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date: 21 September 2021

(p. 609) Index

(p. 609) Index

Note: Page numbers in bold refer to figures and those in italic refer to tables.

A
Aachen 108, 109
Abritus 149
Adrianople, battle of 478
Agricola 329
agriculture 19, 21, 58–9, 108–9, 412–13, 452–3
reduction of, in the third century 397–8 see also Roman rural landscape occupation
Agrippa 28
Agrippina Iulia Augusta 92, 93
Alamanni xvii, 388, 426, 468, 492, 494, 494–6, 555 see also transformation processes
Allason-Jones, Lindsay 572, 579
Altenstadt 207
Altlußheim 501
Alzey 57, 470
coarseware 204–5
amber 441–2
American Journal of Archaeology (AJA) 590–1
amphitheatres 104
amulets 268–9
Andagoste 149
animal remains 153–4, 153, 159, 179–80, 267–8, 574, 579
Anreppen 37, 39
Antoninus Pius 227, 292
Arae Flaviae, see Rottweil (Arae Flaviae)
Ara Ubiorum 40
archaeobotany 562–3
archaeology of Roman Germany:
archaeological levels, preservation of 564
binary Germanic/Roman view of archaeological sources 497–8
British perspectives 570–85, 602
classical archaeology in North American education 587–9
classics and Roman Germany’s place in North American research 590–2
cooperation between Britain and Germany 604–5
Dutch perspectives 551–7, 602
frontier systems 571–3
increasing the North American profile of 594–6
international image of Roman German archaeology 552–3
lack of publications on 604
language barriers xiii, xiv, xix–xx, 551, 582, 592, 603
major fieldwork projects 553–4
methodological approaches in North America 593–4
methodological developments 497–8
North American perspectives 586–97, 603
Roman Germany as a term 558–60, 571, 573, 601–2
archaeometry 210–11, 536–7
Archäologischer Anzeiger xix
Arminius 40–1, 42, 46, 291, 423
Aufidius Bassus 34
Augsburg 171, 364–5, 394, 395, 419, 441, 441, 467
Augst/Kastelen 389–91, 392
Augustus 30, 462
coinage 224–5, 224, 230
Aurelian 367, 468
Avenches (Aventicum) 510
(p. 610) B
Bad Cannstatt 61
Baden-Baden 59, 60, 174, 385
Badenweiler 66, 527, 528
Bad Kreuznach 131–2
Bad Wimpfen 61, 66, 67
coarseware 206
Baecula 150
Baessler, H. 451
Barrandon, J.-N. 225–6
basalt 62
Basel 510–11
battlefields 464
Adrianople 478
animal remains 153–4, 153, 159
coin finds 150, 155, 160
conflict archaeology 554
conflict landscape 157, 161
defile battles 151, 156
evidence of battle actions 156–7, 159–60
Harzhorn 149, 157–61, 158, 160, 162, 427, 431, 438, 439, 554
human remains 154–5, 156
Kalkriese 149, 150–7, 151, 152, 153, 154, 161–2, 427, 536–7, 554, 594
military objects 155, 156, 159, 160, 160
Munda 149–50
ramparts 151, 153
short-term events and their historical assignment 161–2
Teutoberg Forest, battle of 38–9, 41, 42, 150, 524, 530, 605
violence 574–5
weapons and war-loot burials 428–31, 430, 431, 440, 467–8 see also military history, third century ad 149–65
Bauchhenß, G. 340
Bayer, H. 120
Bechert, Tilman 527, 559
Becker, A. 44
Becker, Matthias 425–6, 446, 449–50
Beloch, J. 293–4
belt hooks 7, 8
Bemmann, J. 445, 450, 451
Bender, H. 562
Bender-Jørgensen, L. 449
Berger, F. 155, 160
Berke, S. 438
Bernhard, Helmut 132, 134
Bersu, Gerhard xx
Besançon 509
Besombes, P.-A. 225–6
Best, E. E. 288
Biegert, Susanne 201–18, 580, 606
Bild, Beat 524
bioarchaeology 579
Birley, Andrew 577
Birley, Eric xiv, xx, 604
Bitburg (Beda) 361
Blegen, Carl 590
Böhme, H. W. 480
Bonn 109, 183, 507
books 299–301
Borg 125
Borken-West 416
Bowman, A. K. 306
bracelets 7, 14, 19, 20, 23, 427, 480, 501
Brandt, Jochen 23
Brather, S. xix, 554
Breisach 391, 393
Brem, H. 237
Bridger, C. 124
brooches, see fibulae (brooches)
Bucher, Andreas 166
burgi 12–13
Burgundians 492, 495
burial customs 271–9, 579
arrangement of vessels 449–50
burials with weapons 483, 499, 501–2
combined Roman and Germanic traditions 470–4, 471
cremations 14–15, 16, 272–3, 471, 498–9
early medieval furnished burials, emergence of 498–503
fourth and fifth century burials, distribution of 471–3, 472
ideas of afterlife 274–5, 276
inhumation burials 274–6, 276, 278, 422, 450, 470–4
(p. 611) monuments 273, 277, 306, 323, 325, 333, 341, 343, 344
prestige burials 423–6, 424, 427, 450, 480, 499–501, 500
special burials 279, 280
urns 273, 274 see also cemeteries and graves
Burnswark 575
Bursche, A. 445
Busch, Alexandra W. 317–50, 577, 578, 606
C
Caesar (Gaius Julius Caesar) 5, 6, 7, 28, 290, 410
Commentarii de Bello Gallico 29, 559
Caligula 230
Caracalla 358, 359, 380, 462
Carnap-Bornheim, Claus von 409–36, 446, 447, 556, 564, 605
Carroll, Maureen 551
Cassius Dio 37, 38, 161, 230, 307, 425, 462, 565
Cavallo, G. 288
Celts 6, 8
cemeteries and graves 14–18, 17, 75, 262, 272, 277, 417, 470, 480
contact zone 16
dating of 496
early medieval 496
in isolated locations 478, 480–1
Nijmegan 504
the north 16, 18
row-grave cemeteries 478, 479, 483, 498, 501–3
the south 14–15 see also burial customs
Charlemagne 504
Chatti 29, 30, 46, 47, 170, 174, 380
Cherusci 40–1, 45, 46
Childeric 480
Chnodomarius 426, 468
chronology 537, 539
churches 496, 504, 505, 507, 508
civitates (towns) 54, 56
appearance of 62–4
as episcopal sees 503, 505, 508, 510
Civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicrensium 132
establishment of 59–60
Germania Prima, towns of 507–9
Germania Secunda, towns of 504–7, 506
of Maxima Sequanorum 509–11
population 67–8
post-imperial transformation of 503–11
public buildings 64–8
size of 67
town walls 66–7, 70, 75, 76, 78, 93, 95, 101–2, 361, 362, 387, 388–9, 464
Claudius 225–7, 226, 230
Claudius Gothicus 234
Clodius Albinus, 176, 356
Clovis 494, 495–6
coinage and money 7, 7, 21, 23, 39, 41, 44, 129–30, 150, 155, 160, 416, 421, 475, 606
Augustan coinage 224–5, 224
bronze coins 220, 222–3, 224, 227, 228, 229, 231–3, 232, 234
circulation 224–5
clades variana 221–2
countermarks 226
dates and historic interpretation 383–4
dating the construction of the limes 231
decentralization of production 233–4
decline of 234–7, 235
Dupondius of Germanicus 43
first Roman coins 219–20
imitations 226–7, 226, 234, 236–7, 239, 247
Iron Age coins in the military sphere 220–1, 223
mint distribution of coin finds 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245
money boxes 264–5
native coins 220
as personal property 444–5
from the post-limes period 476–7, 477
quadrantes 227–8
recovery in the fourth century 237–47, 238
in the Roman Rhineland 219–52, 221
Septimius Severus, military pay and Germania Magna 231–3
Sestertius of Domitian 47
silver coins 230, 231–3, 232, 234
stability 227–8, 228
and trading 444
(p. 612) Cologne (Colonia Claudia Ara Aggrippensium) 92, 93–9, 94, 95, 122, 208, 233, 344, 497, 503, 579
archaeological evidence regarding crisis research 393–5
baths 97
burials 273–4, 274–5, 274, 275, 276, 277
coarseware 209–10
forum 95–6
harbour 97
housing 98
post-imperial importance of 505–7, 506
praetorium 96–7
religion 257, 259, 261, 262, 267–8
settlement decline 365, 367
stone inscriptions 294, 295
temples 96
town walls and gates 93, 95, 95
Cologne-Müngersdorf 123
Colonia Claudia Ara Aggrippensium (CCAA), see Cologne (Colonia Claudia Ara Aggrippensium)
Colonia Ulpia Traiana/CVT, see Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana/CVT)
combs 470
Constantine I xi, 239, 468, 469
Constantius II 239
Constitutio Antoniniana 309, 380
Cool, H. E. M. 579
Corpus der Römischen Funde im Barbaricum 438, 572
Coulston, Jon 157, 575
Creighton, J. D. 520, 551
creolization 454, 576
crisis research 376–405, 377–84, 606
agri decumates, abandonment of 387–8
archaeological evidence for Lower Germany 393–9
archaeological evidence for Upper Germany 384–93
Augst/Kastelen as a case study of destruction and abandonment 389–91, 392
basic parameters and main research questions 378
central places on the Rhine 388–9
climate and archaoseismic dynamics 378–9, 379
conventional methods and sources, criticism of 383–4
crisis of identity and loyalty 380–3, 381
economic aspects 397–9
handcrafts 399
hilltop settlements 391–3
Jupiter columns, destruction of 381–2, 383
massacres 385, 396, 397
pressures, measures and retreat in the early third century 384–7
recent scholarly approach to the third century 376–7
third century crisis 390–1, 563, 575, 606
Curchin, L. A. 295
curse tablets 269–70, 269, 304–5, 311
Czysz, Wolfgang 137, 138, 205
D
Dalheim 362
Dalkingen 380
Dangstetten 220
Dativius Victor 386
Delle 513, 514
dendrochronology 39, 176, 177, 378
Derks, Ton 561
Deru, Xavier 208
Deutsch xvii
Dickmann, E. 444
Dieburg 59, 62, 67
Dietz, K. 307
Diocletian 237–8, 469
Diodorus Siculus 290
Domitian 47–8, 47, 170, 174, 228
Donnersberg 11–12
Doyen, J.-M. 244
Dragendorff, Hans 202, 210, 530
drains 93
Drusus 30, 31, 32, 34, 219–20, 410
Dünsberg 11, 22
Dušek, S. 452
Dyhrfjeld-Johnson, M. D. 451
E
Eck, W. 309
Edelsheim, Baron Wilhelm von 527
Eggenstein, G. 443
(p. 613) Eggers, Hans-Jürgen 438
Eining 468
Eisenberg 62, 83
iron production 82–4
Ellingen 188
Elsfleth 418
Epomanduodurum (Mandeure-Mathay) 510
Erdrich, M. 103, 418–19, 421, 438, 440
ethnography 539, 554–5, 578
Eusebius of Caesarea 467
F
Fabricius, Ernst 529, 571–2
Feddersen Wierde 414, 415, 553–4
Federal Republic of Germany, maps xxiv, xxv
Fehr, Hubert 491–519, 555, 605
Felsberg quarry 476
fibulae (brooches) 12, 16, 18, 155, 276–7, 414, 416, 419, 420, 425, 441, 449
Fiches, Jean-Luc 563
Fischer, Thomas 137, 384, 521, 577, 601–8
Fischer, Ulrich 206
Fließem-Otrang 125, 126
Roman villae 127, 127, 128, 129–30
forts 171, 174–5, 176, 177, 204, 356–7, 360, 482, 530
destruction of 362, 363, 464, 468
fortlets 181, 183, 360, 365, 367, 468
Nijmegan 504
rebuilding 360
relationship with hilltop settlements 475
spatial reduction 465
and troops 183–8
Foucault, Michel 520
Frankfurt-Heddernheim (Nida) 59, 60, 65, 67, 73–6, 74, 174, 361, 382, 385–6
coarseware 206
Franks 492, 494–6
Fredegar 495
Frederick I Barbarossa 504
Friedberg 174
Frontinus 174
Furger, A. R. 304
G
Gaitzsch, Wolfgang 122–3
Galestin, M. C. 444
Gallenius 465, 467, 539
Gallia Belgica 122, 124, 319–20, 558, 560, 602
games 449
Garcia-Bellido, M. Paz 221
Gebühr, Michael 424
Gennep 511
geographic information systems (GIS) 120
geophysical surveys 78, 102–3, 150, 180, 188, 535, 536, 538, 577
Germani xvii–xix, 6, 28–9, 47–8, 559
barbarians notion 564–6
barbarization of the Roman empire 427
cemeteries, absence of 417
contrast between Germanic provinces of Rome and the limes 416
cultural resilience 416
Germanic elites, development of 422–7, 424
and the German provinces of Rome 409–36
identities 410–11, 437
map of tribes 411
militarization of Germanic society 427–31, 429, 430
retinues 428, 430
Roman artisans, presence of 419
Roman coins, influx of 421
Roman geographic knowledge of neighbouring regions 410
Romano-Germanic exchange of goods 417–22
Roman weapons, import of 421
settlement and building structures among populations of the limes 412–17, 415
village like forms 414, 415
Germania:
agriculture 19, 21
constitution of two provinces under Domitian 46–8
development of a frontier, first century AD 45–6
economy and economic development 18–19, 561–2
frontier systems 571–3
and Gaul 560–1
geographical and cultural definitions xv–xix
importance of xi–xii, xxi–xxii
infrastructure 18
in the later pre-Roman Iron Age 5–27
literary sources and historical interpretation 6–8, 7, 8
map xxv
money 21
provinces, emergence of 28–50
reconquest attempts and the recall of Germanicus 41–4
religion 22–3
Roman military occupation of 30–5, 33
Roman rule of 36–40
settlements 9–14, 15
Varus disaster 40–1
warfare 22
Germania Inferior 28, 47, 121, 122, 255, 376–7, 552, 558–9, 561–2, 573, 602–3, 605
agricultural settlements 108–9
archaeology of 92–115
Cologne (Colonia Claudia Ara Aggrippensium) 92, 93–9, 94, 95, 110
and crisis research 393–9, 394, 395
industrial settlements 108
limes 173
settlements and major roads 107
towns of 504–7, 506
vici 106, 108, 109
Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana/CVT) 99–105, 100, 101, 110
Germania Superior 28, 47, 121, 125, 255, 376–7, 558–9, 602–3, 605
appearance of civitas capitals and vici 62–4
archaeology of 53–91
civitas capitals, establishment of 59–60
and crisis research 384–93, 392
industrial sites and settlements with special functions 61–2
limes 171–7, 172, 178
major fieldwork projects 553–4
planned development 58–9
preconditions 53–4
public buildings 64–8
research areas 55
settlement on the Rhine’s left bank 57
settlement on the Rhine’s right bank 58
towns of 507–9
urbanization 53–4
vici 55, 56, 60–1
Germanicus 42–3, 43, 44, 161, 410
German Limes Commission 536
German Research Foundation (DFG) 125, 520, 533–4, 535, 541, 564, 567
Germany, maps xxiii
glass objects 19, 20, 99, 447–8, 449
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 529
Gommern 425–6, 449–50
Grad 150
Greek 290, 311
Gregory of Tours 505
Groß-Gerau 61, 65, 174, 208, 537
coarseware 209
Güglingen 66
street settlement 85–7
H
Haarnagel, Werner 414
Haas, J. 379
Hadrian 331
Hadrian’s Wall 565, 566, 571, 572, 573, 574–5, 606, 607
Hagenbach 367, 368, 467–8
Haltern 36, 37, 39, 44, 221–2, 272, 530–1
coins 220, 230
terra sigillata 203
Hambach 122–3
Hanel, Norbert 92–115, 445, 555, 573, 606
Hansen, Lund 437–8, 440, 445
Hansselmann, Christian Ernst 166, 526
Harris, W. V. 293–4, 300, 306–7, 309, 310, 311
Ancient Literacy 287–8
Harzhorn 149, 157–61, 158, 160, 162, 170, 177, 427, 431, 438, 439, 554
Haupt, P. 234
Häussler, R. 304, 305
Haverfield, Francis xix
Haynes, Ian 570–85, 602
Heddernheim, see Frankfurt-Heddernheim (Nida)
(p. 615) Hedermünden 220
Hegewisch, M. 450
Heidelberg 174, 382, 383
coarseware 206
Heidengraben 10
Heidesheim 131–2
Heidetränk oppidum 11
Heimberg, U. 123
Heising, Alexander 211, 520–46, 552, 553, 556, 566, 567, 576, 578, 604
Heitersheim 135
Heldenbergen 207, 359, 385
Helfert, Markus 201–18, 211, 580, 606
Henrich, Peter 124
Herodian 162
Hesberg, Henner von 317–50, 577, 578, 606
Hesselbach 188
Hildesheim 418
Hirschberg-Großsachsen 132, 133
Historia Augusta 162, 166, 175, 468
Hoby, Denmark 423–5, 424
Hochfelden 500, 500
Höchst-Hummetroth 129–30, 174
Hofheim 174
coarseware 204
Höpken, Constanze 255–86, 577–8, 606
Horace 271
Horsfall, N. 310–11
Horsnaes, H. 445
Hoss, S. 577
houses 63–4, 67, 72, 98, 465
byre houses 511
early medieval 512
Grubenhäuser 413–14, 427
longhouses 413, 427, 511
stone building, end of 514
strip-houses 63, 75, 82, 84, 105
Hüfingen 168
Huld-Zetsche, Ingeborg 203
human remains 154–5, 154, 156, 385, 397, 467, see also burial customs
Hummetroth-Haselburg 131
Hunerberg 219
Hunter, Fraser 572
Hüssen, Claus-Michael 8, 134, 137
Huttich, Johannes 524, 525
I
identities
ethnicity 539, 554–5, 578
Germani 410–11, 437
military identity 576–7
religion and cults 577–8
tribal identities 388, 411, 578
images, see provincial art
Imperial Limes Commission 166–8, 178, 183, 529, 530
industrial sites 61–2, 80–2, 81, 82–4, 83, 108
infrastructure 18, 54, 443–4, 451, 573–4
Ingemarck, D. 307, 310
inscriptions xix, 42–3, 68, 155, 160, 160, 161, 169, 175, 176, 185, 188, 355–6, 381, 523–4
on destructions by barbarians 362, 364
religion and cults 82, 96, 103, 263
stone inscriptions 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 300, 301, 308, 309, 525
wall inscriptions 288–9
Irlinger, W. 8
ironworking 19, 62, 82–4, 442, 451–2
J
Jacobi, Louis 529–30
James, Simon xi–xxvi, 564, 572, 575, 602
Jastorf culture, graves 16, 17, 18
Jerome 495
Jobey, George 573
Jørgensen, Schou 443
Journal of Roman Archaeology (JRA) 591
Journal of Roman Studies xix
Julian 494–6
Jülich 109
Jupiter 260, 325, 326, 338–40, 381–2, 383, 386
K
Kaiseraugst 503, 510
Kalkriese 41, 44, 149, 150–7, 151, 152, 153, 154, 161–2, 220, 427, 536–7, 554, 594
clades variana 221–2
coin finds 230, 231
Kastelen 391
Kelheim 10
Kelsterbach 129–30, 130
Kemkes, Martin 166–97, 572, 607
(p. 616) Kemmers, F. 227–8
Kenyon, R. 226
Kereuz, Angela 563
Kiernan, Philip 586–97, 603
Kiessel, Marko 124
Klee, Margot 559
Kleiner, F. 588
Koblenz 388
Koepp, F. 530
Konrad, Michaela 376–405, 574, 606
Kortüm, Klaus 53–91, 231, 606
Kossack, G. 451
Kraft, Konrad 44
Krämer, W. 290
Krausse, Dirk 553
Krefeld-Gellep 109, 149, 367, 396, 397, 399, 503
Krmnicek, Stefan xi–xxvi, 602
Krüger, Bruno 604
Kuhnen, Hans-Peter 378, 380
Kunow, J. 438, 439, 440, 443
L
Ladenburg (Lopodunum) 59, 60, 61, 65, 66, 67, 76–8, 77, 174, 382
Ladenburg-Ziegelscheuer 132
Lahnau-Waldgirmes 37, 38, 39, 44
Landesaufnahme (archaeological inventory) 119–20, 121
landscape archaeology 116, 119, 121, 536, 551, 581–2
language barriers xiii, xiv, xix–xx, 551, 582, 592, 603
Laser, R. 438
Latin 287, 290, 303–4, 311
lead production 37, 105, 108, 422, 442, 443, 445, 452
Lehmann, G. A. 39
Lenz-Bernhard, Gertrud 132
Lenz, Karl Heinz 122
Leveau, Philippe 560
LiDAR recording 181, 535, 536
Liebeschuetz, Wolf 377
lime production 452
Limesforschungen series 205
limes, the 59, 76, 136–7, 166–97, 167, 462, 464, 607
alae and cohorts 185–8, [link]
army recruits and veterans 190, 192
bank and ditch 176–7, 178
boundary terminology 169
coins, role in dating of 231
contrast with Germanic provinces of Rome 416
crossing points 181, 182, 572
Devil’s Wall legend 166, 193n. 1
end of the limes 177–8, 467
fortlets 181, 183
forts and troops 183–8, [link]
fort vici 58, 189–90, 191
frontier installations 178–83
future research prospects 192–3
Germania Inferior 173
Germania Superior and Raetia 172, 175–6
historic developments 171–7
inscriptions 169, 175, 176, 185, 188
linear border enforcement 174–6
military importance during the Gallic Empire 365
notion of 168
numeri 188
palisades 175, 176–7, 178
research into 526, 529–30, 535, 536, 539, 540, 604
settlement and building structures among populations of the limes 412–17, 415
terminology and function 169–71
towers 175, 176, 177, 178–80, 180, 361
UNESCO World Heritage site 168, 169, 178, 192, 536
Lindenthal, Jörg 125
Lingones Testament 277
literacy and illiteracy, see writing and literacy/illiteracy
Loeschcke, Georg 530, 595
Loeschcke, Siegfried 530
Lollius, Marcus 29–30
Lopodunum, see Ladenburg
Lübsow 424–5
Ludwigshafen 134
Lüning, Jens 121
(p. 617) M
Mac Dowall, D. W. 226
Magnentius 239
Mainz-Bretzenheim 470, 471
Mainz (Mogontiacum) 59, 65, 66, 67, 125, 129, 130, 131, 208, 503
Arch of Dativius Victor 386
coarseware 209
coins 227, 228, 232, 236, 238
curse tablets 269–70
Jupiter column 325, 326–8, 338–40
magic dolls 270, 271
post-imperial importance of 507–8
as a provincial capital 68–70, 69
religion 255, 257, 267
walls 362, 388–9, 464
Manching 9–10, 14–15, 22
Marcellinus, Ammianus 170, 426, 430, 468
Marcomannic wars (AD 166–180) 176, 183, 410, 421, 425, 427, 462, 565
Marcus Aurelius 292–3, 462, 565
Marköbel 175
Marktbreit 37
Maroboduus 35, 45, 423
Martberg 12
Martial 300
material culture 554–5, 576, 579–80
Matijević, Krešimir 287–316, 606
Mattingley, Harold xix–xx
Maurer, Thomas 116–44, 555, 581, 606
Maximian 468
Maximinus Thrax 162, 170, 177, 386, 431, 464
Mayen 60–1, 62, 63, 124, 512
Melzer, W. 443
Merovingian dynasty 492, 494, 503, 504, 505, 507, 508
Meyer, Marcus 137
Meyer, Michael 437–60, 556, 572, 576
Mielsch, Harald 278
migration 7–8, 149, 473, 475, 482, 492, 497, 498, 502, 578–9
military camps 32, 33, 34, 36–7, 38, 39, 45, 129, 171, 530, 535
military history, third century AD 355–75, 606
attack of AD 233 359–60, 361
conflicts with Germanic tribes 358–9, 361–5, 363, 367–8, 462, 464–5
internal power struggles 367
metal hoards 367, 368
period between AD 35 and AD 260 360–5, 363
period from AD 260 to the end of the third century AD 365–8
Severan dynasty 355–60
urban centres 361
Millett, M. J., The Romanization of Britain 578
mining 122–3, 475
Mittelgebirge 6
Mogontiacum, see Mainz (Mogontiacum)
Mommsen, Theodor xiii, xiv, xxi, 150, 529, 530, 552
Moosbauer, Günther 137, 149–65, 605
Mörfelden-Walldorf 129–30
mosaics 98
Mucking 574
Munda, battle of 149–50
Mundolsheim 500–1
municipia 70–3, 92
N
National Roman Pottery Fabric Reference Collection (NRPFRC) 580
negotiatores 440
Nennig 124
Nero 227, 230
Neuenstadt am Kocher 59, 62, 66, 78–80, 79
Neupotz 367, 418, 467–8
Neuss 207–8, 505
Niederbieber 204, 356, 365, 467
Nijmegan 268, 338, 345, 504
Noelke, Peter 382
North America 586–97, 603
classical archaeology in North American education 587–9
classics and Roman Germany’s place in North American research 590–2
increasing the profile of Roman Germany 594–6
provincial and classical archaeology, methodological approaches 593–4
Northumberland 565, 573
(p. 618) Nuber, H. U. 521
Nüsse, H.-J. 451
O
Oberaden 32, 34, 37, 39, 219–20, 302
Obernburg 380–1
Oberndorf 137, 379, 379, 467
Oberstimm 174
Oberweis 125
Odenwald 175, 475–6, 476
Oelmann, Franz 204
Okarben 174
Oldenstein, J. 577
oppida 5–6, 7, 8, 9–13, 16, 18, 21, 22, 54, 92, 93, 150, 209, 290, 413
Ossel, Paul Van 564
Osterburken 185
Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain 576
P
Parthians 358
Pax Romana 425, 462
Pearce, J. 304, 305, 308
Peter, Markus 225, 228
Petrikovits, Harald von 205
Peutinger, Konrad 524
Pfeffer, I. 443
Pforzheim 59, 385
Phillips, J. J. 299
Pliny 439
Pohl, Walter 554
Polybius 306
Pompeii 288–9
population density 120–1, 123
Portable Antiquities Scheme 579, 580
Poseidonius of Apamea 6
postholes 530–1
Postumus 381, 381, 395, 464, 465, 467, 539
pottery 61–2, 98–9, 108, 447, 534, 579, 606
Altenstadt 207
Alzey 204–5
Bad Wimpfen 206
coarseware 203–10
Cologne (Colonia Claudia Ara Aggrippensium) 209–10
Frankfurt-Heddernheim (Nida) 206
Groß-Gerau 209
Haltern 203
Heidelberg 206
Heldenbergen 207
Hofheim 204
Mainz (Mogontiacum) 209
Neuss 207–8
Niederbieber/Weißenthurm 204
pottery workshops 211–12
research 201–18, 580
Rheinzabern 80–2, 81, 202
Schwabmünchen 205–6
scientific study of Roman ceramics 210–12
sherd archaeology 531
Swabian production centres 203
terra sigillata 201–3, 305, 537, 595
Trier 203, 207
Walheim 208
Wetterau 209
wheel-thrown pottery 448, 452, 454
writing on pottery 305–6, 305
X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, use of 536–7
Precht, G. 100, 102
Pridianum 574
Probus 468
provincia concept 40
provincial art 317–50, 606
architectural forms 344–5
capitals 333–4
concept and meaning of 317–19
funerary monuments 323, 325, 333, 341, 343, 344
furniture 321
human bodies 334
images as means of communication 336–45, 339
images, end of 345
images, preservation and survival of 319–22
producing and commissioning images 322–33, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 332
representations, particularities and development of 333–6, 335
rulers, images of 334, 337–8, 380
(p. 619) and social subgroups 341
statues 320–1, 323, 324, 325, 522, 523
urban centres and public spaces 320
wall paintings 321
weapons, decoration of 323
public buildings 64–8
Q
quarrying 475–6, 476
Quintilian 288, 289
R
Radnóti, Aladár 532
Raetia 121, 136–8, 171, 174, 359–60, 467, 602
forts, destruction of 362, 363
limes, the 172, 176, 177–8, 361–2
limites 175
Rainau-Buch 465, 466
Rainau-Dalkingen 181, 182
Ramage, N. H. 588
Reddé, Michel 558–69, 602–3
Redfern, Rebecca 575
Regensburg (Regina Castra) 137, 468
regionalism 581–2
Rehanus, Beatus 524
Reinheim 125
religion and cults 12, 22–3, 70, 87, 255–86, 468, 534, 551, 594, 606
altars 259, 335, 358, 364–5, 386, 394, 395
archaeological importance of 577–8
buildings 66, 72, 96–7, 102, 103
burial customs 271–9, 274, 275, 276
Christianity 262, 279, 492, 496, 504, 505, 522, 523
conquest, phase of 257–60, 259
consolidation of Roman rule phase 260–1
cult and ritual 262–8
feasts 263
figurines 261
foreign gods 255
inscriptions 263
intensive Romanization phase 261
Jupiter columns 260, 325, 326–8, 338–40
lamps 266, 267
magical practice, superstition, amulets, and curse tablets 268–71, 269, 270
Matronae cult 258, 260–1, 262
military religion 256–7, 259, 260
as part of Roman cultural influence 450–1
religious practice and development phases 256–62
resolution and transformation phase 262
sacrifices 263
small finds 537
special burials 279, 280
vessels 263–8, 265, 266
Renaissance 522–4
research, reception and history of 520–46, 566–7, 580, 604
academic recognition 532–3
antiquarian Roman Germany and limes research 524, 526, 529–30
chronology 537, 539
classics and Roman Germany’s place in North American research 590–2
cooperation between Britain and Germany 604–5
dissertations and externally funded projects 533–4
early science and civic societies 526–7
ethnic interpretation 539, 554–5
future research prospects and suggestions 539–42
history of research 521–33
iconic turn 541–2
increasing the North American profile of Roman Germany 594–6
language barriers xiii, xiv, xix–xx, 551, 582, 592, 603
legends in the Middle Ages, creation of 522, 523
material turn 541
modern organized science, emergence of 529–31
philosophical gulf in scholarship xiii, xiv
rebirth of the ancient world in the Renaissance 522–4
research topics since 1999 535–9, 538
Römlinge at the time of National Socialism 531–2
spatial turn 541
state of research 496–7
Res Gestae 42
Reuter, Marcus 290, 355–75, 386, 574, 606
(p. 620) Rheingönheim 60
Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn 205
Rheinzabern (Tabernae) 61–2
industrial site 80–2, 81
terra sigillata 202
Rieckhoff, S. 8
Riegel 59, 60
Riese, A. 305
Ritterling, Emil 204
Roman army 30, 32, 34–5, 40–1, 45–6, 54, 61, 159, 177, 179–80, 183–8, 396, 471–3
alae and cohorts 185–8, [link]
and art 334, 336, 345
auxiliary units 277, 306, 356–7, 360, 369
as bringers of cultural ideas 575–6
fort vici 189–90, 191
Germanization of 468, 469–75, 471, 472, 482, 495
grave stones 277, 358–9, 361, 365, 366
military communities 577
military diplomas 190, 192
military identity 576–7
military religion 247, 256–7, 260
numeri 188
pay 220, 228, 232
recruits and veterans 190, 192
Severan dynasty 355–60
supply networks 574
wax/wooden tablets 302, 303
writing and literacy/illiteracy 306–8, 308 see also battlefields
Roman battlefields, see battlefields
Roman Britain
frontier systems 571–3
material culture 579–80
military communities 577
military installations 573
research projects 580–1
supply networks 574
violence 574–5
Roman cultural influence 437–60, 449–50, 572, 575–6, 606
architecture 451
glass objects 447–8, 449
goods 440–3, 441, 442
group activities 449–50
import/export 437–40, 439, 445–6, 453
infrastructure 443–4, 451
intangible imports 446, 453–4
legal settings 444–6
metalwork techniques 446–7, 447, 452
personal dress and appearance 449
pottery 447, 448, 452, 454
production and trade structures 451–2
religion and rites 450–1
traditions 452–3
writing 448
Romanization concept (Romanisierung) xiii, xiv, xx–xxi, 53, 171, 205, 261, 306, 454, 541, 561, 562, 575–6
Romans
foreign policy 32, 42
Germania under Roman rule 36–40
occupation of Germania 30–5
on the Rhine 28–30
Roman, meaning of xvi–xvii
Römisch-Germanische Kommission (RGK) 530, 531–2
Rost, Achim 149, 156
Rothenhöfer, Peter 208, 445
Rottenburg 59, 65, 66, 67
Rottweil (Arae Flaviae) 59, 60, 65, 66, 174, 303, 386
limes 168
as a municipium 70–3, 71
Roymans, Nico 551–7, 561, 578, 602, 605
Rüger, Christoph 559
rural landscape and settlements 116–44, 561
archaeobotany 562–3
integrated approach to the archaeology of 555
lower Rhine region 122–4
maps 117, 118
middle Rhine region 124
Moselle region 124–5
northern Raetia 136–8
northern Rhine region 125–36
population density 120–1, 123
post-imperial transformation of 511–14, 512, 513
Roman villae 126, 127, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131–4, 131, 133, 134–6, 135, 465, 561–2, 573, 606
(p. 621) rural settlement archaeology, growth of 119–21
rural settlement archaeology, key aspects of 121–2
southern Upper Rhine and Neckar region 134–6
stone building, end of 514
village like forms 414, 415, 512
S
Saalburg 530
Saile, Thomas 129
Schäfer, A. 442
Schalles, H.-J. 100, 102
Schmid, Gudrun 137
Schmidt, Christopher 419
Schneider, Gerwulf 211
Scholz, M. 290
schools 289, 291–3, 311
Schuchardt, Carl 530
Schülke, Almut 119
Schuster, J. 452
Schwabmünchen 205–6
Scorton 579
Seidel, Mathias 125
Septimius Severus 231–3, 355–60, 444, 464
settlements 9–14
hilltop settlements 391–3, 474–5, 483
Jutland 15 see also rural landscape and settlements; urban settlements and urbanization
Severus Alexander (aka Alexander Severus) 161, 162, 358–9, 360, 376
Sievers, Susanne 5–27, 605
silver extraction 62
Simon, Hans-Günther 205, 209
single context recording 581
Sinzig 108
Skeat, T. C. 299–300
Sommer, C. S. 55, 577
Spatianus, Aelius 170
Speratus, Gaius Longinius 192
Speyer 59, 60, 503, 508, 509
Spickermann, Wolfgang 255, 257, 261, 272
Steidl, B. 129, 443
Steinsburg 10
Steuer, Heiko 121, 428
Strasbourg 503, 509
Stribrny, Karlhorst 129
Sugambri 13, 29–30, 31, 34
T
Tabernae, see Rheinzabern (Tabernae)
Tabula Peutingeriana 524
Tacitus 161, 170, 174, 233, 271–2, 290, 291, 329, 416, 430, 438, 559, 565, 578
Annals 42, 522–3
Germania xviii, 428
taphonomy 537, 540, 541, 564
terra sigillata, see pottery
Tertullian 380
Teutoberg Forest, battle of 38–9, 41, 42, 150, 524, 530, 605
theatres 64–5, 70, 322
Theilenhofen 190, 191
Theodosius I 478
Theune, Claudia 461–87, 555, 556, 578, 605
Thorsberg Moor 428–31, 429, 430, 447, 447, 449, 554
Tiberius 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 45, 230, 338, 345, 410
Timpe, Dieter 40
Tongeren 504
Tournai 480
towns, see civitates (towns)
trade 417–22, 437–40, 439, 445–6
structures of 451–2
trading routes 443–4
Trajan 174, 230, 231
column 337–8
transformation processes 309, 331, 334, 336, 345, 446, 448–9, 453, 491–519, 605
Alamanni 461–87
archaeological research, state of 496–7
binary Germanic/Roman view of archaeological sources 497–8
changes within the Roman Empire 478, 491–2
conflicts with Germanic tribes 462, 464–5
early medieval furnished burials, emergence of 498–503
from empire to post-imperial barbarian kingdoms 494–6
environmental and ecological changes 465, 467
(p. 622) first half of the fifth century 478–81, 479
Germania Prima, towns of 507–9
Germania Secunda, towns of 504–7, 506
landscape and rural settlements 511–14, 512, 513
later third and fourth centuries 468–78, 471, 472
Maxima Sequanorum, towns of 509–11
methodological developments in archaeology 497–8
power structures 480
and resolution 262
Roman and German military connections 468–75
stone building, end of 514
third century 462–8, 463, 466
towns, transformation of 503–11
traditional narratives and archaeological sources, post-imperial period 492–4, 493
troop withdrawals and reduction in border defences 464–5, 467, 482
Trebur-Astheim 130
Trier 124, 233, 291–2, 387, 476, 522, 523
coarseware 207
coin minting 238, 239, 241–2, 246
siege of, AD 196 356
statues 323
terra sigillata 203
Tugnatius, Publius Licinius 386–7
U
Unverzagt, Wilhelm 204
urban settlements and urbanization 53–91, 92–115
appearance of civitas capitals and vici 62–4
Arae Flaviae 70–3, 71
civitas capitals, establishment of 59–60
Colonia Claudia Ara Aggrippensium (CCAA) 93–9, 94, 95
Eisenberg 82–4, 83
Güglingen 85–7, 86
industrial sites and settlements with special functions 61–2, 80–2, 81, 82–4, 83, 108–9
Lopodunum 76–8, 77
Mainz (Mogontiacum) 68–70, 69
Neuenstadt am Kocher 78–80, 79
Nida 73–6, 74
planned development 58–9
public buildings 64–8
research 55
Tabernae 80–2, 81
Walheim 84–5, 85
Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana/CVT) 99–105, 100, 101
V
Valens 478
Valentinian I 239–41, 468
Valentinian II 478
van Enckevort, H. 124
Varus, Publius Quinctilius 40–1, 155–6, 161, 220, 222, 224, 410, 423, 524, 594, 605
Vegetius 306
Veit, U. 521
Velleius Paterculus 34, 35, 161
Velsen 291
Venus 522, 523, 579
Vespasian 46
Vettweiß-Soller 108
vici 13, 54, 55, 56, 92, 577
appearance of 62–4
fort vici 189–90, 191
Germania Inferior 106, 108, 109
on the left bank of the Rhine 57
population 67–8
public buildings 64–8
on the right bank of the Rhine 58
size of 67
transition from military to civilian vici 60–1
Viereckschanzen 12–13
Vindolanda 302, 307–8, 311, 577
Vindonissa, see Windisch (Vindosnissa)
violence 574–5
Virgil 271
Von Kaenel, H.-M. 225
Voß, H.-U. 446, 450
W
Waiblingen 62
Waldgirmes 220, 221–2, 320, 345, 554, 594
(p. 623) Walheim 61, 66, 188
coarseware 208
trading centre 84–5, 85
Walter, Dörte 129
Warburg-Daseburg 413
warfare, see also battlefields 22, 427–31, 462
weapons 22
burials with weapons 483, 499, 501–2
decoration 323
imports of 421
and war loot 428–31, 430, 431, 440, 467–8
Webster, Jane 576
Wederath-Belginum 57
Weisenau 68
Weißenthurm 204
Wells, Peter S. 440
Westik 416
Wetterau 209
Wetzlar-Giessen 564–5
Wiegels, R. 155
Wieland, G. 8
Wielowiejski, J. 438
Wiesbaden 59, 60
Wiesloch 62
Wigg-Wolf, David 219–52, 606
Wilbers-Rost, Susanne 149, 156, 162
Wilhelm II, Kaiser 529–30
Willems, W. J. H. 124
Wilson, R. J. A 520, 551
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim 526
Windisch (Vindonissa) 171, 302, 510
Winter, Adam 211
Witschel, Christian 384–5
Wittlich 125
Wohnstallhaus 14
Wolff, Georg 119, 125
Wolfsheim 501
Wolters, Reinhard 28–50, 605
Woolf, G. 299, 309
Worms 59, 503, 508
writing and literacy/illiteracy 287–316, 448, 606
Abecedaria 291
books 299–301
curse tablets 269–70, 269, 304–5
graffiti 288–9, 304
gravestones 306
late antiquity 309–10
letters 303–4
literacy and Roman society 287–8
on pottery 305–6, 305
pre-Roman times 290
Roman army 306–8, 308
Roman provinces 289–90
Roman schools 289, 291–3, 311
Rome and Italy 288–9
seal boxes 303–4
stone inscriptions 293–9, 295, 296, 297, 298, 300, 301
teachers 291–3, 309
wooden tablets, small inscriptions and pictorial representations 301–6, 305
writing implements 304
Wurmlingen 136, 465
X
Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana/CVT) 92, 99–105, 100, 101, 110, 122, 183, 208, 504–5, 522
abandonment 395–6
amphitheatre 104
baths 103–4
forum 102
harbour 100–1
housing 105
statues 323, 324, 325, 331, 332
temples 102, 103
town walls and gates 101–2
Z
Zanier, W. 8
Zanker, P. 334
Zeche Erin 416, 418
Zimmermann, Andreas 120, 121