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date: 28 February 2020

(p. 721) Index

(p. 721) Index

Page references to Figures or Tables will be in italics, while references to Endnotes will be followed by the letter ‘n’ and note number.

Abbate, Lirio 681n61
abortion law 288, 299, 459, 471, 472–3
absentee estates, compulsory division (1944) 57–8
AC Milan soccer club 396
Acanfora, Paolo 425–39, 437n10, 437n11, 437n23
accommodation policy 168, 213, 214
Acerbo electoral law 271
Acheson, Dean 685
Achille Lauro hijack (1985) 692
ACI (Alliance of Italian Cooperatives) 558–9, 564
Acquaviva, Gennaro 391n14, 392n15, 392n18, 392n20, 392n29
Action Party 91, 258, 305, 457
Adalberto 666n10
Adinolfi, Roberti 664
Adowa, Battle of (1896) 21
Adventist Church 440, 447
Aga-Rossi, E. 356n51
AGCI (cooperative) 555, 557, 559
AGCOM (agency for telecommunications) 167
agenda management, parliamentary 110–11
Agip (Italian Oil Agency) 358, 359, 480
Agnelli, Gianni 5–6, 364
and Mattei 358–67
Agnelli, Giovanni 481–2
Agnew, John 237n33 238n41
Agosti, Aldo 194n1 266n12, 282n55, 341–57
agriculture 57, 164, 369, 529, 534, 639
“opening to the left” transition 271, 275
and Southern Italy 55, 57
Ainis, Michele 552n10
Alacevich, Michele 66n12
Albanese, Jay S. 678n1
Alberigo, Giuseppe 417, 424
Alberoni, Francesco 195n24 195n30, 573, 579, 581n21
Albertazzi, D. 238n55
Albertine Statute (Statuto Albertino) 42, 257, 445
Alberto, King Carlo 445
Albranese, Antonio 577
Alesina, Alberto 526n4
Alfa Romeo car production plant, Pomigliano d’Arco 479
Alfano, Angelino 405
Alfano, Lodo 128
Alfieri, Carlo 27
Aliboni, Roberto 708–19, 719n12
Alliance of Italian Cooperatives (ACI) 558–9, 564
alliances, multiparty 149
Allievi, Stefano 452n16
Allotti, Pierluigi 438n29
Allum, Felia 66n25
Allum, Percy 66n25 182n14, 183n36
Almond, Gabriel 622, 629n12, 706n8
Altissimo, Renato 247, 313
Amato, A. 580n6
Amato, Giuliano 71–81, 93, 95–6, 100, 112, 182n21, 205, 305, 314, 315, 448, 510, 715
Amato I Government (1992–93) 125, 203, 209n13, 494
Amato II Government (2000–01) 109, 170n19
(p. 722) Ambrosini, Maurizio 644n25
Amendola, Giorgio 374
Amendola, Giovanni 456
Ammendola, Teresa 707n24
Ammor, Fouad 719n12
Amusing Ourselves to Death (Postman) 578
AN (National Alliance) see National Alliance (AN)
Anania, Francesca 580n1
ANCC (National Association of Consumer Cooperatives) 561
ANCD (National Retailers Association of Cooperatives) 561
Ancient Rome 19
Anderlini, F. 183n30
Anderson, Benedict 605n5
Andreatta, Nino 519
Andreotti, Giulio (Prime Minister) 34, 47, 88, 91, 110, 307, 355n25, 372, 378, 385, 419, 428, 441, 448, 577, 661, 677
background/career 379–80
and Christian Democratic Party 174, 177, 179
and Craxi 305, 378–93
and Mafia 393n36 673, 680n27
steady progress as leader 379–82
and Tangentopoli investigations, Milan 379
terms of office 382, 680n27
Angelini, Cardinal Fiorenzo 417
ANM (judicial association) 122
anomalies, Italian 403–5
anti-austerity protests 653–4
anti-establishment sentiment 149, 226, 227
anti-Mafia 62, 321–2n1, 676–8
anti-war protests 651, 655n17
Apostolic Church, Italy 440
Aquarone, Alberto 52n13 250n2
Arab–Israeli War (1967) 710
Arab–Israeli War (1973) 711
Arafat, Yasser 378, 389
Arisi, Claudia 501n13
Arlacchi, Pino 679n12
Asor Rosa, Alberto 592n1 605n6
Assemblies of God in Italy 440, 447, 448
Association for Cultural Freedom 457
Association for Demographic Education 457
Association for the Defense and Development of Public Schools 457
Association for the Industrial Development of Southern Italy (SVIMEZ) 59, 63, 66n23, 680n48
Atlantic Alliance and Italy 363, 381, 383, 385, 685–96, 699, 708
from 1949–1963 686–8
from 1960s to 1970s 689–91
from 1980s to end of Cold War 691–3
Atlantic Pact 209n6
and industrial development 479, 480
post-Cold War period 693–4
Atlanticism 690, 691, 692, 695
Auci, E. 322n11
austerity measures 513
anti-austerity protests 653–4
Berlinguer speech (1977) 371
Austria 54, 77
autarchy (national economic self-sufficiency) 56
authoritarian regimes 90–1, 96, 659
Avdagic, Sabina 501n11
Azara, Antonio 121
Azione Cattolica 46
Azzolini, Davide 644n28
Baccaro, Lucio 517n17
Baccetti, Carlo 183n42 195n35
Bachelet, Vittorio 418
backlash phenomenon 662
badanti (female labor) 470, 474
Badini, Antonio 719n8
Bagasco, Arnaldo 66n20
Bagehot, Walter 107, 116
Baget, Gianni 251n16 436
Bagnasco, Angelo 422
Bagnasco, Arnaldo 169n13
Bairoch, P. 13n4
Baldassarri, Delia 156n23
Baldini, Gianfranco 173–83
Ballestrero, Anastasio 420
Ballini, Pier Luigi 280n11
Banfield, Edward 169n1 613, 619n16
Bank of Italy 277, 518–27
(p. 723) and cooperatives 564n7
and Economic Monetary Union 518, 522–5, 527n17
independence of Bank prior to, building up 518–20
policies promoted by Bank prior to 520–2
exchange rate policy 521, 523
external economic policy restraints used by 521
Law on Savings 523, 524
Research Department 522
Banti, Alberto Mario 19–20, 25n7, 25n9, 605n10
Barbacetto, Gianni 322n2
Barbagallo, Francesco 65n1 66n9, 280n13, 281n48, 356n53, 375n3, 377n19
Barbagli, Marzio 190, 195n31, 476n3, 642n1
Barbieri, Paolo 643n11
Barca, Fabrizio 593n19
Barca, Luciano 375n5 375n12, 375n15, 377n17
Barcelona Conference (1995) 715
Bardi, Luciano 52n27 142n16, 142n20, 183n32, 237n21, 629n12
Bari, city of 211, 213
Barnes, Samuel H. 156n21
Bartali, Roberto 666n17
Bartolini, Stefano 52n11 52n26, 194n4
Barucci, Paolo 64
Baschieri, Gastone 80n10
Basevi, Alberto 559
Basilicata province, land reclamation projects 55
Bassanini, Franco 100, 166, 170n19, 170n20, 170n28
Basso, Lelio 80n7
Battilani, Patrizia 564n6 565n18
Battini, Francesco 106n17
Baudner, Joerg 170n16
Baumol, William J. 484, 637, 643n16
Beccaria, Cesare 595
Bechelloni, Giovanni 593n29
Beck, Paul Allen 156n21
Belgium 108
Bell, John 130n7
Belligni, S. 323n39
Bellucci, Paolo 184–96, 406n11, 406n12
Belpoliti, M. 581n25
Benda, Julien 598
Benedetti, Arrigo 245
Benedetto, Giacomo 706n9
Benedict XVI, Pope 411, 422, 423
Benigni, Roberto 79, 81n21
Benvenuto, Giorgio 313
Berlin Wall, fall of 87, 125, 184, 191, 231, 497, 653
Berlinguer, Enrico 34, 39n20, 49, 190, 294n5, 295n13, 300, 368, 574, 603, 689, 700
austerity speech (1977) 371
and Historic Compromise 284, 285, 286, 287, 293, 383
and Moro 34, 368–77
Berlusconi, Silvio 12, 35, 49, 92, 96, 104, 126, 141, 485, 489n5, 550, 553n21, 653
anti-Berlusconi movements 237n12
background/career 395–6
Berlusconi I Government (1994) 92, 146, 220, 332, 402, 421, 510
Berlusconi II Government (2001–05) 103, 109, 166, 232, 307n1, 334
Berlusconi III Government (2005–06) 401
Berlusconi IV Government (2008–11) 110, 154, 334, 399
and bipolarism 327, 328–9, 329, 331
as Cavaliere 96, 102, 104, 395
and classe dirigente 11–12
and conflict of interests 88–9, 616
crimes accused of 317–20, 404–5, 616, 617
and five-party governing coalition (pentapartito) 303–4
founding of Forza Italia (1994) 149, 227
government performance 400–3
international performance 401–2
investigation of 126, 127, 128
leadership/managerial style 102, 104, 399
legacy for Italian politics 405
and liberalism 247, 248–9
and media 569, 591
Mediterranean policy 714, 717, 718
(p. 724) Mussolini compared 575
outsiders and insiders 395–7
and parliament 109, 110
personality 102, 575
and Prodi 394–406
and Southern Italy 63, 64, 65
Bernabei, Ettore 183n39
Bernardi, Emanuele 368–77, 375n5
Bernardi, Luigi 516n10
Bernardini, Giovanni 391n13
Berruti, Massimo 319
Bersani, Pier Luigi 50, 402–3
Berta, Giuseppe 478–90, 527n8
Bertagnoni, Giuliana 565n18
Bertani, Agostino 454
Berti, Giampietro 250n9
Bertolino, Simone 337n11
Bertone, Tarciso 422, 422–3
Betori, Giuseppe 421
Bettazzi, Luigi 371, 417
Bettio, Francesca 477n22
Betz, Hans-Georg 238n52
Bevacqua, Stefano 295n22
Biagi, Marco 495, 664
Bicameral Commission 111, 117
bicameralism 157n28
Biffi, Giacomo 420, 421
bilateralism, in twenty first century 716–17
Biondi, Alfredo 319
Biorcio, Roberto 238n43
bipolarism 92, 105, 186, 325–38, 375n4, 400
crisis and change 334–6
electoral systems 137, 138
First Republic (1948–92) 333
and fragmentation 149, 336, 337n7
government and opposition 332–4
index of 327
limited 140
majoritarian politics 328–31
and parliament 109, 110
peripheral turnover 332
polarized pluralism 145, 325, 334–6
Second Republic, birth of 326–8
Black terrorism 227, 290
Blackmer, Donald L. M. 194n3, 195n16
Blangiardo, Gian Carlo 643n7 643n19
Blasberg, Christian 251n13
Blossfeld, Hans-Peter 643n11
Blumler, Jay 593n22
Boato, Marco 449
Bobbio, Norberto 248, 250n3, 600–1, 602, 606–7n28
Bodei, Remo 607n33
Boffo, Dino 421, 422
Boldrini, Marcello 359
Bollati, Giulio 37
Bologna railway bombing (1980) 211–12, 290
Bonaccorsi di Patti, Emilia 681n50
Bonaparte, Napoleon see Napoleon I (Napoleon Bonaparte)
Bongiorno, Mike 579
Bonino, Emma 88, 210n20, 626, 698
Bonino-Pannella List 208
Bonoli, Giuliano 473, 477n25
Bonomi, Ivanoe 242, 346
Bonomi, Paolo 557
Bordignon, Fabio 237n16
Bordogna, Lorenzo 539n5
Borrelli, Francesco Saverio 314, 318
Borsellino, Paolo (judge) 62, 323n35, 388, 676
Bortoli, Ferruccio de 6
Bosco, Anna 156n13 337n10, 628n9
Bossi, Umberto 319
and populism 224, 228, 229, 230, 233, 235
and Tangentopoli investigations, Milan 316, 317
Bouchard, Martin 678n2
Bouek, F. 183n24
Bourbon dynasty, Naples 17, 54, 65
Bozzi, Aldo 247
Bozzo, Gianni-Badget 417–18
Brancaleone (newspaper) 432, 433
Brescia massacre, 1974 657, 659
Bretton Woods system, end of 163, 369
Briquet, Jean-Louis 719n11
Brogi, Alessandro 695n6
Broglio, Francesco Margiotta 451n1
Brunazzo, Marco 707n21 707n22
Brunetta, G. P. 581n12
Brzezinski, Zbigniew 364
Buddhism 442, 448
Budge, Ian 156n8 194n9
(p. 725) Bufacchi, Vittorio 252n29 337n5
Buffa, Gaspare 429
Bull, Martin J. 15n30, 170n16, 296–308
Bundy, McGeorge 691
Buonasorte, Nicla 267n23
bureaucracy 159–70
see also clientelism
Anglo-Saxon tradition 168
Continental state tradition 168
Europeanization pressure 160, 164–5
in fascist period 162
illusionary reforms 167–70
institutional reforms 165–7
macroeconomic intervention 163, 165
“parallel bureaucracies” 168
and patronage 163, 166, 167
and professions 543–4
public administration 160, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167
reforms 160
in twentieth century
1960s 163
1970s 163–4
1980s 164–5
1990s 165–7
from unification to the present 160–1
Burgess, Simon 252n29 337n5
Burns, Nancy 629n11
Bush, George W. 419, 694, 715
Buttiglione, Rocco 702
cabinets, instability 95
Cacace, Paolo 718n1
Cachafeiro, Margarita Gómez-Reino 237n22
Caciagli, Mario 182n22 183n36, 337n8, 630n29
CAF (Craxi-Andreotii-Forlani) axis 302, 305
Cafagna, Luciano 30, 39n7, 39n17, 52n18
Cafaro, Pietro 565n12 565n20
Caffarena, Anna 719n11
Cafferata, R. 183n33
Cagliari, Gabriele 314, 315
Cairoli, Benedetto 455
Calabresi, Luigi 657
Calabrian ’Ndrangheta see ’Ndrangheta, Calabrian
Calamandrei, Piero (jurist) 91, 96
Calasso, R. 581n14
Calderoli, Roberto 140, 331
Camera dei Deputati (lower Chamber) 134, 135
Cammarano, Fulvio 250n4
camorra, Neapolitan (criminal subculture) 55, 61, 181, 668, 669–70, 672, 673, 675, 677
Campana, Paolo 680n45
Campus, Donatella 338n23 621–31
Canale 5 (television channel) 395
Canavero, A. 356n42
Cancellieri, Anna Maria 630n41
Candeloro, Giorgio 39n6
Canosa, Romano 295n26
Canovan, Margaret 236n1
Capano, Giliberto 169n4
Capecchi, Vittorio 142n2 593n18
capital, free movement 521
capitalism 7, 484
“Fourth Capitalism” 560
Capozzi, Eugenio 250n9 251n19
Capperucci, Vera 267n24 436n3, 436n4
Caprara, Gianvittorio 631n45
Caracciolo, L. 183n28
Carboni, Carlo 7, 14n16, 14n17, 14n18, 14n20
liberal and licensed professions 541–53, 552n2, 552n5, 552n6
Cardini, Antonio 250n3 251n17
Cardoza, Anthony L. 16–25, 25n2
Carducci, Giosuè 26, 455
Carey, John M. 105n14
Carli, Guido 277, 281n51, 305, 388, 390, 392n34, 483–4, 520, 527n10
Carnevale, Corrado 677
Carocci, Giampiero 39n21
Carosello (container program) 571
Carrieri, Mimmo 540n8
Carter, Jimmy 288, 364, 381, 690
Carter, Nick 25n3
Cartocci, Roberto 237n31
Casali, Antonio 564n6
Casaroli, Agostino 419, 420
Casella, Mario 438n33
Cassese, Sabino 80n19 99, 100, 105n13, 170n18, 517n12
Castronovo, Valerio 358–67, 366n1, 565n15
Catania, city of 180, 211, 213
(p. 726) Catanzaro, Raimondo 643n17 656, 665n1
Catholic Action (AC), Civil Committees 431, 432, 434, 457
Catholicism 19, 255, 354n16, 424
aftermath of April 18 1948 431–4
Catholic right 425–39
and Christian Democratic Party 173, 175
consul Dei 410–11
dialogue with socialists 434–6
hierarchy see hierarchy, Catholic
institutional question and national reconciliation 426–31
and religious diversity 447
and Risorgimento 17, 20
Cattaneo, Carlo 241, 242, 454, 455, 596
Cau, M. 354n9, 355n38
Cavallotti, Felice 454
Cavazza, Nicoletta 624, 629n24, 630n28, 630n31
Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di 17, 18, 29–30, 446, 453, 454, 455
Cazzola, Franco 136, 142n15
Cazzola, Giuliano 517n13
CCC (Consorzio Cooperative Costruzioni) 561
Ceccanti, Stefano 137, 142n14, 143n22
Ceccarini, Luigi 156n13 237n16
Censis (Social Investment Study Centre) 490n7
Center-Left 246, 299, 369, 460, 461, 471, 617
see also liberalism
birth of 275–6
and Christian Democratic Party 272–3
government and prime minister 104, 105
governments (1963–68) 276–82
Mediterranean and Italy 715–16
Olive Tree (center-left coalition) 329, 333, 394, 397, 512
“opening to the left” transition 268
transformism 33
and United States 274–5
Center-North 467, 468
Center-Right 11, 79, 460, 461
coalition 716–17
families 471, 473
labor market policy 495
Cento Bull, Anna 238n37 238n40, 238n47, 656–67
centrism
and Christian Democratic Party 175, 260–1
of De Gasperi 352, 369, 435
Northern League 235
transformism 26, 27, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38
Ceron, A. 324n42
Cesareo, Vincenzo 451n4
CESPE (PCI-related think tank) 190
CGIL (General Confederation of Labor) 429, 495, 498, 529, 532
“Eur document” (1978) 536
Chalaby, Jean 583–93, 592n5
Chamber of Deputies 141, 352, 374, 455
and bipolarism 326, 329
and Catholic hierarchy 413–14
and parliament 97, 108, 110, 111, 115, 117
Chang, E. C. C. 323n25
charisma 176
Charles Albert, King 42
Cheli, Enzo 80n3
Chemers, Martin M. 14n19
Chiaramonte, Alessandro 143n24 143n30, 143n31, 143n37, 143n39, 157n32, 157n35, 158n47, 338n33
Chiaromonte, Nicola 457
Chiesa, Mario 309, 310–11
Chiesi, A. M. 322n10
children’s rights 472, 474
Christian Democratic Center (CCD) 328
Christian Democratic Party (DC) 33, 60, 95, 104, 147, 149, 173–83, 185, 401, 430, 557, 570, 709
bureaucracy 162, 163
and Center-Left solution 272–3
centrism 175, 260–1
Clean Hands investigation 180, 182n21
and Constituent Assembly 175, 257, 258
(p. 727) corruption 149, 181, 182n21
and courts 121, 124
dissolution (1994) 173
and electoral systems 135, 136
factionalism of 175–7, 181, 182n21, 209n12, 262–3
hegemonic period (1946–63) 173, 255–67
continuous office, post-war period 145, 146, 174
as party of government, with no alternatives 174–5
ideology 176–7
and Italian Communist Party 34, 45, 46, 75, 136, 152, 173, 180, 184, 185, 186, 201, 204, 262–3, 300, 368–9, 373, 375n13, 613
and Italian Constitution 72–3, 77, 78–9
and Italian Social Movement (MSI) 175, 177, 263
and mediation 173, 175, 178, 181
name change to Partito Popolare Italiano 34, 43
and parliament 108, 116
and partitocracy 45, 46, 47, 52n25
resources 47, 174
and Risorgimento 23, 24
shifting balance between Church, state and society 178–80
Christian Evangelical Baptist Union of Italy 440
Church, Catholic 10, 18, 46, 73, 129, 262, 274, 440, 449, 506
families/gender equality 472, 475
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 440
Ciaglia, Antonio 593n12
Ciampi, Carlo Azeglio (President, 1999–2006) 63, 82, 88, 93, 170n18, 315, 494, 521, 715
Ciancimino, Massimo 680n29
Ciasca, Raffaele 65n6
Ciccarello, Elisa 680n33
Cicognani, Amleto Giovanni 415
CIG work allowance schemes 492, 494, 495, 501n5
cinema and television 569–82
advent of television in 1954 571
Canale 5 (television channel) 395
and electioneering 570–3
hegemonic role of television 604
limitations for political parties 572
limitations of television for political parties 572
new media and television 572–3
politicians as celebrities 573–5
politics and entertainment 578–9
print press and television 589
representation of politics in 575–8
Ciocca, Pierluigi 527n9
Cippico, Edward P. 414
Cipriani, Roberto 440–53
CISL (Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions) 529–30
Citaristi, Severino 312
Civic Choice 157n44 335, 424
The Civic Culture (Almond and Verba) 622, 629n12
Civil Committees 431, 432, 434, 457
civil law countries 120
civil liberties (individual freedoms) 73, 74, 75
Civiltà Cattolica 429
Civiltà Italica 427, 429
Clark, Martin 39n16 280n2
classe dirigente (ruling class) see ruling class
Clean Hands investigations 87, 129, 219, 228, 309, 379, 561
and Christian Democratic Party 180, 182n21
and courts 125, 126, 129
and liberalism 248–9
clientelism 163, 180, 317, 613
partitocracy 43, 47
transformism 27, 31, 38
Clinton, Bill 403, 715
CLN (National Liberation Committee) 71, 226, 242, 256
CNEL (National Council for Economics and Labor) 547
(p. 728) coalitions 108, 166, 219, 616
center-right 716–17
Destra Storica 29, 36, 133
electoral systems 133, 138, 140
Olive Tree (Center-Left) 329, 333, 394, 397, 512
Cofrancesco, Dino 250n11
Colaprico, Piero 322n24
Colarizi, Simona 252n26 282n58, 392n19
Cold War 11, 72, 121, 184, 198, 244, 261, 375n4
Atlantic Alliance and Italy 688
from 1980s to end of Cold War 691–3
following Cold War 693–4
end of 48, 164, 320, 388, 572, 712, 714
party systems, post-World War II Italy 145, 148
and Risorgimento 16, 19, 23–4
Mediterranean autonomy and Atlantic orthodoxy (1940s to 1970s) 708–11
Mediterranean policy 710, 711
Cold War Manichaeism 600, 601
Coldiretti (Catholic organization of farmers) 557
collateralism and cooperative legislation 557–60
collegiality principle 193, 416, 524
collusive capitalism 484
Colombo, Asher 642n1 643n4, 643n17
Colombo, Emilio 272–3
Colombo, Gherardo 309
Colombo, Sabrina 501n11
Cominelli, Lucrezia 696n14
Comintern school, Moscow 343
commis-d’Etat 95
Committee of National Liberation (CLN) 71, 226, 242, 256
common good 41
“Common Good” alliance 335
Common Man (Uomo Qualunque) 58, 226, 228, 243
Common Man’s Front (Fronte dell’Uomo Qualunque) 258, 430, 456
Communist Party, Italian see Italian Communist Party (PCI)
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 109, 154
and bipolarism 328, 331, 333
Community Movement 481
Compagna, Francesco 458
Compagna, Luigi 250n8
CONAD (Italian retail store brand) 561
concorsi (open public competitions) 166
Confagricoltura (farmers’ federation) 370
Confalonieri, Fedele 395
Confcooperative 557, 558, 559, 562
confidence votes 114
Confindustria (Federation of Italian Industry 277, 370, 482, 489n4
Congregation for the Oriental Churches 411
Congress for Cultural Freedom 457
Connubio (union) 29–30
conservative transformism 31–2
Consiglio dei Ministri see Council of Ministers (CdM)
Conso, Giovanni 314
consociational democracy 97
consociativism 27, 180
Constituent Assembly 78, 90, 96, 117, 121, 130, 135, 185, 226, 243, 349, 369, 456
and Christian Democratic Party 175, 257, 258
and Italian Constitution 71, 72, 73
Constitution, Italian 71–81, 88, 92, 209n18, 412–13, 471
Articles 71, 73, 75, 76, 112
civil liberties (individual freedoms) 73, 74, 75
and courts 121, 128
decrees, ruling by 72, 79, 80n4, 80n5, 111
and democracy 76–7
drafting 259
economic relations 75–6
ethical-social relations 74–5
and Fascism 73, 175
founding fathers 75
judiciary 77–8
Part I 74–7
Part II 77–8
Title I 74
Title II 74–5
Title IV 76–7
Title V 77, 78
Constitutional Court 74, 75, 112, 121–2, 123, 127, 128, 129, 141, 447, 571
constitutional review 121
consul Dei 410–11
Conti, Nicolò 197–209, 707n26
contraception 471
conventio ad excludendum (party agreement to exclude PCI from office) 33, 97, 260, 302
Cooke, Philip 666n15 667n20
Coop Italia 561
cooperative movement 554–65
collateralism and cooperative legislation 557–60, 563
consortia 561–2, 564n9
construction cooperatives 556, 561
consumers’ cooperatives 561
farmers’ cooperatives 557
and financial crisis 563–4
Italian political structure and cooperatives 562–3
networks 560–2
social cooperatives 556, 564n8
Third Sector 565n16
umbrella organizations 555, 557
coordinating programs 80n15
co-payments (tickets) 509
Coppola, Franco 322n18
Corbetta, Piergiorgio 52n30 190, 194n6, 194n11, 195n31, 237n15, 295n35, 338n31
on women in politics 624, 629n24, 630n28, 630n31
Corbino, Epicarmo 80n7
Cordero de Montezemolo, Luca 6
Corni, Gustavo 266n13
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Transparency International 9, 610
corruption/bribery 29, 86, 165–6, 199, 203
anti-bribe troika 309
Christian Democratic Party (DC) 149, 181, 182n21
Eurobarometer research 611
explanations of Italian corruption 612–15
hard data 611
parliamentary immunity from prosecution 129–30, 312, 318
and public ethics 608–20
reputation of Italy for corruption 609–12
responses to 615–18
and social movements 653
“sunshine laws” 618
survey evidence 611
Tangentopoli period (to early 1990s) see Tangentopoli (Bribery City) investigations, Milan
Cosa Nostra, Sicily 668, 669–70, 671, 672, 674, 675, 677
Cossiga, Francesco (President, 1985–92) 35, 82, 87, 91, 94, 307
Cossutta, Armando 338n24
Cotta, S. 51n4
Council of Europe, Group of States against Corruption 609
Council of Ministers (CdM) 95, 96, 99, 100, 105n1
Court of Cassation 120, 121, 122, 123, 129, 130n6, 405n5
courts 11, 120–31
and Clean Hands investigation 125, 126, 129
crisis of 1992 125–6
first-instance 123
judicial independence 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 129
judicial organization and change 120–3
judicialization of politics in First Republic 123–4
judicialization of politics in Second Republic 126–8
and media 125–6
relationship with politics in Italy 128–30
subordinate role of 120–1
Covatta, Luigi 392n15 392n29
Crainz, Guido 66n30 267n22, 281n44, 282n65
(p. 730) Crapis, G. 581n15
Craveri, Piero 250n9 356n44, 391n4, 392n34
Craxi, Bettino (Socialist secretary) 34, 86, 87, 201, 205, 218, 247, 300, 318, 334, 385, 391n12, 392n36, 395, 420, 447, 459, 575, 692
and Andreotti 305, 378–93
background/career 382–3
biography by Pini 391n12
cabinets of 102–3, 203, 209n13
five-party governing coalition (pentapartito) 296, 302–4, 306
and Historic Compromise 286, 291, 293
and intellectuals 603, 607n34
Mediterranean policy 711, 713, 714
modernization attempts 392n19
and Moro affair 291–2, 392n15
as socialist rising star 382–4
and Tangentopoli investigations, Milan 310, 312, 313, 315, 379
Craxi, Bobo 310
Cremasco, Maurizio 719n7
Crenshaw, Martha 666n19
Crepas, Attilio 432–3
Crimean War (1853–56) 17
Criscitiello, Annarita 105n15
Crispi, Francesco 28–9, 30, 55, 162, 455
conservative transformism of 31–2
as President of Council (1887) 28
Croatia 390
Croce, Benedetto 28, 37, 39n2, 55, 80n7, 222, 456, 458, 599, 606n22
and liberalism 242, 245, 248
Cuccia, Enrico 13n8 360
Cukierman, Alex 526n2
Cusani, Sergio (trial of) 316, 317, 318
Cutolo, Raffaele 61
Cvajner, Martina 643n5 643n18
d’Aci, Stefano Reggio 429, 431
D’Alema, Massimo 50, 100, 333, 397, 448, 694
D’Alema I Government (1998–99) 35, 109, 170n19, 494
D’Alema II Government (1999–2000) 170n19
Mediterranean policy 715, 717
D’Alimonte, Roberto 52n26 143n24, 143n30, 143n31, 158n49, 337n7
Dalla Chiesa, General Carlo Alberto 61, 677
Dalla Costa, Elia 412
Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero 644n27
Dalton, Russell J. 156n21
D’Amato, Antonio 485
d’Ambrosio, Gerardo 309
D’Amico, Renato 142n17
Damilano, Marco 252n27
Daniels, Philip 307n7
D’Antone, Leandra 64, 66n27
D’Apice, Carmela 280n18
Dastoli, Pier Virgilio 707n28
Dau Novelli, Cecilia 281n43
Davide, Leone 66n24
Davidsson, Jonan Bo 501n12
Davigo, Piercamillo 309
Davis, John A. 25n4, 53–67
Day of Memory (2007) 664
d’Azeglio, Massimo 159, 596
De Benedetti, Carlo 397
De Caprariis, Vittorio 458
De Felice, Franco 695n8
De Felice, Renzo 213, 280n15, 281n42, 281n52
De Felice, Roberto 606n19
De Filippo, Eduardo 697
De Francesco, Antonino 250n1
De Gasperi, Alcide (Prime Minister) 33, 58, 72, 80n7, 84, 177, 209n13, 261, 265n1, 355n27, 379, 382, 415, 425, 437n25, 581n20, 686, 698, 708, 711
background/career 256, 342–3
and Catholic hierarchy 412, 413, 415
and Catholic right 427, 428, 431, 433, 434, 435, 436
centrism of 352, 369, 435
and Christian Democratic Party 173, 175, 176, 177, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 261
and crisis of January-February 1947 269, 356n42, 356n45
and liberalism 243, 244
(p. 731) De Gaulle, Charles (General) 91, 226, 271, 275, 436, 690
De Gregorio, Sergio 404
De Lorenzo, Giovanni 278, 317
De Luna, Giovanni 66n30 250n10
De Lutiis, Giuseppe 662, 666n18
De Marchi, Luigi 457
De Maria, Giovanni 80n5
De Marsanich, Alfredo 213
De Marsanich, Augusto 257
De Martino, Francesco 201
De Michelis, Gianni 312, 388, 390, 713
De Mita, Ciriaco 87, 176, 311, 387, 397, 448
and five-party governing coalition (pentapartito) 299, 300, 302, 303, 304, 305
De Ruggiero, Guido 249n1
De Sanctis, Francesco 27, 455, 596, 605n11, 606n13
De Sio, Lorenzo 157n39 158n49
De Vaus, David 623, 629n25
De Winter, Lieven 238n35
decentralization 204
decrees 72, 79, 80n4, 80n5, 441
and parliament 111, 112, 113
“Rescue Italy” (2011) 513
degli Occhi, Cesare 429
Degl’Innocenti, Maurizio 280n6 281n45
Del Monte, A. 620n17
Del Pero, Mario 183n26 281n31, 685–96, 699
Del Re, Alisa 628n2 629n10, 630n34
delegated legislation 100
Della Loggia, Galli Ernesto 26, 34, 39, 39n1, 39n17, 39n22, 590, 603
Della Peruta, Franco 605n9
Della Porta, Donatella 289–90, 295n25, 322n5, 322n6, 322n8, 323n26, 323n40, 614, 620n19, 645–55
on corruption 614–15, 617, 620n19
on terrorism 656, 661, 665n1, 666n11, 666n13
on women in politics 628n8 629n10, 630n35
Della Sala, Vincent 105n14 697–706, 707n14
Dell’Acqua, Angelo 264, 413
Delle Chiaie, Stefano 658
Dell’Utri, Marcello 395, 677
Delors, Jacques 386, 522
democracy 4, 41, 73
consociational 97
and Italian Constitution 76–7
League for Democracy 454
multilayer 77
plebiscitary form 398
’shielded’ 351
democratic centralism 192, 193
Democratic Front 185, 186
Democratic Magistrates 122
Democratic Party of the Left (PDS) 109, 125, 190, 193, 394, 650
Democrazia Cristiana (DC) see Christian Democratic Party (DC)
Dente, Bruno 170n27
Department for Juridical and Legal Affairs (DAGL) 101
Department of Economic Affairs 100–1
Depretis, Agostino 27, 28, 29, 30–1, 32, 35, 455
deputies, election of 132, 133
d’Estaing, Giscard 382
Destra Nazionale (National Right) 215, 216
Destra Storica (political coalition) 29, 36, 133
détente, bipolar 689
devolution 102, 232
d’Hondt formula, electoral systems 134, 138
Di Federico, Giuseppe 131n10
Di Lellio, Anna 628n7
Di Lorenzo, Francesco 318
Di Loreto, Pietro 266n13 267n19
Di Marco, M. T. 353n4
Di Nolfo, Ennio 392n21 392n23, 392n25
Di Nucci, Loreto 39n17 52n12, 52n14
Di Palma, Giuseppe 118n5 194n10
Di Pietro, Antonio 110, 181, 228, 309, 319, 331
and Tangentopoli investigations, Milan 310, 315, 318, 319, 320
Di Virgilio, Aldo 143n37 143n38, 157n29, 406n10
Di Virgilio, Giannetti 158n50
DIA (anti-Mafia organization) 676
Diamanti, Ilvo 156n13 157n38, 157n45, 232, 237n19
Diani, Mario 655n10
Dickie, John 65n3
(p. 732) Dini, Lamberto 110, 319, 320, 402, 494, 519
and bipolarism 332, 334
Mediterranean policy 715, 717
and welfare state 510, 511, 512
distributive distortion (“original sin”) 507
divorce 459, 471, 472
see also families; marriage
Dogan, Mattei 105n9 629n24
Dogliani, Mario 80n11
Donno, Michele 266n13
D’Onofrio, Edoardo 356n67
Donovan, Mark 39n12 394–406
Dossetti, Giuseppe 72, 177, 272, 368
and Catholic hierarchy 412–13, 416, 421–2
and Christian Democratic Party 255, 256, 259, 260, 261, 266n2
Downs, Anthony 155n2
Draghi, Mario 53, 517n22, 525, 705
Drake, Richard H. 663, 666n9, 666n14, 667n21
Duggan, Christopher 20, 23, 25n8, 80n1
Dunphy, Richard 706n10
Durkheim, Emile 552n1
Duverger, Maurice 102, 337n9
“Duverger’s Law” 329
Dyson, Kenneth 502n23 527n12
“earthquake elections” (1992) 48, 148, 296, 334
Ebbinghaus, Bernard 517n16 539n1
“economic miracle” (1957–63) 18, 23, 60, 268, 505
industrial development and Italian Republic 479, 481
ECPI (Excess Perceived Corruption Index) 612
education 75
efficiency, and “original sin” 508
Einaudi, Luigi (President, 1948–55) 80n7, 82, 84–5, 169n3, 259, 348, 643n21
and intellectuals 601, 602, 607n32
and liberalism 242, 243
Eisenhower, D. 686, 710
electioneering 570–3
electoral systems 132–43, 271, 398
coalitions 133, 138, 140
and Communist electorate 185–8
competition dynamics inside parties 136
deputies, election of 132, 133
development in Italy 132–4
d’Hondt formula 134, 138
Fascism 134, 135
Hare formula 134, 141, 142n8
majoritarian 101, 102, 132, 133, 137
multimember constituencies 133, 134, 135
preference voting 97, 98, 136, 137, 142n7
primaries (popular elections) 50
proportional 97, 124, 133–4, 135, 136, 137, 141, 149
reforms 133, 137, 138, 139–40, 165–6
Republic of Italy 135–40
single member constituencies 116, 133, 135, 136, 138, 139
and women in politics 625–6
Elia, Leopoldo 80n9 260
Eliot, T. S. 307
elites 3, 4, 190, 590, 626
liberal 135
ministerial/governmental 95, 97, 98, 99
and popular consensus 703
powerless 573
professional 542
superelite 98, 103
transformism 31, 37
transgression 579
Ellwood, David W. 65n8
Emanuele, Vincenzo 157n35 158n47, 338n33
emergency bills 100
Emilia-Romagna region 46, 474, 554, 669
Emmot, Bill 604
employment
twenty-first century Italian industry 486
of women 468–9, 470, 474, 542
EMS (European Monetary System) 305, 382, 498
(p. 733) Encyclopedia of Religions 444
ENEL (state electricity company) 311, 315
ENEP (effective number of electoral parties) 151, 330
Englaro, Eluana 461
ENI (National Authority for Hydrocarbons) 183n27, 272, 314, 359, 361, 365, 489n3, 709, 716
Enimont deal (1993) 315, 316
Enlightenment 454, 594, 599, 603
ENPG (effective number of parliamentary groups) 153
ENPP (effective number of parliamentary parties) 151, 153
Eormigoni, Guido 267n17
Episcopal Conference, Italian 460, 461
episcopate (collective body of all the bishops of a church) 412, 415, 416
Epstein, Gerald 527n5
ERM (Exchange Rate Mechanism) 164, 334, 380, 521
Ertman, Thomas 169n7
Esping-Andersen, Gosta 516n5
ESRB (European Systemic Risk Board) 525
ethno-regionalist parties 231, 237n20
Eubank, William Lee 665n3
euro 63, 232, 322n3, 486, 697
and bipolarism 335, 336
Euro Area 522, 523, 525, 526
Italy and European Union 703, 704, 705
labor market policy 494, 499
Eurocommunism 189, 285, 294n7, 328, 369, 375
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) 713, 715
Euro-missiles 386, 692
European Central Bank (ECB) 228, 335, 515, 522, 523, 524, 550
European Coal and Steel Community 698
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 401, 513
European Defense Community (EDC) 687
European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 164, 387, 390, 498, 512, 701, 705
and Bank of Italy 518, 522–5, 527n17
independence prior to EMU, building up 518–20
policies promoted prior to EMU 520–2
and bipolarism 334
Italian accession 499
European Economic Community (EEC) 381, 383
European Monetary System (EMS) 305, 382, 498
European System of Central Banks (ESCB) 524
European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) 525
European Union and Italy 697–706
elite and popular consensus 703
Europeanization 160, 702–3
and Italian modernization 700–1
Italy and Europe following crisis 703–5
whether Italy seen as pygmy or giant 698–9
Europol 675, 679n4, 681n64
Euroskepticism 703
Eurosystem 518, 522, 523
Eurozone 24, 325, 402, 403, 704
Evangelical Lutheran Church 440
Evola, Julius 214, 222, 666n9
Exarchate of Southern Europe 440
exceptionalism 159
Excess Perceived Corruption Index (ECPI) 612
Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) 164, 334, 380, 521
exchange rate policy 521, 523
Executive Office 99, 101
external mutuality 559
Extreme Left 454–5
Fabbrini, Sergio 170n16 706n3, 707n18
Fabrizio, Davide 143n34
factions, political 41, 47, 104
in Christian Democratic party 175–7, 181, 182n21, 209n12, 262–3
electoral systems 136, 137
Italian Social Movement 215
“Falange armata” 318
Falcone, Giovanni (judge) 62, 88, 323n35, 388
murder 676
false accounting 128
families
beanpole family 470
children’s rights 472, 474
(p. 734) fatherhood 469, 472
formation patterns 466–71
gender contract under stress 468–9
increasing delay in formation of new families 466–7
kinship ageing and family solidarity under stress 469–70
laws, slow-moving 471–3
migrant, foreign and mixed families 470–1
“obliged kin” 472, 473
reproductive rights 472–3
social policies 471–5
stereotypes 465
trends and tensions 465–77
weakening of marriage as basis of family formation 467–8
work–family balance 469
familismo 159
Fanfani, Amintore (DC secretary) 72, 86, 176, 177, 244, 304, 362, 373, 379, 415, 434, 710
Atlantic Alliance and Italy 688, 690
and Christian Democratic Party 261, 262–3
“opening to the left” transition 269, 278
Fantoni, G. 581n10
Fargion, Valeria 516n2 516n7
Farina, Patrizia 644n27
Farneti, Paolo 307n10
Fascism/neo-fascism 86, 162, 211–23, 599, 659
Civil Code 288, 471
and classe dirigente 4, 10–11
collapse of original regime in World War II 22
electoral systems 134, 135
fascist movement vs. fascist regime 213
and industrial development 478
isolation, recovery and marginalization 215–18
and Italian Constitution 73, 175
and Italian Social Movement (MSI) 211–21, 223
and liberalism 241–2
National Alliance 221–3
nostalgic and radical period (1946–95) 212–14
and partitocracy 43, 44–5
rebirth and positive reception 213–14
and Republican transformism 33–4
and Risorgimento 18, 19, 21, 22, 23
and “Southern Question” 56–7
two-steps entry into political system 218–20
Favretto, Ilaria 268–82, 280n10, 281n32
Fazio, Antonio 519, 523, 524
Fazzo, Luca 323n30
Featherstone, Kevin 170n15 502n23, 502n29, 527n12
Federation of Catholic University Students (FUCI) 379
Fegiz, Pierpaolo Luzzato 195n19
Felice, Emmanuele 65n6
Fella, Stefano 338n32
Feltrin, Paolo 143n34
Ferner, Anthony 539n3
Ferrara, Giuliano 318, 586
Ferrara, Giuseppe 577
Ferraresi, Franco 665n6
Ferrari, Alessandro 451n2
Ferrari, Giuliano 593n11
Ferrera, Maurizio 338n29 504–17, 516n1, 516n2, 516n7, 516n11, 517n15, 517n18, 706n12
labor market policy 498, 502n22
fertility rates 466, 470
feudalism, breakdown of 4
FIAT automobile factories 61, 277, 298, 300, 359, 360–1, 363, 365
and Italian industry 479, 485, 488
merger with Chrysler 487, 488
Filangieri, Gaetano 595
financial crisis (2008–09) 487, 513, 542
and Italian cooperatives 563–4
Fini, Gianfranco 35, 110, 218, 219, 222, 223, 331
Fininvest company 317, 319, 395, 571, 579
Finotelli, Claudia 643n3
Finsider 361, 478, 489n1
FIOM (metalworkers’ trade union of CGIL) 532
Fioravanti, Giuseppe Valerio 659
Fiordelli, Pietro 414
(p. 735) Fiorini, Florio 315
First Republic (1948–92) 62, 97, 103, 181, 197, 198, 201, 206, 208, 333, 378–9
cabinets 209n5
collapse 16, 49, 96, 334, 387–91, 394, 400
judicialization of politics in 123–4
and parliament 107, 112, 115
populism in 225–8
stable instability 95, 96–9, 102
First World War see World War I
“five original sins” (distortion) 504, 507–8, 515
Five Star Movement (M5S) 50, 90, 237n13, 338n31, 400, 601, 617
and bipolarism 335, 336
and party systems, post-World War Two 149, 150, 152, 155
and populism 227–8
five-party governing coalition (pentapartito) 229, 283, 296–308, 327, 387, 390, 713
in ascension 302–4
Craxi years 296, 302–4, 306
creation 301
decline and fall 304–7
political and economic context 297–9
principal characteristics 299–302
Flanagan, Scott C. 156n21
FLI (Future and Freedom for Italy), parliamentary group 35, 110
Flora, Peter 516n6
Flores, Marcello 295n8
Foa, Vittorio 23
Follini, Marco 174, 182n2
Forcella, Enzo 593n17
Ford, Gerald 690
Forlani, Arnaldo (DC secretary) 88, 181, 305, 316, 388
Formigoni, Guido 267n26 356n44, 438n53, 695n4
Fornasier, Roberto 295n18
Forti, Ugo 80n5
Fortis, Alessandro 455
Forza Italia Political Movement (Movimento Politico Forza Italia), Center-Right political party 24, 102, 199, 228, 317, 400, 497
and bipolarism 330, 331
and Christian Democratic Party 174, 181
founding of (1994) 149, 227, 394, 396, 398
fusion of AN with 223
and Italian Social Movement (MSI) 220, 222
and partitocracy 49, 50
Fox, Richard 630n43
fragmentation, political 103, 145
and bipolarism 149, 336, 337n7
and courts 127, 130
and electoral systems 135, 138
and party systems, post-World War Two 147, 149
France 18, 120
Fourth Republic (1946–58) 91, 174
French revolution 4, 19
Nouvelle Droite (cultural movement) 216
Francescato, Donata 630n44 631n45, 631n46
Franchetti, Leopoldo 606n15
Franchini, Claudio 170n18
Franco, Massimo 379, 391n1
Franzinelli, Mimmo 267n30 282n57, 355n35
Franzoni, Giovanni 418
Fraser, N. 406n14
Freedom Pole 220, 329
French revolution 4, 19, 21
Frieden, Jeffry 527n14 706n11
Friendly Societies 554
Fronte dell’Uomo Qualunque (Common Man’s Front) see under Common Man (Uomo Qualunque)
Fuà, Giorgio 280n16
Fullin, Giovanna 643n12
functional distortion (“original sin”) 507
Future and Freedom (FLI), parliamentary group 35, 110
Gaddafi, Colonel Muammar Muhammad 385, 716, 717
Gaja, Roberto 718n2
Galante, S. 355n41
(p. 736) Galasso, Giuseppe 565n15
Galavotti, Enrico 266n11 267n27
Galbraith, John K. 271, 280n17
Gallagher, Michael 157n36 330, 337n7
Gallerano, Nicola 295n8
Galli, Giorgio 142n2 209n9, 282n63, 307
and bipolarism 326, 337n4
and Christian Democratic Party 174, 182n7, 182n15, 260, 266n15
and Italian Communist Party 194n12 194n14, 195n21
Gallino, Luciano 552n1
Gambetta, Diego 156n26 680n25
Ganser, Daniele 695n7
Gardini, Raul 315, 316
Garelli, Franco 442, 451n5
Garibaldi, Giuseppe 17, 18, 22, 454, 455
Garin, Eugenio 606n14 606n23
Garocci, Giampiero 39n21
Garofano, Giuseppe 316
Garzia, D. 405n7
Gasparri–Mussolini concordat (1929) 417
Gazier, Bernard 503n35
Gedda, Luigi 418, 431, 432, 433, 434, 437n15, 457
General Confederation of Labor (CGIL) 429, 495, 498, 529, 532
Geniloni pact (1913) 455
Genoa, G8 protests (2001) 651, 652
Genoa Social Forum (GSF) 651
Gentile, Emilio 426, 437n7, 437n24
Gentile, Giovanni 598, 606n19
Gentiloni Pact 32
Gerelli, Emilio 516n10
Germany 18, 687, 698
Bundesrat 118
Grundgesetz 77, 78
and industrial development 481, 486, 487
Nazism 242, 379, 389
reunification 164, 389
Weimar Republic (1919–33) 74, 75, 174, 256
Germinario, Francesco 665n7
gerontocracy, professional 547–9
Gervasoni, Marco 251n23 252n26, 282n58, 282n61, 391n14, 392n17, 392n19
Giacomantonio, Mauro 630n44
Giacone, Alessandro 267n30 620n21
Giannetti, Roberto 251n25
Giannini, Guglielmo 226, 243, 250n11, 430, 601
Gianniti, Luigi 80n15 118n11
Giavazzi, Francesco 527n15
Giger, Nathalie 624, 630n27
Gilbert, Mark 238n37 394–406
Gilpin, Robert 375n2
Ginsberg, Paul 20, 25n9, 65n1, 194n1, 280n4
and five-party governing coalition (pentapartito) 306, 307n12
and Historic Compromise 287, 294n1, 295n11
and intellectuals 604, 605n10
Ginsburg, Tom 131n20
Gioberti, V. 42–3, 51n9
Gioia Tauro, steel plant at 61
Giolitti, Antonio 282n60
Giolitti, Giovanni (Prime Minister) 30, 32, 37, 55, 268, 455
Giordan, Giuseppe 451n7
Giordano, Alberto 251n19
Giorgi, Luigi 266n2
Giovagnoli, Agostino 266n16 280n21, 375n2, 375n6, 377n20, 391n9, 436n1
Giuliano, Salvatore 58
Giulio Andreotti Archives (AGA) 391n5
Giussani, Don Luigi 418
giustizialisti (supporters of judicial power) 127
Gladio (“stay-behind” organization) 688
global justice movement (GJN) 650–4
political marginalization 652
Global Media Monitoring Project 627
Gobetti, Piero 22, 242, 243, 597
Godkin, Giselle S. 80n2
Goethe, J. W. 353, 356n71
Golden, Miriam 170n21 323n25
Goliardic Union 457–8
Gomez, Peter 322n2
Gomorrah (documentary) 64
Gonnella, Guido 433
Gooch, John 13n3
Goodman, John 527n18
Gorrini, Giancarlo 319
(p. 737) government 95–106
cabinet legislation, expansion 100
delegated legislation 100
elites 95, 97, 98, 99
emergency bills 100
Executive Office 99, 101
instability of cabinets 96–9
reform, age of 95, 99–101
restricted numbers of people in higher echelons of 98
stable instability 95, 96–9, 102
Westminster model 96
Gozzini, Mario 416
Gramsci, Antonio 20–1, 29, 32, 36, 39n4, 606n21
and intellectuals 597, 598–9
Prison Notebooks 39n4, 60
Grassi, Giuseppe 243
Graziano, Luigi 118n12 183n35
Graziano, Paolo 502n26 707n17
GRECO (Group of States against Corruption), Council of Europe 609
Greganti, Primo 313
Greggi, Agostino 576
Grilli, Vittorio 526n3
Grillo, Beppe 50, 65, 105, 140, 335, 400, 577, 580, 601
Grofman, Bernard 106n19
Gronchi, Giovanni (President, 1955–62) 82, 85, 92, 93, 361, 379, 688
and Christian Democratic Party 261–2
Mediterranean policy 709, 710
Grootaers, Jan 415
Gross, John 605n4
group transformism 35, 36
Guadagnini, Marila 628n9 630n36
Gualimini, G. 52n30
Gualmini, Elisabetta 169n4, 498, 501n8, 502n22, 517n18, 706n12
and bipolarism 338n29 338n31
Gualtieri, Roberto 194n1 353n1, 375n1
Guarnieri, Carlo 130n2 131n18, 322n9
Guerrieri, Sandro 280n11
Guiso, Andrea 267n26
Gulf Wars (1991 and 2003) 693
Gullo, Fausto 57–8
Gundle, Stephen 569–82
Gunther, Richard 39n8
Guzzanti, Sabina 577
Guzzini, Stefano 338n28
Habermas, Jurgen 592n3 605n3
Habsburg Empire 17, 18, 240
Hallin, Daniel 592n4 593n15
Hancké, Bob 502n24
Hanretty, Chris 15n29 338n27
Hare formula, electoral systems 134, 141, 142n8
Harriman, Averell 362
Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard 266n5
Hayek, Friedrich 80n15
HDI (Human Development Index) 612
Hegel, G. W. F. 41, 51n3
Heller, William 38, 40n30, 157n42
Hellman, Judith 655n5
Hellman, Stephen 294n3
Hermet, G. 236n8
hierarchy, Catholic 409–24
consul Dei 410–11
and Italian Constitution 412–13
Polish mistrust 419–20
Second Vatican Council 177, 409, 415
Spaniards and the Pope 410–11
High Commissioner against Corruption, office of 615
Higher Council of Judiciary 121, 122–3, 124
Highley, John 39n8
Hinduism 442
Hinrichs, Karl 517n24
Historic Compromise (Compromesso Storico) 34, 283–5, 291, 369, 375, 383, 710
birth of 284–6
and Craxi 291, 293
end of 34, 292–3, 297
and Italian Communist Party 184, 185, 190
law on public order (Legge Reale) 290, 291
legislative and social reform 288–9
mixed legacies 288–90
(p. 738) Moro affair 291, 292
national solidarity (1976–79) 287–8, 397
end of 292–3
political turmoil and stalemate 286–7
“Strategy of Tension” 289–90
and terrorism 661, 662
“years of lead” 289–90
Historic Left/Right 27–8, 30, 133, 453
Historical Archives Luigi Sturzo Institute (ASILS) 391n5
historiography 159, 169n12
Hobsbaum, E. 238n38
Hoffman, Bruce 665n4
Holy Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy 440
Holy See 263
and episcopate 411–12, 415
homosexuality 468
honors and awards 13n10
Hopkin, Jonathan 325–38
horizontal supply chains 489
House of Freedom 139
House of Liberties 330–1
human capital 62, 489
Human Development Index (HDI) 612
“Humana vitae” 418
Hume, David 594
Humphreys, Peter 592n6
Hungary
Russian invasion (1956) 46
uprising (1956) 262, 270
Huntington, Samuel P. 4, 13n1
Hussein, Saddam 389, 694
hydroelectric energy 55, 56
Hyman, Richard 14n11 539n3
hyper-politics/hypo-politics 249
ICA (International Cooperative Alliance) 558, 559
Ilari, Virgilio 719n5
illusionary reforms 167–70
Ilustrazione Vaticana (magazine) 344
Imbriani, Matteo Renato 454
immigration 632–44
amnesty programs 635
and carrying capacity of a country 638
domestic services market 637–8
enduring labor immigration in Italy 633–6
fate of Italian active labor migration policy 638–41
new Italians 641–2
as a pillar of the welfare state 636–8
stereotypes 632, 642
welfare programs, exclusion of foreigners 643n14
imperfect bipolarism 186, 326
imperfect collateralism 557
inclusive transformism 33, 34, 36
independent administrative agencies (IAAs) 165, 167
Independent Judiciary group 122
Index of Disproportionality 330
industry, Italian
see also trade unions
big business 479–80, 481
competitive de-industrialization 488
end-of-the-century crisis 483–5
industrial development and Italian Republic 478–83
organizational models 487–8
trade unions as organizations in industrial relations system 532–5
in twenty first century 486–9
Inglehart, Ronald 237n28 622, 629n11, 629n16
Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI) 58, 59, 272, 478, 483, 489n1
Institutes of Public Assistance and Charity (IPAB) 504
institutional reforms 165–7
institutionalization 98, 145, 591
legal status of institutions 452n12
partitocracy 45–8
and voluntarism (trade unions) 537–9
intellectuals 594–607
accuser and moralizer 602–5
making the Italians project 595–7
public critic 600–2
role 594–5
terminology 598
tradition and transformation 597–9
transformative intellectual 599–600
International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) 558, 559
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 365
(p. 739) Introvigne, Massimo 444
Iona, Alfonsina 66n24
IOTA (identity, opposition, totality, alternative) conditions 5
Iotti, Nilde 626
IPAB (Institutes of Public Assistance and Charity) 504
IRI (Institute for Industrial Reconstruction) 58, 59, 272, 478, 483
Isernia, Pierangelo 237n27 707n24, 707n25
Islam 442, 443, 448
Islamism 716, 717
Islamic movements 225
ISTAT (Italian National Statistics Institute) 547, 548
Istituto Cattaneo 47, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 661
Italian Communist Party (PCI) 46, 58, 136, 148, 179, 184–96, 364, 557, 700, 711
Cattaneo study 186, 187, 188, 189, 190
in central and public office 192–3
change of name, organization and ideology 192, 228
and Christian Democratic Party 34, 45, 46, 75, 136, 152, 173, 180, 184, 185, 186, 201, 204, 262, 262–3, 300, 368–9, 373, 375n13, 613
cleavage encapsulation 187, 189, 190
Communist electorate 185–8
conventio ad excludendum (party agreement to exclude PCI from office) 33, 97, 260, 302
co-optation and lack of dissent 192–3
electioneering, and media 570–1
on the ground 188–92
and Historic Compromise 184, 185, 190, 285, 292
and Italian Constitution 78–9
and Leninist model 184, 188
Manifesto 226–7
and parliament 108, 115–16
partitocracy 45, 46, 47
popular support 186–7
and populism 226–7
socialist myth 185, 188, 189
XV Congress (1978) 558
Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions (CISL) 529–30
Italian Constitution see Constitution, Italian
Italian Federation of Trade Unions (CISL) 423
Italian League for Divorce 459
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) 215, 240–52
see also liberalism
and National Liberation Committee 242
transformism 33
Italian Republican Party (PRI) 33, 197, 198, 205–7, 244, 271, 711
liberal component 208–9n1
Italian Resistance see Resistance Movement
Italian Social Democratic Party (PSDI) 197, 198, 203, 209n10, 271, 557, 710
split from PSI (1947) 200, 209n2
Italian Social Movement (MSI, neo-fascist party) 145, 215, 257, 260, 261, 263, 268, 269, 283, 317, 380, 430, 433, 459, 576, 658
and Christian Democratic Party 175, 177, 263
Congresses 214, 221
elections 212, 213, 214
and Fascism 211–21, 223
founding of (1946) 212, 257
Geneva Congress (1960) 214
and Historic Compromise 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 290
ideology 216, 217
leadership 213, 216
MSI-Monarchist alliance 213, 215
northern and southern factions 213
party structure 215
reforms 215
“Ten Points” program 212, 213
Italian Social Republic (RSI, fascist party) 212, 213, 242, 660
Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity (PSIUP) 258, 278, 279, 344, 457
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) 29, 43, 46, 116, 197, 198, 199–205, 202, 258, 284, 480, 557, 709
see also socialists
and Catholic hierarchy 414–15
“opening to the left” transition 270, 279
Italian Union of 7th-Day Adventist Churches 440
(p. 740) Jacini, Stefano 428, 429, 431, 433
Japan 481, 486
Jehovah’s Witnesses 443
Jemolo, Arturo Carlo 424
Jenkins, Brian 665n4
Jessoula, Matteo 502n26 502n31, 504–17, 516n2, 516n7, 517n15
Jewish people, emancipation 453
John Paul I, Pope 419
John Paul II, Pope 419, 421
John XXIII, Pope (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) 262, 273, 414, 415
journalism 583–4, 586
see also press, the
Order of Journalists 591, 593n21
Jubilee 2000 campaign 651
judicial corps 120, 123
judicial discretion 123
judicial independence 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 129
judicial prerogatives 120
judicialization of politics
in First Republic (1948–92) 123–4
in Second Republic (1992 to the present) 126–8
judiciary 77–8, 120
Kalmijn, Matthijs 476n17
Katz, Richard S. 51n6, 52n23, 142n16, 142n20, 143n24, 194n5, 209n11
Keck, Wolfgang 477n19
Kelsen, Hans 121
Kennedy, John 274, 360, 362, 363, 690
Keynes, John M. 255
Khrushchev, Nikita 270
Kirchheimer, Otto 209n4
Kissinger, Henry 690, 691
Kitschelt, Herbert 236n2 237n24
Kleemans, Edward 680n43
Klitgaard, R. 620n18
Kohl, Helmut 386
Kosovo crisis (1999) 693, 694
Kreppel, Amie 105n14
Kroes, Neelie 523
Kyenge, Cécile 230
La Civiltà Cattolica (Jesuit periodical) 413
La Licata, Francesco 680n29
La Malfa, Giorgio 313
La Malfa, Ugo 80n7 86, 206, 281n38, 373, 482
and liberalism 244, 246, 251n14
and “opening to the left” transition 272, 275
La Marmora, Alfonso 453
La Palombara, Joseph 80n20 169n2, 170n26, 629n24, 719n10
La Pira, Giorgio 72, 177, 709
La Qualunque, Cetto 577–8
La Valle, Raniero 416
Labini, Paolo Sylos 280n16
labor market policy 491–503
as arena of power 491
CIG schemes 492, 494, 495, 501n5
evolution in Italy 499–500
and immigration 639–40
Italian labor policies in Golden Age 492–3
Law 92/2012 495, 496, 501n14
normative recalibration 496, 500
reforms 493–7, 502–3n33
cycles 494
explaining 497–9
liberalization 497
reinstatement of employees 501n14
unemployment benefit 492, 493, 495, 496
unemployment insurance 492, 500–1n4, 501n5, 501n6, 501n9
vincolo esterno strategy 498, 499, 517n18, 704
Labriola, Arturo 455
laity, the 453–61
definitions/terminology 453
periodicals 458
postwar period 456–8
and Second Republic 460–1
secular struggles 458–60
united Italy 454–6
Lampedusa, Giuseppe Tomasi di 60–1
Lane, Abbe 574
Lange, Peter 307n5 539n2
Lanza, Giovanni 453
LaPalombara, Joseph 80n20, 169n2, 170n26, 209n4, 629n24, 719n10
Larini, Silvano 313
(p. 741) Lario, Veronica 395, 404, 593n10
Lasch, Christopher 552n3
Lateran Pacts 375n4 413, 446, 457
Lauriola, Marco 630n44
Lauro, Achille 573
Lavagna, Carlo 80n16
Laver, Michael J. 156n8
Law 92/2012, labor market policy 495, 496, 501n14
law decrees 112, 113
Law of Guarantees 454
Lawless, Jennifer 630n43
lay sphere 260
Lazar, Marc 156n13
Lazzati, Giuseppe 72
leaderocracy 48–51
leadership positions, and women 626–8
leadership provincialization 137
League for Democracy 454
Lectures on fascism 354n13
left terrorism, nature, origins and scope 660–2
Lega Nord (Northern League) see Northern League (LN)
Legacoop 557, 559, 561, 562
legality, and “original sin” 508
Legge Acerbo 134
Legge Reale (law on public order) 290, 291
legge truffa (swindle law) 135, 175
leghisti 224, 231, 232
legislative decrees 72, 79, 80n4, 80n5, 112, 113
legislatures of the Italian Republic 108, 137, 153, 154, 276, 296, 449, 622
1st (1948–1953) 98, 244
2nd (1953–58) 268
4th (1963–68) 276, 279
5th (1968–72) 98
6th (1972–76) 98
9th (1983–87) 303
10th (1987–92) 113, 306
13th (1996–2001) 109, 110, 113, 154, 448
14th (2001–06) 109, 113
15th (2006–08) 109, 331
16th (2008–12) 110, 113, 149, 154
17th (2013) 110, 157n44
and bipolarism 331, 333, 334, 335
Legnante, Guido 593n13 629n13
Leo XIII, Pope 554
Leonardi, Robert 66n19 170n14, 180, 182n19, 183n28, 295n20
Leonardis, Massimo de 281n36
Leone, Giovanni (President, 1971–78) 82, 86, 94, 265, 380, 395
Leoni, Bruno 248
The Leopard (Lampedusa) 60–1
Lepre, A. 356n68
Lercaro, Cardinal Giacomo 416
Letizia, Noemi 592n10
Letta, Enrico (Prime Minister) 64, 152, 153, 157n44, 517n23, 626, 630n41, 704–5, 718
Levi, Carlo 53
Levi-Montalcini, Rita 6
liberal (historic) transformism 30–1
Liberal International 245
liberalism 175, 240–52, 453
birth of Center-Left 275–6
and Clean Hands investigation 248–9
and Fascism 241–2
liberal or historic transformism (Depretis) 30–1, 32, 33
liberty, nation and modernity 240–2
and Malagodi 244–5
neo-liberal revolution 384
and partitocracy 246–8
progressive liberal culture 245–6
Republic origins 242–4
and Risorgimento 20, 240, 241, 242
Libero (right newspaper) 585
Libya
Libyan Revolution (1969) 716
Libyan War (1911) 21
Lijphart, Arendt 105n4 106n19
Lilliput network 651
Lincoln, Abraham 26, 225
Livolsi, Marino 593n18
Lizzani, C. 581n9
lobbying 587–8
Lodigiani, Rosangela 644n25
Logan, Oliver 25n11
Loiero, Agazio 337n16
Lombardi, Riccardo 270
Longo, Luigi 80n7 355n19
(p. 742) Longo, Pietro 205
L’Ordine Civile (publication) 436
Lorenzini, Sara 266n10
Luce, Claire Boothe 274, 359
Luce, Henry 359
Luciani, M. 94n2
Lucifero, Roberto 41, 51n1, 243
Lundestad, Geil 696n20
L’Unità (Communist newspaper) 374, 585
Lupo, Nicola 118n10 118n11
Lupo, Salvatore 65n7 66n10
Lussu, Emilio 80n7
Lutz, Vera 60, 66n14
Lynch, Julia 183n37 501n9
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 164, 179, 306, 335, 388, 389, 390, 483, 498
Italy and European Union 700, 703–4
Machiavelli, Niccolò 10, 594, 605n1, 606n24
macroeconomic intervention 163, 165
Macry, Paolo 65n2
Madonna, Michele 445, 452n11, 452n14
Mafia organizations 4, 665n5, 668–81
see also terrorism
anti-Mafia 62, 321–2n1, 676–8
camorra, Neapolitan 55, 61, 181, 668, 669–70, 672, 673, 675, 677
commissions 671
former members turned witnesses 677
longevity 670
markets, control of 674–6
’Ndrangheta, Calabrian 61, 181, 668, 669–70, 671, 672, 674, 675, 677
offence of mafia-type organization 679n5
organizational and cultural complexity 671–2
political dominion 672–4
Sicilian Cosa Nostra 668, 669–70, 671, 672, 674, 675, 677
magistrates 120, 121, 124, 321n1
one magistrate, one vote principle 122, 130n6
Magna Carta, UK 4
Magni, Luca 310
Mainenti, M. 324n42
Mainwaring, Scott 145, 155n4
Mair, Peter 52n23 52n27, 145, 194n5, 209n11
Majocchi, Alberto 516n10
majoritarian politics/electoral systems 101, 102, 132, 133, 137, 328–31
Mattarellum (mixed-member majoritarian electoral system) 99, 137, 138, 139
Making Democracy Work (Putnam) 62
Malagodi, Giovanni 244–5, 251n18, 380–1, 457
Malanima, Paolo 66n24
Malatesta, Maria 552n8
Malfatti, Franco Maria 698
Malgeri, Francesco 267n20 280n20, 280n22, 356n42
Malta 713
Mambro, Francesca 659
Mammarella, Giuseppe 392n25
Mancini, Paolo 583–93
Mancuso, Filippo 319–20
mandatory prosecution principle 123
Mangano, Vittorio 395
Mani Pulite (Clean Hands) operation see Clean Hands operation
Mann, Michael 5, 13n6
Mannheimer, Renato 105n5 105n10, 118n4, 156n22, 157n41, 237n30, 238n54, 337n13
Mannunzio, Mario 245
Manoukian, Aagopik 52n21 195n23
Manzella, Andrea (General Secretary of Presidency of Council of Ministers) 99–100
Manzoni, Alessandro 596
Maor, M. 324n41
Maranini, Giuseppe 41, 51n2, 246
Marcenò, Valeria 130n5
Marchesi, Concetto 80n7
Marchi, Michele 267n25 280n26, 438n49
Marchionne, Sergio 485
Maritain, Jacques 414
Maroni, Roberto 232, 233, 512
marriage
see also divorce; families
gender equality in 471
weakening as basis of family formation 467–8
Marsh, Peter 489
Marshall Plan 428, 479
Martelli, Claudio 316
(p. 743) Martin, Graham 364, 380, 691
Martina, Giacomo 424
Martinelli, R. 356n46
Martini, Carlo Maria 411, 418, 421
Martino, Antonio 249
Martino, Carmine de 433
Marx, Karl 3
Marxism 175, 201, 600
and classe dirigente 3, 5
and Italian Communist Party 190, 191
neo-Marxism 37
and Risorgimento 19, 20, 21, 22
Masala, Carlo 437n9
Maselli, Domenico 449
Mastella, Clemente 331
Mastrantonio, Luca 607n38
Mastropaolo, Alfio 39n11 194n8, 251n24, 719n11
Mattarella, Sergio (President, 2015) 82, 90, 137
Mattarellum (mixed-member majoritarian electoral system) 99, 137, 138, 139
Mattei, Enrico 480, 709
and Agnelli 358–67
background/career 359
as first chairman of ENI (National Hydrocarbons Trust) 183n27
Middle East policy 177
Mattera, Paolo 280n5
Matteucci, Nicola 248
Mattoni, Alice 655n21
Mätzke, Margitta 477n29
maxi-amendments 113–14
Mazzini, Giuseppe 17, 20, 54, 205, 455, 554, 596
McAllister, Ian 623, 629n25
McCarthy, Patrick 66n10 66n17, 307n2, 580n3
McDonnell, Duncan 156n13 238n43, 238n55, 628n9
McGann, Anthony 237n24
McQuaig, William 606n25
Mebane, Minou 630n44 631n45, 631n46
Mechi, Lorenzo 209n17
media
and courts 125–6
Mammi Law 305
Mediaset (media company) 395
mediation 342, 376n13, 416, 420, 482, 543
and Christian Democratic Party 173, 175, 178, 181
gendered 649
institutional 482
Mediobanca 486
Mediterranean and Italy (post-World War One) 708–19
Center-Left governments 715–16
Center-Right coalition 716–17
Cold War, Mediterranean autonomy and Atlantic orthodoxy in (1940s to 1970s) 708–11
international cooperation in 1990s 715–16
nationalism and bilateralism in 2000s 716–17
“risk from the south” debate 711–12
risks from and initiatives toward the Mediterranean (1980s) 711–14
Second Republic changes (1990s to 2000s) 714–17
socialist initiative in the Mediterranean 712–14
Melis, Guido 266n7
Melloni, Alberto 409–24
Menichella, Donato 59
Mény, Yves 231, 237n32, 239n57
Menzani, Tito 564n3 564n10
Meridiana (journal) 63
Merkel, Angela 423
Merkel, Wolfgang 209n8 295n10
Merryman, John H. 130n1, 131n21
Mershon, Carol 38, 40n30, 118n7, 144–58, 157n42, 158n46
Merzagora, Cesare 85, 261
Messina, Sebastiano 322n15
Mete, Vittorio 680n32
Michalopoulos, George 527n12
Michelini, Arturo 214, 215, 257
Michels, Roberto 578
(p. 744) Miglio, Gianfranco 105n3
migration policy 638–41
see also immigration
family life 470–1
Milan 125, 127
bombing (1969) 216
Mill, John Stuart 596
Minghetti, Marco 453, 596–7, 606n12
and partitocracy 42, 51n7
transformism 28, 29, 30
Minister of Justice 123
Ministers for the Public Function 100
Ministry for parliamentary Relationships 101
Mitchell, Paul 337n7
Mitterrand, François 386, 389
mixed-member electoral laws 149
moderate liberals/conservatives 28
modernity concept 18, 265, 268, 374, 377n24, 436, 444, 479
liberal and licensed professions 541, 542, 552n1
and liberalism 240, 241, 245, 247
modernization of Italy 26, 181, 293, 302, 370, 385, 458, 479, 500, 546
and Christian Democratic Party 255, 262
cinema and television 569, 672
economic 175, 187, 188, 261, 300, 383, 384, 698
and European Union 697, 700–1, 702, 706
and liberalism 241, 244
military 712
and “opening to the left” transition 271, 275
political 16, 32
process 701
public infrastructure 257
secular 455
social 16, 18, 188, 261, 698
welfare state 505, 506, 508, 510
without growth 18
molecular transformism 29, 31, 32, 35–6
monarchic legitimism 257, 266n4
Monarchist Party 213, 215, 268, 459
Mondini, L. A. 438n36
monetary policy 522
Monina, Giancarlo 250n9 266n9
Montanelli, Indro 308n14
Monti, Mario 5–6, 7, 150, 335, 399, 405, 517n23, 550, 601, 615, 626, 630n41, 698, 704, 718
and Catholic hierarchy 423–4
labor market policy 495, 496
technical government of 2011–13 89, 110, 154, 447
Montini, Giovanni Battista 354n16 411–12, 413, 415–16, 417, 425
morality, private and public 604
Morandi, Rodolfo 59
Moretti, Nanni 577
Morlino, Leonardo 183n32 195n22, 238n51, 308n18, 336n3, 406n13
Mormons 443
Moro, Aldo 34, 72, 73, 80n13, 86, 287, 379, 381, 415, 426, 435, 574, 690, 713
and Berlinguer 34, 368–77
and Christian Democratic Party 177, 263, 264, 265
and Italian Communist Party 375n13
kidnapping and murder by Red Brigades (1978) 86, 87, 178, 247, 291, 292, 373–4, 375, 381, 382, 383, 419, 661, 663
“opening to the left” transition 272–3, 275, 278
two-stage policy 278
Moro, R. 355n28
Moroni, Sergio 312
Morselli, Carlo 678n2
Mortati, Costantino 80n7
Mosca, Gaetano 3, 4, 597, 606n16
Mosca, Giovanni 432
Mosca, L. 655n22
Moschonas, Gerassimos 295n34
Moss, Peter 477n27
Mosse, G. L. 438n34
Movement for Justice 122
MSI (Movimento Sociale Italiano) see Italian Social Movement (MSI, neo-fascist party)
Müller, W.G. 118n3
Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand 236n2
multimember constituencies 133, 134, 135
Murialdi, Paolo 251n21
Musella, Fortunato 106n28
Musella, Luigi 29–30, 39n5
Mussolini, Alessandra 219, 223
(p. 745) Mussolini, Benito 22, 44, 199, 271, 450, 575
collapse of regime (1943) 45, 57, 258
Gasparri–Mussolini concordat (1929) 417
and Italian Social Republic (RSI) 212, 660
legacy 579–80
and Southern Italy 56, 57
Myron, Weiner 209n4
Naldini, Manuela 476n2
Nanetti, Raffaella 170n14 295n20, 307n5
Naples, city of 55, 56, 60, 61, 64, 180, 211, 213
Napoleon I (Napoleon Bonaparte) 4
Napoleon III (Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, French emperor) 17, 18
Napolitano, Giorgio (President, 2006–15) 24, 25n20, 82, 83, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 110, 405
NAR (terrorist splinter group) 658, 659
Nardini, Raffaella 66n19
Narkiewicz, Olga A. 294n7
Naso, Paolo 451n10
National Alliance (AN) 24, 219, 220, 221, 221–3, 398, 401
and bipolarism 327, 329
National Alliance of Farmers 375n5
National Anti-corruption Authority 615
National Association of Consumer Cooperatives (ANCC) 561
National Consortium of Building Cooperatives Suppliers 561–2
National Council for Economics and Labor (CNEL) 547
National Council of Christian Democracy 345
National Democracy Party 216
National Democratic Union (UDC) see Union of the Center (UDC)
National Fascist Party (PNF) 44, 45
National Health System, Italian 75, 505
National Liberation Committee (CLN) 71, 226, 242, 256
National Report on Equitable and Sustainable Wellbeing 470
National Retailers Association of Cooperatives (ANCD) 561
national solidarity (1976–79) 179, 287–8, 397
end of 292–3
National Union of Italian Cooperatives (UNCI) 564n5
National Vanguard 215
nationalism/national identity 26
collective national identity 19, 23–4
in twenty first century 716–17
Nazi Germany 242, 379, 389
’Ndrangheta, Calabrian 61, 181, 668, 669–70, 671, 672, 674, 675, 677
Neal Tate, C. 131n19
Nelken, David 322n9
Nenni, Pietro 80n7 85, 200, 209n6, 261, 280n9, 281n35, 382, 415, 689, 695n9
“opening to the left” transition 268, 270, 271, 275, 279
neo-fascism see Fascism/neo-fascism
neo-guelph paradigm 427
Netherlands, the 108
Network for Global Rights 651
networks 560–2, 592
new Italians 641–2
new media, and television 572–3
New Order (Ordine Nuovo) 214, 215, 216
New Religions Study Center 444
Newell, James L. 3–13, 14n23, 15n26, 15n30, 39n12, 194n13
newspapers and periodicals
Il Fatto quotidiano 585–6
Il Giornale 585, 590
Il Giorno 587, 588
Il Messaggero 480
Il Mondo 245, 246, 458
Il Populo 585
La Repubblica 590
Nicolosi, Gerardo 250n9 251n17, 251n20
(p. 746) 9/11 terrorist attacks 225
Nitti, Francesco Saverio 242, 455–6
and Southern Italy 55, 56, 80n7
Nixon, Richard 380, 690, 691
no-confidence votes 103
normative recalibration 496, 500
Norris, Pippa 622, 629n11, 629n16
North Atlantic Pact 685, 686
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 285, 361, 651
Atlantic Alliance and Italy 687, 692, 693
NATO Mediterranean Dialogue (1994) 715
Northern League (LN) 9, 102, 139, 181, 224–39, 306, 398, 400, 401, 482, 614
bipolarism 327, 329, 330, 332
elections 229–30, 235
expansion 230–1
and Italian Social Movement (MSI) 222, 223
labor market policy 497, 498
leadership 233, 234, 235
Lega Lombarda (main branch) 224, 229, 231
leghisti 224, 231, 232
and partitocracy 47, 48
and party systems, post-World War Two 147, 149, 152
populist features 224, 230, 232, 234, 235, 236
and Risorgimento 16, 24
and Southern Italy 63, 64
territorial issue 231–2, 234, 235
U-turns 230, 232
Nouvelle Droite (French cultural movement) 216
Nunnari, Fabrizio 375n5
Nuti, Leopoldo 267n28 279n1, 392n22, 696n10, 719n4
Obama, Barack 718
Observatory of Religious Freedom and Institutions (OLIR)] 440
Occhetto, Achille (PCI secretary) 190, 191, 193, 306, 328, 329, 332
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) 53, 474, 495, 508, 636
oil embargo (1973) 283, 284
oil scandal (1970s) 311
O’Leary, A. 581n30
oligarchies, traditional 103–4, 104
Olive Tree (Center-Left coalition) 329, 333, 394, 397, 512
Olivetti, Adriano 458, 480, 481
Olivi, Bini 706n4
Omar, Abu 403
ON (right wing group) 658, 660
Onelli, Federica 718n3
Ongaro, Edoardo 707n15
Onofri Commission 512
“opening to the left” transition 268–82, 535, 690
historiographical debate 270–2
Socialists’ autonomist course 269–70
transformism 33–4
and Vatican 273–4
“opening to the right” option 268, 269
Orazi, Francesco 553n16
Order of Journalists 591, 593n21
Ordine Nuovo see New Order (Ordine Nuovo)
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development see OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele 80n7 242, 251n12, 258, 348
Orsina, Giovanni 240–52, 251n22, 252n28, 267n29, 280n11, 406n17
Orsini, Alessandro 666n16
Orsini, Fabio Grassi 250n7 250n9, 251n12
Orsini, Giovanni 251n15
Orthodox Church 442
Ortoleva, Peppino 587, 593n19
Ostner, Ilona 477n29
Ostrogorski, Moisei 578
Ottaviani, Ufficio Alfredo 411, 415
Ottone, Piero 593n20
Pacciardi, Randolfo 246, 457
Padania (territorial entity) 230, 232, 233
Padoa-Schioppa, Tommaso 519, 521, 522, 527n16, 707n20
paese legale/paese reale (legal country/real country) 30–1
(p. 747) Pagagni, Erasmo 620n17
Pajetta, Giancarlo 574
Pajno, Alessandro 106n16
Paladin, Livio 91, 94n1
Palazzo Chigi (official residence of the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic) 95, 97, 99, 100
Palma, Giuseppe 80n20
Palmer, John 644n28
Pancaldi, Federico 501n13
Panebianco, A. 182n16
Pannella, Marco 210n20 227, 314
Pannunzio, Mario 246, 458
Pansa, Giampaolo 295n23
Paoletti, Emanuela 719n14
Paoli, Letizia 668–81
Paolucci, Caterina 182n1 337n12
papacy 6
and Spaniards 410–11
status in Italy 17
Papal States 410
Pappalardo, Cardinal Salvatore 418
Pareto, Vilfredo 3, 4, 606n17
Parisi, Arturo M. L. 55n22, 136, 142n18, 182n8, 237n18, 295n9, 629n12, 629n21
and Italian Communist Party 187, 194n11, 194n15
Parker, S. 580n3
Parkin, Frank 13n7
Parks, L. 655n22
Parlato, Giuseppe 266n6
parliament 98, 107–19
agenda management 110–11
all-parliamentarian regime 97
central standing 108–9, 110
decree, ruling by 111–13
denigration campaign 107
extra-parliamentary movements, rise of 226
and First Republic 107, 112
functions of direction and control 114–15
governing parties and opposition party, common ground 108
immunity of parliamentarians from criminal suits 129–30, 312, 318
maxi-amendments 113–14
motions 114–15
multimember constituencies 133, 134, 135
public administration proceedings 109
reforms/new parliamentary credibility 116–18
regulations 47, 110–11
single member constituencies 116, 133, 135, 136, 138, 139
social representation/pedagogical function 107, 115–16
strengthening of role 96–7
votes of confidence 109–10, 113–14
and Westminster model 108
women in 141
work schedule 108–9
parliamentarism 42, 78
Parsons, Talcott 552n1
particularism 42–3
particularism, Italian 542–5
awaiting reforms for 550–2
partisanship, press 584–8
Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) see Italian Communist Party (PCI)
Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF) see National Fascist Party (PNF)
Partito Popolare Italiano 34, 43
partitocracy 41–52, 87, 93, 95, 217, 400
see also political parties; specific political parties
collapse of the old party system 48, 95, 101
fascist experience 43, 44–5
and institutionalization 45–8
leaderocracy following 48–51
and liberalism 246–8
organized mass parties, development in Italy 42–3
party organizations, competitive build up following World War II 45–8
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 331, 338n24
party organizations 43, 148, 585
competitive build up following Second World War II 45–8
(p. 748) party systems, post-World War II Italy 144–58
and contemporary Italian party system 150–3
criteria for distinguishing 152–3
distinct party systems 144–8
inter-electoral party system change 153–4
systemic change, explanations for 148–50
Pasquino, Gianfranco 13n9, 80n17 82–94, 106n18, 209n3, 307n2, 310, 322n4, 580n2
and bipolarism 338n22 338n23
and Christian Democratic Party 182n6 182n8
electoral systems 136, 142n14, 142n18, 142n19, 142n21, 143n23
and five-party governing coalition (pentapartito) 307n11, 308n16
and Historic Compromise 292–3, 295n9, 295n20, 295n32
and Italian Communist Party 187, 194n15
and partitocracy 52n17 52n22
and party systems, post-World War Two 156n10 156n27
and populism 237n18 238n36
and “Southern Question” 64, 66n22, 66n29
and women in politics 629n12 629n21
Passacantando, Franco 527n11
Passarelli, Gianluca 224–39, 237n14, 237n25
Passera, Corrado 423
Pastorelli, Pietro 695n4
Patellei, Alessandro 316
Patriarca, Silvana 25n5
patronage 11, 38, 163, 285, 299, 508, 596, 673, 678
and bureaucracy 163, 166, 167
and Christian Democratic Party 174, 177
and partitocracy 47, 51
Paul VI, Pope 292, 417, 419, 483
Pavolini, Emmanuele 7, 14n16, 14n17, 14n18, 503n34
Pavone, Claudio 606n26
PdAz (Partito d’Azione) 242–3, 244
PdCI (Party of Italian Communists) 338n24
peasant cooperative farms 58
pedagogical function, parliament 107, 115–16
Pederzoli, Patrizia 130n2 130n5
Pelizzo, R. 324n43
Pellegrino, Cardinal Michele 418
pensions
see also welfare state
and other types of welfare expenditure 636–7
pensionable age 517n21
pensioners, unionization of 533
reforms 508, 509, 511, 517n15
stabilization of expenditure 515
supplementary funded pensions 517n16
pentapartito (five-party governing coalition) see five-party governing coalition (pentapartito)
People of Freedom (PdL) 149, 199, 223, 331, 399
Perassi, Tommaso 80n7 80n18
Perdomo, Rogelio 130n1 131n21
peripheral economy 482
peripheral turnover 332, 338n20
personalization of politics 397–400
Pertici, Roberto 251n17 251n18
Pertini, Sandro (President, 1978–85) 80n7, 82, 83, 86–7, 92, 94, 203, 299, 383, 574
Petrolcatex 360, 361
Petrone, Carlo 429