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date: 06 March 2021

(p. 708) General Index

(p. 708) General Index

Note: f = figure. n = footnote. t = table.

a-morphousness 8, 32, 193, 210–11, 404–5 see also amorphousness hypothesis
abbreviations 189, 201
abstractive (theory) 388, 587
distinguished from constructive 7, 76, 368, 574
acquisition 246, 370
order of 524, 528, 531–2
processes of 248–9, 400
action nouns 253–5, 256, 257
activation 347, 349, 351–2, 362–3
adaptation 351–2, 354–5, 361
additivity 188
violations 189, 201
adequacy
conflicting levels of 249–51, 253
descriptive/explanatory 476–7, 488, 491 see also system adequacy/congruity
affix competition 14, 51n
affix hopping 27, 107, 119, 174
affix ordering 8, 14, 52, 67–8, 344, 448–50, 449t
rules governing 44–5, 77
variable 75, 237–8, 272–3
affix synonymy 14, 51n
affix telescoping 14, 480–1
affixation 22, 34
under adjacency 149
vs. compounding 16, 357f, 606, 608
derivational 44, 52, 131–2, 334, 608
inflectional 52, 131–2
and neurolinguistics 558, 560
phrasal 42–3, 242
preference over conversion/subtraction 247
semantics of 45–6
and sign language 603, 605–6, 608 see also prosodic affixation
affix(es) 3, 39–41, 92
categorization 136–9
in Cognitive Grammar 355–7
in Construction Morphology 369, 372, 378–9, 386
distinguished from other lexical items 12, 19–20, 20n, 93, 142, 176, 341–2 (see also signs)
double marking 164–5
in Generative Grammar 107, 114, 125, 127
lexicalist analysis 131–2, 137–8, 141–2
morphophonological rules 179–80
negative 65
as parts of constructions 369
phonological variations 43–4
polysemous 45–6
portmanteau 471, 474
positioning 188, 205–6
problems of definition 435–6
productivity 49–50
relationship with base see under base
Structuralist analysis 92–4
substitution 380
substratal 14, 457–8, 464, 468–70
superstratal 14, 457, 462–3, 468–9
affixoids 344, 386, 481–3
age
of first-language learners 512n, 517, 518
in second language acquisition 517, 526
agglutination 266–7, 275, 501
‘agglutinative ideal’ 282
vs. flexion 453 see also agglutinative languages
agglutinative languages 22, 250, 444, 494, 510, 556
agreement 3, 88–9, 104, 158, 334, 338–40, 413–14
Agreement Number 340
in CS 182–3
domain of 411–12
features 329n, 339–40
in sign language 611–12 see also gender; number
Aktionsart 10, 173
alignment 447
constraints 10, 190, 191–2, 207–8
misplaced 235
prosodic 207–8, 209
(p. 709) allomorphy 5, 6, 12, 14, 25, 124, 252, 253–4, 444
in child language 519
in creole languages 453, 471
in Distributed Morphology (DM) 164–5
f-morpheme vs. l-morpheme 164–5
morphomic (opaque) 451
phonologically/grammatically conditioned 452 see also stem allomorphy
alternation, phonologically opaque 444 see also stem alternation
amorphousness hypothesis 63–4, 67, 73, 128
analogical change 248
analogy 35, 43, 54–5, 283–4, 483, 494
paradigmatic 484
proportional 277, 278, 281, 584, 587
analyzability 277, 351, 352–3, 354f, 358
degrees of 352f, 363
anaphoric islands 140
animacy 260–2, 393n
anti-periphrasis 446t
anti-separatism 245–6
aorist tense/stem 505–6
aphasia 16, 246, 554, 559–60, 563–4
applicative 67, 226, 442
arbitrarism 245–6
argument structure 10, 46, 137, 411n
derivation 173
morpholexical operations 226, 232, 393
artificial neural networks 16, 573
aspect, place in affix order 446, 448, 449t
assembly 361
attention, in language acquisition 517
attribute(s) 315, 329n
ordering 308–11, 316–17
Autolexical Syntax 391
autonomous morphology 3, 451
autonomy/dependence 355–6, 356n, 358f, 359
auxiliaries 222–3, 230–1, 238–40
axioms 419, 421–2, 429, 430
base-definition 413, 427, 428, 430–1
Base Reduplicant Correspondence Theory (BRCT) 192, 193, 194, 200, 202, 208–10
base(s)
relationship with affix 247–8, 252
behavioral experiments 563, 567–8, 570, 571
Behaviorism 98, 102–3
bilingualism 344, 527–8, 538–9, 569
binarity 11, 139–40, 227, 249, 422–3
constraint 200
Binary Branching Hypothesis 139–40
binyan(im) 189, 204–5, 210
biuniqueness 5, 11, 247–8, 250, 273, 420–2, 496, 575
deviations from 5, 13–14, 445t, 448
blends, in sign language 610–11
blocking 7, 10, 50–2, 78–9, 120, 141, 343, 354
defined 50–1
distinction between types 51n
and Distributed Morphology (DM) 162
lexical 248
morphological, principle of 215–16
and network morphology 321–2
(possible) non-existence 50, 52, 55
and Word Grammar 343
Boolean lattice 423–5, 424f, 425f
borrowing 478, 488–9
lexical 505–6
bound roots 395, 404, 405
bracketing paradox(es) 8, 35, 48, 53, 139, 383–4
brain(s)
activation 557–9
electrophysiological studies 557–9, 561–3
information storage 400, 402
neuropsychological studies 559–61, 563–5, 570–1
regions 557, 568, 570–1, 571f
relationship with language functions 554–5
and second language acquisition 15, 527, 540
branching 139–40, 199–201
Broca’s aphasia 554, 564
building blocks, metaphor of 348, 350–1, 357, 358
canon, establishment of 410–25
canonical values, identification of 416–22
domain, identification of 411–12
parameters of variation, identification of 413–16
sample space, extrapolation of 422–5
canonical inflection 298, 416–17, 419, 426, 445–6
deviations from 292–5, 446t, 451
Canonical Typology 2, 13, 409–31
application to derivational morphology 426–9
application to inflectional morphology 426
axioms 419, 421–2, 429, 430
canon, establishment of see under canon
future directions 429–31
Precept of Independence 417–18 see also canonical inflection
case stacking 11, 218, 232–3
case(s) 3, 12, 186
assignment 128, 167
inflection 273–4
locative 316
marking 40, 104, 183, 232, 271–2, 307, 315, 436, 445, 500–1, 513, 526
oblique forms 293
categorization 347–9, 350f, 362–3
causativization 225, 442
Cell Interface Hypothesis 289, 292
cells see under content cells; form cells
(p. 710) children 248–9, 511–21
age of language acquisition 512n, 517, 518
atypical language acquisition 520–1
and irregular verbal/nominal forms 517–19
past tense inflections 516–17
second language acquisition 517
circumfixation 249
classifier constructions, in sign language 601–2, 604, 611, 613
clitics 71, 97, 146, 155, 450
distinguished from affixes 341–2, 441
doubling/left dislocation 441
in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 240–2
in Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 238–9
second-position 441
and Word Grammar 328, 338, 340–3, 344–5
closure problem 243
co-index(ation) 375–7, 381, 385, 396–7, 403, 405–6, 461
co-phonology 202
coercion 378n, 393
cognitive abilities 249–50
cognitive endowment 249
Cognitive Grammar 3, 12, 346–64, 402
fundamentals 346–7, 364
morphemes 347–54
morphological structures 354–9
unification 359–63
cognitive psychology 245–6
commission, errors of 511–12, 517–18
commutation class 93
competition 495
for activation 354, 362
between constructions 383, 388–9
completeness 416–20, 420n, 423–4
complex categories 337, 350–1
complex symbols 28–9, 30
complex words 37–8, 117, 123, 440–1
and first language acquisition 514–15
and neurolinguistics 556–7, 560–1, 566–7, 572
psychological processing 542–4, 546–51, 553
(re‐)motivation 386
whole-word representation 543, 551–2
complexification 494, 496
complexity, morphological 320–3, 421n, 450
Complexity Based Ordering 52
compositional/noncompositional semantics 392, 395, 429, 456, 467 see also compositionality
compositionality 5, 387–8, 393, 439
correlation with frequency 50
structural vs. functional 66–8 see also non-compositionality
compounds/compounding 46–8, 74, 94–5, 117–18, 398, 427–8
vs. affixation 16, 357f, 606, 608
argumental 47–8
vs. blending 610
in Cognitive Grammar 354–9
in Construction Morphology 375–7, 380–2, 386
coordinative 249
and CS/Minimalism 176–7, 179–80
endocentric/exocentric 506–8
fixed-order vs. free-order 608
linking elements 440
markers 507, 509
neurolinguistic approaches to 556–7, 562–5, 570–2
patterns 507–8, 509
vs. phrases 439–41, 478
and psycholinguistics 546–51
and second language acquisition 536–9
and sign language 605, 606–8, 610
synthetic 177
ternary 249
variations in 495, 502–4, 506–9 see also phrasal compounds
comprehension
and neurolinguistics 556, 557–65, 569, 570, 572
and second language acquisition 531–2, 536
computation
in children 14–15, 515, 51­6
internal, in Chomskyan theory 28, 30, 55, 124, 133
minimization 7–8
optimal 169, 175n, 575
vs. storage 6, 9, 14, 15, 16, 400n, 542–3, 544, 552, 574 see also computational linguistics
computational linguistics 6, 16, 141, 452, 573–93
hierarchical lexica 579–82
morphological induction 582–92
rule induction 585–6
theoretical background 574–5
word coding 589–92
see also finite state automata; finite state transducerssee under Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG); Merge
Computational System (CS) 167–86
application to Minimalism 171–7
feature-free 184
features as part of 184–6
relationship with inflection 182–3
removal of Agree 182–3
and spell-out 177–82
concatenative ideal 187–90, 210
defined 188
violations 189–90, 204–8
concatenative morphology 45–6, 151–2, 249, 250, 331, 388, 429
vs. non-concatenative 41, 58, 65, 73–6, 152n, 210, 289, 446–8
concord 48, 436n, 440
conditional entropy 279–81
Low Conditional Entropy Conjecture 283–4
(p. 711) configurational accounts 128, 173
conjugation classes 294n, 295–6, 579–80
consonant mutation 22, 38
constraints 9, 10
in Construction Morphology 377–8
on Word Formation Rules (WFRs) 114, 127, 141 see also alignment; faithfulness constraints; markedness
constructicon 371n, 372
Construction Grammar 12, 123n, 167n, 219, 347, 392n
links with Construction Morphology 365, 366
Radical 389
and Relational Morphology 394, 399
Construction Morphology 2, 5, 11, 12–13, 365–89
and creoles 456n, 461, 465, 474
evaluation 387–9
morphological processes 378–85
relationship with Network Morphology 305–6
relationship with Relational Morphology 394, 399, 406, 407
sign-based 366–7
special issues 386–7
theoretical tools 373–8
Constructional Iconicity, Principle of 247–8, 252
constructional idioms 382, 387
constructional properties 375–6, 384
constructional requirements 377
constructionalization 386, 483
constructions 365–89
abstract 366, 371n
competition between 388–9
defined 372
distinguished from constructs 371n
hierarchy of 366
multi-word 382–4 (see also multi-word expressions)
range of 365–6
semi-specified 369, 374–5verb-particle 382–3, 382n see also paradigmatic relations
constructive (theory) 229, 232–3, 269
distinguished from abstractive 7, 76, 368, 574
constructs 371–2, 371n
content cells 72–3, 290–1, 297t, 298, 417
content paradigm(s) 72–3, 290–1, 291f, 294, 295–8, 296t, 299t, 301, 422
contiguity 188
violations 189–90, 204–5, 208
convergence 490, 491–2
conversion 34, 95, 152, 247
masculine-to-feminine 502–4
noun-to-adjective 330
noun-to-verb 379
and reduplication 460
coordination 438
Copenhagen school 86–7
corpora 14, 134, 344, 453
historical/modern 485, 486–7
correspondence 355
creoles 14, 455–75
derivation 462–7
inflection 467–74
morphology 456–8
reduplication (full) 458–62
semantic opacity 464–5, 471–2
stems 471, 472–3
criteria in Canonical Typology 416–18, 422–5, 428–9
cumulation 426
DATR (knowledge representation language) 12, 306, 308n, 309, 313, 579–82
decomposition 535, 537–8, 548–50
evidence for 551–2
and neurolinguistics 556–7, 558, 570
theories/controversies 543–4, 545
Deep Structure 107–8, 110, 112
transformationalist approaches 115–19
default inflection 60, 65, 71–2t, 75, 82
default inheritance 12, 243, 306, 313–16, 320–1, 326, 327–45, 373–87, 579
hierarchies 313–14, 313f, 327, 344–5
multiple 334, 335–6
networks 313
default(s) 154, 183, 233–5, 288–91, 296, 302, 323–4, 334, 343, 472–3, 519, 580
exceptional case 306, 319–20, 320t
extension 318
normal case 306, 316, 319–20, 320t
defectiveness 11, 292, 414–15, 420–1, 446, 452
in derivational paradigms 78–9
definiteness 414
dependent-marking 447–8, 450
deponency 5, 11, 72–3, 82, 292, 294, 294n, 295t, 318n, 451, 495
relationship with syncretism 69, 71
derivation
in creole languages 460, 462–7
deverbal 506
distinguished from inflection see under inflection
domain of 427–9
and lexical semantics 45–6
in Lexicalist framework 126–7
prototypical 442–3, 443n
(p. 712) derivational morphology 27, 40–1, 122n, 130, 145, 252–3
basic principles 139
and Canonical Typology 410, 426–9
and creoles 460, 462–7
distinguished from inflectional see under inflectional morphology
and first language acquisition 514
lexical processes 225–7, 243
and neurolinguistics 556, 566
and Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) 299–301
and second language acquisition 532–6
and Word Grammar 328, 330, 338
derivational paradigm(s) 8, 53–4, 78–9
linked to inflectional 299–300, 427
descriptive linguistics 4, 21n, 100, 103, 453
determinism see Pāṇinian determinism
Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) see Specific Language Impairment
diachronic change 14, 86, 101, 256, 260, 476–92
and Network Morphology 323–5
diachrony 9, 463n, 485
and Network Morphology 319, 323–5
diagrammaticity 5, 11, 261–3
in Natural Morphology 247–50, 252–3
preference for 253, 256, 261
dialects, variations in 493–500, 501n, 508–10
dictionary/ies
data, use of 486
distinguished from lexicon(s) 6
frequency (Russian) 320
Halle version 31, 113–14, 119, 133
sign language 600
discovery procedures 26, 102, 582
discriminative learning 267, 269, 271–2, 284
distinctiveness see unambiguity
Distributed Morphology (DM) 5, 10, 32, 33, 40–1, 121, 129–30, 143–65, 438n
background 144–9
basic structure 150f
derivation vs. inflection 160–1
f- vs. l-morphemes 162–5
future directions 165
idiosyncratic rules 155–6
interface with phonology 160
and Item-and-Arrangement theory 150, 151–3
and Minimalism 166, 172, 176, 179
model 147–9
morphological features 150–9
morphological issues 160–5
as realizational model 156–9
rejection of Lexicalism 145–7
relationship with Construction Morphology 368, 378, 389
underspecification 153–5
‘vocabulary’ 6
distributional class(es) 414–15, 417–18, 419–20
distributional method 92, 98, 102, 103n
distributives 609, 611
disyllabicity constraint 198, 200, 201
domain(s), in Canonical Typology
agreement 411–12
derivational 427–9
graphic representations 423f
identification of 411–12, 422–3
inflection 412, 413
structures within 413
dual mechanism approach
first language 514–16, 519–20
second language 527
dual-route processing 14–15, 15n, 511, 513n, 514–21, 551–2
and neurolinguistics 557, 562, 563, 564–5
dynamic memories 16, 587, 592–3
dynamicity 346, 522, 540
dyslexia
neglect 564
Early Generative Grammar 9, 105–21, 123–4, 133
general theoretical issues 119–20
legacy 120–1
Lexicalist Hypothesis 111–19
and the lexicon 109–11
and morphology 106–8
objections to 121
Transformational 27, 106–7, 115–19, 121
economy of expression, principle of 215
edge feature 184, 241
ELAN (Early Left Anterior Negativity) 555
electroencephalography (EEG) 555, 557–8, 561–3
electrophysiological experiments
on compound comprehension 562–3
on derived word comprehension 561–2
on morphological violations 557–9
ellipsis 63, 268, 438
‘elsewhere form/rule’ 154, 158, 161, 514
emergent properties 347, 351, 354–5
encoding 558, 568–9, 571–2
phonological 557
endocentricity 14, 141, 376–7, 506–8, 565
entrenchment 349–50, 350f, 358, 363
degrees of 346–7, 353, 362
entropy 11, 16, 451–2
Maximum Entropy classifier 584–5, 589
measurement 279
reduction 279–80, 281 see also conditional entropy
episememes 98–9
ERP (event-related potential) 15–16, 548, 554–5, 557, 558–9, 561–2, 567, 568, 569, 570–1
evaluative morphology 40, 246, 248, 442
(p. 713) event structure see argument structure
exemplar-based approach 372, 384, 389
exhaustivity 416–20, 423–4
existing words 2
development of new words from 49–50, 400, 483, 561
generalizations over 396, 402
identification 134, 395
resegmentation 481
exocentricity 14, 49, 174, 375–7, 506–8
experimental research 395, 398, 400n, 402 see also behavioral experiments
exponence
affixal 447
in creoles 455, 470–1
cumulative vs. separatist 444
different types of 302–3, 444, 446–7
discontinuous 235–6
distributed 446, 447f
gestalt 275–7
multiple/extended 5, 65, 218, 229–32, 286–7, 289, 445–6, 470–1, 495
non-segmental 447
in portmanteau words 235–6
rule(s) of 76–7, 287–8, 293
secondary 158–9
exponents 39–40, 58, 76–7, 177–82, 286–7
idiosyncratic restrictions 178–9
of negation 68
ordering 450
primary/secondary 158
of Word Formation Rules (WFRs) 127
externalization 168, 178
extra-morphological motivation 262
extra-morphological properties 260–3, 262t
faithfulness constraints 10, 142, 190–2
feature structures 4, 155, 219, 221, 227, 233, 316–17
feature(s), in (Canonical) Typology 413–22
centrality to approach 410
feature–value combinations 417, 418–19, 422
inflectional 437, 442–3
intersections 413–15, 420, 426
feminine nouns, formation of 502–4
finite state automata 16, 573, 575–7
defined 575
word building with 576, 577f
finite state transducers 16, 577–9, 578f
general features 578–9
limitations 579
first language acquisition 14–15, 511–21
atypical 520–1
complex words 514–15
creoles 456–7
distinguished from second-language acquisition 527, 532–3, 535–6
inter-lingual comparisons 519–20
and linguistic theory 512–13
overregularization 517–19
past tenses 516–17 see also children
fission 148, 155–6, 159
flexion 453
floating affix(es) 11, 237–8
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 15–16, 554–5, 566, 569, 571
form cells 72–3, 290–1, 294, 297–8, 302
form correspondents 290–1, 297–8, 297t
form–meaning relationship 437, 444–8
mismatches 377, 384, 446, 456
pairings 372
form paradigm(s) 72–3, 290–1, 291f, 292–4, 297–8, 298t, 301, 422
formalism 7, 54, 105, 210–11, 388, 407
DATR 579, 581
feature structure 219
formalist theory/ies 1, 7, 9, 13
phonological vs. syntactic 7
popularity 102, 125
rejection 102, 245
and word formation rules 126–7
framework-free grammatical theory 476
frequency 101–2, 320
family 551
and first language acquisition 515, 516–18, 521
high vs. low 402, 547–8
lexical 552, 557
and neurolinguistics 556–7, 560–1, 565
full entry theory 114, 120, 125, 134, 371, 402–3
and first language acquisition 515
full-listing models 556, 563
full-parsing models 556, 562
Full Transfer/Full Access model 524–5
fully inflected form(s) 57, 170, 213, 215, 222, 384
and Word Grammar 329–30, 329f, 331–4, 332f, 333f, 337, 344
Functional Hierarchy 182
functionalist theory/ies 1, 7, 9, 102, 448
and language change 256
and Natural Morphology 245, 256, 263
function(s), in Cognitive Grammar 34–8, 347, 353–4
symbolizing 358–9
fusion 148, 155–6, 252t, 253, 443t, 471, 501, 608
non-appearance 161 see also fusional languages
fusional languages 222, 250, 494–5, 501 see also semi-fusional languages
gender
agreement 88–9, 104, 158, 413–14, 526
and Canonical Typology 413–15, 416–18, 420n
(p. 714) identification 261–2
inflection 128, 379, 392, 439, 500–1
lexical stipulation 182–3
syncretism 293, 310, 415, 420n
generalized referral 12, 312, 315, 316–19
Generalized Template Theory (GTT) 196–200
hierarchy-based 196–8
morpheme-based 198–200
generalized verbs 117
Generative Semantics 29, 106, 115–19, 120–1, 144, 167
geographical features, names for 397–8
gerundive nominals 30, 111–13, 194–5
Gestalt 249 see also exponence
Glossematics 86–7, 93, 101n
grammatical categories 10, 94, 96, 184
conceptual characterization 361n
derivation 172
error-proneness (in second language) 526
grammatical concepts 22–3, 87–8, 104
grammatical features 3, 81, 413, 529
grammatical processes 21, 22, 87–8, 104
grammaticalization 14, 152n, 274, 478, 481–3, 603
in Construction Morphology 386
hapaxes 50, 92
hapax legomenon 254, 487
head 132, 138, 140–1
marking 430, 447–8 see also headedness
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 5, 6, 10–11, 123n, 144, 212–13, 242–3, 394, 396, 410
inflection in 233–8
interface with syntax 240–2
morphological processes 225
overview 218–21
word formation 226–9
headedness 5, 8, 35, 46, 48–9, 174, 344
in Greek 506–9
and neurolinguistics 562–5
and non-compositionality 375–7 see also left-headedness; right-headedness
hemodynamic experiments 554–5, 572
heteroclisis 5, 14, 294, 446t, 498–9
hierarchical lexica 16, 370–2, 373, 386, 573, 579–82, 592
hierarchies, in Construction Morphology 366, 371, 372, 381f, 382f, 387
‘open’ vs. ‘closed’ 379, 381 see also constructions; default inheritance; hierarchical lexica; inheritance
holistic approaches 375, 444
Homogeneity Hypothesis 528
homonymy 101, 136, 446t
homophony 5, 95, 102
accidental 71, 322
hypocoristics 38, 248, 379–80
icons
types of 247–8
Identity Function Default 472
idiomaticity 387, 438–41
idioms 392, 398 see also constructional idioms
images 247, 248–9
imperfect tense, variations in formation 496–8 see also mediopassive imperfect tense
implicational relations 275–8, 282–3
implicative rules 9, 76–7
impoverished entry theory 401–3
distinguished from full-entry 114, 125, 134, 371, 515
and first language acquisition 515
problems of 402, 407
impoverishment 148–9, 154, 165, 169, 531
rules 155
incorporation 478
noun 48, 152n, 226, 439
in sign language 610
incremental theories (of morphology) 65n, 246
distinguished from realizational 7, 33, 39–40, 41, 76–7, 156, 263–4, 305
Independence, Precept of 417–18
index, definition of 249
indexicality 11, 249–50
inference
default 306, 310, 314, 315, 318, 319n
rules/chains of 56, 57, 308, 309–10
inferential-incremental models 57, 65n, 286
inferential-realizational models 9, 57–8, 65, 76, 156n, 233, 329, 409–10
and Network Morphology 12, 305, 322
and Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) 11, 286–7
inferential theories (of morphology) 68–9, 305
cross-matching with other forms 39, 57–8, 286–7
infinitival forms/markers 504n, 505–6
children’s use of 513
infixation 10, 73–4, 152, 188, 190, 205–8, 249, 447
(p. 715) inflection 8–9, 426
and child learning 512
contextual vs. inherent 4, 442, 468, 468n
in creole languages 467–74
distinguished from derivation 4, 10, 13–14, 34–5, 50, 77–8, 127–8, 442–3, 514
domain 412, 413, 426
in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 233–8
in Lexicalist framework 127–9
in Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 229–33
prototypical 442–3, 443n
Structuralist analysis 95–6
inflectional categories 59, 59n, 330, 450
inflection(al) class(es) 3, 6, 14, 49, 257–63, 269, 283, 292, 294, 295, 410, 426, 451, 467
conjugation classes 363
in Greek 496–9, 504, 506
in Italian 367, 379, 384–5, 387
in Nuer 321, 321t, 323, 451–2, 452t
inflectional morphology 56–81, 252–3
basic units 59–62
and Canonical Typology 410, 426
concatenative vs. non-concatenative 73–7
creoles and 467–74
defined 58–9
degree of autonomy 80–1
distinguished from derivational 77–80, 130–1, 132, 136, 144, 160–1, 442
and neurolinguistics 556, 566, 570
and second language acquisition 523–32
structures 62–73
Word Grammar and 328, 330, 338
inflectional paradigm(s) 11, 68–73, 78–80, 268–9, 275–8, 496–7, 591
canonical 416–22, 423–4
in creoles 457, 467, 471
delimitation 442
form vs. content 72–3
linked to derivational 299–300, 427
information theory 11, 266f, 269, 279, 279n, 281–2, 284, 451–2
inheritance 12, 138
global 314, 320
hierarchies 219–21, 235, 371, 387, 401
impoverished vs. full entry 401–3, 407
Instantiation Inheritance Links 371, 374
local 314
multiple 219, 301, 327, 335–7
problems 405
without inherent directionality 403–4 see also default inheritance
integrating element(s) 504–6
integration strategies 504–6
interfaces 3, 96–9, 107n, 246, 391–3, 407, 539
and Distributed Morphology (DM) 160, 165
feature 81
formative 81
and Minimalism 173, 184
morphology-lexicon 6–7, 338–43
morphology-phonology 6, 43–5, 97, 160, 166, 244, 302, 338, 430, 529–31
morphology-pragmatics 338
morphology-semantics 5, 98–9, 166, 338, 393
internal stem change 34, 36, 38
interpredictability 269
introflectional language 250
ion morphs 16, 596, 597–600, 604, 611, 613
irregular words 15, 385n
and first language acquisition 514–15, 517–19
and neurolinguistics 557–9
irregularity 306, 320, 345, 395, 398, 407, 436, 446
isolating languages 22, 250, 444
isomorphy 5, 53, 287, 302, 379
Item-and-Arrangement (IA) theory 7, 8, 10, 36–7, 143, 187–8, 393
contrasted with Item-and-Process (IP) 38–9, 92, 138, 151–2, 574
and Distributed Morphology (DM) 150, 151–3, 155–6, 160
Item-and-Pattern approach see Word and Paradigm Morphology
Item-and-Process (IP) theory 7, 8, 10, 37–9, 155–6, 269–70
contrasted with Item-and-Arrangement 38–9, 92, 138, 151–2, 574
kernel sentences 108, 110, 118
LAN (Left Anterior Negativity) 555, 558–9, 562, 563
language change 11, 101, 244, 256, 344–5, 386, 476
grammatically vs. extra-grammatically initiated 250
processes 479–84
language contact 14, 100, 456, 488–9, 494, 499–501
and compound variation 508–9
and derivational variation 504–6
and inflectional variation 499–501
language decay/death 246
language economy principle 496
language processing 391, 395
declarative vs. procedural 527, 534, 538, 592
and neurolinguistics 554–5
language production
and neurolinguistics 555, 557, 565–72
and second language acquisition 524–5, 526–7, 530–2
language states 100–1
language tags 527–8
language types 22, 250, 444
language typology 13–14, 435–54
language universals 436
late-insertion theory 23, 144–5 see also realizational theories
Later Generative Grammar 9–10, 122–42
layered morphology 449–50
layering 594, 603
left-headedness 14, 508–9, 562–3, 565
lemmatization 453
Lexeme-Morpheme Base Morphology (LMBM) 40, 130–1
lexemes 4
defined 58–9, 437, 442
insertion 61–2
phrasal 382–3
problems of definition 435–6
lexical access 557, 563, 593
lexical conceptual structures 393
lexical decision task(s) 16, 533, 537–40, 563
lexical enrichment 251–2
Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 5, 6, 10–11, 144, 212–13, 242–3, 394, 396, 410
computational implementation 212, 222
inflection in 229–33
interface with syntax 238–40
morphological processes 221–4
overview 213–18
word formation 225–6
lexical-incremental models 57, 286
lexical insertion 28, 113–14, 119, 124, 182
lexeme 61–2
morpheme-level view 56–7, 61
transformation 116–17
word-based 61–2
lexical integrity 5, 82, 238–9, 382
and Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 213–15, 396
Principle of 213, 215, 438 see also Lexical Integrity Hypothesis
Lexical Integrity Hypothesis 30, 41–3, 62, 81, 140, 170, 396
challenges to 42–3
Lexical Phonology and Morphology 43–5, 52, 53
lexical-realizational models 10, 57–8, 156, 164–5, 286
lexical redundancy
reduction 371
rules 396–7, 400, 485, 488
Lexical Relatedness Morphology (LRM) 130–1
lexical relations 13, 53, 125, 134, 399, 407
lexical rules 128, 221–2, 225, 226, 228, 243, 396
lexical semantics 3, 41, 45–8, 121, 379, 452
derivation 99, 426
distributional 593
lexical theories (of morphology)
Lexicalism 9–10, 30, 122–42
conditions on morphological rules 139–40
and derivation 126
early models 125
head, concept of 140–1
historical background 123–32
legacy 141–2
lexicon, concept of 132–4
minimal lexical units 136–9
rejection 145–7
terminology 122n
words, conception of 135–6 see also Lexicalist Hypothesis
Lexicalist Hypothesis 111–19, 120, 123, 396, 398, 400
Chomsky’s formulation 106, 112–13, 115, 124, 133
elaborations 113–15
Generalized 42, 128
objections to 146
Strong vs. Weak 128, 170
theories modelled on 125, 128, 129–32, 140
transformationalist approaches 115–19
Lexicalist Morphology see Lexicalism
lexicalization 50, 118, 468–9, 482–3, 597
cultural determination 604
lexicon
cognitive 347, 359–60
constructionist 369–72
distinct meanings 134
lexicalist 132–4
listing 96–7
relationship with morphology 6–7 see also constructicon; dictionary; hierarchical lexica
lexicon-grammar continuum 347, 369–70, 371
lexicon-syntax continuum 365n
liaison 97, 241
linearization 75, 149, 179–80, 219, 237–8
linguistic form(s) 24, 87–8, 98
defined 93–4
units of 25
linguistic typology 435–6, 452
listedness 146, 385 see also storage
listemes 143, 146, 148–9, 151, 156, 370
loanblends 504–6
loanwords 250, 478
truncations 189, 201–2
local cases 273–4
locus of marking 447–8
London School 103
markedness 89–90, 157, 245–6, 274
asymmetric 209
constraints 10, 190–1, 195
reductions 194–5, 256–61
masculine nouns 260–1, 499
variations in feminization 502–4
mathematics, Canonical Typology linked to 419–22, 423–5
maximality 195–6, 205, 208
meaning-free lexical items 392n
mediopassive imperfect tense 496–7
memory 390–1, 408
long-term 398n, 402
retrievals from 402
memory-based learning 583–4
mental lexicon 6, 39, 134
and blocking 51–2
and neurolinguistics 556, 570, 572
and psycholinguistics 542–3, 552
and second language acquisition 535, 538–9
workings of 35, 36, 372
Merge 4, 10, 166, 169, 186
computational system 171–2, 173, 174, 177, 180–4
metaphor 247, 249
Minimalism 4, 8, 10, 130, 131, 136, 166–86, 410, 425
application of CS principles 171–7
defining features 166–71
relationship with Distributed Morphology (DM) 143, 149, 161n, 162, 165 see also Computational System
minimality 169, 196, 198–9, 200, 205
minimum description length 402, 575, 588
Mirror Principle 144, 448
mismatches 5, 53, 68, 343
and Construction Morphology 376–7, 380, 383–4
form-content 71–2, 446, 456, 474
number-verb form 340
modality 260, 436
and sign language 595, 603, 613
modular approaches 5, 126, 342, 382, 388, 479 see also non-modular approaches
mood, verbal 61, 65, 71, 436
morpheme alternant(s) 25, 88–9, 91, 94, 95–6, 194
morpheme-based theories 32, 40, 121, 136–7, 574
critiques 135, 135n, 271
and Distributed Morphology (DM) 143, 150–1, 156
and Generalized Template Theory (GTT) 198–200
vs. word-based 4–8, 125, 135, 156n, 265, 267–8, 368, 574
morpheme units 35–6, 88–9
morpheme(s) 4, 93–4, 102
additive 188
assumptions about 61–2
classified list 91, 97
in Cognitive Grammar 347–54
defined 24, 34–5, 36, 93–4, 352, 365n
discontinuous 88–9, 95–7, 594
‘early’ vs. ‘late system’ 442
free 94n
frequency effects 545–7
functional vs. lexical (f- vs. l-) 162–5
lexical entries 36
Lexicalist view of 136–9
listing 61, 91, 125
monosyllabic 199
positional effects 550–1
problems of definition 4, 61, 62
representation 542–4
sequences 27, 91, 96
structural analyses 35–41
morphemics 89, 91, 270, 302
morphological ability 15, 522, 532–6
absence of 535–6
components 532–4
defined 532
morphological decomposition see decomposition
Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) 193–4
morphological organization 265–7, 268, 278–9
morphological processes 3–4, 409–10, 438
classification 442
in Distributed Morphology (DM) 144, 148, 150–1, 159, 160–1
representation 92, 221–5
morphological processing 542–53, 556–72
morphological rules 4, 42, 54, 252, 338
conditions on 139–40
in Distributed Morphology (DM) 150, 161
Lexicalist 112, 124, 125, 131–4, 139–40
morphological structure 354–9
and neurolinguistics 557–8, 560–1, 565–6
and psycholinguistics 541, 542, 543, 548–9
morphological typology 435–54
paradigmatic dimensions 450–3
syntagmatic dimensions 448–50
word, notion/problems of 437–44 see also form–meaning relationship
morphological violations
electrophysiological studies 557–9
neuropsychological studies 559–61
morphology
(p. 718) ‘by itself’ 3, 10, 142
extra-grammatical 246
and Generative Grammar 106–8
horizontal 605–10
layered vs. template 449–50
misrepresentation of content 66–8
overrepresentation of content 65
processes of 3–4
regular vs. irregular 115, 343, 345
relationship with other fields 2–4, 87–90
relationship with syntax see interfaces; syntax
and Structuralism 87–90, 91, 94–6, 103
sub-parts 94–6
subtractive 38, 138, 369, 379–80
underdetermining of content 64–5
units of analysis 92–3
morphomes 71–2, 82, 136, 142, 282–3
morphomic property/ies 291, 297, 451
shared 71–2, 73
morphophonemics 29, 91, 269
morphophonemic rules 27, 361
morphophonology 3f, 97, 177–8, 179–80, 225, 244
morphosemantics 3f, 393
morphosyntactic features 340f, 436
canonical 411, 416–17
of creoles 455–6, 470–4
ordering 306, 308–11, 316–18
relationship of number and case 306–7, 311–12, 316–17
separation from form 305
and Word Grammar 329n, 334–5 see also under agreement
morphosyntax 3, 3f, 39–40, 59, 177–8, 267–8, 273–4, 392–3, 404, 407, 574
relationship with inflectional exponents 76–7
and sign language 611–12 see also morphosyntactic features
morphotactics 25, 26, 32, 226, 234, 267–8, 273, 303, 426, 444, 451
and transparency 253–5, 256, 257
morphs
combination 331
cranberry 395
defined 235, 330
empty/zero 25–6, 89
variable ordering 234–6 see also ion morphs
motivation
defined 374
degrees of 385
partial 374
in Relational Morphology 402–3, 405, 407
movement, syntactic 438
multi-word expressions 4, 13, 274, 365–6, 382–3
multilingualism 527
multivariate typology 409, 425
N400 effects 555, 561–2, 568–70, 571–2
Nanosyntax 164, 165, 167, 180–2
Natural Morphology (NM) 11, 166, 244–64
background 244–5
cognitive roots 245–6
functionalist nature 245
future directions 263–4
semiotic basis 246–51
strategy 251–6
system-dependent naturalness 257–63
Natural Phonology 244–5
naturalness 11, 245–6
parameters 249
system-dependent 257–63
universal 249–51, 263
neo-constructionism 46, 183–4
network, constructionist 365, 372, 373
Network Morphology 12, 142, 267, 305–26, 327, 582
case studies 319–25
computational implementation 320, 326
framework 306–18
relationship with other theories 305–6
Network Postulate 327, 329
neural networks 513n
artificial 16, 573
deep 585
neuroimaging 554–5, 570
neurolinguistics 6, 13, 14, 15–16, 141, 554–72
brain activation 557–9
defined 554–5
future directions 572
and morphological processing 556–72
neuropsychological patients 554–5, 557, 559–61
neuter nouns 500
pluralization 257–8
niche, productive 387
nicknames 10, 188, 189, 201, 202, 380
No-Blur principle 323
No-Phrase Constraint 5, 140, 174, 175–7
node realignment 324, 325
nominalization(s) 30, 41, 46, 107–8, 111–13, 252, 442
derived 145
rules of 115, 116–18
(p. 719) syntactical vs. lexical 119–20, 122, 144
non-compositionality 5
and headedness 375–7
non-concatenative morphology/processes 10, 34, 38, 138, 249, 250, 369, 385, 388
(variety of) definitions 34n, 74 see also concatenative morphology
non-configurational languages 216, 232
non-existing words 369, 375
predictable meanings 395
and second language acquisition 533 see also blocking
non-iconic forms/coding 247–9, 257–8, 261
non-manuals 595, 596–7, 599, 602
non-modular approaches 208, 209, 210, 592
non-productive patterns 362
non-word bases see bound roots
noncompositional semantics see compositional/noncompositional semantics
norms/normalcy 250
number 59, 339–40
and Canonical Typology 413–14, 416–17
markers 257–8, 271, 316 see also pluralization
numerosity 255, 260, 382, 404–5
obligatoriness 443t
‘Occam’s razor’ see parsimony, principle of
omission, errors of 511–13, 517, 521
opacity
referential 439
semantic 471–2, 561–2
optimal word shape 249–50
Optimality Theory (OT) 2–3, 8, 10, 134, 160, 187–211, 232n, 248
constraint types 190–2
contribution to prosodic morphology 208–9
unresolved issues 209–10
‘Orwell’s problem’ 523–4
output-orientation 246, 369, 379
overabundance 14, 289n, 426, 495, 502
overdifferentiation 446t
overgeneration 377, 389, 398
overlap 346–7, 349–50, 353, 355, 362
overregularization, in first language acquisition 517–19
overrides, in Network Morphology 306, 314–15, 324, 326
P600 effects 555, 558, 563
palatalization 252
Pāṇinian determinism 306, 309, 322
Paradigm Cell Filling Problem 283
paradigm economy principle 278, 323, 451, 496
Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) 11, 156n, 285–304, 574
background 285–7
basic features 287–94
and creoles 468, 472–4
future prospects 302–4
illustrative examples 295–9
and interfaces 301–2
and lexeme formation 299–301
PFM1 (2001 version) 287–9
PFM2 (2016 version) 289–94
relationship with other theories 12, 13, 225, 233–4, 241, 243, 305, 327, 343, 409, 426
paradigm structure conditions 258
paradigmatic levelling 496–8
paradigmatic relations 369, 371, 380, 383–4, 385, 437
paradigmatics 265–7, 271, 274n
paradigm(s)
abstract 587–8
and Canonical Typology see inflectional paradigm(s)
and computational linguistics 579–82, 587–8, 590–2, 593
in Construction Morphology see paradigmatic relations; word-formation, paradigmatic
exemplary 384
in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 233, 235n
and markedness reduction 258–61
and morphological typology 450–1
nominal 500
(problems of) definition 435–6
typological 450–3
Parallel Architecture 47, 121, 129n, 329, 366, 390–2, 406–7
parseability 52, 253
parsimony, principle of (‘Occam’s razor’) 73n, 152
part-whole relations 265–7, 274–5
passive voice 225–6
past tense(s) 50, 154–5, 170, 292, 495–6, 505–6
in first language acquisition 511–21
inherited markers 344
and neurolinguistics 556, 559
Past Tense Debate 14–15, 511–12, 513n, 514, 521
synchronic variations 495, 496–8, 505–6 see also aorist; imperfect; preterite-present
perfective aspect 506
periphrasis 5, 82, 242–3, 273–4, 274n, 382, 426, 446t
person, verbal inflections/agreements 71, 215–16, 446, 451
(p. 720) in Distributed Morphology (DM) 153–5, 156–9
in Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) 295–7
in Word Grammar 329–32
phonæsthemes 24, 104, 353, 430
phonemes 25, 58, 88–9, 91, 92, 102, 104, 188, 360, 517n
phonological form (PF) 167, 178, 180–1, 182
phonological rules 360–1
phonology 8, 80
and first language acquisition 512–13, 516
and the Parallel Architecture 390, 391–2, 392f, 394–7, 403–6
prosodic 529–31
relationship with morphology 6 (see also under interfaces)
and second language acquisition 521, 529–31, 539
and sign language 595–602 see also Natural Phonology
phonotactics 151, 253, 393
phonotactic probability 517, 517n, 520–1
phonotactic rules 360–1
phrasal compounds 42–3, 146, 392n, 398, 502, 504
phrasal lexemes 383
phrasal names 440
phrase-words 91, 96–7
picture naming 16, 550, 567–71
pidgins 456–7, 458
‘Plato’s problem’ 523
pleonastic morphology 496
pluralization 257–8, 260–2, 262t, 358–9
in sign language 609
subtractive 79–80, 226, 247
polyfunctionality 452
polysemy 5, 452, 466–7
affixal 45–6
links 374
polysynthetic languages 22, 37n, 443
portmanteau forms 155–6, 235–6
affixes 471, 474
morphemes 14, 443t, 496, 500–1
morphs 89
possible words 2, 134, 141, 480
enumeration 484
lexical insertion 113–14
potential words 2, 134
Prague Circle 89–90, 101
pre-morphology 246
predictability 491
preference(s) 11, 250–1, 252–3, 254
for diagrammaticity/biuniqueness 247–8, 249, 253, 256, 261
theory of 245
prefixation 73–4, 206, 370–1, 446–7, 450
applicative 442
hierarchy 370f
present tense, variations in 497–8, 505–6, 507–8
preterite-present verbs 258, 294, 295t
preverbs 438–9
priming 16, 102, 550, 551, 589
long-lag 566–7, 570–1, 572
morphological 547–9, 557, 567, 568–9, 571
paradigms 534, 559, 561
and second-language acquisition 534, 536, 538
principal parts 269, 278, 281, 321, 384, 451–2
process morpheme 357
processing activity 348–9, 354 see also dual-route processing; language processing
Productive Non-inflectional Concatenation 443
productivity 6–7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 49–50, 443t, 444t
and Cognitive Grammar 361–3
differential 101–2
and diachronic change 484–91
and Distributed Morphology (DM) 161–2
and Generative Grammar 119–20
and Natural Morphology 251–3, 255
and Relational Morphology 398–400
relationship with compositionality 387–8
relationship with morphotactic transparency 255
variations in 494, 495–6
and Word Grammar 343 see also semi-productivity
professional nouns 502–4
profile(s) 355, 357, 361n
profiling 116
property mapping 290–1, 293, 297
prosodic affixation 203, 205–6
prosodic hierarchy 194, 196–8, 199
Prosodic Morphology 187–211
academic significance 210–11
morphological issues 187–90
role of Optimality Theory 208–10
prosodic subcategorization 206–7
Prosodic Transfer Hypothesis (PTH) 529, 531
prosodic well-formedness 207n, 209
Prosodic Word 530
proto-morphology 246, 248
prototype, concept/definition of 46, 246, 363n
proximity 11, 247, 249–50
psycholinguistics 4, 6, 13, 14, 15, 100, 102–3, 141, 400, 450, 483, 535, 541–53, 554
compound words 546–51
future directions 552–3
morpheme position effect 550–1
and morpheme representation 542–4
morphological effects 545
morphological priming 547–9
overview 541
relevant data/phenomena 545–52
sublexical vs. supralexical theories 543
transposed-letter effect 549–50
(p. 721) reactive effort 603
reading aloud 560, 570–1
realization rules 8, 76, 268, 287–9, 291–3, 318
in creoles 472, 474
organization 234–5
types 287–8
realizational theories (of morphology) 9, 63, 130, 149, 156–9, 232n, 263–4, 305
distinguished from incremental 7, 33, 39–40, 41, 76–7
distinguishing features 39–41, 57, 144–5, 268
and Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 225, 234–5
and Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 222 see also inferential-realizational models; lexical-realizational models
realized cell(s) 290–1, 291, 299–300, 302
realized paradigm(s) 290–1, 298, 299t
reanalysis 500, 505–6
and affix telescoping 480–1
examples for morphological theory 479–84
and grammaticalization 481–3
and resegmentation 481
recipient language 505–6
reciprocals 609, 611
Recoverably Deletable Predicates (RDPs) 117–18, 121
recursivity 443, 443t, 444t
redundancy 402 see also lexical redundancy
reduplication(s) 36–8, 192–201, 208–10, 211, 381–2, 426, 446
iconic 458–9, 602, 609
prefixal 66–7
in sign language 381–2, 605, 608–10
referral
generalized 312, 315, 316–18, 319
rule(s) of 76–7, 287–8, 291, 321n, 322;
rejection 343–4
regularity 443t see also irregular words; irregularity
Relational Morphology 2, 4, 5, 13, 388, 390–408
Relevance, Principle of 448
Representational deficit 525–6, 531
resegmentation 14, 481 see also reanalysis
residues 353, 364
restrictions see constraints
resyllabification 252
rewrite rules 9, 105, 106–7, 107n, 109–10, 115, 137
right-headedness 14, 380–1, 507–9, 562–3, 565
Righthand Head Rule (RHR) 49n
rival affixes 51n, 253, 387, 486 see also affix competition
Role and Reference Grammar 391
root-and-pattern morphology 10, 36–8, 188, 189–90, 198–9, 207–8, 211
alternative terminology 37n
in Semitic 198, 204–5, 205n, 447
root(s) 3
alternant 194
and Distributed Morphology (DM) 160–1, 162–4
identification 16, 358
root-based models 160–1
rule blocks 234–5, 236, 291, 472–4
rejection 344
rule induction 585–6
sample space 422–5, 430
sandhi 97, 241, 302, 438
scale (of morphotactic naturalness/transparency) 252, 252t, 254, 256–7
schema(s)
defined 363n