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date: 26 June 2019

(p. 691) Index

(p. 691) Index

Please note that locators followed by (f) relate to figures, those followed by (n) relate to footnotes, and those followed by (t) relate to tables.

Acts
Act of Succession 87, 89
Freedom of the Press Act 87, 89, 93, 100, 144, 305–6
Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression 87, 89, 144
Instrument of Government 87, 89, 92–103, 115–16, 120–32, 139–44, 188, 201, 208, 300, 307, 309, 369, 385, 416, 635, 652
Local Government Act 303, 308, 367–8, 374, 377, 416
administrative model, Swedish 88, 131, 133–4, 297, 299, 305, 307, 311–12, 354, 635, 637, 639
administrative reform 315–28
decentralization 316–17
effects 326–7
explanations 321–6
ideas and decisions 316–21
managerialization 317–19
marketization 320–1
path dependency 325–6
rational problem-solving 321
rule-following 323
Afghanistan
criticism of Soviet intervention 437, 440
participation in ISAF mission 434, 443, 467, 487, 490–2
provision of humanitarian aid to 473, 473(t), 474
Age of Liberty 93–4, 119, 300, 305, 653
Agency for Public Management 302, 325
Aggestam, Lisbeth 432
Agrarian Party 4, 110, 209, 579, 581, 586
Agrarian Union 155–6
agriculture 199(t)
Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin 6, 88
Ahlenius, Inga-Britt 306
Alford’s index of class voting, 1956–2010 250(f)
Alliance for Sweden 160, 161(t), 264
Althea, Operation 433
Andersson, Jenny 561
Animal Welfare Agency 349
annual output volume of Swedish commission of inquiry reports, 1922–2012 657(f)
anti-immigration parties 7, 8, 19, 165, 190, 221, 609(n30)
armed neutrality 482
ATP (supplementary pension) 38–40
attitudes: proportions of women and men in the Riksdag and women and men voters who support specific proposals 200(f)
average level of issue disagreement between members of niche parties and mainstream parties and their voters 193(f)
average level of issue disagreement between MPs and eligible voters 191(f)
Aylott, Nicholas 149, 189
Bäck, Hanna 116, 150, 208, 211(t), 217(t), 218, 219, 220
Baltic Sea Region 447–61
Baltic Sea strategy 452, 457, 554, 556
Barr, Nicholas 78
Barroso, José Manuel 551, 553
Beck, Ulrich 509
Bengtsson, Mattias 253
(p. 692) Bengtsson, Rikard 431
Berglund, Tomas 253
Bergman Rosamond, Annika 431
Bergman, Torbjörn 150, 651, 680, 685
Bergqvist, Christina 20, 43
Berman, Sheri 582
Bhatti, Yosef 237–8
Bildt, Carl 4(t), 124, 127, 210, 211(t), 214(t), 217(t), 304, 449, 454, 470, 485–6, 489, 536, 571–2, 635
as foreign minister 454, 470, 485–6, 536
as prime minister 124, 127, 304, 449, 571–2
as UN envoy to Balkans 485, 487–9
Bjereld, Ulf 431
Blais, André 235, 238, 242, 244(n8), 244(n9)
Blyth, Mark 470
Bologna Declaration 521
Borg, Anders 492, 554, 603
Bosnia and Herzegovina 433, 473, 473(t), 487–9
bourgeois bloc 639
Breuning, Marijke 531, 534–5, 539
Brommesson, Douglas 449, 498, 534
Brunsson, Nils 323
Brusewitz, Axel 117
business policy 199(t)
businessmen 195(t)
cabinet ministers, selection and importance of 215–20
cabinets, gender-equality in 220–1
cabinets, minority 150, 210–15, 220
Calmfors, Lars 3, 562, 588, 605
Cameron, David 564
Campbell, Adrian 254
Carlsson, Ingvar 4(t), 123, 210(t), 211(t), 214(t), 215, 219, 449, 497, 535, 640, 642
Center Party 4(t), 155(t), 161(t), 164(f), 183(n2), 210(t), 211(t), 214(t), 217(t), 251(f), 263(f), 269(t), 285(t), 287(t)
Center Party, agrees with Social Democrats on far-reaching budget cuts 640
and nonaligned status 442
and representation of women 197
cooperation with Social Democrats 124, 156, 159, 163
decreasing support from farmers 252
exploited fears of nuclear power in 1976 election 157–8
forms Alliance for Sweden with Liberals and Christian Democrats 264
hires elites as political advisors 641
holds “median” position in Riksdag 208
increases its vote 160
occupies ideological middle position 190
overrepresented in government 218–19
part of “bourgeois bloc” 639
part of center–right bloc since 2006 276
part of nonsocialist bloc 122
rebrands as center–right party 160–3
richest party in Sweden 286
supports introduction of child care allowances 63
center–liberal alliance 122
center–right government 2006–14 43–7
centralization of powers within the parties 180(t)
central–local government relations 383–4, 390, 414–15
changes in citizens’ view of parties 181(t)
Charles XII 92, 300
Childs, Marquis 564
Christian Democratic Party 105, 161(t), 172, 183(n2), 195(t), 197, 210–11(t), 214(t), 217(t), 263, 268, 269(t), 270, 276, 475(n2)
against legislation on same-sex marriage 684
and “bourgeois bloc” 639
and nonaligned status 442
becomes moderate conservative party 163
falling support after 2010 165
included in government for first time 63
joins Bildt administration in 1991 124
membership of Alliance for Sweden 264
perceived as center party in the early 1980s 263
Christopherson Report 507
citizen trust in politicians and representative institutions 201(f)
Civic Voluntarism Model 242
class voting 12, 227–8, 246–56, 264
attitudes and ideology 254–5
class identification 253–4
(p. 693) contextual frame for understanding 246–9
development of 249–50
effects of changes in social composition 250–2
party system polarization 255–6
cleavage voting 248
coalition governments 211(t), 217(t)
during postwar period 215, 218, 639
during Second World War 121, 124
four-party 674
Liberal–Conservative 119–20, 603
Liberal–Social Democratic 120
minority 632, 643–4
non-Social Democratic 62–3
non-socialist 126, 218
coalition, bourgeois 643
coalition, center–right 20, 37, 158–9, 218, 448–9, 462, 469, 491, 587, 632–3, 635, 642–3, 646
coalition, -s
and minority governments in 16 Western European countries 212(f)
conservative–center 20
of Liberals and Social Democrats in 1917 119–20
pre-electoral 160–3, 166, 644
Red–Greens 161(t)
Social Democrat and Green 6
Cold War
Sweden’s security policy during 436–9
Sweden’s security policy after 439–44
Committee on Women’s Employment 59–60
communications 199(t)
communism, breakdown of 421
Communist Party 111–12, 121–4, 154, 155(t), 156, 157(t), 166(n3), 401, 632. See also Left Party
Congress of Vienna 434–5
Constitution, Swedish 94–100
Act of Succession 87, 89
consists of four fundamental laws 87
Freedom of the Press Act 87, 89, 93, 100, 144, 305–6
Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression 87, 89, 144
Instrument of Government 87, 89, 92–103, 115–16, 120–32, 139–44, 188, 201, 208, 300, 307, 309, 369, 385, 416, 635, 652
constitutional culture 88, 98, 100
constitutional debate 88, 134, 143
constitutional design 6, 87–146
Age of Liberty 1719–72 92–4
constitutional history 89–100
instrument of government (1634) 91–2
instrument of government (1809) 94–6
instrument of government (1974) 96–9
medieval times 90–1
constitutional history 89–100
constitutional monarchy 87, 94, 99, 116, 208
constitutional politics 103, 106–7, 113, 144
constitutional principles
central 131
uncommon in legal rulings or public debate 87, 89, 100, 144
constitutional reform
after Sweden joined the EU 88, 501, 589
in the 1970s 122, 125, 137
of public sector and courts 143
partial 104, 112, 115, 125
limited role in establishing parliamentary democracy and democratic welfare state 99
since the 1970s 134
Corfu Summit 497
corporatism
effects of 671–3
explaining the decline of 673–4
ideological and strategic foundations of 664–7
Council of Europe 416–17, 433, 436
Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) 447, 456–7
County Boards 319, 352
court systems, Swedish 136(t)
CPI inflation 593(f)
Crouch, Colin 574
culture 199(t)
Czarniawska, Barbara 323
Czechoslovakia, criticism of Soviet intervention 437, 440
(p. 694) d’Hondt method 108–10, 188
Dahlberg, Stefan 231
Dahlström, Carl 660
decentralized unitary state, Sweden as 365, 383
declining party membership figures 173(f)
Demker, Marie 256
democratization
extending suffrage 3, 95, 109
factor behind progress of parliamentarianism 118
political ideologies before 665
propelled by growth and mobilization of working and lower middle classes 3
the fight over 583
distribution of portfolios in Swedish coalition governments 217(t)
distribution of public employees on different government levels 1979 and 2009 307(t)
Doeser, Fredrik 533
Döhler, Marian 636
Downs, Anthony 260, 266
drug policy 354, 669
economic, -s
policy 578–90
influence of Myrdal, Wigforss, Rehn, and Meidner 570
Rehn–Meidner model 582–5, 590, 613
economy 199(t)
Edén, Nils 120
education 199(t)
effects of the positioning along nine issue dimensions on the probability of shifting from red–green parties in 2006 to Alliance parties in 2010, and shifting from non-Sweden Democratic Party in 2006 to Sweden Democratic Party in 2010 269(t)
Ehn, Peter 298, 324, 343
elderly, care of 28, 56, 58, 70, 141, 198, 307–8, 315, 326, 352–3, 376, 378, 385, 387, 393
Election Authority, Swedish 105, 114(n2)
election campaigns 275–89
campaign effects 286–9
election news coverage 279–82
high turnout and increased electoral volatility 276–7
learning about politics through the media 277–9
political campaigning 282–6
Election Studies 180, 189, 200(f), 227, 242, 243(n2), 250(f), 256(n1), 261(f), 262, 263(f), 287
election system 103–114
d’Hondt method 108–10, 188
mechanisms and principles of constitutional design 113–14
minor modifications 112–13
Municipal Referenda Act 104
politics of 107–13
principles of 103–7
proportionality 108–13
Saint-Laguë’s method 106, 110–11, 188
strengthening proportionality 111–12
universal and equal suffrage 1918 and 1920 109–10
electoral behaviour 8, 227–93
demographic characteristics and turnout 235–8
immigration, citizenship and voting 240–1
one hundred years of voting 232–5
political interest and motivation 242
socioeconomic differences 239–40
voter turnout 229–45
Electoral Participation Survey 227, 230, 232, 242, 243(n2)
electoral system 103–8, 231–2
electoral volatility 8, 162–4, 276–7, 279, 674
Elgström, Ole 10, 540(n1), 545
embourgeoisment hypothesis 12–13
environment 199(t)
Equal Opportunities Ombudsman 349
Erikson, Robert 22
Erlander, Tage 4(t), 110, 142–3, 210–11(t), 217(t), 440, 584, 638
Erlingsson, Gissur Ó. 180, 181(t)
Escobar-Lemmon, M. 220
Esping-Andersen, G. 14, 28–9, 38–9, 44, 46, 51(n1)
Europe of the Regions 392, 407, 411
European Association of Judges 139
European Central Bank System (ECBS) 595
European Convention on Human Rights 98, 140
European Council
meeting in Edinburgh 505
meeting in Essen 507
meeting in Gothenburg 456
meeting in Lisbon 502
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 139, 502–3, 607(n3)
European Economic Agency (EEA) 497, 534
European Higher Education Area, establishing 521
European Parliament 233–4, 275, 567, 506, 534, 546, 548, 551, 554, 682
European Union. See also Sweden and the EU
and Swedish courts 139
Baltic Sea strategy 452, 457, 554, 556
Bologna Declaration 521
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 139, 502–3, 607(n3)
EU-skeptics 105, 498, 502, 544, 548
Lisbon Treaty 443, 499, 521, 544, 546, 552–3, 555–6
Maastricht Treaty 396, 535, 589, 592, 603
making and implementing EU policies 134–5
membership and foreign policy reorientation 448
missions 489–90
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) 390, 502, 521
Sweden’s role in leading 544–58
Swedish–Finnish ambitions to develop EU’s Russia policy 456–7
Europeanization of Swedish foreign policy 529–43
complementary Nordic role 535–8
conception 531–5
role change and multiple foreign policy roles 530–1
Europeanization of the Swedish state 515–28
environments of states 515–17
legitimation strategies 523–4
making sense of Europeanization 524–6
the embedded state 517–19
the fragmented state 519–20
the scripted state 520–2
transformations of the Swedish state 522–3
Eurozone, Sweden rejects proposal to join 11
Evans, Geoffrey 255
Fälldin, Torbjörn 4(t), 123, 157–8, 210–11(t), 214(t), 217(t), 218
family policy 62–3, 199(t)
farmers 195(t)
Farmers’ League 121–2, 155(t), 156
Feltenius, David 366, 402, 407
feminism, -ist
critique of the paternalist state 566
impact on gender-equality policies 65
welfare state research 58–60
Financial Stability Council 599
Fiscal Policy Council (FPC) 603–9
five-party system, Swedish 123, 155(t), 189, 263
Folz, Rachel 531
foreign policy 199(t)
“active foreign policy” 432, 437–8, 453
adoption of Western-oriented foreign policy 440
during the Cold War 483–8
emphasis on international law and national sovereignty 10
European 529–40
Europeanization of 449, 498, 529–40, 531–5
focused on Third World 448, 466
liberal internationalism 464, 470, 482–5, 488, 492
long-term engagement in the Balkans 433–4
membership of Council of Europe 436
membership of Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) 447
membership of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 441
military activism as distinctive feature of Swedish foreign policy 479–86, 492
(p. 696) multiple roles in 529–31
neutrality, policy of 431, 433–45, 453, 458, 482
neutrality, tradition of 549
Nordic declaration of solidarity 451
Nordic focus 536–40
orientation 484
participation in NATO-led missions 434, 444
participation in Northern Dimension (ND) 456
passive 529
postneutral 433–4
recurrent themes 431
relations with Russia 449–56, 458–9
relationship to the Baltic Sea region 447–8
since the end of the Cold War 530
“small-state realism” 432, 437–8, 453
support of fragile Baltic democracies 449, 452
Forest Agency 310, 350
forest policy 350–2
Forestry Act 350
formateurs 206–8
Freedom of the Press Act 87, 89, 93, 100, 144, 305–6
freestyle bargaining, process of 208–9
freezing hypothesis, Lipset and Rokkan’s 6–8, 113
Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression 87, 89, 144
gender discrimination, positive 336
gender equality 55–66, 199(t)
and red–green party shifting 269(t), 270
and welfare state 55–66
as policy priority 199(t)
attitude of Nordic citizens 420
attitudes of party voters 268
Committee on Women’s Employment 59–60
“father’s group” 63
feminist impact on gender-equality policies 65
first law passed 336
gender gap 56, 198–202, 252
in parliament 6
in Swedish cabinets 220–1
parental leave 20, 55–7, 60–5, 66(n4)
positive gender discrimination 336–7
same-sex couples 58, 244(n12), 684
Sweden’s global promotion of 466–7, 470, 474
Sweden’s leading role in 20
women’s movement 59–62
General Electoral League 155(t)
general government net lending 593(f)
general government net lending, percent of GDP 593(f)
Giddens, Anthony 509
globalization 267(t), 269(t)
corporatist system of governance challenged by 98
factor in decreasing Swedish exceptionalism 12, 13–14
fundamental changes brought by 144
membership of the European Union 572
negative effects of 369, 616
popularity with Left/Green Party voters 268
pressures of 150, 616
SAP launches “Agenda for Global Development” 468–9
unpopularity with Sweden Democrats 268
Gossas, Markus 400, 407
governing the state 347–59
creating formal organizations 349
distancing strategy 353–5
forming communication channels 355–6
fostering competition 352–3
positioning strategy 350–2
storytelling strategy 356–8
Government Commission on Central Government–State Agency Relations 322
Government Commission on Public Policy Planning 322
government debt, percent of GDP 594(f)
government formation
composition and size 209–15
parties in 206–21
process 206–9
(p. 697) Government Offices 127, 132, 140, 333, 336–8, 400, 406, 411, 631–46
Governments in Sweden, 1945–2014 4(t)
governments, minority 116–215, 631–46, 680–8
Graaf, Nan Dirk de 255
Green Environmental Party 263
Green Party 7, 161(t)
and green attitudes 268
and representation of women 197
enters Parliament in 1988 123, 183(n2), 276
favours product orientation over market orientation 284
forms coalition government with the Social Democrats 646
joins form a center–left bloc 276
moves closer to Social Democrats and Left Party 264
part of “socialist bloc” 639
positive attitude towards immigration 268
regarded as unreliable by Social Democrats 124
supports Social Democratic minority government 63, 641
Gustafsson, Gunnel 400
Gustav III 93
Gustav IV Adolf 93
Gustav Vasa 91
Gustavsson, Jakob 534
Gustavus Adolphus 91–2
Habermas, Jürgen 20, 70
Hague Conventions 434–5
Hall, Patrik 297, 324, 334, 635, 637
Hansen, Kasper M. 237–8
Hansson, Per Albin 4(t), 210–11(t), 121, 579–81
Harnisch, Sebastian 530
Hartman, Laura 404
Hayek, Friedrich 583
health care 199(t)
Hermansson, Jörgen 88, 101, 117, 144
Hernes, Helga Maria 57
Holmberg, Sören 162, 170, 165(f), 190, 191, 191(f), 193(f), 201(f), 203(n1), 228, 234, 244(n7), 254, 255, 256(n2), 269(t)
Huldt, Bo 483
human rights 10, 98, 140, 432, 437, 454, 462, 465, 470–1, 474, 486, 533
Hyde-Price, Adrian 432
ideological left–right voting in Swedish elections, 1956–2010 265(f)
immigrants 195(t)
industrial relations, Swedish model of 612–27
basic model 613–15
challenges and political reforms 615–17
labor market actors and changing industrial relations 617–22
trade unions 619–20
industry, nationalization of 5, 581, 583, 584, 656
Inspectorate of Strategic Products (ISP) 354
Instrument of Government 87, 89, 92–103, 115–16, 120–32, 139–44, 188, 201, 208, 300, 307, 309, 369, 385, 416, 635, 652
Instrument of Government 1719 92
Instrument of Government 1809 94–100, 120, 126, 188, 201
Instrument of Government 1974 103, 115–16, 123, 125–7, 130–2, 188, 201, 208, 416
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 324
international relations 10, 431–94
Baltic Sea Region 447–61
key elements of Swedish policy 451–2
change and continuity in Swedish foreign policy 448–51
development policy 471–2
institutional dynamics in the Baltic Sea Region 455–8
internationalism,
and development aid 462–78
discourses in a development context 468–71
liberal 464, 470, 482–5, 488, 492
Liberal and Social Democratic attributes of 463–5
neutrality, and nonalignment 467–8
Sweden’s role as internationalist state 431, 467, 474
military activism 479--94
beyond traditional peacekeeping 486–7
(p. 698) “era of new and savage wars” 485–6
EU missions 489–90
from the Cold War to the “New World Order” 482–3
military nonalignment, security cooperation, and solidarity 483–5
paradoxes of Swedish military policy 481–2
partnership with NATO 490–2
political instrumentality of “doing good” 480–1
UN operations 487–9
policy of neutrality and beyond 433–46
recipients of ODA 473–4
relations with Russia 452–5
security policy after the Cold War 439–44
security policy during the Cold War 436–9
Social Democratic self-identity 465–7
internationalism
and development aid 462–78
liberal 464, 470, 482–5, 488, 492
Sweden’s role in 431, 467, 474
Iron Curtain 421
ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) 434, 443, 490–1
issue voting 260–73
evolution of 264–5
from ideology to issues 265–8
ideological left–right voting 260–4
ideologically motivated voters 271–3
issue ownership 270–1
issues that explain party switching 269–70
Jacobsson, Bengt 298, 301, 498
Jansen, Giedo 255
Jansson, Fredrik 573
jobs 199(t)
Johansson, Folke 405
justice/law 199(t)
Katzenstein, P. 3, 615
Kersting, Norbert 415
Keynes, John Maynard 320, 564, 569–70, 574, 580–3, 587–8, 613
Kjellberg, Anders 619
Knape, Anders 390, 394(n4)
Koch-Lindberg, Karin 219
Kölln, Ann-Kristin 150, 173(f), 174(f)
Korpi, Walter 22, 565
Kosovo Force (KFOR) 433
Krantz, Tobias 408
Kyoto Protocol 549, 554
Labor Force Survey 230
Labor Market Board 310, 411, 614, 617, 642, 670
labor movement 3, 5, 13, 38–9, 46, 61, 108, 113, 401, 565, 568, 583, 614, 666, 669
Landgren, Karl-Gustav 582
Lash, Scott 509
LBGT persons 195(t)
left bloc 154, 160, 163, 645
Left Party 7, 63, 124, 150, 155(t), 160–5, 172, 173(f), 183(n2), 193(f), 197, 209, 211(t), 213, 215, 250(f), 263(f), 264, 268, 269(t), 270, 276, 284, 285(t), 287(t), 370, 604, 632, 639–46, 684
and “contract parliamentarism” 645
and representation of women 197
argues against child care allowance 63
declares preference for Social Democratic cabinets over center–right ones 215
doubles its vote 160
excluded from minority Social Democrat government coalition in 2014 644
favours product orientation over market orientation 284
forms form a center–left bloc 276
increasing cooperation with Social Democrats on policy issues 646
less loyal to Social Democrats 640
marginalization of 632
passive support for Social Democrats 639
positive view of gender equality 268
rejects freeze on wages, rents, and municipal income taxes, as well as restrictions on the right to strike 640
supports Social Democratic minority government 63, 150
left–right divide 190–3, 202, 228, 265, 270
left–right ideological self-placement among Swedish voters, 1968–2010 261(f)
(p. 699) Lewin, Leif 562
liberal internationalism 464, 470, 482–5, 488, 492
Liberal Party 4(t), 7, 63, 109, 111, 119, 121, 155(t), 159–60, 161(t), 164(f), 183(n2), 190, 194(f), 197, 209, 210–11(t), 214(t), 217(t), 218, 263–4, 267(f), 269(t), 270, 276, 285(t), 287(t), 370, 475(n2), 440, 579, 583, 639–40, 643, 665, 684
alliance with Social Democrats 108
and long-term changes in party competition 190
and representation of women 197
drivers of child care policy 63
enters postwar government 121
joins “bourgeois bloc” 639
joins Alliance for Sweden 264
unwilling to govern with other parties 119
liberalization
of aid policy 469
of capital flows 674
of Swedish society 474
of the EU 6
of trade 471
of welfare 468
Liberal–Social Democratic coalition 120–1
Libya
importance to Swedish airforce 491
NATO-led operation in 467, 487, 490–2
no-fly zone 434, 443
Operation Unified Protector (OUP) 434, 490–2
Lidström, Anders 366, 400
Lindbom, Anders 20, 40, 76
Lindert, Peter 78, 564
Lindh, Anna 533
Lindvall, Johannes 562, 607(n1)
Lipset, Seymour Martin 6–8, 153–5, 247–8, 254
Lisbon Treaty 443, 499, 544, 546, 551–3, 555–6
LO blue-collar trade organization 44, 157, 250, 570, 614, 619–22, 670. See also Trade Union Confederation
local government 141–3
access to central government 420–1
autonomy 9, 416
based on principles of representative democracy and elected councils 422
binding regulations to force compliance with national policy 309
budgets balanced by law 420
central–local government relations 141–3, 383–6, 390, 392, 414–15
challenges and reforms of 9, 399–412
citizen–local-government relations 368
citizens and 377–8
concentration of powers in 175
difference between Sweden and southern Europe 419
early manifestations of 90
implementation of national welfare policies and collective local services 365
in a European context 414–25
increasing responsibilities and central government control/supervision 368, 401
Local Government Act 303, 308, 367–8, 374, 377, 416
political responsibility for public care and services 376
regulated by Constitution since 1974 416
professionalization a trademark in 375
reform of the local government election system 111
retention of basic structure 366
share of the economy 419–20
shares traits common to all other European local government systems 424
similarities with Germany, the Netherlands, and Great Britain 414, 419
state subsidies to 42
structure of 417–18
uniqueness of Nordic model 414, 424
Löfvén, Stefan 4(t), 47
long-term sick 195(t)
Lundquist, Lennart 306
Maastricht Treaty 396, 535, 589, 592, 603
macroeconomic policy framework 592–611
fiscal framework 600–5
monetary policy framework 595–9
Magna Carta 91
Magnus Eriksson 91
(p. 700) Mandelkern Report 506
Marks, Gary 384, 394(n1)
Marshall Plan, participation in 436
Marx, Karl 12
Mattson, Ingvar 632, 681
mean aggregate electoral volatility in seven West European countries 162(t)
medieval times 90–2
Miles, Lee 555
military activism 432, 479–94
beyond traditional peacekeeping 486–7
“era of new and savage wars” 485–6
EU missions 489–90
from the Cold War to the “New World Order” 482–3
military nonalignment, security cooperation, and solidarity 483–5
paradoxes of Swedish military policy 481–2
partnership with NATO 490–2
political instrumentality of “doing good” 480–1
UN operations 487–9
minority cabinets 150, 210–15, 220
minority governments 116–215, 631–46, 680–8
Moderate Party 27, 41, 46, 50, 63, 122, 124, 127, 155(t), 159, 161(t), 173(f), 183(n2), 210–11(t), 217(t), 215, 252, 276, 282, 284, 285, 287(t), 370
changes in political rhetoric 46–7
decreasing support for 256
family policy, views on 63
free-market, proponents of 63, 284
more free-market and neoliberal in the 1980s 63
perceived as “neoliberal” 41, 46
quit government in 1981 over tax policy 158
rise of 29–30
steady support from higher professionals 252
Modernization theory 264
Möller, Gustav 59, 71–4, 137
Möller, Tommy 88
Möller, Ulrika 431
monetary policy 353, 589, 592, 595–9, 603–7, 608(n11)
Montin, Stig 175, 366, 400
Mörth, Ulrika 497, 498, 532, 540(n1)
multilevel governance (MLG) 383–8, 392–4, 401, 500
Municipal Referenda Act 104
Myrdal, Alva and Gunnar 60, 62, 66, 70–3, 80(n4), 570
myths and stereotypes of Swedish politics 2
National Association of Free Thinkers 155(t)
National Audit Office 306, 325, 349, 602
National Board of Trade 8, 519–20
National Farmers Union 155(t)
National Organization of the Right 155(t)
nationalization of industry 5, 581, 583, 584, 656
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Nordic balance 437, 439, 435, 458, 482
Partnership for Peace (PfP) 434, 441, 444, 484, 490–1
Sweden’s participation in NATO-led missions 434, 444
Sweden’s partnership with 490–2
neoliberal, -ism
aggressive 567
argument that high public expenditures detrimental to market-based growth 78
aspects of New Public Management (NPM) package 297, 322, 326–7
broad trends of 468
Center Party as 163
center–right coalition changes ideology away from neoliberalism 20
economic principles 470, 507
impact in an institutional environment 563
in the Swedish model 568–74
Moderate Party as 41, 63
policies 14
questioning of the welfare state 23
stance of center–right on development 463–4
neutrality, policy of 10, 431, 433–45, 453, 458, 467, 480, 482, 533
New Democracy party 7, 124, 127, 159, 165, 183, 215, 263, 263(f)
(p. 701) New Public Management (NPM) 9, 133, 143, 297–8, 315, 332, 403, 405–6, 409, 411, 501–6, 521, 524, 568, 570, 636, 675
news consumption in the Swedish population, 1986–2012 278(f)
Neyman, J. 230
Nielsen, Peder 400
Niklasson, Lars 326, 366
non-alignment. See neutrality
nonsocialist bloc 8, 122
Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO) 536–8
Nordic party system 162
Nordic solidarity 537
North, Douglass 78–9
Northern Dimension (ND) 456–7
number of women compared to foreign-born in the Riksdag 196(f)
Nyström, Per 72
Öberg, Perola 632
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 13, 69, 301, 321–4, 352, 470, 472, 507, 515, 521–2, 567, 588
Öhberg, Patrik 150
Ohlin, Bertil 583
Öhrvall, Richard 227
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) 390, 502, 521
Operation Unified Protector (OUP) 434, 490–2
Oscarsson, Henrik 228, 254, 255, 256(n2)
Oskarson, Maria 162, 227, 228, 251(f), 255, 256, 256(n1), 256(n2)
overseas development assistance (ODA) 462–75
Oxenstierna, Axel 92, 300
Palme, Olof 4(t), 210–11(t), 214(t),
argues for internationalism 466
as prime minister 435, 654
assassination of 10, 656
criticism of US warfare in Vietnam 437
first to acknowledge gender dimension when appointing ministers 219
pursued activist foreign policy 482, 533
vision of gender equality 65
parliamentarism, “negative” and “positive” 209
parliamentary system 115–28
conceptual and theoretical framework 116–18
formalized parliamentarianism 125–8
from crisis to stability 120–2
growth of parliamentarianism 118–20
increased turbulence 122–5
late constitutional regulation of 115–16
parties in government formation 206–21
allocation of ministerial portfolios 216–19
formateurs 206–8
freestyle bargaining 208–9
minority governments and support party arrangements 211–15
PM’s institutional powers 215–16
selection and importance of cabinet ministers 215–20
the Speaker’s candidate for PM 208–9
women in cabinet 219–20
parties’ wins and losses during the election campaigns, 2002–10 287(t)
Partnership for Peace (PfP) 434, 441, 491. See also NATO
party organizations 169–84
professionalized 171–81
transformations of 170–1
party system 6–7, 149–223
breakdown of bloc politics 159
challenges to Social Democratic governments 157–8
describing the 153–6
describing the Swedish party system 153–6
electoral volatility 162–4
increasingly “bipolar” 164–5
institutional change 156–7
Nordic 162
revival of bloc politics 159–61
studying 152–6
party voters’ average positions along nine issue dimensions, 2010 267(f)
pension, supplementary (ATP), introduction of 38–40
pensioners 195(t)
(p. 702) People’s Party 155(t)
Persson, Göran 4(t), 65, 127, 159, 214(t), 220, 449, 502, 548, 642
Persson, Thomas 632
Petersson, Olof 11, 88, 182
Pierson, Paul 39, 46, 49
Pihlgren, Gunnar 323
policy priorities: top ten issues among women and men in the Riksdag 199(t)
policy-making 11–12, 631–90
interest organizations in the policy process 663–78
development of interest group influence in the policy process 667–71
effects of corporatism 671–3
explaining the decline of corporatism 673–4
ideological and strategic foundations of Swedish corporatism 664–7
institutionalized participation and autonomy 663–4
looking ahead 674–6
parliamentary committees 679–90
amending legislative bills 683–5
amending the budget bill 685–6
frequency of minority reports as sign of conflict and consensus in committees 687–8
success rate for private member’s motions 686–7
policy coordination under minority and majority rule 634–49
central policy coordination 636–9
coordination under minority and majority rule 639–40
single-party governments 640–3
coalition minority and majority governments 643–4
challenges for policy coordination 645–7
rational politics 650–62
current trends 656–9
formal regulation 651–3
historical development 653–5
rational politics redefined 659–60
varieties of commissions 655–6
political economy of Swedish governance 559–627
100 years of Swedish economic policy 578–90
in the Great Depression 579–82
postwar boom and the Rehn–Meidner Model 582–5
oil crisis to financial crisis 585–8
current economic policy and the Great Recession 588–90
macroeconomic policy framework 592–611
monetary policy framework 595–9
fiscal framework 600–5
Sweden’s political economy 561–2
Swedish model of industrial relations 612–27
basic model 613–15
challenges and political reforms 615–17
labor market actors and changing industrial relations 617–22
trade unions 619–20
Swedish model of welfare capitalism 563–77
between history and social science 564–6
relationship with the market 566–7
neoliberalism in 568–71
compromise around the welfare state 571–3
political and financial capital 573–4
political representation 188–203
trust in parliament 201–2
entrance of niche parties 193–4
individual-level representation 194–5
link between descriptive and substantive representation 196–201
party-based policy congruence 190–2
stability and change in a multi-party system 202–3
politics of the welfare state 19–83
politics, rational 650–62
current trends 656–9
formal regulation 651–3
historical development 653–5
rational politics redefined 659–60
varieties of commissions 655–6
(p. 703) positioning 350–2
postneutrality policy 431, 433
Postwar Program 583, 590
power resource approach (PRA) 38–40, 44, 46, 48–50, 51(n5)
Pre-electoral alliances in the Swedish election campaign in 2010 161(t)
principles of representation 177, 178(f)
professionalization of political campaigning in the 2010 election 285(t)
proportion of professional MPs, 1906–2010 176(f)
proportion of Swedish voters assessing Social Democratic Party/Conservative Party politics as “Good” for Unemployment, Sweden’s Economy, and Social Welfare, 1979–2010 272(f)
proportion of MPs who view it as very important to champion 195(t)
proportionality
proportional electoral system (PR) 108, 109, 118, 188, 190, 666
introduction of 107–8
primacy of the idea of 107
strengthening 111–12
Przeworski, Adam 580
public administration 8–9, 297–361
administrative model 299–312
dualism—government and autonomy 300–4
fragmented welfare state 307–9
openness 305–6
stakeholder influence 309–12
structure and modus operandi of 8–9
Public Employment Service 340, 342, 349, 665
Public Management Policy (PMP) 521
public sector and courts 130–44
central government agencies 132–4
constitutionalism 143–4
controlling courts and judges 137–9
courts and the EU 139
executive and Government Offices 132
local government 141–3
making and implementing EU policies 134–5
reforms 138–41
role of courts in the political system 136–7
the courts 135–6
public servant, the 332–45
aging administration 336–7
appointment of directors-general 341–3
background of public servants 335–40
county governors 343–4
employment security and the integrity of the public servant 334–5
extent of politicization 341, 344
more educated and educationally diverse administration 337–8
more ethnically homogenous administration 339
private sector as role model 333–4
profile of modern public servant 344–5
public employment model 332–5
recruitment of public servants 340–5
reduced employment security 334
socially diverse administration 338–9
unrepresentative profile of senior public servants 339–40
Qvist, Martin 407
red–green cooperation 124, 126, 161, 161(t), 269, 269(t), 270, 319, 609, 644
Red–Greens coalition 161(t)
redistributive effect of the universal welfare state 79(t)
regional policy, idea of competition in 352
Rehn–Meidner model 582–5, 590, 613
Reinfeldt, Fredrik 4(t), 10, 47, 50, 126, 160, 210–11(t), 214(t), 217(t), 218, 304, 454, 483–7, 491, 551–4, 635
religious people 195(t)
Renda, Andrea 505
replacement rate of the unemployment benefit and citizens’ attitudes toward the public sector 49(f)
representation, principles of 177, 178(f)
Right Party 155(t)
Riksbank Act 595, 599, 608(n11)
RK-Styr reform 638
Rokkan, Stein 6–8, 108, 113, 154–5, 247–8
Rosén Sundström, Malena 498
Rothstein, Bo 2, 20, 40, 137, 470, 565, 573, 665
(p. 704) Russia
annexation of the Crimea and events in Ukraine 92, 436
aware of Swedish collaboration with the West 437, 441
fall of the Soviet Union 448–9
measures to prevent Soviet Union occupation during wartime 439
Sweden’s relations with 451–9
Swedish criticism for interventions in Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan 437, 440
Swedish–Finnish ambitions to develop EU’s Russia policy 456–7
violation of Swedish territorial airspace and territorial waters 535
Rustow, Dankwart 6, 11
Rydgren, Jens 255
Saint-Laguë’s method 106, 110–11, 188
same-sex couples 58, 244(n12), 684
Särlvik, Bo 203(n1), 249, 256(n1)
Sartori, Giovanni 116, 152–4, 164, 247
“Scandinavianism” 537
Schmidt, Vivien 11
security policy and the Cold War 436–44
Seymour Lipset and Stein Rokkan’s “freezing” hypothesis 6–7
share of party income provided by state subsidies, 1960–2010 174(f)
Shonfield, Andrew 11
small-state realism 437, 482–4
SNS Economic Policy Group 596
social cleavage model, Lipset and Rokkan’s 153–4, 247–8
Social Democratic Party 155(t), 161(t), 210–11(t), 214(t), 217(t)
and Green coalition 6, 646
ascends to power 4
coalition with Center Party 156
coalition with Liberals 119–20, 603
coalition with the Agrarian Party 110, 209, 579, 581, 584, 586
coalition with the Farmer’s League 119, 121, 156
decline of postwar hegemony 13
historically dominant party 37
longevity of 6
lose the 1990 election 124
not part of 1976 coalition government
Postwar Program 590
strength in the two parliamentary chambers 157(t)
“Thursday Club” 584
social policy 199(t)
Soviet Union. See Russia
stakeholder influence 309–12
state, governing 347–59
stereotypes of Swedish politics 2
Stockholm Institute for Social Research 566
Stoltenberg Report 537–8
strategy
distancing strategy 353–5
positioning strategy 350–2
storytelling strategy 356–8
Streeck, Wolfgang 574
Strömbäck, Jesper 228
subjective left–right self-placement by Swedish MPs, 1985–2010 164(f)
subnational government 365–428
access 386
and the EU 388–92
and the welfare state 386–8
citizens and local government 377–8
discretion 385
ensuring compliance 388
in a multilevel perspective 383–98
increased complexity 375–7
local and regional, and political and administrative institutions 369–73
local self-government 368–9
municipalities, regions, and county councils 367–82
political coordination 379
politics and administration 373–5
two tiers of government 384–5
suffrage
extending 3, 95, 109. See also democratization
universal and equal 3, 6, 87, 95, 100, 103–4, 108–110, 113, 120, 125–6, 183(n2)
women’s 87, 109
Sundström, Göran 498, 526
(p. 705) supplementary pension (ATP), introduction of 38–40
support party arrangements for Swedish minority cabinets, 1970–2013 214(t)
Svallfors, Stefan 19, 24, 26, 28, 75, 76, 77
Svensson, Torsten 562, 608(n13)
Sweden and the EU 497–558
Europeanization of Swedish foreign policy 529–43
a complementary Nordic role 535–8
conception 531–5
role change and multiple foreign policy roles 530–1
Europeanization of the Swedish state 515–28
environments of states 515–17
legitimation strategies 523–4
making sense of Europeanization 524–6
the embedded state 517–19
the fragmented state 519–20
the scripted state 520–2
transformations of the Swedish state 522–3
leading the European Union 544–58
national or European interests 546–7
roles of the presidency 545–6
Swedish EU presidencies 555–7
the 2001 presidency 547–51
the 2009 presidency 551–5
Sweden in a multigovernance polity 500–14
governance turn 501–5
market turn 505–8
societal turn 508–10
Sweden
as decentralized unitary state 365, 383
as internationalist state 431, 467, 474
as multilateral cooperation agent 431
Sweden/Swedish Democrats 7–8, 124–7, 150, 152, 161, 164(f), 165, 183, 190, 193–4, 202, 215, 221, 256, 263(f), 267(f), 268, 270, 276, 282, 285(t), 370, 609(n30), 644–5, 684
Swedish Agency for Government Employers (SAGE) 333, 339
Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) 467, 479–88, 492
Swedish army, commands Provincial Reconstruction Team, Mazar-e-Sharif 491
Swedish Association of Local Government and Regions (SALAR) 142, 369, 374, 377, 386–93
Swedish Cabinets, 1945–2013 210–11(t)
Swedish Central Bank 353–4, 674
Swedish court systems 136(t)
Swedish Election Authority 105, 114(n2)
Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF) 617, 620–1, 670
Swedish Employers’ Federation 310, 613
Swedish Integration Board 349
Swedish Investigation on Power and Democracy 70
Swedish National Debt Office 320
Swedish National Election Studies (SNES) 189, 227, 242–3, 250, 256, 261(f), 263(f), 264
Swedish Power Inquiry 355
Swedish society, liberalization of 474
Swedish Upland Law 90–1
Swedish Welfare State Surveys 23–4, 29, 32
tax policy 123, 158, 199(t), 643
Taylor-Robinson, Michelle M. 220
teetotalers 195(t)
Thirty Years War 92
Thorsson, Fredrik Vilhelm 653
“Thursday Club” 584
Tingsten, Herbert 229, 243, 243(n1), 246, 583
Tolgfors, Sten 480, 536
Trade Union Confederation 157, 570, 666, 669–70, 672. See also LO trade organization
trade unions 619–20
Ullsten, Ola 4(t), 123, 210–11(t), 214(t)
Undén, Östen 435
unemployed 195(t)
unemployment, percent of the labor force 594(f)
(p. 706) UNGA (United Nations General Assembly) 449
United Nations, operations 487–9
universalism 43, 45, 420, 467, 565
USSR. See Russia
various interests 195(t)
Verba, Sidney 242
very important factors to influence decisions in the party group 179(f)
Vetter, Angelika 415
Vienna, Congress of 434–5
voter turnout 229–45
in elections to the Riksdag, 1911–2010 233(t)
in elections to the Riksdag, by municipality, 1976 and 2010 234(f)
in elections to the Riksdag, by sex, 1911–2010 236(f)
in the 2010 election to the Riksdag, by sex and age 236(f)
voters’ perceptions of Swedish parties’ average left–right positions, 1979–2010 263(f)
voting
among the “core groups” of class voting 251(f)
behavior, Sociological Model of 227
class 246–56
attitudes and ideology 254–5
class identification 253–4
contextual frame for understanding 246–9
development of 249–50
effects of changes in social composition 250–2
party system polarization 255–6
cleavage 248
ideological 227–8
issue 260–73
evolution of 264–5
from ideology to issues 265–8
ideological left–right voting 260–4
ideologically motivated voters 271–3
issues that explain party switching 269–70
ownership 270–1
wage earners 195(t)
Wallis, John 78–9
War Material Inspectorate (KMI) 354
Weingast, Barry 78–9
welfare capitalism, Swedish model of 563–77
between history and social science 564–6
compromise around the welfare state 571–3
neoliberalism in 568–71
political and financial capital 573–4
relationship with the market 566–7
welfare state
after center–right rule 37–51
and feminism 58–9
and gender equality 55–66
and political partisanship 37–40
attitudes to 22–32
economic logic of universal welfare model 78–80
empirical analyses of retrenchment 41–2
feminist research 59–60
future of 48–50
gender and welfare state regimes 57–8
moral foundations of 69–71
moral, economic and political logic 69–80
political logic of universal welfare model 74–8
power resource approach (PRA) 38–40, 44, 46, 48–50, 51(n5)
Power Resource Theory 74–5
public support for 25–32
Social Democratic in opposition 2013–14 47–8
social policy and citizens’ rights 71–4
summary of Swedish attitudes towards 24
surveys 23–4
Swedish model 19, 69, 469, 561–74
Swedish Welfare State Surveys 23–4, 29, 32
the “New” and More Moderate Party 42–7
transition to individual earner-carer model 61–4
welfare state “paradox” 56
(p. 707) politics of 19–83
redistributive effect of the universal 79(t)
“welfare-industrial complex” 574
Westerberg, Bengt 63, 66(n3)
Wigforss, Ernst 59, 570, 580–3
Winch, D. 582
women 195(t)
Women’s Employment, Committee on 59–60
women’s movement 59–62
working class, increasing affluence of 12–13
World Bank 321, 324, 521
xenophobia 268, 276, 282
young people 195(t)
Zetterberg, Hans L. 24, 70, 653, 658