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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 1015) Index

(p. 1015) Index

A
accession 127–34, 143–6, 151
absorption capacity 145–6
continental vocation of integration process 143–4
deepening of integration process 145
free movement of workers 471–4
integration capacity 144–6
legal basis for 127–8
nationalization of enlargement policy 132–4
widening of integration process 145
accession workers 471–4
accountability 13, 431–53
agency 433
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 857
comitology 343, 345–8
delegated acts 114
democratic 432, 434
democratic legitimacy 122
infringement and sanction procedures 353, 354, 357, 358, 374
judicial review 384
legal reasoning 43
accounting officer 449–50
Action Plans 312, 482, 843, 847
adjudication 30–1
advisory bodies 113–14, 118
Advocates General 38, 153, 156, 162–5, 166–8, 254–5
Africa 294, 887
age: non-discrimination 241–2, 921, 924, 927–8, 938, 940–1
agricultural insurance scheme 567–8
agricultural sector 329
aid see state aid
Al-Qaeda 101
Albania 132–3, 134
Alert Mechanism Report 745
Algeria 147
‘Almunia package’ 975–6
Annual Growth Survey 743
anti-dumping or countervailing measures 335
anti-suit injunctions 907
antitrust laws 642, 645, 664, 667
appeal committee 334, 337, 1011
arbitration 908–9, 913–14
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 119, 130–1, 837–65
access to justice 846
Action Plans 843, 847
anti-terrorist activity 845
asylum seekers 845, 846
basic rights protection 864
civil protection measures 852
code of conduct 838
collective or public security 845
compensation for crime victims 852
competence 842, 849, 850, 851
complementarity 850
consistency 850
cooperation 846, 848
crime control 846–7
(p. 1016) criminal law 864–5
historical background 839–44
impact assessments 850
method: mutual recognition 853–6
as system of pan-European coordination: legislative competence 848–52
defence rights 851
development through the programmes 843–4
distinctive criminality, imported 847
double criminality requirement 855–6
double jeopardy 856
Early Warning Mechanism (EWM) 317–19
‘Environmental Crime’ case 842
Eurojust 848, 856, 859–60
European Arrest Warrant (EAW) 210, 257–60, 263
European Criminal Policy Initiative 864n
European Judicial Network 859
European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO) 848, 856, 858–60
Europol (European Police Office) 848, 856, 858–9, 860
external border regulation 845, 846
fair trial rights 852
financial interests, protection of 848
First Pillar 840–1, 842, 846, 849, 851, 862
fraud 857
see also OLAF
freedom of movement of persons 844–6
functional equivalence or comparability test 854
Hague programme 840, 843, 851
harmonization 590–1, 593, 853, 854, 856
hate crimes 847
human rights 258, 856
immigration 845, 846
implementation of EU policy 849
individual freedom 845
information on legal entitlement, right to 851–2
institutional developments 856–60
intelligence 858
internal security 846
judicial development of criminal law 860–3
judicial scrutiny 842
Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) 839–40, 844–5, 854, 861
legislative action 852
legislative competence 840–3, 848
legislative and judicial action 855–6
legislative process 842
as legitimation of EU criminal law 844–8
mandatory and optional grounds for refusal 854, 855
migrant workers 846–7
minimum standards on rights, support, and protection of crime victims 852, 854, 856
multi-level origins 839–40
mutual assistance 859
see also Eurojust
mutual recognition 846, 850, 851, 853, 854, 856
national criminal law 848
national sovereignty 838
neo-functionalist spill-over argument 842, 844
OLAF (European Anti-Fraud Office) 856, 857–8, 859, 860
organized crime 843, 847
Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters 839–40, 848, 851, 854
priority crimes 859
racism and xenophobia 846–7, 864
reacting to outsiders 846–8
refugees 846–7
Roadmap (2009) 843, 851, 856
Schengen regime 839–41, 844
security versus rights protection 845–6
serious crime 849, 858
see also Europol
spill-over theory 842, 844
Stockholm programme (2009) 840, 843, 846, 851–2
(p. 1017) substantive criminal law 848
Tampere Conclusions (1999) 840, 843, 845, 851–2, 854, 859
terrorism 843, 845, 858
Third Pillar 839–41, 843–4, 849, 851, 853, 858, 861–2
third-country nationals 846
translation and interpretation, right to 851–2
transnational cooperation 854
transnational criminality 864
Trevi (Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism, Political Violence) 839, 841
UCLAF (replaced by OLAF) 857
values 838
victim protection 852
arm’s length principle 825–6
Asia 294, 888
Asmodée database 366
asset freezing 101
association agreements 64, 533
asylum and immigration under the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 845, 846, 867–90
Ad Hoc Group on Immigration 869
asylum seekers 845–6
Asylum Support Office 871, 873
Automated Fingerprint Identification System 871
Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange on Asylum see EURASIL
co-decision procedure 881
Common European Asylum System (CEAS) 867, 871, 872–3, 875, 889
cooperation 868–79
EURASIL 873
Eurodac Central Unit 871
Eurodac fingerprinting system 870–1, 879
European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) 876, 878-9
family reunification 881–6
First Pillar 869
five-year residency threshold 881
Franco-German scheme 869
free movement of persons 869, 882, 885–6
Frontex (EU Borders Agency) 887
Hague Programme (2004) 872–3, 875
human rights obligations 879, 884
human rights organizations 887–8
immigration and border control: impact on asylum 886–9
immigration law 880–6
inhuman and degrading treatment 887
long-term residents 882
mal-implementation 873–4, 884, 889
National Access Points of the Member States 871
‘one chance of asylum’ rule 878
reception conditions 873
recognition and content of refugee and subsidiary protection 873
refoulement 887
Refugee Fund 871
refugee protection 886–7
refugees 881–3
safe third-country concept 870
Schengen regime 869
special airport transit visa 888
Stockholm Programme (2010) 875, 881, 884
Tampere Conclusions (1999) 872, 882, 884
third-country nationals 882
Trevi 869
Turkish workers’ rights 868n
visa requirements 887–8
austerity measures 264–7, 371, 373
Austria 70
asylum and immigration law 879
civil jurisdiction 904
competition law enforcement 666
harmonization 604
human rights 256–7
infringement and sanction procedures 372
member state liability 230
primacy 199
state aid 679
authorizing officer 449–51
aviation sector 567
air carrier liability 66
air traffic control services 618
state aid 676–7, 686–7
B
(p. 1018) bail-out states 952, 983, 985–6
Balkans 144
Baltic States 144
bank bail-outs and restructuring 688
banking union 595, 747, 749, 777, 780
Barroso, José Manuel 506
Basel Committee on Banking 758
Belgium:
asylum and immigration law 879
citizenship 499
free movement of capital 800–1, 806
free movement of services 579
incidental effect of directives 231–3
infringement and sanction procedures 358
primacy 191–2
taxation 817
Benelux States 289, 869
Better Regulation initiative 368
bid rigging 661
‘big bang’ enlargement 130, 157
bilateral arrangements 69–70, 134n, 150
Binding Technical Standard (BTS) 774–5, 778
block-exemption regulations 635, 685–6
buildings’ energy performance 367
Bulgaria 130, 267, 504
free movement of workers 459, 472–3
primacy 189, 209n
C
Cabinets of Commissioners 320
Cameron, David 297, 309, 474, 504
Canada 60n, 147, 379, 812n
cartel activity 650–2, 661, 665, 667
Central America 888
Central and East European countries (CEECs) 127, 130, 143–4, 159, 192–3
centralized constitutional model 406, 412–17
CHAP registration 360, 366
chemicals 518, 531–4, 992, 998, 1000
Chiefs of Defence 292
China 297
circular or boot-strapping approach 15
Citizens’ Initiative 321
citizenship 477–506
animation of union citizenship legislation concepts 486–98
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 845
centralized legal framework 484
children of migrant workers in host state education 496
death of citizen 486
decentralized legal framework 484–5
departure from host state 486
dependency 478, 489–93, 500, 501
development of legal dimensions 485–504
disenfranchisement 483
divorce, annulment of marriage or termination of registered partnership 486
durability of relationships 489–90, 493
equality 925
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 409–10
family life, respect for 486, 487–94, 500, 501–2
forced departure 501
foundational legal dimensions 479–85
free movement rights 481, 483, 485n, 486, 487, 495, 500, 502–3, 504, 506
free movement of workers 462, 465–6, 467, 482
genuine enjoyment of substance of citizenship rights 500–1
illness or disability 501
imperative grounds 487
implementation support 484–5
implementation of Treaty rights 481–3
imprisonment 496–7
maintenance aid for studies 486n
material scope of EU law 498
migration 505
nationality: non-discrimination 498
non-discrimination 479
openness 479
parent who is primary carer 496
personal scope of EU law 498
political rights 482
public health 481
(p. 1019) public policy 480, 487
public security 480, 487
purely internal situations 499–502
residence rights 478, 487, 494–9
returning home 502–4
rights 480
same-sex partnerships 488–9, 493
scope and significance of primary citizenship rights 498–504
serious grounds 487
sexual orientation: non-discrimination 489
sickness insurance and sufficient resources 487
social assistance 499
social cohesion 496
third country nationals 503
Treaty framework 479–81
voting rights 482
‘welfare tourism’ 505–6
civil jurisdiction harmonization 892–915
allocation of proceedings 895, 910
anti-suit injunctions 907
appropriate forum 896
arbitration 908–9, 913–14
Brussels 1 (jurisdiction and the effect of foreign judgments) 900–9
Brussels 1BIS 909–13
case management 910
commercial certainty promotion901, 910
conflicting assumptions 894–8
cross-border litigation/commercial litigation 895–7, 914
effet utile 908–9
enforcement issue 899
exclusive jurisdiction 911–13
fairness 899, 910
forum conveniens 896, 898, 901–3
forum shopping 895, 909, 915
institutional approach 900
instrumental approach 897, 900
irreconcilable judgments 911, 914–15
judicial/adjudicatory discretion 898
justice 910
Kompetenz-Kompetenz - jurisdiction to determine jurisdiction 906
multi-state litigation 897, 899
parallel proceedings 896–7, 910, 912–15
party autonomy protection 910
party management 899
pragmatic constituency 896–7
Primacom 905–6
recognition and enforcement of judgments 897
stay of proceedings 910–11
tactical litigation 912
Turner 907–9, 913
uniformity 901
venue issue 899
West Tankers 907–9, 913
Civil Service Tribunal (CST) 154, 155, 163
civil society organizations 928
Co-ordinated Market Economy (CME) 766–7
Code of Conduct 321, 838
for Commissioners 448
Council 811, 819
Cohesion policy 269
College of Commissioners 337, 357, 657
Combined Nomenclature 511–12
comitology 14, 327–48
accountability 343, 345–8
advisory procedure 333
committees as control mechanisms 338–41
committee’s opinion 334
delegated acts 113–15
deliberation or bargaining forum 341–3, 345–6
deliberative supranationalism 342–3
democratic legitimacy 122
dual position of committee members 339, 341
enhanced legitimacy 348
environmental law 994, 1011–13
examination procedure 333–5
exclusive competence 339–40
financial markets regulation 773–4
function 338–41
historical background 329–32
implementing acts 118, 340–1
(p. 1020) implementing powers 339–40
input legitimacy 344
legitimacy 343, 344–8
mechanisms of control 341
multi-level (composite) procedures 335
negative opinion 334–5, 347
no opinion 334
as organizational structure 336–8
output legitimacy 344
procedures 333–6
rational choice institutionalism 342–3, 344
separation of powers 123
simplification 121
supranational-intergovernmental framework 342
transparency 328, 348
Committee of European Securities Regulators (CESR) 773–7
Committee of Independent Experts 448–50, 452
Second Report 448
Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER) 308, 316–17, 324, 337
committee procedure see comitology
Committee of the Regions 306, 385, 392
Committee for Risk Assessment 1004
Committee for Socio-Economic Analysis 1004
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 448, 451
Common Commercial Policy (CCP) 85, 87n, 271–2, 273, 274–81
decision making 278–81
scope 275–8
common customs tariff 511, 519
Common European Asylum System (CEAS) 867, 871, 872–3, 875, 889
common fisheries policy 85
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 83, 84, 85, 121, 272, 274–5, 281–90
competence: sui generis nature 88–9
decision making (High Representative) 286
distinct character 282–5
executive powers (High Representative) 286
external objectives (High Representative) 286
High Representative 285–9
implementing acts 118
institutional structure 285–9
integration 282–5
internal objectives (High Representative) 286
legal acts 107
political accountability 288
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) 272, 274–5, 287, 289–97
ambition, lack of 296–7
armaments 293
battlegroups 293
border missions 295
capabilities 291, 297
civilian and military capabilities 291
civilian missions 294–5
coordination and turf wars 296
differing political assessments 297
enhanced cooperation 292–3
initiatives 294–6
legal framework 291–3
mandate of operations and missions 296
military operations 294
monitoring missions 295
mutual aid and assistance 291
Operation Artemis 296
permanent structured cooperation 292–3
police missions 294
practice 294–7
rule of law missions 295
security sector reform missions 295
size of operations and missions 296
tasks and activities 290
terrorism, combating 290
troops for deployment, unwillingness to provide 296
‘willing and able’ clause 292
company law: Delaware effect 542–8
comparative efficiency test 90–1
(p. 1021) competence-competence (Kompetenz- Kompetenz) 101, 417–19
competences 75–102
accountability 437
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 842, 849, 850, 851
Common Commercial Policy (CCP) 275, 276
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 283–4
complementary 101
conferral 101
coordinating 101
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the national courts 405, 412–13, 430
exclusive 339–40
legislative 94, 840–3, 848
partial competence-competence 101
proportionality 102
social 948, 953–7
subsidiarity 94–5, 101–2
teleological interpretation 101
see also conferral
competition 612–39
abuse 625–7
agreement 629–30
allocative efficiency 636
Article 101, use of to control market power 628–35
Article 102, use of to control market power 620–7
barriers to entry 623–4
block-exemption regulations 635
‘Chicago’ position 616
common intention 629–30
communication 631
competitive constraints, identification of 619–20
concentrations 638–9
concern with market power 613–16
concerted practice 630–1
conduct 624–5
conglomerate effects 636
coordination 628–31, 632–4, 636
double margin 636
duress or coercion 629
dynamic efficiency 636
economies of scale 636
economies of scope 636
effect of restricting competition 632–4
efficient competitor approach 627
exclusionary abuses 625–6
exemption 634–5
exploitative conduct 625
foreclosure 626–7
intellectual property 691
legal presumption 633–4, 635
market activity, identification of 616–20
market share 621–2
market structure, control of 636–9
mergers 636–8, 639
object of restricting competition 632–4
objective justification 627
one-stop shop 638
policy 311
productive efficiencies 636
profit sacrifice 626
restriction of 632–4
simplified procedure 638
standstill obligation 637
strategic barriers 623
structural barriers 623
substantive impact 639
super-simplified procedure 638
supply and demand interaction 617
supra-competitive price (‘cellophane fallacy’) 620
tariffs or quotas 623
taxation 833
unilateral effects 636, 639
vertical effects 636
Competition Commissioner 657
competition law enforcement 109, 641–69
antitrust laws 642, 645, 664, 667
bid rigging 661
cartel activity 650–2, 661, 665, 667
compensation 641
integrated agency model 644–6
(p. 1022) leniency applications 665–6
mergers 656
National Competition Authorities (NCAs) 642, 643, 658–61, 668
national courts 642
private enforcement 662–8
national courts: duties 662–4
private litigation encouragement and relationship with public enforcement 664–8
public enforcement 643–61
adjudication - decision making 649–54
commitments and non-infringement decisions 652–3
decisions by the Commission 649–50
infringement decisions and fines 650–2
institutional design and due process 643–6
judicial review 654–7
political influence 657–8
preliminary investigations and initiation of proceedings 647–9
sector inquiries 654
re-sale price maintenance 652
conditionality 130, 132
Conference of Community and European Affairs Committees of Parliaments of the EU (COSAC) 319
conferral 61, 75, 214
bounded or partial competence-competence 80
classification of competences 84–9
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) competence: sui generis nature 88–9
competence-competence 79–80
complementary competences 87
constitutional saving clauses 81–3
coordinating competences 87
exclusive competences 84, 85
external competences: special rules 87–9
general competences 78–81
general harmonization competence 82–3
horizontal competence 79
internal competences: general rules 85–7
interpretation 77–81
judicial review 401
legislative and judicial competence- competence 79–80
limiting competences 75, 76–83
non-exclusive competence 84
public health competence 82–3
shared competences 85–6
teleological interpretation in general 77–8
consent procedure 306, 323
consistent interpretation (indirect effect) 218–19, 221–4, 225, 231, 244, 246–7, 407
constitutional saving clauses 81–3
consultation procedure 306, 323
consumer protection and rights 160, 220, 363, 523–4, 607
controlled foreign corporation (CFC) rules 812, 819
cooperation:
administrative (taxation) 811
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 846, 848, 854
asylum and immigration under the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (ASFJ) 868–79
comitology 337
enhanced 272, 292–3, 772, 812
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the national courts 175, 406–8, 410
free movement of capital 794, 803
harmonization 595, 609
horizontal 175
mandatory administrative 794
mutual 794, 803
sincere 139, 439, 658
taxation 833
Copenhagen criteria 127–8, 130, 132, 145
copyright 700–7
broadcasts and cable distribution 704
caching or browsing (temporary copying) 704–5
Computer Programs Directive 701
Copyright Code (proposed) 707
(p. 1023) current and future reforms 705–7
Database Directive 703
distribution right 704, 705
exceptions 705
films 701
harmonization 700–5
hyperlinking 705
Information Society Directive 704–5
levies 706–7
live streaming 704, 706
musical compositions 702
on-line and on-demand distribution 704
on-line rights licensing 706
orphan works 706
peer-to-peer (P2P) sites 704
phonograms 701, 704
public interest missions 706
reproduction right (exclusive right) 704–5
resale royalty (droit de suite) 703–4
right of communication to the public (transmission and distribution in non-physical form) 704
sound recordings 702
technological developments 704
technological measures and rights management information, protection of 705
Term Directive (copyright duration) 702–3
corporate governance 559, 794
Council of Europe an Union 59
‘Safeguarding human rights in times of economic crisis’ report (2013) 266
countervailing measures 335
country of origin principle 524–5, 576
Court of Auditors 57–8, 385, 392, 451–2, 857
Court of First Instance (CFI) 154–5, 440–2
Court of Justice of the European Union see European Court of Justice (ECJ)
creditor protection laws 545
Croatia 130, 132, 459, 472–4
Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) 511
customs duties 213–14, 513, 531
customs union 85, 511, 513
Cyprus 283, 747, 879
primacy 194n, 195n, 198, 209n
Czech Republic 198, 322
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 419, 420, 430
D
data controllers 609–10
Decisions 106–8, 120, 170
sui generis 106–7, 121
Declarations 201
Delaware effect 542–8
delegated acts 105–6, 108, 111–17, 119–23
essential elements 112
ex ante controls 112–13
ex post controls 112–13, 116
non-essential elements 111–12
primary legal measures 111
secondary legal measures 111
Delors Report (1989) 721–2
democracy:
deficit 13, 400, 433, 435
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the national courts 405–6, 429–30
infringement and sanction procedures 374
and judicial review 379–84
primacy 192
democratic ambiguity of EU law 303–26
collective action 309–11
commitment to secure deals at first reading 322–3
Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER): preparation of Council decision making 316–17, 324
consent procedure 306, 323
consultation procedure 306, 323
democratic dilemmas 303–6
democratic fluidity 305–6, 320–5
democratic maturity 325–6
democratic review: multiplicity 313–19
Early Warning Mechanism (EWM) and national parliaments 317–19
(p. 1024) European Parliament’s first reading 314–16
final decision 323
foreclosing of legislative panoramas 320–5
legislative package deals 322–3
legislative process, opposition to scale and scope of 308–10
majoritarian processes 311
non-legislative procedures 312
non-majoritarian processes 311
ordinary legislative procedure 306
soft law 312–13
subsidiarity 306, 309–11
trialogue 322–5
yellow cards 318–19
democratic approach 13
democratic legitimacy 106, 122, 123, 328
democratic reflexivity 13, 14
Denmark 147, 723
asylum and immigration law 871, 879
free movement of goods 519–20
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 544, 556
primacy 198, 201
designs 707–12
application procedure 708–9
copyright-type approach 707
defences 712
definition 709
design proprietor’s rights 711–12
entitlement, lack of 710
exceptions 712
harmonization 708
identical 710
individual character 710
invalidity, grounds of 709–11
must match spare parts 712
ownership 711
patent-type approach 707
personality rights 710
prior design, conflict with 710–11
protected badges or emblems, conflicts with 711
Registered Community Design (RCD) 708–11
scope of rights 711–12
stand-still clause 712
term 711
Unregistered Community Design (UCD) 708, 710, 711
digital television broadcasting 513–14
direct and/or individual concern 387–9, 396–7, 401
direct effect 64–6, 221, 225, 231–2, 235–6, 238–9, 242, 244–5
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 862
competition law enforcement 662
and enforceability of national measures 216–17
equality 938
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the national courts 404, 407, 412
free movement of goods 531–2
horizontal 64, 215–16, 219–20, 222–5, 229, 232, 234–5, 237, 240, 242–6
accountability 445
free movement of services 581–2
incidental effect of directives 235
judicial review 385
primacy 183–4, 191
and Van Gend en Loos 213–16
vertical 445
directives 106–8, 308
enforceability of through general principles 240–4
obligations of private parties 219–25
Directorate-General (DG) 320, 360, 362, 363–5, 374, 450
for Competition (DGComp) 646, 657
disability non-discrimination 241, 501, 921, 923, 924, 927–8, 937, 940–1
discrimination:
indirect:
equality 934–5
free movement of goods 516–17, 519
nationality 420
overt and covert 934
Discussion Circle 390, 395
distortions of competition 632
(p. 1025) free movement of goods 519, 521, 526, 528, 530
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 555
harmonization 596, 607
labour law 947–8
member state liability 229
state aid 682–3
divorce, annulment of marriage or termination of registered partnership 486
DLG (de Larosière) report 769, 774
double criminality requirement 855–6
double jeopardy 856
driving while intoxicated 237–8
E
Early Warning Mechanism (EWM) 317–19
Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee 744
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 437, 438, 719–55, 951, 986
ad hoc financial rescue measures 733–6
annual fine 746
automatic correction mechanism 742
balanced budget rule 742
broad economic policy guidelines (BEPGs) 725–6
budgetary discipline 728
budgetary reference values 726
competences distribution 740
Copenhagen Criteria (1993) 723n
effective enforcement mechanisms, absence of 724
emerging new economic governance regime 740–52
European Central Bank (ECB): new role in macro- and micro-prudential supervision 748–52
European Central Bank (ECB): non-standard monetary policy measures 736–9
European Semester 741, 743
European Stability Mechanism (ESM) 741, 746–7, 750, 753–4
excessive deficit procedures 724, 726–8, 741, 744–6
government debt to GDP ratio 723–4, 727, 732, 741
interest-bearing deposit 746
Maastrict approach to Europeanization of macroeconomic and monetary policy 720–31
Maastrict legal framework: financial and euro area debt crisis 731–9
macroeconomic imbalances procedure 744–6
multilateral surveillance 724–5, 740–1, 744–6
no bailout clause 728, 733
original system of economic policy and coordination 723–8
outlook 752–5
outright monetary transactions (OMTs) 738–9
reversed voting procedure 746
sanctions 727
Securities Markets Programme (SMP) 737
single monetary policy 728–31
‘Six Pack’ measures 741, 744, 746, 753
‘Two Pack’ measures 741, 746, 753
welfare policy and social inclusion 985
economic policies 84, 87, 438
Economic and Social Committee 306
educational services/access to education: non-discrimination 564–6, 568, 882, 924, 928, 930–1, 966, 968
effective remedy, right to 396, 413, 665
effectiveness of EU law:
accountability 446
competition law enforcement 663
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the national courts 407, 412, 414–15, 427
effectiveness of EU law before national courts 212–47
complementarities or contradictories 244–7
(p. 1026) consistent interpretation doctrine (indirect effect) 218–19, 221–4, 225, 231, 244, 246–7
direct effect 221, 225, 231, 232, 242, 244–5
direct effect and enforceability of national measures 216–17
direct effect and Van Gend en Loos 213–16
directives and obligations of private parties 219–25
effectiveness principle (effet utile) 213
enforceability of directives through general principles 240–4
horizontal direct effect 215–16, 219–20, 222–5, 229, 232, 240, 242–6
indirect effect 222–3
member state liability 225–31
objective effectiveness 214
subjective effectiveness 214n
vertical effect 232, 245–6
efficacy of EU law 19–23, 185
elections 310
elite negotiation 367, 369, 372
employer insolvency 225–6
employment:
contract 223
non-discrimination 218, 882, 925, 927–8, 930, 936, 939
policies 84, 87
Employment and Social Innovation (EaSI) scheme 987
Energy and Environmental Aid Guidelines (EEAG) 687
energy sector (gas and electricity) 514, 653–4, 678–9, 797
enlargement policy 16, 130–2
‘big bang’ 130, 157
nationalization 132–4
Enlargement Strategy (2006) 145
environmental law 514, 991–1014
air, water and soil 996, 999
BAT Conclusions 996
BAT Reference Documents (BREFs) 996–7, 1008–9
best available techniques (BAT) 996–7
chemical safety report 998
chemical substances 992, 998, 1000
Common Commercial Policy (CCP) 277
cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 1001
economic actors as participants and experts 1003–6
emission limit values (ELVs) 996
emission monitoring requirements 999
environmental impact assessment (EIA) 238–9, 425, 992, 996, 998–9, 1005, 1009–10
environmental risk assessment 998
ethical expertise 1001–2
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 995, 998, 1000, 1004–5, 1007–8
European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) 876, 878-9
European Environment Agency (EEA) 995, 1000, 1012
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 995, 1000, 1004, 1008–9
expertise and participation, relationship between 993–5
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 992, 998, 1000–1, 1004, 1008–9
harmonization 607
health impacts 998, 1000, 1002
industrial emissions 992
information and expertise 995–1002
infringement and sanction procedures 362–4, 371
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau 996, 997, 1005, 1007
no data no market principle 998
pesticides and herbicides 1000
political decision making 1011–13
pollution 599
product authorization 992, 996, 998
protection 583, 607
public participation 1006–10
Seville process 997, 1008, 1010
(p. 1027) state aid 681
substances of very high concern (SVHC) 998, 1002, 1004
technical expertise 1003
Technical Working Groups (TWGs) 997, 1005, 1007–8, 1010
treaties 66
equal pay between men and women for equal work 216, 240–1, 267, 539, 921, 923
equality see non-discrimination
ERTA doctrine 89
establishment rights see freedom of establishment
Estonia 554–5, 581, 748
primacy 189–90, 194
estoppel argument 217, 220–2, 245
ethical obligations 39, 81, 321
EU Fund for Most Deprived Persons 988
EU Pilot 359–61, 362–6, 372, 373
EUDO Observatory on Citizenship 485
Eurodac Central Unit 871
Eurodac fingerprinting system 870–1, 879
Eurojust 848, 856, 859–60
Europe 2020 strategy 952
European Agency for Reconstruction 440–1
European Anti-Poverty Network (EAPN) 981
European Arrest Warrant (EAW) 210, 257–60, 263
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 853, 855–6
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 413–14
European Banking Authority (EBA) 748, 749, 760
European Central Bank (ECB):
accountability 437
democratic ambiguity of legislation 311
democratic legitimacy 122
economic and monetary union (EMU) 719, 722, 728–9, 733, 734–5, 740, 744, 747, 749
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 421–4
Executive Board 730–1, 751
financial markets regulation 759, 760, 777, 780–1
Governing Board 751
Governing Council 421, 729–31, 752
hierarchy of norms 105
judicial review 385, 392
labour law 953, 960
legislative acts 109
new role in macro- and micro-prudential supervision 748–52
non-legislative acts 119–20
non-standard monetary policy measures 736–9
Supervisory Board 751–2
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 533–4, 995, 998, 1000, 1004–5, 1007–8
European Citizens’ Initiative 483
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 53, 55–7, 58, 721
European Commission:
democratic ambiguity of legislation 306, 309–10, 311
democratic legitimacy 122
Enforcement Priorities 621
implementing acts 117–19
London Economics Report (2002) 764
non-legislative acts 119–20
Rules of Procedure 448
simplification 121
technical assistance in the implementation process handbook 608
European Community for Atomic Energy 57
European Competition Network (ECN) 643, 659–61
European Council 58
accession process 129–31, 145
legislative acts 108–10
non-legislative acts 119
Secession from the European Union 135, 137–9, 141
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 411–12, 646, 668
European Court of Justice (CJEU) 33–50, 53, 56, 153–77
accession process 134
accountability 440–2
(p. 1028) Advocates General 153, 156, 162–5, 166–8
appellate review 154, 159
articulation of reasons 42
average length of procedure 154–5, 160–2
categorization 36–7
Civil Service Tribunal (CST) 154, 155, 163
cluster citations 170
collegiate judgment 170–1
competition law enforcement 644
composition 162–8
creative jurisprudence 647
cultural and historical factors 166–7
defining the case 35–7
direct action 154, 158
discovery 33–42
docket 158–62
as economic court 159
evolution: politics of gradual suspension 154–5
factors of discovery 33–4
French drafting style 169
functionality 158–9, 166
Grand Chamber 157, 167, 171
impartiality 175–6
independence 176
inter-institutional disputes 158
internal structure 156–7
interpretative tendency, pro-Union 173
judges 33, 153, 156, 157, 160, 162–8
judgment 169–72
judicial review 158
judicial style 49–50
jurisdiction 158–9
legal indeterminacy 39–42
legal secretaries and other staff 162, 168
legislative acts 109
legitimacy 172–7
legitimate legal reasons 34
morality and ethics 39
non-binding opinion 164
normative vision 171
organization of judicial process 34
outside context of Court 34
political and societal context 38–9
practical level 171
preliminary rulings 154, 158–62, 166–7, 169, 171
president 157
reasoning method 169, 171, 173
structural immutability 169–70
structure 154–7
subject-wise 159–60
supreme jurisdiction 154
taxation 813–16
255 panel 164–5
vice-president 157
European Court of Justice (CJEU) and the national courts 403–30
abstract and imprecise tests 409
adjudication 404–5
attributes of the relationship 405–12
centralized constitutional model 406, 412–17
circumspection and warning 425–9
compatibility presumption 426–7
competence 405, 412–13, 430
competence-competence (Kompetenz-Kompetenz) 417–19
compromise 408
conflict 421–4
cooperation 406–8
deference cases 409–10
defiance 420–1
democracy 405, 406, 429–30
dialectics 408–11
dialogue 408
direct dialogue see preliminary reference procedure
direct effect 404, 407, 412
direct proceedings, right in 405
discretion 408–11
domestic law principle 426
dual judicial sovereignty 407
effectiveness principle 407, 412, 414–15, 427
guidance cases 409
hierarchy 406–8
(p. 1029) indirect dialogue (adjudication) 404–5
institutional powers 405
interaction 408
judicial power 408–11
mutual respect and deference 411
mutual trust principle 426
national constitutional identity 405
outcome cases 408–9
preliminary reference procedure 404, 406, 408–9, 415, 417, 421, 427
specificity of the ruling 408–9
European Criminal Policy Initiative 864n
European Defence Agency (EDA) 292–3
European Deposit Guarantee Scheme 749
European Environment Agency (EEA) 995, 1000, 1012
European Evidence Warrant (EEW) 855–6
European External Action Service (EEAS) 287–9, 292
European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) 422–4, 719, 734, 736, 738–9
European Financial Stabilization Mechanism (EFSM) 719, 734–6
European Financial Supervisory Authorities 336
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 995, 1000, 1004, 1008–9
European Group on Ethics in Science and Technologies (EGE) 1001
European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) 748, 760
European Investigation Order 856
European Investment Bank 109
European Judicial Network 859
European Neighbourhood Policy 150
European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) 780
European Ombudsman 362, 504, 506
European Parliament (EP) 57
accession process 127, 129
delegated acts 112–16
democratic ambiguity of legislation 306–8
democratic legitimacy 122
first reading 314–16
Green Group 984
implementing acts 118
legislative acts 108–10
reviewable acts 385–6
separation of powers 123
European Patent Office (EPO) 713–14
European Policy Centre (EPC) 289
European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO) 848, 856, 858–60
European Regional Development Fund 269
European Resolution Mechanism 749
European Securities Committee (ESC) 774
European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) 748, 760, 770–2, 774–9, 781
European Security Strategy 290
European Semester 741, 743, 952, 960, 985
European Social Fund (ESF) 269, 987–8
European Social Model 978
European Stability Mechanism (ESM) 422–3, 736, 738–9, 741, 746–7, 750, 753–4, 777
Governing Board 747
European Supervisory Authority (ESA) 748, 760, 774, 780
Joint Committee 760
European System of Central Banks (ESCB) 728–31, 951, 959–60
European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS) 748–9, 760, 776–7, 781
European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) 749, 760, 776
European Transparency Register 307, 321
Europol (European Police Office) 848, 856, 858–9, 860
Eurozone crisis 413, 953, 983–7
examination committee 1011
examination procedures 118, 333–5
excessive deficit procedures 724, 726–8, 741, 744–6
exchange rates 539, 951
excise duties 519, 520–1, 528–9, 810
excluding any harmonization clauses 82–3
executive acts 104–55
expert groups 113–14
external action 271–99
capabilities 298
development-related objectives 273
economic objectives 273
environmental objectives 273
(p. 1030) legal rules and procedures 298–9
organization 272–5
political objectives 273
security and defence 273, 298–9
social objectives 273
F
fair trial rights 261, 263, 413–14, 645, 665, 852
family life, respect for 393, 486, 487–94, 500, 501–2, 645
family reunification 500, 881–6
Federal Constitutional Court (German) 421–4, 430
federal values, protection of: national autonomy 97–9
federalism 12, 102
cooperative 90
dual 90
executive 14
and subsidiarity 91–5
Fediol exception 66
fidelity clause 61
financial accountability 431, 447–53
crisis and reform 448–9
financial regulation 450–1
of member states: rules and incentives 451–3
financial assistance measures 422–3
see also bail-out countries
Financial Controller 449
financial markets regulation 757–82
Binding Technical Standard (BTS) 774–5, 778
Co-ordinated Market Economy (CME) 766–7
comitology process 773–4
crowdfunding techniques 770
delegated rules 774
dynamic consolidation phase (2005-2007) 761
enhanced cooperation 772
equivalence-based measures 761
EU intervention 768–71
Euro-SEC/single supervisor model 776
evolution 759–61
financial transaction tax 772
global financial crisis 757–8
governance and treaties 777–80
harmonization 760–1, 762, 764, 766–7, 768–9
hedge funds 769
institutional innovation 772–7
investor protection 762
Liberal Market Economy (LME) 765–7
location of control, changing 771–2
market efficiency 762
market finance 765–7
market integration 763–5
minimum harmonization 761
predictions 781–2
rule making 773–5
scholarly perspectives 761–3
self-sufficiency 481
shifts in location and intensity of intervention 768–72
single rule-book 769–70
supervision 775–7
Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) literature 765–6
financial services 114, 582
Financial Services Action Plan (FSAP) 761, 764, 768–9, 773–4, 781
financial transaction tax 595, 772
fingerprinting 870–1, 879
Finland 190, 505, 554, 556, 792
First Pillar 869
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 840–1, 842, 846, 849, 851, 862
fixed term contracts/workers 471, 928–9
food law, food safety and feed operators 609
foreclosure 626–7
Foreign Affairs Council 285
foreign direct investment (FDI) 276–7, 279
foreign policy 16, 119
forum conveniens 896, 898, 901–3
forum shopping 895, 909, 915
Fouchet Plan (1961–2) 400
(p. 1031) FRACIT project 485
France 32
accession process 133
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 857
asylum and immigration law 887
Common Commercial Policy (CCP) 280
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) 289, 297
competition law 632
democratic fluidity 322
economic and monetary union (EMU) 727, 747
enforceability of directives through general principles 243
equality 924, 933
European Court of Justice (CJEU) and national courts 415–16
financial markets regulation 765, 767
free movement of capital 792
free movement of goods 520–1
human rights 263
incidental effect of directives 236–7
infringement and sanction procedures 355–6, 358, 363
judicial review 377
labour law 947
patents 713–15
primacy 189–90, 192, 197, 200–1
subsidiarity 93
taxation 810
withdrawal 149n
fraud and fraud prevention 448, 452, 599, 793–4, 857, 971
free movement of capital 784–807
corporate governance 794
corporate taxation 789–94
definite influence 804–5
direct link test 793
direct and portfolio investments 789
direct taxation 792
double taxation 791
energy sector (gas and electricity) 797
evolution 785–8
general interest objective 796
global markets: external dimension 802–6
inheritance tax 800
intra-EU capital movements and citizens 799–801
intra-EU capital movements and corporate actors 788–99
judicial dynamism: golden shares 794–9
labour law 950–1
liberalization 786–7, 788
mandatory administrative cooperation 794
mutual cooperation 794, 803
non-discrimination 789–90, 791, 797
private redistribution (inheritance transfers or charitable donations) 800
proportionality 796, 798
public interest objective 796–7
resident and non-resident taxpayers 790–1
residual political control 787–8
tax evasion/tax fraud 793–4
taxation 789–94, 803
free movement of goods 256, 508–35, 574
advertising 525–7, 531
alcohol 518, 519–27, 528
analytical frameworks 516–18
authorization procedure 533–4
barriers to trade 526, 530
characterization of goods 513–14
chemicals 518, 531–4
biocidal products 533–4
cosmetics 532
dangerous preparations (solvents) 531–2
foodstuffs 532
paints, varnishes, inks and adhesives 531–2
classification of goods 512, 531–2, 533–4
compatibility and interoperability 510
conferral: limiting competences 81
consumer protection 523–4
country of origin principle 524–5
customs duties 513, 531
direct effect 216
(p. 1032) distortions to competition 519, 521, 526, 528, 530
dual burden rule 517
effects-based approach 516
environmental risks (chemicals) 518
excise duties (taxation) 519, 520–1, 528–9
health and safety 518, 525
home country control principle 524–5
incidental effect of directives 232–4
indirect discrimination 516–17, 519
indistinctly applicable rules 516, 522
intellectual property 691
internet as retail method 530
jurisdiction 514–16, 517
labour law 950
legal reasoning 36–7
lifestyle risks (alcohol and tobacco) 518
mandatory requirements 523–4
market access 517–18
marketing 525
measures having equivalent effect to quantitative restrictions (MEQRs) 508, 513, 515, 517, 521–2
minimum alcohol content 25, 522–3
non-discrimination 517–18, 520–1, 526, 927–8, 930, 932
normative foundations 516–18
packaging 528–30, 531–2
patterns of trade 512
private standards setting 510
product composition 529–30
product/production requirements 517
proportionality-based approach 515, 516
public health 519, 523–4, 528
public interest justifications 515, 523–5, 527
quotas 521
registration process 532–4
selling arrangements 517–18, 525–6
sponsorship 531
taxation policy 520–1
technical innovation 510
technical standardization 510
tobacco 518, 527–31
chewing tobacco 503
e-cigarettes 503
tar and nicotine content 529–30
trade in goods 511–12
types of goods and regulatory regimes 518–34
unfair practices 525
free movement of persons 844–6
asylum and immigration under the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 869, 882, 885–6
equality 926
harmonization 590
labour law 950
welfare policy and social inclusion 965, 967–71
free movement rights 256–7, 263
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 844–5, 846
barriers 948–9, 956–7, 960
citizenship 481, 483, 485n, 486, 487, 495, 500, 502–3, 504, 506
Commission and human rights 263, 267
harmonization 596, 600, 602–4, 606, 610
infringement and sanction procedures 362–3
labour law 953
member state liability 229
primacy 209
state aid 681, 683
welfare policy and social inclusion 972
free movement of services 562–84
childcare institutions 567
consistency 579–80
country of origin rule 576
definition: services and other freedoms distinction 563
deregulatory mechanism: policy pressure between states 568–70
derogations 577–80
(p. 1033) economic nature of services: remuneration 564–70
educational services 564–6, 568
equality 925
gifts 564
healthcare/medical services 564–6, 568, 569–70, 575, 577, 582, 583
horizontal effect 581–2
justifications 577–80
local qualifications 576
mandatory requirements 578, 583
market access 572–6
mobile telephony contracts 566
non-discrimination 517–18, 520–1, 572, 582, 927–8, 930, 932
non-profit organizations 570–1
official authority 571
payer/provider relationship: market-like transactions and internal payments distinction 565–8
police checks 576
police, judges, senior civil servants 571
private bodies 581
proportionality test 578–9
prostitution 579–80
public policy 577, 583
public security 577, 583
public services 566–7, 570, 571
public transport 565
registration with local authorities 576
restriction on cross-border provision of services (defining) 572–7
social insurance and pensions 564, 567
socially important services as economic activities 564–5
state payments for services as remuneration 565
welfare policy and social inclusion 973
free movement of workers 457–75, 555–6, 557, 582
access to employment market 467
accession workers 471–4
barriers to movement 466–8
benefits 466
citizenship 462, 465–6, 467, 482
direct effect 215–16
disability 470
education rights 470
employed capacity 464
employment, equal access to 466
equality 925
excluded workers 469–71
family reunification rights 464–5
family rights and family life, right to 463–6, 467–8, 470
fixed term contracts 471
frontier workers 463–4
gender stereotyping 465
genuine activity and drug addicts 469–70
health insurance 460, 470
job seeker allowance 462
limits to free movement of workers 468–74
low-earners 458
migrant workers 457, 459, 463–6
migration, barriers to 458
minimum residence requirement 462
non-discrimination 460, 462, 463, 466–8
non-remunerated work 470–1
official authority 571
parent/carer 471
part-time workers 458, 460, 469, 471
public policy 460
purely internal situations 463–6
rehabilitation scheme 469
remuneration 461, 469
returning workers 464
security 460
self-employed capacity 464
social assistance/protection and welfare provision 457–8, 460, 462–3, 466, 469, 474
social reintegration 469–70
subordination 469
tax advantages 458, 460, 462, 466
transitional arrangements 472–5
voluntary and/or unpaid work (eg internship) 470–1
‘welfare tourism’ 474
workers 460–1
workseekers 461–3, 469
zero-hours contracts 471
(p. 1034) free trade 63, 97
agreements 64, 67
free movement of goods; free movement of services
freedom of association 256, 265, 553
freedom of establishment 514, 581, 853, 925
labour law 949, 956
taxation 831
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 537–60
assessment 558–60
Centros and Cartesio, effects of 544–7
collective agreement/industrial action 540–1, 553, 554–5, 557–8
company law 556
Delaware effect 542–8
deferral schemes 552–3
employee participation 548
foreign-controlled companies 552
incorporation theory 546
justification defence 545–7, 551–2, 558
legislative encouragement in company law 547–8
market access test 537, 542, 547
market restriction 538–42
motive test 552
mutual recognition principle 541, 545, 547, 552
proportionality test 545, 547, 550–2, 557–8, 559
‘race to the bottom’ 542, 545, 553
‘real seat’ principle 545–6, 548, 559
reincorporations 547–8
relocation, power of 548
wholly artificial arrangements 552–3
worker protection 559
see also labour law; tax law
freedom of expression 36–7, 256, 265
freedom of speech 426
freedom to conduct a business 37, 160, 924
freedom to provide services 255–6, 554, 557, 949, 950
freedom to receive information 605
Frontex (EU Borders Agency) 887
frontier workers 463–4, 821
fundamental freedoms 68, 133, 413, 539
see also entries under freedom
fundamental rights 68, 112, 252, 256–7, 259–60, 268
Commission 265–6
democratic ambiguity of legislation 311, 313
enforceability of directives through general principles 240
equality 922
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 159, 405, 415, 430
harmonization 601–2, 605
infringement and sanction procedures 374
judicial review 382
labour law 954
see also human rights
Fundamental Rights Agency 250, 267
fundamental values 195, 205–6, 255–6, 382
G
G20 agenda 769
gambling/betting services 580
Gates, Robert 297
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 65, 69
General Court (GC) 58, 154, 158, 162, 164
competition law enforcement 644, 646, 655–7
judicial review 392, 400
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 343, 992, 998, 1000–1, 1004, 1008–9
genuine enjoyment test 410, 500–1
Germany 56, 68–9
accession process 132–4
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 838
asylum and immigration law 879
citizenship 483
civil jurisdiction 905
(p. 1035) Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) 289, 293n, 297
competition law 632, 664–5
conferral: limiting competences 80
consistent interpretation 218–19
constitutional saving clauses 82–3
copyright 702
democratic ambiguity of legislation 309n
direct effect 213–16, 217
directives and obligations of private parties 223
economic and monetary union (EMU) 724, 727, 738–9, 747
enforceability of directives through general principles 241
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 159, 419, 421, 422
financial markets regulation 765
free movement of capital 798–9, 800, 805–6
free movement of goods 512, 513, 522–5
free movement of services 577, 580
free movement of workers 474n
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 558
human rights 255–6, 264, 268
infringement and sanction procedures 365, 372
judicial review 388
labour law 960
patents 713–15
taxation 816, 819, 824–5
welfare policy and social inclusion 973
Gibraltar 482, 682
global financial crisis (2008) 413, 757–8, 764
goods and services, access to supply of:
competition law 617–18, 619, 623, 624
equality 927–8, 930, 932
government debt to GDP ratio 723–4, 727, 732, 741
Greece 67, 134n
asylum and immigration law 879, 887
economic and monetary union (EMU) 732, 733–4, 736–7
human rights 266, 268
infringement and sanction procedures 355, 363, 370–1, 372
labour law 952, 960
Green Papers 308
Greenland 147
H
Hague Programme (2004) 840, 843, 851, 872–3, 875
Hague, William 288
harmonization 589–611
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 590–1, 593, 853, 854, 856
in changing legal context 591–5
competence 82–3
constitutional law 600–3
copyright 700–5
designs 708
embedded 599–605
financial markets regulation 760–1, 762, 764, 766–7, 768–9
fragmentation 591, 593
free movement of goods 523–5, 526–7, 528–30, 531, 533–4
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 539
internal market framework 590–4, 596–7, 599, 602, 604, 606, 610
limits to 595–6
managed 606–11
member states: obligations 608–9
minimum 528–9, 594–5, 604, 761, 965
and national law 603–5
negative 547
personalization 591, 593
private actors, role of 609–11
quality of 593–4
re-valuation 591, 593
reflexive 541
scope 593
taxation 809, 811–12
technical 594
unbound 595–9
Union bodies: responsibilities 606–8
(p. 1036) Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) 729
Harmonized System of the World Customs Organization 511
hate crimes 847
health impacts and environmental issues 998, 1000, 1002
health insurance 460, 470
health policy 82–3
health and safety 78, 92, 363, 518, 525, 607
healthcare/medical services 87n, 266, 970, 972–4, 976
citizenship 481
comitology 330
competence 82–3
free movement of goods 519, 523–4, 528
free movement of services 564–6, 568, 569–70, 575, 577, 582, 583
harmonization 603, 607
state aid 677–8
welfare policy and social inclusion 966, 970, 972–4, 976
Hearing Officer 648
hierarchy of norms: origins and objectives 104–6
High Authority 56, 57
High Representative 274, 283, 285–9, 292
home country control principle 524–5
homophobia 939
housing, access to: non-discrimination 924
human dignity 255–6, 922
human rights 66, 67–8, 249–69
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 258, 856
asylum and immigration under the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (ASFJ) 879, 884, 887–8
background 251–3
civil jurisdiction harmonization 904
enhancing respect 251, 252–3, 268–9
failure of practice or design 268–9
fundamental rights 268
labour law 958–9
non-discrimination 253, 269
human rights and the European Commission 262–8
equal pay 267
European Arrest Warrant (EAW) 263
fair trial and pre-trial rights 263
fiscal measures 266–7
freedom of expression and association 265
freedom of movement 263, 267
fundamental rights 265–6
non-discrimination 265–7
public health 266
racism and xenophobia measures 265–6
social protection 266–7
human rights and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) 254–61, 413
dual track approach 261
enhancing respect 255, 257
European Arrest Warrant (EAW) 257–60
fair trial rights 261
free movement of goods 256
free movement principles 256–7
freedom of expression and association 256
freedom to provide services 255–6
fundamental rights 256–7, 259–60
fundamental values 255–6
human dignity 255–6
mutual recognition principle 258–9
Human Rights Watch 887
Hungary 263, 363, 473n, 483, 546–7
I
impact assessment 308
see also environmental impact assessments
Impact Assessment Board 368
implementing measures 104–6, 108, 113, 117–23, 312, 849
comitology 328, 339–41
financial markets regulation 774
non-essential element 117
(p. 1037) implied powers doctrine 53, 56, 61–2
imprisonment and citizenship rights 496–7
incidental effect of directives 231–40
direct effect 235–6, 238–9
free movement of goods 232–4
horizontal direct effect 234–5, 237
invocability of exclusion 233, 235–6, 238, 245
technical regulations, obligations to communicate 232–4, 236–7
unfair trading practices 231–2
Independent Internal Audit Service 450
indirect effect 63, 222–3, 851, 862
industrial/strike action 553, 554–5, 557–8, 581
instruments 107, 120
insurance service sector 932
integrated agency model 664–6
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau 996, 997, 1005, 1007
integration 142, 282–5
economic 9
labour law 944–57
negative 590
political 9
positive see harmonization
social 9
through fear 14
and withdrawal 146–61
see also accession
intellectual property law 691–716
Common Commercial Policy (CCP) 276, 279–80
Community Design Right 692
judicial review 388
Unitary Patent (proposed) 692
interest rates 832, 951
Intergovernmental Conference (IGC): 2007 149
mandate 392, 395
Reflection Group 104
Internal Audit Service 449
internal market:
harmonization 412, 590–4, 596–7, 599, 602, 604, 606, 610
infringement and sanction procedures 362–3, 371
programme 330
international agreements 108, 275
International Chamber of Commerce: Framework for Responsible Marketing Communications of Alcohol 527
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 53, 56
International Labour Organization (ILO) 70, 960
Administrative Tribunal 57
international law and EU law 52–71
‘anterior’ treaties 69
bilateral treaties 69–70
collision between 68–70
conferred powers 61
delegation of powers 57
disconnection clause 54
discretionary powers 57
domestic legal personality 60
EU as an international institution 55–62
implied powers doctrine 53, 56, 61–2
legal capacity 60
mixity 54
multilateral treaties 68–9
privileges and immunities 60
reception of international law 62–8
third parties, agreements with 61
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 266, 719, 733–4, 944, 952, 983
interpretivists 39n, 40
INTRASTAT 512
invocability of exclusion 233, 235–6, 238, 245
Ireland 67, 371, 466n, 497, 819, 952
asylum and immigration law 871, 879
economic and monetary union (EMU) 732–4
primacy 190, 194–5, 199
welfare policy and social inclusion 985, 987–8
Italy 69, 474n, 513, 574, 767
asylum and immigration law 887
civil jurisdiction 904, 908–9
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) 289
democratic fluidity 322
(p. 1038) economic and monetary union (EMU) 732, 747
incidental effect of directives 233, 235
infringement and sanction procedures 358, 363, 371, 372
legal reasoning 38–9
member state liability 225–6, 231
primacy 186, 191, 195, 198
J
joint decision trap 509–10
Joint Statement of the Council and the European Commission on the Functioning of the Network of Competition Authorities (Joint Statement) 659
judges 38, 153, 156–7, 160, 162–8, 254
judicial review 158, 376–401
annulment proceedings 377–9, 384–90, 391–2, 397, 398–401
competence (annulment) 377
and democracy 379–84
democratic legitimacy 382, 392–4
direct and/or individual concern 387–9, 391–2, 396–7, 401
effective judicial protection 397–8, 399–400
infringement (annulment) 377
legality of measures 378
legislative acts 391, 393, 396
legitimacy 380, 382
Lisbon reforms to standing rules 390–8
misuse of powers (annulment) 377
negative decision 392
non-legislative acts 393, 395
outcome-related arguments 380
political legitimacy 382, 384
preliminary rulings procedure 377–8, 389, 392–3, 399
private applicants, standing of 387–90
process-related reasons 380
regulatory acts 392–3, 395–6, 397, 401
reviewable acts and status of European Parliament 385–6
semi-privileged applicants 385
special legislative procedures 393
state liability principle 385
system of legal remedies 377–9, 398–401
travaux préparatoires 391, 394, 397–8
Judiciary and Fundamental Rights 130–1
justice:
and fundamental rights 363
social 603
justification 3–4, 13, 15, 33–5
of authority 4–5
equality 935
free movement of services 564, 577–80
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 545–7, 551–2, 558
labour law 949–50
objective 15, 627
justification and legal reasoning 42–9
decisional facts 47–8
foundational facts 48
intentions, arguments from 46
interpretation, methods of 45–6
legal construction of relevant facts 47–8
linguistic arguments 45–6
meta-theory of interpretation 48–9
sources of law in context of 43–5
systemic arguments 46
teleological arguments 46
three-stage model 49
K
Kinnock, Neil 448
L
labelling of products 233, 236, 527, 529–30, 531–2, 533–4
labour law 553–8, 559, 943–62
barriers to free movement 948–9, 956–7, 960
cohesion 945
collective agreements/collective action 949–50
competitiveness 955
(p. 1039) concept of restriction in Viking and Laval 554–7
contractual relations 955
distortions of competition 947–8
economic rationale 945, 950, 951–3, 961
economic and social, balance between 958–60
employment creation 960
employment policy 954
flexicurity 961
free movement of capital 950–1
free movement of goods 950
free movement of persons 950
free movement provisions 953
freedom of establishment 949, 956
freedom to provide services 949, 950
integrationist rationale 944–57
internal market case law 948
justification and preemption 557–8
limited harmonization in social policy 553–4
minimum wage rates 949
monetary policy coordination 951–3
non-discrimination 954
occupational health and safety 956n
pay rates 950
posted workers 959
public procurement 959
social competence 948, 953–7
social dumping 950
social rationale 944, 945, 948, 950, 954, 961
solidarity 945
state involvement 947–53
trade unions 948–51
unemployment 957
welfare state systems 948
working time 956
Lamfalussy Report 768, 773–4
Latvia 267, 472n, 473n, 554, 731
League of Nations 7
Administrative Tribunal 57
legal accountability 431, 439, 440–7, 453
foundational precepts 440–4
agency 441–2
damages 442–4
legality 440–1
of member states: foundational precepts 444–7
access 446
damages 446–7
legality 444–6
legal acts and hierarchy of norms 103–23, 328
constitutional acts 104
delegated acts 105–6, 108, 111–16
democratic legitimacy 122, 123
executive acts/functions 104–5
hierarchy of norms: origin and objectives 104–6
implementing acts 104–6, 108, 117–19
legal acts 106–8
legislative acts/functions 104–6, 108–10
non-legislative acts 105–6, 119–20
separation of powers 123
simplification 120–1
legal certainty 224, 234, 236
legal personality 53
legal presumption and competition 633–4, 635
legal reasoning 28–50
adjudication 30–1
agreement 29
in argument and justification 30–1
autonomy 29
compliance 29
contexts 30–2
criticism 29
cumulative approach 49
decision makers 29
equivalence 45
formalism, legal 21-2
indeterminacy, legal 39–40
instrumentalism, legal 22
legal decisions 29
legislative law making 31–2
notes de recherche 31
notes en délibéré 31, 42
positivism, legal 39n, 40
realism, legal 23, 34–5
reason giving 28–30
subjective classification 38
uniformity 45
values and aims 29
variety of reasoning 28–32
(p. 1040) legal remedies, system of 377–9, 398–401
legal secretaries 38, 42
legislative acts 104–6, 108–11, 115, 117, 119–23, 774
judicial review 391, 393, 396
ordinary legislative procedure (OLP) 108–9, 118, 122, 306
special legislative procedure (SLP) 108–10, 115–16, 120, 122–3
legislative package deals 322–3
legitimacy:
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 845
comitology 343, 344–8
democratic 106, 122, 123, 328
enhanced 348
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 172–7
infringement and sanction procedures 354, 374–5
input 344
judicial review 379–80, 382
legal reasoning 43
output 344
political 382, 384
Lenaerts, Koen 105
‘Let Me Vote’ Initiative 483
liability 65, 225–31, 385, 439, 446
Liberal Market Economy (LME) 765–7
liberalism 96–7, 102
embedded 946, 953
liberalization:
free movement of capital 786–7, 788
market: free movement of goods 528
state aid 676–7
Libya 297, 887
limitation of sovereignty clause 191, 195
Lisbon 2020 framework 981–3, 986–7
Lisbon reforms to standing rules 390–8
background 390–1
Lisbon Strategy and social inclusion 977–9, 989
Lithuania 190, 197
litigation 530–1, 895–7, 899, 912, 914
lobbying 315–16
Luxembourg 360
Luxembourg Compromise (1966) 400
M
Macedonia 134n
Macro-Economic Imbalances (MIP) procedure 512, 984, 986
Madrid System 693
Malta 263, 360
manifestly inappropriate standard 100–1
manifestos 310
maritime agreements 66
market access 572–6
test 537, 542, 547
market power see competition
market restriction 538–42
measures having equivalent effect to quantitative restrictions (MEQRs) 508, 513, 515, 517, 522
Memoranda of Understanding 952, 985
mergers 548, 636–8, 639, 656
migration see immigration
Military Committee 292
Military Staff 292
minimum capital requirements 544–5
minimum wage rates 949, 985
Mogherini, Federica 285
monetary policy 12, 85, 311, 422, 437, 438
money laundering 599
Monnet method 8
Morocco 888–9
multilateral surveillance 724–5, 740–1, 744–6
multilateral treaties 68–9
mutual assistance 175, 608–9, 811, 859
mutual recognition 258–9
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 846, 850, 851, 853, 854, 856
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 414
financial markets regulation 761
free movement of goods 524–5, 533–4
free movement of services 576
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 541, 545, 547, 552
harmonization 594–5
N
(p. 1041) National Access Points of the Member States 871
National Competition Authority (NCA) 642–3, 658–61, 665, 668, 760–1, 770–2, 775–6, 780
national identity 204–6
national insufficiency test 90, 92
national security see security
National Social Reports 982–3
nationality: non-discrimination 241, 920–1, 923–8, 935, 937–41
citizenship 498
enforceability of directives through general principles 240
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 420
free movement of capital 790
free movement of workers 460, 462, 467
welfare policy and social inclusion 968–9
necessity test 99–100, 225, 856
Neighbourhood Policy 16
neo-federalist position 7–9
neo-functionalism 8–9, 842, 844
Netherlands:
asylum and immigration law 874, 885
citizenship 482, 488
competition law enforcement 664
democratic ambiguity of legislation 309
democratic fluidity 323
direct effect 213–16
economic and monetary union (EMU) 732
financial markets regulation 765, 767
free movement of capital 797
free movement of services 569, 577
free movement of workers 464
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 549–50
human rights 267
infringement and sanction procedures 358
primacy 188, 192, 194
state aid 675–6
taxation 815
withdrawal 149n
New Approach 131
New Consensus for Enlargement 130
new structural agenda - integration or disaggregation 12–15
new substantive agenda - return to ideals 16
New Zealand 379
NIF database 366
Nomenclature Committee 511
non-discrimination 133, 265–7, 269, 420, 919–41
comparable situations 933–4
compensation or reparation 939–40
cross-border dimension 926, 927
days of leave and bonuses at time of marriage 933
democratic ambiguity of legislation 311
different models 936–7
direct discrimination 934–5
directives and obligations of private parties 219–20
disability 921, 923, 924, 927–8, 937, 940–1
education, access to 882, 924, 928, 930–1
effectiveness of equality rules 938–40
employment 218, 882, 925, 927–8, 930, 936, 939
enforceability of directives through general principles 241
equal pay between men and women for equal work 216, 240–1, 267, 539, 921, 923
‘Equality bodies’ 940
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 428
fixed term workers 928–9
flexible forms of employment 928–9
fragmentation of equality law 923
free movement of capital 789–90, 791, 797
free movement of goods 517–18, 520–1, 927–8, 930, 932
free movement of services 572, 582, 927–8, 930, 932
free movement of workers 463
general architecture 922–4
genuine and determining occupational requirement 935–6
(p. 1042) grounds and fields definition 923, 925
harmonization 604
housing, access to 924
internal situations 927, 929
invocability framework of equality provisions 938–9
legislation in perspective 941
limitations to duty of equal treatment 935–6
long-term residents 930–1
mobile EU workers 939
nationality see nationality
operationalization 932–40
part-time workers 928
permanent workers 928–9
personal autonomy 922
policing the boundaries 931–2
pregnancy and maternity rights (minimum rights) 934, 937
primacy 184
primary law 920–2
private autonomy right 924
proceduralization of equality legislation 939–40
proportionality of limitations to duty of equal treatment 936
racial or ethnic origin 921, 923–4, 927–8, 935, 940
see also nationality
religion or belief 921, 927–8, 940–1
same-sex registered partners 933
secondary law 920–2
self-employment 925, 927
sex equality 539, 921–4, 927–8, 934–5, 937–40
see also equal pay
sexual orientation 921, 927–8, 933, 940–1
social function 921
social injustices 924
societal goal 920–1
tax advantages 925, 930–1
technical implications 933–6
temporal limitations and citizenship 926
temporary agency workers 929
third-country nationals 926, 929–31, 941
unmarried partners 925
victimization, protection against 940
vocational training 925, 928, 930
working conditions 931
xenophobia 928
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 307, 365–6, 940, 980, 985, 987
non-legislative acts 105–6, 111, 119–20, 121, 123, 393, 395
Nordic countries 192, 193n, 765, 767, 879
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 59
Norway 150n, 505, 847
O
Obama, Barack 297
Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (Trade Marks and Designs) (OHIM) 693, 708–9
Cancellation Division 693
Official Journal (European Court Reports) 32
Ohlin Report 539, 553, 555, 946–7, 951, 953
OLAF (European Anti-Fraud Office) 856, 857–8, 859, 860
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) 14, 957, 965, 978, 984
Social Protection and Social Inclusion (SPSI) 979–81, 982, 986, 989
Operational Programmes 987
orange card mechanism 95
ordinary legislative procedure (OLP) 108–9, 118, 122, 306, 394
ordoliberalism 9, 10, 21, 437
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 474n, 549, 813
Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) 59–60
organized crime 843, 847
Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT) 421, 430, 738–9
Technical Features 421–2
P
package meetings 357–8, 367–8
(p. 1043) packaging of products 528–30, 531–2
parliamentary sovereignty 191–2
part-time workers 458, 460, 469, 471, 928
patents 595, 707, 712–15
context 712–13
historical background 712–13
patent trolls 715
Unified Patent Court 713–14
Unitary Patent 713–15
permanent workers 928–9
Petite, Michel 105
philosophy of EU law 3–26
authoritative foundations 5–16
bottom up and top down understandings 18
competing philosophies of post-war settlement 7–11
contrapunctual law 25
cosmopolitan principles 25
descriptive grounds 25
efficacy of EU law 19–23
expansionary dynamic 11
ideal content of the law 3
incremental approach 8
interpretation of EU law 17–19
justification of authority 4–5
legal philosophy 4
non-positivists 17–18
normative grounds 15, 16, 24–5
overlapping cultural space 6
political philosophy 4, 6–7
polity 4
positivism 17–18
remote origins 5–7
shared heritage and common practice 6
social philosophy 4, 6, 7
structural considerations 7, 12–16, 20
structure/substance distinction 17–18
substantive considerations 7, 9, 12, 16
systemic character of EU law 23–6
validity of the law 3–4
Westphalian Europe 6
Piris, Jean-Claude 105
pluralism 25–6, 179–80, 305, 307–10
constitutional 24, 211
legal 26
primacy 199, 202–4, 211
radical 25
Poland 189, 198, 372, 473n
Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters 839–40, 848, 851, 854
political accountability 431, 432–40, 453
High Representative 288
of member states 435–40
and EU legislation 438–40
and inter-institutional division of power 435–7
and substantive treaty provisions 437–8
Political and Security Committee 292
Portugal 70, 197
economic and monetary union (EMU) 732, 734
free movement of capital 795
free movement of workers 473
infringement and sanction procedures 358, 371
labour law 952, 960
welfare policy and social inclusion 985–6
positivism 17–18, 26
legal 23, 39n, 40
postal sector and state aid 676–7
posted workers 556–8, 581, 959
poverty 981–2, 983, 987
pregnancy and maternity rights (minimum rights) 934, 937
preliminary rulings procedure 154, 158–62, 166–7, 169, 171, 213, 404, 406, 408–9, 415, 417, 421, 427, 578
accountability 444–6
citizenship 485
competition law enforcement 662
judicial review 377–8, 389, 392–3, 399
member state liability 230
primacy 184
presumption of innocence 645–6
primacy 178–211
absolute and unconditional 185–7
codification and non-codification 200–1
definition - EU perspective 182–5
direct effect 214, 216
enforceability of directives through general principles 246
(p. 1044) European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the national courts 404, 407, 412–13, 415–19, 426
incidental effect of directives 235
model 246
national identity 204–6
in national law 187–99
constitutional law 193–9
ordinary primacy, acceptance of 188–93
origins 180–2
pluralist movement 202–4, 211
protection, level of (Article 53 Charter) 206–10
principal-agent model 342
prisoner’s dilemma 540–1
privileges and immunities 60
procurement contracts 558
Prodi, Romano 448
proportionality 75–6
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 850, 856
citizenship 481
competition law enforcement 650, 653
democratic ambiguity of EU law 306
democratic fluidity 321
free movement of capital 796, 798
free movement of goods 515, 516
free movement of services 578–9
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 545, 547, 550–2, 557–8, 559
harmonization 597
human rights 255
incidental effect of directives 234
judicial review 401
labour law 950, 956, 960
safeguarding liberal (and federal) values 96–101
federal values, protection of: national autonomy 97–9
liberal values, protection of: fundamental rights 96–7
proportionality review: test(s) and standard(s) 99–101
state aid 688
subsidiarity 92
taxation 822, 824, 825–6
Protected Designations of Origin 710
Protected Geographical Indications 710
protectionism 572
public health see healthcare/medical services
public interest 101, 974
free movement of capital 796–7
free movement of goods 515, 523–5, 527
harmonization 603–4
public morality 39, 81, 321
public policy 81
citizenship 480, 487
free movement of services 577, 583
public procurement law 974
public security see security
public service contracts 974
public services: free movement 566–7, 570, 571
Q
qualified majority voting (QMV) 116, 310, 780, 923
asylum and immigration law 872
comitology 329n, 330, 334
Common Commercial Policy (CCP) 275, 279–80
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 283–4, 285
economic and monetary union (EMU) 726, 730, 744, 747
environmental law 1011
European Parliament’s first reading 315
harmonization 596, 602, 604
judicial review 393
withdrawal 136, 140
quantitative restrictions on imports 508, 521
quasi-legislative acts 120, 123
R
racial or ethnic origin: non-discrimination 921, 923–4, 927–8, 935, 940
see also nationality
rational choice institutionalism 342–3, 344
‘real seat’ principle 545–6, 548, 559
realism, legal 23, 34–5
rebuttable presumption 524
reciprocal arrangements 188n, 214
Recommendations 106–7, 312
red card 427
REFIT (Regulatory Fitness and Performance Programme)(Commission) 368, 373–4
Regulations 106–8, 308
regulatory acts 110, 118–19, 392–3, 395–6, 397, 401
regulatory procedure with scrutiny (RPS) 116
religion or belief: non discrimination 241, 921, 927–8, 940–1
religious communities 307
reparation rights 226–7
rescue programmes 422–3
Rescue and Restructuring Guidelines for financial and non-financial firms 688
Research, Development and Innovation Guidelines (RD&I) 687
residence rights/requirements 462, 478, 487, 494–9, 881–2
Resolutions 312
restructuring agreements for failing banks 680
reviewable acts and status of European Parliament 385–6
Roadmap (2009) 843, 851, 856
roaming 610
Romania 130, 267
citizenship 483, 504
free movement of workers 459, 472–3
primacy 198, 209n
rule of law 53, 137, 196, 295, 382
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 173, 175
infringement and sanction procedures 374–5
Russian Federation 144, 297
S
same-sex partnerships 488–9, 493, 933
Santer Commission 448, 453, 857
Sardinia 681–2
Sarkozy, Nicolas 286, 297
Schengen Borders Code 112
Schengen regime 839–41, 844, 869
Scotland 134n, 147
screening reports 131
secondary EU law 111, 186–7
Secretariat General 360, 362, 363
Securities Markets Programme (SMP) 737
security 12, 81, 83
citizenship 480, 487
free movement of services 577, 583
Segré Report (1966) 764
self-employment 925, 927
selling arrangements 517–18, 525–6
separation of powers 106, 118, 123, 173, 434
Serbia 131
services 279
Seville process 997, 1008, 1010
sex equality 539, 921, 922, 923–4, 927–8, 934, 935, 937, 938–9, 940
see also equal pay
sexual orientation non-discrimination 241, 489, 921, 927–8, 933, 940–1
shall-not-affect clauses 82
simple majority voting 330, 380
Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM) 595, 759, 780
Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) 749–52, 759, 777, 780–1
(p. 1046) ‘Six-Pack’ measures 741, 744, 746, 753, 952, 984–5
Slovak Republic 70, 190, 420, 878
Slovenia 472n, 879
Social Affairs Committee 988
social assistance see social security/social advantages
social or environmental dumping 541
Social Funds and social inclusion 987–8
social inclusion 966, 968
social insurance and pensions 564, 567
social policy 12, 82, 87
Social Protection Committee (SPC) 982–3
social security/social advantages: non-discrimination 82, 266–7, 882, 922, 924–8, 930, 933, 936, 940
citizenship 499
free movement of capital 800
free movement of workers 457–8, 460, 462–3, 466, 469, 474
solidarity 22, 964, 970, 973, 976
sovereignty 191–2, 197, 839
Spaak Report 539, 553, 555, 670, 946–7, 951, 953
Spain:
asylum and immigration law 887
citizenship 482
civil jurisdiction 907–8
directives and obligations of private parties 222
economic and monetary union (EMU) 732–3, 747
European Court of Justice (ECJ) and national courts 413
financial markets regulation 767
free movement of capital 801
human rights 266–7
incidental effect of directives 237–8
infringement and sanction procedures 358, 363, 371–2
labour law 960
primacy 198, 200–1, 210
state aid 675–6
special legislative procedure (SLP) 108–10, 115–16, 120, 122, 123
sports clubs and state aid 675–6
Stability and Convergence Programmes 724–6, 743, 745, 985
Stability and Growth Pact 437, 724, 952
standing rules: Lisbon reforms 390–8
standstill clause/obligation 233–4, 637, 712, 831
state aid 670–89
appropriateness 687
aviation 676–7, 686–7
block exemptions 685–6
burden sharing 688
common interest objective 687
common principles 686
compatibility 683–8
complete and correct information 674n
distortion of competition 682–3
economic rationality test 680
electricity sector 678–9
evolutionary approach 677, 680
functional approach 675–7
hospitals 677–8
incentive effect 687
infringement and sanction procedures 371–2
legislative acts 109
liberalization, degree of 676–7
market integration 676–7
market investor 680
material selectivity 681
necessity of aid 687
not-for-profit or in-house 676
notion of undertaking 675–8
objective test 674–83
partial corporate tax exemption 676
postal sector 676–7
procedural rules 674n
resilience and adaptation 670–4
restructuring agreements for failing banks 680
sector inquiries (SI) 674n
selected undertakings 680–1
selective advantage 680–2
services of general economic interest (SGEI) 671
(p. 1047) social services of general interest (SSGI) 974–7
spatial adaptability 677
sports clubs 675–6
state aid modernization programme (SAM) 686, 688
state resources 678–9
substantial restriction test 683
taxation 681–2, 817, 819
trade 682–3
Statement of Objections (SO) 647–8
statist position 7–8
Stockholm Programme 840, 843, 846, 851–2, 875, 881, 884
Structural Funds 451
subsidiarity 75–6
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 850
democratic ambiguity of EU law 306, 309–11
democratic fluidity 321
Early Warning Mechanism (EWM) 317
harmonization 598
judicial review 401
labour law 956
primacy 196
safeguarding federal values 90–5
executive subsidiarity 92–4
judicial safeguard of federalism 91–4
legislative subsidiarity 91–2
strict sense subsidiarity 91
wide sense subsidiarity 91
succession theory 65
suitability review 99–100
Supervisory Committee 857
supranational-intergovernmental framework 342
supranationalism 7, 10, 19–20
cooperative 408
deliberative 342–3
supremacy 200, 444–5, 658, 662
Supreme Administrative Court 420–1
Supreme Court 425, 428, 429
Sweden 293n, 364, 505
asylum and immigration law 879, 885–6
free movement of capital 802–3
free movement of goods 521, 526
free movement of services 581
freedom of establishment and regulatory competition 554, 555
primacy 193n, 197
Switzerland 48, 70, 150, 504–5
systemic character of EU law 4, 23–6
T
Tampere Conclusions (1999) 840, 843, 845, 851–2, 854, 859, 872, 882, 884
Task Force for Administrative Reform (TFRA) 448
taxation 809–33
administrative cooperation 811
advance corporation tax (ACT) 811, 827–8, 829–30
arm’s length principle 825–6
avoidance/evasion 540, 546–7, 549–53, 556, 559, 793–4
abuse of rights 552–3
exit taxes 549–51
tax reliefs 551–2
and tax-base shifting 811, 818
balanced allocation of taxing powers (defence) 821–3
bilateral tax treaties: difference of treatment 813, 815–16
budgetary control 833
classical systems 827
common corporate tax base 812
company/business 811, 833
controlled foreign corporation (CFC) rules 812, 819
corporate groups and distributed profits 813
corporation tax 820, 830
cross-border company taxation 810–11
cross-border fiscal supervision and enforcement 811
cross-border losses 821–3
direct link 818
directives and obligations of private parties 221–2
dividend taxation 820, 826–32
double taxation 791, 812–15, 820, 827, 829
dual criteria of residence and source 812
(p. 1048) dual fiscal regulation 815
enhanced cooperation 812
equivalence of the exemption principle 828
establishment, freedom 831
European Court of Justice (ECJ) approach 813–16
excise duties 519, 520–1, 528–9, 810
exit taxes 823–4
financial transaction tax 595, 772
fiscal cohesion defence 85, 817–18
foreign products: non-discrimination 809
foreign-source income 819
fraud 793–4
free movement of capital 789–94, 803
free movement of goods 520
free movement of services 573–4
free movement of workers 458, 460, 462, 466
frontier workers 821
general freedoms case law 817
general interest issues 832
harmonization 809, 811–12
imputation system (integration system) 827–8, 830
indirect taxes 809, 810, 986
infringement and sanction procedures 362, 371
inheritance tax 800
interaction of tax systems 820
legal reasoning 38–9
member state defences 816–19
multinational groups 812
non-discrimination 809, 925, 930–1
objective tests 826
overpaid tax 832
overriding interests 816–18
partial corporate tax exemption 676
proportionality 822, 824, 825–6
residence of taxpayers 812
restitutionary and damages claims distinction 832–3
restrictions 810–13
source of income 812
standstill clause 831
state aid 681–2, 817, 819
subjective tests 826
tax credit 828–9
tax rates and tax competition 818–19
thin capitalization rules 812, 824–6, 831
third countries 831–2
time value of money 832
transfer pricing 811, 812, 824–6
unduly levied tax 832
value added tax (VAT) 174–5, 809, 810, 986
welfare policy and social inclusion 968
wholly artificial arrangements 818
withholding tax 830
technical regulations, obligations to communicate 232–4, 236–7
Technical Working Groups (TWGs) 997, 1005, 1007–8, 1010
television advertising 527
television without frontiers 605
temporary agency workers 929
territoriality principle 551
terrorism 101, 290, 843, 845, 858
see also Trevi
thin capitalization rules (taxation) 812, 824–6, 831
third parties 61, 69, 239
third-country nationals 503, 846, 882, 926, 929–31, 941
Tiebout model 539–40
tobacco products 518, 527–31, 597
trade marks 693–9, 710
absolute grounds for refusal 694–6
assessment 699
Community Trade Mark (CTM) 692–4
context 693–4
deceptive marks 696
detriment to distinctive character of a mark (dilution or blurring) 698–9
detriment to reputation of a mark (tarnishment) 698
(p. 1049) identical/similar mark on identical/similar goods 697, 698
non-distinctive 694–5
public policy and morality, contrary to 696
registrable mark 694
relative grounds for refusal 696–8
with a reputation 697–9
rights conferred 698–9
sale of keywords for use as index terms by search engines 699
shape exclusions 695–6
special emblems 696
trafficking 580
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the EU and the United States 280–1
transfer of powers 191, 195, 196
transfer pricing 811, 812, 824–6
transparency 13, 123
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) 842
citizenship 479
comitology 328, 348
democratic legitimacy 122
financial markets regulation 762
infringement and sanction procedures 354
state aid 688
transport agreements 66
travaux préparatoires