Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 25 February 2021

(p. xix) Notes on Contributors

(p. xix) Notes on Contributors

Laure Bereni is a political sociologist, a Permanent Researcher at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and a member of the Centre Maurice Halbwachs in Paris (CNRS/ENS/EHESS). She has taught in various academic institutions, including the Institute of French Studies at New York University, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, and Sciences Po, Paris. Her research work focuses on gender, social movements, and anti-discrimination policies. Her recent publications include La bataille de la parité. Mobilisations pour la féminisation du pouvoir (Paris: Economica, 2015), “A Paradigmatic Social Movement? Women’s Movements and the Definition of Contentious Politics” (co-authored with A. Revillard) in Sociétés contemporaines (85), and “From Grassroots to Institutions: Women’s Movements Studies in Europe” (co-authored with A. Revillard) in G. Accornero and O. Fillieule (eds), Social Movement Studies in Europe: The State of the Art (New York: Berghahn Books, 2016).

Philippe Bezes is CNRS Research Professor (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) in the Centre d’Études Européennes at Sciences Po (CEE, Paris, France). His academic interests are administrative reforms and bureaucracies in France and in comparative perspective, state transformations, institutional change, and public policy. He is the author of Réinventer l’Etat: Les réformes de l’administration française (1962–2008) (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 2009) and he has recently published a co-edited volume Public Administration Reforms in Europe: The View from the Top, with Steven van de Walle, Gerhard Hammerschmid, and Rhys Andrews (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2016).

Sylvain Brouard is Associate Research Professor FNSP at CEVIPOF, Sciences Po. His research focuses on comparative politics, institutions, electoral competition, and agenda studies. His publications include As French As Everyone (Temple University Press, 2011 with V. Tiberj), The French Fifth Republic at Fifty (Palgrave, 2008, with A. Appleton and A. G. Mazur), Les Français contre l’Europe? (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2007, with N. Sauger and E. Grossman), and numerous articles in peer review journals.

Ben Clift is Professor of Political Economy in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the University of Warwick. His research interests lie in comparative and international political economy. He is author of Comparative Political Economy: States, Markets and Global Capitalism (London: Palgrave, 2014) and French Socialism in a Global Era (London: Continuum, 2003), and co-editor of Where Are National Capitalisms Now? (Palgrave, 2004). He is currently completing a monograph (p. xx) on the IMF, advanced economies, and the politics of austerity since the 2008 crash. He has published widely on the politics of economic ideas; France, Britain, and the IMF; French and comparative capitalisms; capital mobility and economic policy autonomy; the political economy of social democracy; and French and British politics in journals including the British Journal of Political Science, Journal of Common Market Studies, The Journal of European Public Policy, The Review of International Political Economy, New Political Economy, Party Politics, Political Studies, and French Politics.

Olivier Costa is Director of the Department of Political and Administrative Studies of the College of Europe (Bruges) and Research Professor at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (University of Bordeaux). He is co-director of the Jean Monnet Center of Excellence of Aquitaine. He has taught EU studies in many universities in Europe, the USA, and Japan. He has published numerous books, articles, and editorial contributions dealing with European institutions—mainly the European Parliament—and policymaking, and with parliaments and deputies. He is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of European Integration, the Journal of Legislative Studies and the RISP: Italian Political Science Review.

Gordon D. Cumming is now Professor of European Affairs and International Development at Cardiff University, having begun his career in the Africa Research Department of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. A fellow of the Royal Historical Society and the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, he has served as a Professeur Invité at the Centre d’Études d’Afrique Noire, Bordeaux, and at the Institut d’Études Politiques in Lyon. He has published extensively on French, British, and European foreign and development policies as well as on civil society capacity-building. With support from research funding bodies, he has written books including Aid to Africa: French and British Policies from the Cold War to the New Millennium (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), French NGOs in the Global Era (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2009), and From Rivalry to Partnership?: New Approaches to the Challenges of Africa (edited with Tony Chafer; Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011). He is currently on the Steering Group of Cardiff University’s Phoenix Project and engaged in an ESRC-funded capacity-building project with Welsh development NGOs.

Sophie Duchesne is CNRS senior researcher and member of the Institut des Sciences Sociales du Politique (ISP) at Nanterre University. She coordinated the CITAE project (Citizens Talking about Europe), a joint qualitative and comparative project research between Sciences Po, the University of Oxford, and the Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve, on attitudes toward European integration. She is the (co-)author with E. Frazer, F. Haegel and V. Van Ingelgom of Citizens’ Reactions to European Integration: Overlooking Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), and the editor of issue 30 of Politique Européenne, “L’identité européenne entre science politique et science fiction” (2010).

Robert Elgie is Paddy Moriarty Professor of Government and International Studies at Dublin City University. He has published numerous books, including The Study of (p. xxi) Political Leadership: Foundations and Contending Accounts (London: Palgrave, 2015), Semi-Presidentialism: Sub-types and Democratic Performance (Oxford: University Press, 2011), and Political Institutions in Contemporary France (Oxford: University Press, 2003), as well as a number of co-edited publications with Sophia Moestrup, such as Semi-Presidentialism in Central and Eastern Europe (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2008). He has published in journals such as Comparative Political Studies, British Journal of Political Science, Political Research Quarterly, and Journal of Democracy. He is the editor of the journal French Politics. He is the Review Editor for Government and Opposition.

Angéline Escafré-Dublet is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Lyon 2. She holds a PhD in modern history from Sciences Po, Paris. Her research interests pertain to immigration issues and the way they relate to matters of politics and culture. She is the author of Culture et Immigration. De la question sociale à l’enjeu politique (1958–2007) (Rennes: Press universitaires de Rennes, 2014) and Immigration et politiques culturelles (Paris: Documentation française/French Museum of Immigration History, 2014). She has published articles in Diversities, the Journal of Modern European History, Espaces et sociétés, Genèses, Histoire@Politique, and Raison politique.

Olivier Fillieule is a professor of political sociology at Lausanne University (Research Center on Political Action—CRAPUL) and senior researcher at CNRS-CESSP, l’Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. Among his recent books are Demonstrations, co-authored with Danielle Tartakowsky (Nova Scotia: Fernwood, 2013), and Social Movement Studies in Europe, The State of the Art (Oxford: Berghahn, 2016), co-edited with Guya Accornero.

Jacques Gerstlé is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Political Science at l’Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, where for more than ten years he headed the Masters in Political and Social Communication. He is the author or co-author of numerous publications on political communication, such as 2012, La campagne présidentielle, La communication politique, Les effets d’information en politique, Mediated Politics in Two Cultures, and Le langage des socialistes, Giscard d’Estaing/Mitterrand: 54774 mots pour convaincre. He reported on French electoral campaigns from 1972 to 2007 in the Chroniques Electorales of the Presses de Sciences Po. He has published numerous articles in journals such as Revue française de science politique, Politix, Revue française de sociologie, and pouvoirs.

Miguel Glatzer is an associate professor in Political Science at La Salle University. His research focuses on the politics of globalization, the Euro crisis, and welfare state reforms in Southern Europe. He co-edited Globalization and the Future of the Welfare State (with Dietrich Rueschemeyer) (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005). He has also published on civil society and the welfare state in Portugal. He holds a PhD in government from Harvard University.

Michel Goyer is a senior lecturer at the Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK. He is the author of Contingent Capital: Short-term Investors and The (p. xxii) Evolution of Corporate Governance in France and Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). His research interests include comparative political economy with a focus on France and Germany, institutional theory and diversity in advanced capitalist economies, and the eurozone crisis. He received his PhD in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Emiliano Grossman is an associate professor at Sciences Po in Paris, working at the Centre d’Études Européennes. He teaches comparative politics and public policy and is the co-convenor of the Masters in European Affairs at Sciences Po. He specializes in political institutions and agenda-setting processes. He is currently heading the French Agendas Project and is involved in several related research projects, ranging from the influence of the media on policymaking to questions relating to partisan effects in policymaking.

Florence Haegel is full professor at Sciences Po (Centre d’Études Européennes). She has been the head of the Department of Political Science since spring 2013 and head of the master of “Comparative politics” at Sciences Po (École doctorale) since 2012. Her main research topics are political parties, political socialization, and political discussion and qualitative methods (individual case studies, focus groups, etc.). With S. Duchesne, E. Frazer, and V. Van Ingelgom she has recently published Citizens’ Reactions to European Integration Compared: Overlooking Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013) and Les droites en fusion. Les transformations de l’UMP (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2012).

Charlotte Halpern is Assistant Research Professor in Political Science at the Centre d’Études Européennes, Sciences Po in Paris. Her work on comparative policies and governance in the EU and on environmental and energy policy has been published in leading political science journals such as West European Politics, Comparative European Politics, Environment and Planning, and the Revue française de science politique. She is co-editing a volume on policy analysis in France (Policy Press).

Patrick Hassenteufel is Professor of Political Science at the University of Versailles and Sciences Po Saint-Germain. His main research field is comparative health policy. He also works more generally on the transformation of European welfare states and on actor-centered policy analysis. He has published in several international (Journal of European Public Policy, Comparative Politics, Social Policy and Administration, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Comparative European Politics, Policy and Administration), French (Revue française de science politique, Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée, Politix, Revue française des affaires sociales), and German (Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Zeitschrift für Sozialreform) journals. He is the author of a handbook on policy analysis, Sociologie politique: l’action publique (Paris: A. Colin, 2011), and the co-editor in chief of the only French-speaking political science journal specializing in public policy and public administration analysis (Gouvernement et action publique).

Jack Hayward was Professor of Politics at the University of Hull (1973–92) and Professor of Politics and then Professorial Fellow at St Antony’s College, University of Oxford. On (p. xxiii) retirement he returned to Hull as a part-time research professor in politics. He has also been a visiting professor at various French universities, including the Sorbonne and the Paris Institute of Political Studies. He was formerly the Chair of the UK Political Studies Association and editor of its journal, Political Studies, from 1987 to 1993. His books include Private Interests and Public Policy (London: Longmans Green & Co, 1966), The One and Indivisible French Republic (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973), The State and the Market Economy (Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1986), After the French Revolution (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), Governing from the Centre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), Fragmented France (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), Leaderless Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), The Withering of the Welfare State (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), and European Disunion (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

Bastien Irondelle was Senior Research Fellow at CERI, the Center for International Studies and Research at Sciences Po, Paris. In 2009–10 he was Deakin Fellow at the European Studies Center, St Antony’s College, and Visiting Research Fellow in the Changing Character of War Programme, University of Oxford. His book, entitled La réforme des armées en France. Sociologie de la décision, was published by the Presses de Sciences Po in 2011.

Jean Joana is a professor of political science at the University of Montpellier. He has written on comparative defense policy and civil–military relations. He is currently working on military procurement policies during wartime and on defense policy reform in Europe and the US. He is the author of Les armées contemporaines (Paris, Presses de Science Po, 2012). He recently published “The Varieties of Liberal Militarism: A Typology,” French Politics, 2014, 12 (2): 177–191 (with F. Mérand).

Riva Kastoryano is a research director at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) and Professor at Sciences Po, Paris. Her work focuses on identity and minority issues and more specifically on their relations to states in France, Germany, and the US. She was a lecturer at Harvard University from 1984 to 1987 and has been teaching at the Institute for Political Studies in Paris (Sciences Po) since 1988 and at the New School for Social Research since 2005. Her most recent book is Negotiating Identities: States and Immigrants in France and Germany (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002). She also edited Quelle identité pour l’Europe? Le multiculturalisme à l’épreuve (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1998 and 2005 for the second edition); Nationalismes en mutation en Méditerranée Orientale with A. Dieckhoff (Paris: Ed. du CNRS, 2002); and Les codes de la différence. Religion, Origine, Race en France, Allemagne et États-Unis (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2005). Her most recent book is Que faire des corps de Djihadistes. Territoire et Identité (Paris: Fayard, 2015).

Michael S. Lewis-Beck is F. Wendell Miller Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the University of Iowa. His interests are comparative elections, election forecasting, political economy, and quantitative methodology. He has authored or co-authored over 250 articles and books, including Economics and Elections, The American Voter Revisited, French Presidential Elections, Forecasting Elections, The Austrian Voter, and Applied (p. xxiv) Regression. He has served as Editor of the American Journal of Political Science and of the Sage QASS series (the green monographs) in quantitative methods. He is currently Associate Editor of International Journal of Forecasting and of French Politics. In spring 2012, he held the position of Paul Lazersfeld University Professor at the University of Vienna. During the fall of 2012, he was Visiting Professor at the Center for Citizenship and Democracy, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium. In spring 2013, he was Visiting Scholar, Centennial Center, American Political Science Association, Washington DC. For fall 2014, he was Visiting Professor at LUISS University, Rome.

Nonna Mayer is Emerita CNRS Research Director at the Centre d’Études Européennes of Sciences Po, and chair of the French Political Science Association. Her main research topics are political attitudes and behavior, with a focus on right-wing extremism, racism and anti-Semitism, and the electoral impact of gender and precariousness. Her last book was Les faux-semblants du Front National. Sociologie d’un parti politique (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2015) (co-edited with S. Crépon and A. Dézé).

Amy G. Mazur is the C. O. Johnson Distinguished Professor of Political Science at Washington State University. She is also an associate researcher at the Centre d’Études Européennes at Sciences Po, Paris. In 2015, she was a Fellow at the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities. Her recent books include Theorizing Feminist Policy (Oxford, 2002); Politics, Gender, and Concepts (editor with G. Goertz, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008); The French Fifth Republic at Fifty: Beyond Stereoytpes (editor with S. Brouard and A. Appleton, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2009); The Politics of State Feminism: Innovation in Comparative Research (with D. McBride, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010). Most recently she has published in Comparative European Politics, Revue française de science politique, Politics and Gender and Political Research Quarterly. She is currently co-convening, with J. Lovenduski and I. Engeli, the Gender Equality Policy in Practice (GEPP) project and is Associate Editor of French Politics.

Darren McCauley holds the position of Lecturer in Sustainable Development and Research Associate at the Centre for French History and Culture at the University of St. Andrews. He has previously held full-time lectureships at Queens University Belfast, Trinity College Dublin, and Stirling University. A wide range of external bodies have sponsored his research on interest groups, including the British Academy, ESRC, EPSRC, and Carnegie. He has notably published single- and lead-authored articles on the role of interest groups in outlets such as Journal of Common Market Studies, French Politics, Environmental Politics, and Energy Policy, among others.

Yves Mény, Emeritus President of the European University Institute (2002–9), is currently the chair of the board of the Sant’Anna School for Advanced Studies in Pisa. His academic career includes positions in Rennes, Paris II, Sciences Po, and the European University Institute. He has taught in many American and European universities and is an honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy. He has published extensively in the fields of French and comparative politics, public policies, and administration. His recent (p. xxv) publications have focused on corruption and populism, dealing with European integration, in particular the democratic deficit question and the tensions between EU policies and national politics.

Frédéric Mérand is Professor of Political Science and Director of CÉRIUM, the University of Montreal Centre for International Studies. His book European Defence Policy: Beyond the Nation State was published by Oxford University Press in 2008. He has published several articles on European and French defense policy with B. Irondelle, S. Hofmann, J. Joana, M. Foucault, and C. Hoeffler.

Richard Nadeau is Professor of Political Science at the University of Montreal. His interests are voting behavior, public opinion, political communication, and quantitative methodology. A Fulbright scholar and a former chief advisor to the Premier of Quebec, Professor Nadeau has authored or co-authored over 170 articles (published in the most prestigious political science journals), chapters, and books, including Le vote des Français de Mitterrand à Sarkozy, Unsteady State, Anatomy of a Liberal Victory, Citizens, French Presidential Elections, The Austrian Voter, Health Care Policy and Opinion in Canada and the United States, and Le comportement électoral des Québécois (Donald Smiley Award 2010).

Bruno Palier is CNRS Research Director at Sciences Po, Centre d’Études Européennes. Trained in social science, he has a PhD in political science and is a former student of the Ecole Normale Superieure. His area of study is welfare reforms in Europe. He is co-director of LIEPP (Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies). He has published numerous articles on welfare reforms in France and in Europe in Politics and Society, Journal of European Social Policy, West European Politics, Governance, Socio-Economic Review, Global Social Policy, Social Politics, and various books. In 2012, he co-edited The Age of Dualization: The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies with P. Emmenegger, S. Häusermann, and M. Seeleib-Kaiser (Oxford: Oxford University Press) and Towards a Social Investment Welfare State? Ideas, Policies and Challenges, with N. Morel and J. Palme (Bristol: Policy Press). In 2010, he edited A Long Goodbye to Bismarck? The Politics of Welfare Reforms in Continental Europe (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press); in 2007 he co-edited a special issue of Social Policy and Administration, on “Comparing welfare reforms in Continental Europe;” in 2006, Changing France, co-edited with P. Culpepper and P. Hall (Basingstoke: Palgrave); in 2010, La réforme des systèmes de santé (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Collection Que sais-je?, 5th edn); 2010, La réforme des retraites (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Collection Que sais-je?, 3rd edn); 2002, Gouverner la sécurité sociale (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 2nd updated edition in 2005); and 2001, Globalization and European Welfare States: Challenges and Changes, co-edited with R. S. Sykes and P. Prior (Basingstoke: Palgrave).

Craig Parsons is Professor of Political Science at the University of Oregon. He is the author of A Certain Idea of Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003), How to Map Arguments in Political Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), How to Think (p. xxvi) for Yourself about Politics (New York: Pearson, 2016), and many articles on the history and workings of the EU, French politics, and European political economy. He is also co-editor of books on the social construction of the international economy, immigration in Europe, and the EU in comparative perspective.

Romain Pasquier is a CNRS Research Professor (Directeur de Recherche) at the Institute of Political Studies, Sciences Po, Rennes, France. His field of research covers territorial governance, regionalism, and state reform in Europe. He has recently published Regional Governance and Power in France: The Dynamics of Political Space (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).

Gilles Pinson is a professor of political science in Sciences Po, Bordeaux, and a researcher in the Centre Emile Durkheim (Université de Bordeaux, Sciences Po, Bordeaux, CNRS). His research deals with urban policies and politics, urban and metropolitan governance, and the transformations of the relationships between territorial states and cities. He is currently working on the politicization of inter-municipal bureaucrats in the French metropolis and the construction of the local markets of the “smart city.” Among his main publications are Gouverner la ville par projet. Urbanisme et gouvernance des villes européennes (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2009), and more recently “Gouvernance et sociologie de l’action organisée. Action publique, coordination et théorie de l’État” (L’Année sociologique, 65(2), 2015, 483–517); “From the Governance of Sustainability to the Management of Climate Change: Reshaping Urban Policies and Central–Local Relations in France” (with V. Béal, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 7(3), 2015, 402–19); and “When Mayors Go Global: International Strategies, Urban Governance and Leadership” (with V. Béal, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(1), 2014, 302–17). He is currently preparing a book about the debate on the neo-liberalization of urban policies and governance (Debating the Neoliberal City, Ashgate, forthcoming). He is a member of the editorial boards of the Revue française de science politique and Métropoles.

Anne Revillard is an associate professor of sociology at Sciences Po (Paris), affiliated with the Observatoire sociologique du changement (OSC) and the Laboratory for the Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies (Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d’évaluation des politiques publiques, LIEPP). Her research focuses on policy and politics in the fields of gender and disability. Recent publications include L’État des droits. Politique des droits et pratiques des institutions, co-edited with P.-Y. Baudot (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po/Gouvernance) and “A Paradigmatic Social Movement? Women’s Movements and the Definition of Contentious Politics” with L. Bereni, Sociétés contemporaines, 85, 2012, 17–41.

Nicolas Sauger is Associate Professor of Political Science at Sciences Po, Paris, and research associate at its Center for European Studies and at LIEPP where he is co-directing a research group about the quality of democracy. He has published research about elections, parties, and electoral systems in France and in a comparative perspective in journals such as British Journal of Political Science, Political Research Quarterly, (p. xxvii) and West European Politics. He is currently member of the planning committee of the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) and of the Scientific Advisory Board of the European Social Survey.

Sabine Saurugger, PhD (Sciences Po, Paris) is Professor of Political Science and Research Dean of Sciences Po, Grenoble. Honorary member of the Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), she has held visiting research and professorship positions at the Universities of Cologne, Montreal, Brussels, and Oxford. Her research focuses on theories of European integration, resistances to European integration, and the politics of law, and has been published in journals such as the European Journal of Political Research, Journal of Common Market Studies, West European Politics, Political Studies, Comparative Politics, Comparative European Politics, Journal of European Public Policy, Revue française de science politique, and Swiss Revue of Political Science.

Vivien A. Schmidt is Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration, Professor of International Relations in the Frederick S. Pardee School of Global Studies and Professor of Political Science at Boston University (BU), as well as Founding Director of BU’s Center for the Study of Europe. Her books include Resilient Liberalism in Europe’s Political Economy (co-edited, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); Democracy in Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)—named in 2015 by the European Parliament as one of the “100 Books on Europe to Remember”—The Futures of European Capitalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Welfare and Work in the Open Economy (co-edited, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); From State to Market? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); and Democratizing France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Professor Schmidt’s honors, awards, and grants include an honorary doctorate from the Free University of Brussels, holding the Belgian Franqui Interuniversity Chair for foreign scholars, Fulbright fellowships to the EU and France, and a research fellowship from the European Commission (DG ECFIN), and being co-investigator on a multi-year EU Commission HORIZON 2020 grant. She is past head of the European Union Studies Association (EUSA).

Vincent Tiberj is currently Associate Professor at Sciences Po, Bordeaux, for the 2015–18 period. Previously, he was Associate Research Professor FNSP at Sciences Po between 2002 and 2015, first at CEVIPOF and then the CEE. He specializes in comparative electoral behavior (France, United States, and Europe), the political psychology of ordinary citizens, the sociology of inequalities, the politics of immigration and integration, and survey research and methodology. (p. xxviii)