Abstract and Keywords
The free movement of services is a sensitive aspect of the internal market. Economically, because large cost differences between states make competition in services markets fierce and destabilizing. Socially and politically, because that competition has consequences not just for conventionally economic activities but also for traditionally public services such as education and healthcare, as well as for contested services such as gambling and abortion, and even for non-economic organizations such as trade unions. The fact that almost all central elements of the primary law on services are ill defined in the case law then takes on a particular significance. This chapter considers the definitions of a service and its economic nature, the nature of a restriction on the movement of services, horizontal effect, and interpretation by the Court of Justice of mandatory requirements and Treaty derogations.
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