harvey, D. 7
Hatara terra preta expanse excavation 96f, 97
Heckbert, S. 306
Herero people 325, 327, 331, 333, 335
Hereroland 335, 336, 339
Hey, G. 425
hierarchical structure systems 51
Hipp, J. 497
Hirt, P. W. 35
historical ecology xxii–xxiii, 139–40, 581–2, 582–4
anthropocentric 583
anthropological approaches 6–7, 582–3
definitions 6–7
future of xxx–xxxii
and palaeontology 8
political ecologists 583
‘restoration ecology’ projects 582
social inequality 583
sustainability sciences 583
and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 592–5
Hofreiter, M. 185
hog plum (Spondias mombim) 367
Höghammar, K. 499
Hokokam culture, Sonoran Desert, US 27
irrigation systems 150, 151
Holguín, Cuba 452
Holling, C. S. xxiii, 11, 51
Holocene
landscape evolution 4–5
mid (8000–5000 BCE) 84
Honduras 507
hillside farming 548–9, 548f, 549f
Hornborg, A. 45
horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) 228
Hulme, M. 63
human appropriation of net primary productivity (HANPP) 524–5, 529, 531, 534,
human behavioural ecology (HBE) 285–6, 296
human niche construction theory xxv, 90, 99–100
Hunn, E. S. 239
Icelandic Institute of Archaeology 229
Icelandic volcanic ash layers (tephra) 229–30
Icelandic Institute of Freshwater Fisheries 229
indigenous knowledge (IK) xvii, xxvi–xxvii, 3, 137–8, 141, 148, 151, 226–7, 588–9
indigenous rights 12
indigenous technologies, archaeology and rural development in the Andes 391, 392, 393, 459–74, 460f
amuna (run-off harvesting) 466
applied archaeology in development practice 468–73
applied archaeology policies 462, 463
archaeology and rural development (first wave) 465–6
campesino (smallholder) peasant communities 460–1
Caritamaya raised field construction, Puno, Peru 472–3, 472f
climate change 460, 474
cooperative water management 469
development policies 463
‘double-humus’ effect 469
econometric assessments 468 (p. 608)
Enyamuco Jagüey reservoir, Santa Elena , Ecuador 470f
extractive industries impact 464
fetishization of technology 461
globalization in the Andes 464
‘green and grey’ technologies 461
heritage concept 463–4, 474
inversion of soil horizons 469
jagüey (detention pond) reservoirs 469–70, 470f
Katari River 469
labour organization 469, 471f, 471–3
Lake Titicaca Plateau raised field agriculture 467, 468
Lake Titicaca Special Project (PELT) 467, 468
prospective practices 473–4
prospective reflection 468–73, 470f, 471f, 472f
qocha (lagoons) 466
qutaña (lagoons) 472
raised field reconstruction problems 469
raised field systems and prospective practices 473–4
raised fields, Peru 466–7
rural development policies 468
seed selection 469, 470–1
soil horizon inversion and heavy machinery 469–70
sojja/kancha (walled field systems) 466
terrace reconstruction, state-sponsored 468
top-down coordination 460–1, 474,
towards an archaeology of rehabilitation 466–8
Trade Promotion Agreements 464
unravelling development 461–4
yatiri religious specialists 472, 473
Industrial Revolution 6, 34, 63, 462, 569
infra-red stimulated luminesce (IRSL) 147
ingá (Inga spp.) 367
Ingold, T. 346, 358
Inmejcop, Louie 407
Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam 352
Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE) 14
IHOPE-Maya group 303, 444, 453
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 58, 452–3
Inter-institutional Waru Waru Project (PIWA) 467, 473
International Terraces Conference, Cuzco (2014) 435
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 81
Red List 220
Iraqw intensive farming system, Tanzania 356–7, 357f
Iriarte, J. 546, 547
irrigation:
Etruscan cuniculi sustainable water systems, Italy xxix, 392–3, 412–20
Hohokam systems 150, 151
Kingdum of Aksum case study 250
Nijiemhang River system 402, 406
irrigation practices, reviving ancient, Aneityum island, southern Vanuatu, New Hebrides (1980) 391, 392, 393, 395–409
aid projects 399–405
Anelcauhat drains 402, 403f
canal construction 400f, 401f
cash incentives 400
climate change and extreme weather events 407–8, 409
community cooperation 405
failure and success 405–6
furrow irrigated gardens 406
furrow irrigation system, Umej 402
garden taboos 405
irrigated garden skills 405
irrigation gardening 397
marketing opportunities 405
missionaries 398, 407
National Cooperation Federation 402
neglect of traditional agricultural knowledge 398–9 (p. 609)
oil drum aqueduct 401f
population and irrigation 396–7
Port Patrick furrow irrigation garden 402, 404f
private gardens 405–6
Quantin report 398
soil survey 398–9
taro as cash crop 400–2
taro irrigation 396, 397
tools 400
Isbell, B. J. 425
Isendahl, C. 583
Ishibashi, H. 213
Islamic conquest, Spain 125
IsoMap 220
isotope data, historic, and modern conservation 134, 208–21
big game hunting collections 216–19, 217f
elephant overpopulation in national parks 212
elephants in the wildlife conservation policy landscape 210–12
fundamentals of the method 209–10
historic elephant diet and isotope analysis 213
historic elephant diet in southern and eastern Africa (1800–2000) 212–19, 215f, 216f, 217f
mapping elephant isotope data in the past, present and future 219–20
Italy xviii
ivory trade 212
Jaeger, A. 208
Japarahor, C. 407
Jarmo Project 113
Jerusalem artichoke/sunchoke (Helianthus tuberosus) 26
Jónsbók law code, Iceland 236, 237
Jordan 290f, 290–1
Ju/’hoansi people 325, 326, 331, 333–4, 339
Julius Caesar 563–4
Ka’apor people, Amazonia 366–85
Kalahari, Namibia 323–41
kancha (walled field systems) 466
kañiwa (Amaranthus pallidicaule) 467
Katari River, Bolivia 469
kava (Piper methysticum) 407
Kayawei, J. 407
Kelly, R. 285
Kenkō (Urabe no Kaneyoshi) 40–1
Khoe languages 330–1
Kissidougou region, Guinea 77, 84
kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) 467
Kjekshus, H. 79–80
Koch, P. L. 214–15
Kohler, T. A. 288, 295
Kolata, A. 543
Konso, Ethiopia 138–9, 141, 148, 148f, 149
Koutsodendris, A. 59
Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa xxviii, 72, 73f, 82f, 82–3
elephant isotope analysis (1903–1993) 213–14, 215f
Kuhnian hypothetico-deductive method 281
!Kung speakers 327, 331
La Niña 543
Lago do Limão archaeological site, Amazonas, Brazil 96f, 97, 100
Lakantun Maya study, Mexico 163
Lake Emakat, Tanzania 142
Lake Mývatn, Iceland 135, 226–39
Lake Titicaca Plateau:
camelid re-population 466
raised field agriculture 467, 468
Lake Titicaca Special Project (PELT) 467, 468
Lake Victoria 60
Landscapes of Settlement project, Iceland 229
Lansing, S. 286
Lansing simulation model 287f
Laxá River, Iceland 227
layme system of agriculture 435–6
Leach, M. 77, 139
Leakey, M. 113
Levin, S. A. 10
Lindsay, K. 211
Lini, Father Walter 399
little barley (Hordeum pusillum) 26
Livingstone, David 327
llamas 468
Llanos de Mojos pre-Columbian raised field system, Beni, Bolivia 93–4, 93f, 98–9
(p. 610) local and traditional ecological knowledge (LTK) 226
London, B. 44
Long House Valley, Arizona 288
‘long term’ phrase 4
longue durée (long- term trends) 10
long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) 228–9
Loutre, M. F. 58–9
Luzzadder-Beach, S. 305
Lysenko, T. D. 24
Maasai communities 142, 356
Engare Sero 141
maca (Lepidium meyenii) 467
Macauley, D. W. 398
Machu Picchu National Park 424f, 425
MacKay, D. 573
Madagascar, ilmenite mining 85
Madeira River, Amazon 94
maize:
calories and yields 170
cultivation, pre-Hispanic Peruvian Andes 423
Maya Classical period 159, 168–75, 170t, 172f, 172t, 173t, 174f
production and the population of El Pilar 171–5, 172f, 172t, 173t, 174f
Maley, J. 77
Malm, A. 45
mangrove forest composition and longevity 64
Mangus, A. R. 488
Manihot esculenta 94
Maputo, Mozambique 534
Marcacocha, Patacancha Valley, Peru 424
Marchant, R. 59
Marine Isotope Stage II 58–9
Marinova, D. 54
Marshall, L. 333
marshelder (Iva annua var. macrocarpa) 26, 27
marten, noble (Martes americana nobilis) 197
marten, pine (Martes americana) 197
Mas d’Is Cardial Neolithic site, Spain 291
Matienzo, A. R. 459
Matubo Hills, Zimbabwe 531
Mauritia carana leaves for thatching 95, 96f
Mãy Hebay-Godã floodplain, Ethiopia 254, 255, 266, 267f
Maya 11
Classic ‘collapse’ 303, 305, 544–5
low-density settlement patterns of cities 528–9
Puuc cities, growth dependency and food security in Classic period 529, 533, 534, 535
Maya, linking the past and present 134, 135, 156–77, 157f, 158f
El Pilar agriculture/population study 158f, 158–9, 164–7, 166f
infield/outfield subsistence farming 161–2, 171–5, 172t, 172f
labour investment (LI) 164–5, 165t
Lakantun Maya study 163
maize production and the population of El Pilar 171–5, 172f, 172t, 173t, 174f
milpa forest-garden cycle 157–63, 160t, 162f
modelling population and land use in the El Pilar Area 167–70, 168f, 169t, 170t
Petén Itzá Maya study 162–3
population distribution and density 163–5, 165t
predictive map of settlement population 165–7, 166f
primary residential units (PRUs) 164–5, 165t
secondary residential units (SRUs) 165, 165t
Yukatekan Maya study 163
Maya Forest group (Exploring Solutions Past) 14
Maya (pre-Columbian) water management systems, applied perspectives 308, 484–5, 506–19
Calakmul, Petén Kart Plateau 513–14
central reservoirs 512
Chicxulub impact 513
Classic Puuc culture 510
Corriental Reservoir 512
deforestation (Late Preclassic) 513
diversity of solutions 517–18
house gardens (solares) 514
implications for water security 517–19
institutional and technological diversity providing flexibility and security 519
(p. 611) long-distance exchange 517
lowland water management systems 508f, 508–17
lowlands 507
milpa agriculture 514
Perdido Reservoir 512
periphyton 509–10
pocket/large bajos 512, 513–14
Puuc-Nohkakab subregion 510–11
salt infiltration 513–14
San Bartolo/Xultun compared 513
Saturday Creek, Belize River Valley 516–17, 518
still-water reservoirs (aguadas) 510–11
Tikal, Petén Karst Plateau 511–13
underground water cisterns (chultuns) 510–11
upland home garden soil fertility 509–10
walled fields (alberradas) and/or terraces 514
water abundance increases risk for mismanagement 518
water scarcity management resulting in long-term vulnerability 518
X-Ual-Canil, Belize River Valley 514–16
Yalahau subregion 509–10
Yalahau upland soils 509
Maya social-ecological system 135, 302–18
agricultural productivity 305, 311, 314–16, 316f
anthropogenic variables 311–12
background and previous research 304–5
biophysical variables 306–11, 309f, 310f
births, deaths and migration 312
Classic Maya cities 304
‘Classic Maya Collapse’ 303, 305
climate instability resilience measures 305
critical functional elements of the system 305
forest state modelling 310–11, 312, 313f, 316, 317f
groundwater 309
hydrological model 308–9, 309f
MayaSim model 303, 305–6, 307f, 308t
methods 305–12, 307f, 308t
population 313, 314f, 318
real income 314, 315f, 317
results 312–16, 313f, 314f, 315f, 316f
settlement networks 311–12
spatially-explicit agricultural benefit-cost 311
temporal periods 303, 304
trade 310f, 311, 312, 313f, 314, 315f, 317
water management strategies 308
MayaSim model 303, 305–6, 307f, 308t
maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana) 26
McCann, J. 80
McNeil, C. 545
Mearns, R. 139
Medieval Warm Period 197
Mediterranean Landscape Dynamics Project (MedLand) 289–90, 291–3, 295
Mekong Delta 45
mesquite (Prosopis) 273
Mexico, climate 122
Mickey, D. 546
micro-stratigraphy 115, 118, 120
microeconomics 285
midges (chironomid flies) 227–8
Milankovitch cycles 58
milpa forest-garden cycle, Maya and Mesoamerican 157–63, 160t, 162f, 169–70, 171–5, 174f, 514
mink 238
Minnesota Messenia Expedition (1961-7) 114
Miombo savannah 78
mit’a system, Inca 423, 436
Moche irrigation systems, Peru 422–3
Mohr, N. 237
Monsanto Corporation 35
montane voles 197
Morales, Eddy 467–8
Morrison, K. 147
Morrison, M. L. 186
mosaic landscapes 74–6, 78
Mozambique:
afforestation projects 85–6
savannah-forest dynamics 78–9, 79f
Mujica, Elías 467
Murphy, J. T. 150, 151
Muslim expansion into North Africa 527
Mutapa state 531
Mývatn Research Station 229, 238
(p. 612) Namibia:
government development policy 326 see also Southern Africa, archaeology and rural development
narratives xxvi–xxvii
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), proceedings (2002–12)
542
National Institute for Agriculture Research (INIA) 467
National Parks 72
National University San Antonio Abad of Cuzco (UNSAAC), Peru 429
Native American cultures 112
Nazarea, V. D. 137
Ndebele state 532
Necipoğlu, N. 527
Nelson, M. C. 148, 150, 151
neobiologists 185, 188–9, 193
neozoologists 184, 185–8, 189, 193
Nero, emperor 564
NetLogo software 305, 306
Netting, R. M. 7, 248
Ngami, Lake 327, 332
Nharon peoples 331
Nigh, R. 171
Nijiemhang River irrigation system 402, 406
Nimuendajú, Curt 102
noble martens 197
Nolan, J. M. 376
Nordic Network for Interdisciplinary Studies (NIES) 15
North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) 14–15, 229
Nubian Monuments campaign (1960s) 113
Nyae Nyae area, Namibia 329, 333, 339, 340
Nyae Nyae Conservancy (NNC), Namibia 325
Nyika Plateau, Malawi 121
Odendaal Commission of Enquiry, South Africa 325
Oenocarpus distichus (pinuwa) 373
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 113
Ollantaytambo, Peru 424
optically stimulated luminesce (OSL) 147
Ostrom, E. 12, 493
Otjiherero speakers 333, 339, 340
palaeoclimatology xvii
palaeoecology xvii
palaeontology and historical ecology 8
palaeopolitics 7
palaeotempestological data 446
paleoDEM (digital elevation model) 292f, 292, 293f
paleozoology, and conservation biology 133–4, 184–99
absences from the record 199
biodiversity 191–3, 193–7, 196f, 198f, 199
biogeographic provinces 190
biogeography of communities 190
changes in relative abundance 197, 198f
genetic changes and climate change 195–6
as science 188–91
value to conservation biology questioned 185–8
Palermo, Sicily 415
palm Oenocarpus distichus (pinuwa) 373
Pampa Koani raised bed agriculture, Bolivia 444f
Pampachiri project (1998–2003), Peru 434f, 434–9, 437f
‘panarchy’ concept xxii, 51
papaya (Jacaratia spinosa) 367
Papua New Guinea 398
Parsons, J. 466
participatory checking and the temporality of landscapes 136, 345–63
alien representation of landscapes 346
Burunge theory of soils 353–4
checking findings and debating a theory of soil formation 353–4
confronting local oral histories 356–7, 357f
dialogue with the taskscape interviews 358–61, 359f
examples for landscape change research in Africa 347
familiar landscape features 346
GIS methods 358–60
historical maps 347, 357
implications for applied research 361–3
informants and field researchers’ motives 362–3
landesque capital: key to participatory checking in a taskscape 360–1 (p. 613)
member checking in qualitative research, arguments for 349–50
member checking/respondent validation 348
oral history 355–7
pamphlets as usable historical artefacts 354–5
participatory checking: a methodological framework 348–52, 349f
participatory checking using local language booklets 352–5, 353f
participatory mapping approaches 358
participatory techniques, criticisms of 348–9
photographs 347
research results 346
Swahili booklets 352–5
techniques most commonly used to build rigour and trust 350–2, 351t
triangulated data 348
and ‘trustworthiness’ 345–6
Ufiome mountain, Tanzania 356–7, 357f
using ‘alien’ historical artefacts to elicit discussion on local oral history 355–7
Passarge, S. 329, 331, 333
Patacancha Valley project (1987–1997), Peru 432–4
Patallacta terrace system, Peru 424f
Pata Raymi sowing festival, Andamarca, Peru 436–7, 437f
Patzcuaro basin, central Mexico 122
Pauly, D. 54
paysage (landscape) concept 10
Peloquin, C. 239
Penã, A. 430
Penaguila Valley, Spain 291, 292, 292f
people-landscape dynamics, interpreting and testing 134, 263–76
Aguas valley, south-eastern Spain 264, 265f
highland Yemen and Ethiopia 266–7, 266f, 267f
livestock grazing effects 269–70
palaeosols 271–2
Puebloan Period (AD 1500) 272–3
Rio Oso and Puerco valleys, central New Mexico 271–3, 272f, 274f
Troina valley, north-central Sicily 267–8, 268f, 275
upper Allen valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset 268–70, 270f, 271f, 274, 275
Perdido oil rig (Shell) 574
periphyton 509–10
Peru xviii see also agricultural infrastructure (pre-Hispanic) rehabilitation, Peruvian Andes;
Indigenous Technologies, Archaeology, and Rural Development in the Andes
Peruvian National Institute of Culture (INC) 429
Petén Itzá Maya study, Guatemala 162–3
Peters, M. A. 330
Pfaffenberger, B. 461
Pfund, .J-L. 54
phenotypes and genotypes models of foraging 294–5, 294f
Pickett, K. 487
pikas (Ochotona princeps) 195
pine martens 197
Pleistocene:
biotas 190
mammal communities 190
rewilding debate 193
Plog, F. 31, 32, 36, 37, 44
pocket gophers 197
political ecology 7
pollen records and profiles 120, 142, 250
Aksum Kingdom, Ethiopia 256
Cranborne Chase, UK 271f, 274
Mexico 122
Mozambique savannah-forest 78
New Mexico, US 272, 273
Southeastern Australia 123
Pompey, Gnaeus 563
pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) 195
Ponte del Ponte, Corchiano, Italy 416
Popcorn Dome, Samwell Cave, California 198f
Powell-Cotton, P. H. G. 218
‘pristine myth’ xxvi, xxvii
pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) 194–5
ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) 228, 233
Puebloan period (AD 1500), New Mexico 272, 273
(p. 614) Puuc region, Maya, Mexico 529, 545
cities, growth dependency and food security in Classic period 529, 533, 534, 535
Classic Puuc culture 510–11
pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) 195
qocha (lagoons) 466
quality of life (QOL) and prosperity in ancient households and communities 484, 486–500
bridging/bonding social capital 492
‘capabilities approach’ 484, 488–9, 490–1, 495
collective construction projects 496
diversity of possessions 491
external networks 492
external social networks 491–2
inequality 487, 490, 500
longevity of settlement 498
population growth 497–8
prosperity 492–5, 493f, 494f, 495t
resilience to external shocks 498–9
social capital theory 491, 488
social inequality in the past and present 487
‘socioeconomic status’ 490
stability of residence 496–7
standard of living 489–90
sum of household wealth 495
usefulness of archaeological research 499–500
Quinlan, M. 370–1
quinoa, white (Chenopodium quinoa) 468
raised fields 466–7, 468, 469, 473–4
camellones/waru waru, Peruvian Andes 422–3
Caritamaya, Puno, Peru 472–3, 472f
chinampas 27
Chuqñaquta experimental, Peru 460f
Guianese pre-Columbian 93–4, 93f, 98–9
Lake Titicaca Plateau 467, 468
Llanos de Mojos pre-Columbian, Beni, Bolivia 93–4, 93f, 98–9
Pampa Koani, Bolivia 444f
research projects 442–3, 444f
rancherias 164
Reconquista, Spain 125
‘recycle, re-use and reduce’ 50
red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) 229
Red Data Lists 81–2
red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus) 228
red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) 228
Redman, C. L. 257, 540
reindeer, European (Rangifer tarandus) 195
Republic of South Sudan 220
resilience concept xxii–xxiv, 11–12, 50–1, 139–40, 142
resource extraction xxiv
‘reverse engineering’ and stratigraphic sequencing 134–5, 137–52
Engaruka, Tanzania 140–3
stratigraphic data and modelling sustainability and resilience 146–50, 148f
stratigraphy at Engaruka 144–6, 145f
stratigraphy notes 143–4
Rick, T. C. 187
rinderpest 79, 80
epidemic (1896), Namibia 332
Rio Oso and Puerco valleys, central New Mexico 271–3, 272f, 274f
Rivera-Collazo, I. 114
Rivero, Mariano Eduardo de 459
Robbins, M. C. 376
rock mulching 26, 27, 28
rock terraces 41, 42f, 43f, 44f
Rohrbach, P. 331
Rome, ancient:
agricultural yields 564, 565–6
agriculture, Sicily 268
conquest phase 563–4
crisis 235–284 AD 565–7
denarius 563–4, 564f, 565
follis introduction 565, 566f
inflation 565, 566f
taxation systems 564, 572, 574
transformation in the empire 563–7, 564f, 566f, 570, 571
(p. 615) Rosen, A. M. 114
Rostain, S. 93f
Rowe, J. 423
Rowntree, K. 121
Sabloff, J. A. 22
Sahel Desert 62
Sampson, R. 496, 498
San Francisco Bay, California 8–9
San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI) 8–9
Sandweiss, D. 543
Sangay mounds, Macas, Ecuador 93–4, 93f, 98–9
San Potente, Tuscania cuniculum (burrow), Italy 413, 416f, 417f, 418
Santa Elena Peninsula, Ecuador 469–70, 470f
Santa Fe, New Mexico, archaeo-climatic model 274f
sapote tree (akuxityrywa’y) 367
Saturday Creek water management systems, Belize River Valley 516–17, 518
savannah ecosystems 51
savannah/forest boundaries 75f
savannah-forest dynamics, Mozambique 78–9, 79f
Save the Children 452
Scarborough, V. L. 14, 516
Schaafsma, H. 38
School of Geography, Stockholm University 352
Schumm, S. 37
sedges (Cyperaceae) 273
seed banks 8, 25
Seitzinger, S. P. 535
Sen, A. 484, 487, 488–9, 494
Sendero Luminoso (‘Shining Path’) insurgency, Peru 433, 434
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 191–2
Serengeti-Mara region 80
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania 60, 220
sheep, bighorn (Ovis canadensis) 195
Shennan, S. 294
‘shifting patch dynamics’ 51
Sicily:
Roman agriculture 268
Troina valley 267–8, 268f, 275
Sidell, J. 233
Sillitoe, P. 138
silver mine, Potos, Bolivia 423
Simo, J. 406–7
Sirionó people 366–7
slash-and-burn (swidden) agriculture 546
soilscape legacies timescales 549–50
sustainability of 547–50, 548f, 549f see also fire-managed landscapes
slave trade, Angola 331
Slaymaker, O. 37
Smith, Adam 462
Smith, A. O. 453
Smith, M. E. 490
social capital theory 488
Society for Ecological Restoration International (SER) 8
socioecological systems (SES) xxxiii–xxiv, 11
soil erosion xxv, xxvi, xxviii
Ethiopia xxvii, 249, 250, 251, 255, 256
Greece 124
Kingdom of Aksum, Ethiopia 249, 250, 251, 255, 256
soil nutrient cycling 61–2
soils, plants and texts, Kingdom of Aksum case study, Ethiopia 135–6, 246–59, 247f, 252f, 255f
applied archaeology 256–8, 257t
farming 254–6
forest clearance 250
grasses (Pooideae/Chloridoideae) 251, 252
human-environment interaction 257–8
irrigation 250
isotopic and charcoal analyses 250
land development policies 256
phytoliths 250, 251
plant microfossils (phytoliths) 251, 254
pollen records 250
soil erosion 249, 250, 251, 255, 256
soil micromorphology 250–1
‘usable past’ notion 258
sojja (walled field systems) 466
Sommer, R. S. 195
Southern Africa, archaeology and rural development 136, 323–41
apartheid 336
climate-induced changes 332
communal land ownership 325 (p. 616)
Crown Lands 333, 334f, 335
Eastern Communal Area, Namibia 325–7, 336–41, 338f
ethnic identity in place names and in historical accounts 330–2
forced resettlement and colonial policies 326–7
historical ecology and rural development 323–5, 324f
inter-ethnic conflict 340
Kriegskarte (1904) 329–30, 331
!Kung-speaking communities 327
languages 330
Namibian government development policy 326
Native Reserves (‘homelands’), Namibia 325–6, 332–5, 334f
precolonial landscape: wells, trade routes and mobility 327–30, 328f
rationalization of land use 335–6, 337f
slave trade, Angola 331
Spain:
Aguas valley 264, 265f
Gatas, near Turre 265f
Islamic conquest of 125
Mas d’Is Cardial Neolithic site 291
Penaguila Valley 291, 292, 292f
Reconquista 125
Spriggs, M. 399
squash (Cucurbita pepo var. ovifera) 26
statistical modelling 306
Stiglitz, J. E. 488–9
Stoermer, E. F. 34
stratigraphy 118, 143–52, 248–9, 263–4, 467
data in modelling sustainability and resilience 147–50, 148f
Engaruka 144–6, 145f
New Mexico, US 271 see also micro-stratigraphy
Stump, D. 63, 258, 323
Sugarscape ABM 288
Suka Kollu Programme (PROSUKO), Bolivia 467–8
sunflower (Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpa) 26
sustainability concept xxiv–xxvi, 4, 138
of cities xix
current usage of term 49–50
as distinct from resilience xxiii
historic 139
misappropriation problems 35
term in journal study 60–4, 61f
Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), UN 591–5
Suter, S. 354
Swartley, L. 407
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 9
Tainter, J. A. xix, xxv, 305, 525, 529
Tamadui, Johnny 402, 406
Tanzania xviii, 140–3, 144–6, 145f
taperiwa’y (‘fruit tree of the fallow forest’) 367
Tapia, Mario 467
taro (Colocasia esculenta) 396, 397, 400–2
tarwi (lupinus mutabilis) 430
Temin, P. 493
Temple IV, Maya, Tikal 304
Ter Steege, H. 95
Terralingua 14
Theodosian wall, Constantinople 527
Thingeyjarsýsla Archaeological Association 229
three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) 227, 229
Timbisha Shoshone, Death Valley, US 28
time scales as impediments to interdisciplinary understanding 49–66
and climate change 62–4
journals study discussion 60–4, 61f, 66f
methodology and caveat of journals study 53–4
results of journals study 54–60, 55t, 56t, 58f
for sociocultural and biophysical phenomena 52f
tipping points and thresholds xxviii, 83, 290, 291
planetary-scale 540
Titusville oil well, Pennsylvania, US 561
Tiwanaku civilization 423
top-down aggregated systems modelling 306
Torwa state 531
traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) 441, 445
transdisciplinary/inter-disciplinary perspectives xviii, 3, 4, 10–11, 13, 62, 67, 72, 248, 541, 586, 587–8
trade-offs xxiv–xxvi
Trent, A. 348, 350
Troina valley, north-central Sicily 267–8, 268f, 275
tropical forest ecology 76
Tsavo National Park elephant isotope analysis, Kenya 214–16, 216f
tsetse fly infestation 79–80
Tsouvalis, J. 349
Tupí-Guaraní languages 371
Turner, Ii, B. L. 167
Ufiome mountain, Tanzania 356–7, 357f
Umayyad Empire 415
United Nations (UN):
Development Programme and the Andes 465
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 138
Human Development Index (UNDP) 489
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) xxiv, 591–5
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world heritage sites
239
United States National Parks Service (NPS) xxi, 8
Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) 268
Urban Mind project, Uppsala University 14
urban planning, framework for an applied historical ecology 485, 524–35
blue-green infrastructure 533
Bulawayo, Zimbabwe 532, 534
city sieges and blockades 527–8
Constantinople, urban agriculture, gardening and water provision 526–8, 533–4, 535
discussion 532–5
droughts 529, 530, 532
Early/Late Farming Community sites 531
earthquakes, Constantinople 533–4
EROI concept and 525, 526, 527, 529–30, 532, 533, 535
food systems 525
fossil fuel 534
Great Zimbabwe 531–2
HANPP concept and 524–5, 529, 531, 534,
Harare, Zimbabwe 532, 543
low-density settlement patterns of Maya cities 528–9
Maya Puuc cities (Classic period), growth dependency and food security 529, 533, 534, 535
Mutapa state 531
Nile Valley grain exports 527
Torwa state, Khami 531
water security 527
Zimbabwean cities in Southern Africa 530–2, 533, 534, 535
urbanism 14
Urubamba Valley, Peru 423
usable past, future of 591–5
and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN 591–5
utilitarian-perspective archaeology 4, 21–9
archaeology, policy and politics 24
building sustainability 23–4
chronological precision 23–4
example of this approach 24–7
extinct and obscure crops 25–7
narrative precision an traditional archaeology 23–4
policy and politics 24
prehistoric farming techniques 27
two complementary perspectives of archaeology and sustainability 22–3
Uxeau, Burgundy, France 13
Valencia, Spain 124–5
van der Leeuw, S. E. 257, 540
Van Langenhove, M. H. D. 500
Vanuaaku Party, Vanuatu 399
Veblen, T. 38
Verwoerd, H. 325
Via Claudia Roman road 412
Villa Gomes archaeological site, Borba, Amazonas, Brazil 93–4, 93f, 96f, 97, 98–9, 101
(p. 618) Village Ecodynamics Project 295
voles, montane (Microtus montanus) 197
von Humboldt, Alexander 112
Wadi Ziqlab anthropogenic erosion and deposition, Jordan 275, 290–1, 291f
Walker, J. L. 185
Wallman, S. 491–2
Wari empire 423
Waterton, C. 349
Weber, M. 490
Weightman, B. 399
Weights-of-Evidence predictive methods 166
Welford, A. 401f
West African forests and the issue of savannization 76–8
Westerberg, L.-O. 142, 143
White, P. J. 185
whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) 235
Wilkinson, R. G. 487
Williams, A. Jr. 306
Willis, K. J. 82
willow (Salix) 273
Wilmsen, E. N. 329, 331
Wittfogel, K. 395
Wolf, E. 7
woodrats, desert (Neotoma lepida), history of mandibular alveolar lengths 194, 195, 196f
Worster, D. 9
Wyke Down henges, England 269
Xiepihun and environs 367, 358f
Xingú River, Amazon 93
Xu, L. 54
X-Ual-Canil, Belize River Valley 514–16
Yaeger, J. 493–4
Yauotau, Jack 406, 407
Yautaea, Chief David 397, 402, 406
Yemen highlands 266, 266f
Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico 509–10, 528–30
biodiversity 14
Maya study 163
Zagros Mountains, Iraqi Kurdistan 113–14
Zea mays 94
Zetina Gutiérrez, M. D. G. 164
Zambezi River 532
Zimbabwean cities in Southern Africa 530–2, 533, 534, 535