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date: 17 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses the foundations of hegemonic reform and cultural revival discourses in the Arabic-speaking lands of the modern Middle East from the perspective of the most recent forays in scholarly fields such as Islamic and Ottoman studies. Teasing out periodization and geographies, it grounds the thought and practice of canonical and less canonical actors in the historical public sphere in which they operated, questioning the relationship between the Nahda and the Tanzimat, the Nahda and eighteenth-century revivalism, the Nahda and the seventeenth-century Arab-Islamic florescence, as well as the special status accorded “Islamic” reform within the Nahda. Finally, it probes the larger questions of modernity, subjectivity, and citizenship between the onset of the protectorates and the termination of the mandates, as these became encrypted within the major ideologies (pan-Islam, pan-Arabism, territorial nationalisms) and enacted through the most significant technologies mobilized by the actors (the press, the associations, the parties, and the schools).

Keywords: Nahda, islah, tanzimat, public sphere, pan-Arabism, pan-Islamism, associations, Ottoman Empire, mandates

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