- Environmental History of the Middle East and North Africa
- Fiscal Crisis and Structural Change in the Late Ottoman Economy
- Foundations of Religious Reform (Islah) and Cultural Revival (Nahda)
- Constitutional Revolutions and State Formations in Comparison: Iran and Turkey
- The First World War and its Legacy in the Middle East
- The Levant Mandates
- The Emergence of Nationalism
- The Matter of Sectarianism
- Kemalism and Beyond
- Fascism in the Middle East and North Africa
- Communism in the Middle East and North Africa: From Comintern Parties to Marxist-Leninist Movements
- A War over the People: The Algerian War of Independence, 1954–1962
- Dodging the Peril of Peace: Israel and the Arabs in the Aftermath of the June 1967 War
- Reliving Tragedies as Historical Reawakenings: Modern Iran and Its Revolutions
- Capital, Labor, and State: Rethinking the Political Economy of Oil in the Gulf
- Media as Method in the Age of Revolution: The Rise of Neoliberal Authoritarianism
- Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency in the Neoliberal Age
- W(h)ither Arabian Peninsula Studies?
- Syria’s Economic History: Bumpy Road from Economic Nationalism to Neoliberalism
- The Fragmentation of Gender in Post-Invasion Iraq
- Sextarianism: Notes on Studying the Lebanese State
- Contemporary Israel/Palestine
- Toward New Approaches to the Anthropology of Islamic Movements: Women’s Islamic Activism and the Question of Subjectivity
- The Arab Uprisings of 2011 in Historical Perspective
- Political Movements in Bahrain Across the Long Twentieth Century (1900–2015)
- Before the Spring: Shifting Patterns of Protest in Rural Egypt
- Cascading Liberation and Renewal—Tunisia in History
- Arab Youth: Disruptive Generation of the Twenty-first Century?
- The Yemeni Uprising: A Product of Twenty Years of Grassroots Mobilization
- The “New Turkey” At Home and Abroad
- The Crisis of Sovereignty, Ruptured Domination, and the Kurdish Quest for Democratic Self-Government in Syria
- After Gaddafi: Libya’s Path to Collapse
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter examines the reversal of Turkey’s trajectory over the last fifteen years. It addresses the domestic transformation of Turkey through constitutional reforms, shifting civil–military relations, economic growth, corruption, ethnic conflict, and the relationship between religion and state. Examining these issues helps to explain why Turkish politics has become more polarized, and how this has been manipulated by the governing party to consolidate a majoritarian system and to crack down on dissent. The chapter then traces changes in Turkey’s foreign policy as it moves away from prioritizing relations with Washington and Brussels and seeks to forge a more multifaceted set of regional policies. This has failed for a number of reasons, including the Arab uprisings and the Syrian civil war. Instead, the government has embraced a “Eurasianist” turn aligning Turkey with authoritarian regimes in the Caucasus and the Arabian Gulf, in keeping with the country’s increasingly repressive domestic politics.
UCLA School of Law
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