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date: 18 October 2019

(p. 705) Index

(p. 705) Index

abortion 6, 38, 69, 98, 248, 275, 296, 306, 330, 333, 366, 379, 425, 481, 599
Abraham, as reversal of patriarchy in Qur’an 435
abstinence (from sex) 109, 191, 332, 359, 373, 385–7, 399, 406, 413–14, 441, 544, 548, 645
abuse 78, 150, 202, 204, 288, 299, 306, 309, 311, 336, 446, 487–503, 512, 543, 547, 632, 680
clerical 111, 282, 336, 548
active/passive distinction 142, 158, 180, 229, 256–9, 270, 416, 419, 527, 616, 650
Adam, 40–1, 190, 192–3, 243, 259–62, 272, 275, 290, 310–12, 326, 423, 438, 508; see also Eve
and Eve, see Adam; Eve
Adamah, in Qur’an 438
adaptationism 71
adolescence 90, 96, 100, 102
Aelred of Rievaulx, on friendship, 693–5
agape 43, 64, 508, 530, 696; see also eros
and eros 524–31, 533
ageing 12, 514
agency, moral 114, 131, 139, 146–7, 181, 185–6, 270, 455, 490, 547, 629, 635, 667, 671
agere sequitur esse 546
aggression, positive and negative meanings of 490–1
Alcoff, Linda M. 8, 138–9, 147–50
Althaus-Reid, Marcella 4, 26–7, 161, 512, 648, 650–3
analogy 26, 60–63, 215, 282, 309, 458, 592, 598, 604–5
androcentrism 33, 34, 40, 132, 276, 474, 633, 652, 696
androgyny 19, 228–9, 455, 464, 612
Anglican Communion 11, 339–55
Animus/Anima 94–5, 101
anthropology 8, 61, 88, 105–19, 177, 696
theological 21, 38, 44, 101–2, 325–6, 345, 517, 530–1, 546, 580, 652, 671, 682
anti-women verses, in Qur’an 445–7
Aquinas, Thomas 42, 55, 56, 63, 160, 274–5, 291, 507, 557, 560, 563, 564, 577, 582, 595
archetype 94–5
Aristotelian biology 256–8
Aristotle 32, 141, 222, 256, 290, 306, 557, 559, 560–1, 564, 691–2, 697–8
arsenokoitai 209–10
asceticism 27–9, 160, 245
asexual, asexuality 14, 29, 63, 155, 414, 539, 670, 679–80
reproduction 75–6, 454
attachment theory 88, 96–7, 102
Augustine 40, 55, 56, 62, 141, 207, 243–4, 246–8, 250, 272–4, 279, 283, 288, 290, 523–4, 528, 532, 534, 545, 559, 577, 581, 598, 693
baal and adon 176–7
Bailey, Derrick S. 159, 219
Barth, Karl 4, 21, 42, 53–5, 84–5, 524, 529
BDSM 218, 515
beating verse, meanings of 446
(p. 706) Beattie, Tina 26–7, 32
behavioural genetics 8, 69–85
beloved disciple 218, 596
Bem, Sandra L. 33
Bennett, Jana 582, 597–8
betrothal 181, 193, 198, 308, 567–8, 599
reinstatement of 568–70
bhakti 459, 461–4
Bible, interpretation of 7, 9–10, 15–16, 40–1, 54–7, 164, 184, 206, 20, 216, 219, 224–5, 228–9, 272, 334, 350, 359, 373, 380, 384, 391, 496, 600–1, 671, 682; see also hermeneutic(s)
binaries 46, 59, 61, 139, 228, 505, 510
resisting 154–7, 162, 518, 651
binary 14, 26, 327, 510, 512–13, 516, 647, 651, 657–8, 682
male and female 14, 56n2, 59, 82–3, 138, 157, 162, 229, 232, 510, 652, 657, 665
norm 34, 166
sex 658, 666
biological determinism 39, 43, 97–9, 138–9, 141
biology of sex 69–85
biphobia of lesbian and gay theology 649
birth control 379, 400, 424–5; see also contraception
bisexual(ity) 13–14, 19, 163, 510
and Anglican bishops 645–6
as epistemological stance 651
erasure 642
feminism 642
in lesbian and gay theology 647–8
in mainstream theology 644–6
people 29, 640–56
and spirituality 650–1
theology, beginnings 643–4
what is it? 640–2
Black
churches, conflicts within 395–410
lesbians and gays 401
women and men, religiosity of 398, 403
Body of Christ 45, 58–9, 163, 516, 544, 596, 598
as church 58
eucharistic 56, 58, 293,
beyond gender 59
crossing 628
mystical 45
body
construction of 11, 33–5, 140, 142, 223, 324, 415
in Judaism 414–20
maternal 37, 148, 324, 518
nuptial meaning of 21
in patristic period 241–53, 681
resurrection of 27, 40, 251
spousal meaning of 579
theology of the 38, 325, 380, 579
Book of Gomorrah 293–4
Bourdieu, Pierre 120, 131–3
Bowlby John 88, 96–7
Boyarin, Daniel 229, 276, 413–14, 420, 422–4, 428, 530
Bray, Alan 698
Brooten, Bernadette 616, 627–8
Browning, Don 582, 593–7, 601
Buddha, the, and Mahaprajapati 475
Buddhism 12, 166, 459, 466–82
burka 114
Butler, Judith 8, 25, 37, 55, 57, 59, 84, 138–9, 144–8, 158–9, 163, 165, 222, 224, 230, 327, 510, 513, 516, 608, 635–7, 648
Cahill, Lisa S. 570, 599–600, 646
Calvinism, marriage in 308–10
caritas 528, 604
castration 245–6, 250, 300
Catherine of Siena 45
celibacy 10, 19, 101, 109, 111, 244, 271, 280, 306–7, 318, 346, 348, 497, 508, 511, 514, 548, 560, 577, 645–6
in Buddhism 469–70, 482
celibate life 22, 26, 28, 306, 349
centurion’s lad 213
chastity 101, 189, 192, 244–5, 269, 275, 281, 307, 316, 359, 441, 547, 557
of medieval clergy 287–302
as states of life 565
as virtue 565, 568
vows of 266–7
Cheng, Patrick 27, 162, 164, 648
childcare, and Buddhism 481–3
Christ; see God; Jesus; Kingdom of God
and the Church 21–2, 45, 61–2, 185, 279, 288, 309, 577, 580, 593
as male and female 628
Christologies, lesbian 629–32
Christology 53, 58–9, 161–2, 213, 218, 232, 516, 629–31, 637, 648–9
chromosomes 74, 82–3, 144, 658, 661–2
circumcision 217, 414
civil partnerships 6, 360, 698
Clapp, Rodney 596–8, 602
Clement of Alexandria 247, 506–7
Coakley, Sarah 4, 28, 32–3, 38, 40, 47
cohabitation 6, 13, 317, 557, 565–70, 573, 576, 585, 597, 603, 699
and evangelicalism 385–7
cohabitors, nuptial 566–7, 569–70
colonialism 112–13, 231, 348, 350–1, 395, 464, 467, 512, 514, 652; see also post-colonial
common good 310, 331, 544–7, 549, 590, 594, 599, 602
communio personarum 592, 598, 604
communion
marital 335, 567, 578, 599
of persons 579, 591–2, 605
complacence 542
complementarity 38–9, 59, 61, 95, 162, 325–7, 334–6, 346, 354, 384, 387, 533, 658, 671
conception, immaculate 259–62
concubinage 292–3, 306–7, 313, 317–18, 470
concubine 177–80, 193–4, 198
concupiscence 243, 247, 259, 261, 272–3, 294, 300, 330, 507, 514, 517, 559
condoms 331–2, 548–9; see also contraception
conjugal debt 266–7, 296–7
consummation 30, 515n5, 532, 542–3, 568–9, 664
continence 306–7, 513, 560, 565
contraception 38, 189, 272, 248, 275–6, 328, 330–2, 428, 580, 599, 663
in evangelicalism 378–80, 391
Cornwall, Susannah 27, 159, 162, 515–16, 666, 671
Critical Familism 593–6, 600–1, 604
cross-dressing 107, 214, 230, 250, 297, 636–7
cybersex 28
Daly, Mary 324, 514, 628
Darwin, Charles 70, 76
David and Jonathan 24, 212, 219, 609, 632
David and Saul 212
Davie, Grace 124–5, 127
Dawkins, Richard 71, 72
de Beauvoir, Simone 140, 142, 325, 634
de Lauretis, Tessa 153, 165, 224
deconstruction 34–5, 43, 46, 84, 146–7, 222, 225, 469, 682
defence mechanisms 100
desire 10, 12–13, 22, 25–30, 33–4, 36–7, 41–4, 90–1, 105, 109, 116, 142, 145, 176, 184–6, 192, 203, 208, 220, 223, 275–6, 280, 414, 416, 424, 459, 506, 518, 525, 527, 531–2, 534–6, 581, 609, 679, 696, 699; see also eros
bisexual 464
for God 42, 44, 47–8, 464, 525, 527
in Hinduism 451, 457, 461, 464
and love 523–37
in patristic period 241–53
in Qur’an 440, 445
determinism, biological 39, 43, 97, 99, 138–9
difference, see sexual, difference
disabilities, people with 347, 663, 666, 676–87
disability 12, 14, 37, 164–5, 489, 495, 541, 659
and identity 684
models of understanding 676–8
theologies of 514
and theology 681–3
divorce 6, 110, 247–8, 265–6, 270, 276–7, 304–5, 308–12, 314, 316, 318,350, 352–3, 357, 585–6
and evangelicalism 377, 380–2, 390–1
Jesus and 199–203
and Pentecostalism 357, 360, 366, 373
in Qur’an 445
DNA 74–5, 81
domination 40, 112, 164, 217, 440, 489, 494–5, 498, 500, 512, 515
male 38, 130, 132, 247, 269, 492, 563, 604
Douglas, Mary 55, 100n2, 110
Douglass, Frederick 141–2, 148
drag 146, 159
dress code, in Qur’an 444–5
Duns Scotus 10, 255–69
ecstasy 216, 513, 547, 628
Eden 106, 186, 190–1, 243, 290, 631
egalitarian(ism) 39, 228–9, 336, 383–4, 387, 391, 443, 472–4, 479, 582, 617
Eiesland, Nancy 677, 681–2
embodiment 14, 33, 46, 148, 290, 323–7, 509, 514, 529–30, 539, 542, 545, 547, 550, 631, 671, 681
Ephesians 561–2, 306, 309, 345, 593
epithumia 529–30
equality 18, 28, 39–40, 108, 138, 254, 311–13, 326, 383–4, 395, 397, 406, 467, 481, 496, 515, 547, 563, 570, 593, 597, 599, 601, 628, 637, 669, 690, 696–7, 701, 703
between the sexes 7, 316
ontological, in Qur’an 437–8; see also gender equality
equal-regard 13, 593, 596, 601, 605
Erikson, Eric 95–7
eros 22, 29–30, 64, 493, 508–10, 512, 514, 516, 524, 632, 696–9
and agape, unity of 64, 508
eschatological 517–18, 524
in Judaism 413
reduced to reproduction 525
erotic, see eros
essence (human) 149, 154–5, 159–60, 353, 414, 426, 614
essentialism 37, 43, 46, 147–8, 510
biological 29, 33
essentialist view 19, 22, 147, 156, 327, 510, 625
eunuchs 107, 213–14, 233, 670
Evangelical Alliance 358, 372, 383, 388
evangelicalism, marks of 378, 391
Eve 106, 234, 438, 631
evolutionary
biology 8, 70–72
psychology 69–85, 595
ex-gay 366, 389
Fall (primeval) 40, 259–63, 269–70, 272, 290, 310–11, 327, 438, 506, 508, 665–6
Familiaris consortio 325, 591
families 13, 18, 110, 130, 189, 361, 423, 495, 499, 558, 590–606; see also family
evangelical approach to 386, 596–7
feminist approach to 596–7
Neo-Augustinian approach to 597–8
non-traditional 600
family 10, 26, 39, 81, 107–8, 116, 125, 132, 142, 165, 173, 177, 186–7, 234–5, 276, 278–80, 304, 310–11, 313, 315, 318, 346, 361, 369–70, 472, 492, 525, 558, 574, 579, 582, 586, 590–606, 626, 662
as communion of love 599
as domestic church 592–3, 597–9
first 596
forms 7, 129, 352, 603
in Judaism 415, 422
meanings of 590–1
(p. 709) in the New Testament 189–204, 380, 394
normative Christian view 598
ontology of 592
values 219, 596
Family, Religion and Culture project 13, 593–7
Farley, Margaret 328, 335, 546, 563, 582, 586, 618, 659, 669, 671
fatherhood (metaphorical) 11, 281–2, 284, 433
father-rule, opposition to 432–6
Fausto-Sterling, Anne 83, 144, 146
fecundity, non-biological 547, 592–9, 602, 605
femaleness 14, 20–1, 25–6, 106, 420, 657, 660, 665, 670
femininity 106–7, 109, 113, 125, 127, 140, 142, 325–7, 401, 419, 498, 559, 579, 593, 634
feminism 34, 41, 43, 133, 137, 139, 143, 147, 164, 325, 383, 482, 518, 632, 642, 647
evangelical 383–4, 515
in Buddhism 472–5
liberal 114, 415
new Catholic 38, 326
postmodern 327
feminist theology 4, 34–5, 42, 324, 625, 635
feminization 214–15, 249
fertility 83, 100, 106, 191, 195, 246, 272, 274–5, 332–3, 420, 423–8, 473, 543, 567–8, 580
cult 208, 216
in Judaism 275–6, 423–8
fidelity 96, 102, 273, 316, 335, 359, 382, 480, 498, 525, 543, 546–7, 564, 567, 581–86, 603, 633, 698
fornication 106, 248, 264, 273–4, 288, 290, 293, 295–7, 308, 310, 313, 317, 328, 441, 444
of priests 292–3, 297, 299
Foucault, Michel 19, 5, 29, 33, 42, 44, 84, 105, 139, 145, 158–9, 163, 222, 224, 230, 513, 517, 525, 543, 611–15, 621–2, 648
Freud, Sigmund 88–92, 94, 97, 99, 100, 490, 500, 532, 617
friends, friendship 5, 14, 22, 89, 232, 316–17, 547, 578, 585, 618, 688–704
Aristotle on 691–2, 696
components of 690
after death of spouse 699
Facebook 700–1
heterosexual, question of 696–7
as love 688–9, 693–4
in lesbian theology 632–3
in monastic communities 692–3
overview 689–90
virtual 700–1
virtuous 692
Fulkerson, Mary M. 37, 42–3
fundamentalist 55, 108, 114, 358, 367, 377, 477–8
Galatians 3: 25, 47, 56, 59, 225, 228–30, 250, 269, 636–7
Galen 222, 256, 506
Gaudium et spes 38, 329, 578, 590
gay 6, 11, 20, 25, 64, 80–1, 111–12, 129, 153, 155, 213–16, 220, 344, 364, 366, 368, 370, 372, 389, 401–2, 405, 423, 473, 480, 509–10, 512–15, 517–18, 525, 545, 611, 613, 617–18, 642, 644–5
affections 608–23
Christians 23, 619, 621
experience, not singular 620–1
gene 69
identity 13, 81, 155, 388, 608, 615, 619, 641, 645, 648
liberation movement 19
marriage 11, 23, 347–8, 354–5, 389, 632
as a name 111, 155, 363, 610, 618
priests, bishops 11, 348–9, 511
theology, theologians 23–4, 41, 644, 646, 648, 651
gender 4, 8, 11–12, 27–8, 32–3, 39, 41–2, 69, 105, 107, 121, 140, 173, 271, 436–7, 495–6, 508–9, 557, 628, 634–7, 640, 647, 672, 697–8
in Anglican Communion 339–46, 353–4
in anthropology 104–16
Augustine on 57–58
balance, in Hinduism 461, 464
(p. 710) and the Bible 9, 39–41, 173–86
binaries see binaries
in Buddhism 472–83
category of, concept of 22, 25, 27, 34, 137–8, 163, 220, 415, 450, 619, 670
and the Catholic Church 323–6, 336
complementarity 59, 61, 326, 334, 346, 354–5, 671
construction of
in New Testament 222–37
in Paul 225–8
definitions of 5, 34, 137–8, 140, 416, 559
dysphoria 660
equality 11, 313, 395, 600
as essence 106–7
and evangelicalism 383–91
female, in Duns Scotus 255–69
in Hinduism 450–66
‘lenses’ of 33, 38, 47
and mysticism 44–46
nominalism 138, 140, 147
norms 145, 513
order 128, 132
in patristic period 249–51
as performance, performativity 25, 37, 144–7, 157–9, 510
as positionality 139, 147–50
realism 8, 138, 140, 143, 147, 149
relations, in Judaism 414–17
relationship to religion 120–35
and religiosity 126–8
renunciation of 249–50
and sexual difference 33, 36–38
in sociology of religion 124–8
secularization 125–6
social construction of 8, 25, 107, 138–43, 146, 148–9, 489
stereotypes 142
study of 5, 7, 32–48, 121, 138, 223, 415
theory 7, 9, 38–9, 42–3, 46, 223
third 106–7
transgression 42, 107 see binary, hierarchy
Genesis
Genesis 1: 26, 40–1, 173, 192, 195–6, 199–200, 228, 275, 306, 326, 413, 423, 591, 684
Genesis 1–3: 40, 60–1, 176, 186, 190–2, 665–6
Genesis 2: 40, 173–4, 191, 195–6, 199–200, 202, 228, 240, 305, 326, 664
Genesis 3: 40, 47, 176, 186, 217, 310
genetics 8, 70, 72–5, 81
Gilligan, Carol 42
Glasspool, Mary 349
God
as agapeic love 527
author of matrimony 590
creative power of 540–3, 629
as disabled 682
of extravagance 539–40, 543, 545
as Father 11, 57–9, 63, 232, 283–4, 345, 384, 432–3, 605
beyond fatherhood in Islam 433–4
as friendship 693–4
Incarnate 43, 47, 58, 256
knowledge of 5, 42
as Love 26, 62–3, 591–2, 605, 630, 649
masculinizations of 433
as mother and father 27
participation in 24
patriarchalized 432; see also Christ; Holy Spirit; image of God; love, of God; Trinity
beyond sex and gender 57–8, 432–3, 453
godhead, in Hinduism 456, 458–9, 461–2
Gratian 273–4, 567
Great Goddess 460
Gregory Nazianzen 63
Gregory of Nyssa 27
Halakhah, Halakhic 11, 413, 415, 417–29
Halperin, David M. 25, 155–6, 158, 160, 613, 616, 621
Harris, Barbara 343
head-covering 419
headship 11, 233, 311, 345, 383–4, 391, 594
hermaphrodites 82–3, 658, 670
hermaphroditism 661
(p. 711) hermeneutic(s) 11–12, 14, 55, 148, 164, 206, 216, 228, 350, 373, 383, 546, 583–4, 619, 624–5, 637, 652
of hetero-suspicion 625, 637
homophobic 207
in Islam 432–3, 447–8
Hester, J. David 666–7
hetero-
patriarchy 626, 628, 634–5, 652
sexual matrix 145
sexual/homosexual binary 158, 162
sexuality 6, 18–26, 34, 37, 39, 165, 361, 525, 535, 611, 621–2, 628, 640, 645
compulsory 37, 149, 510, 604, 647, 649–50
concept of 157–9
as normative 109, 145, 509, 543
reproductive 149, 173
Heyward, Carter 22, 509–10, 629–33, 647–8, 650
hierarchy 61, 99, 145, 175–6, 215, 222, 224, 226, 268, 283, 311, 326, 345, 438, 474, 477–8, 509, 599, 633
Hilkert, Mary 42
HIV/AIDS 11, 13, 19–20, 23, 156, 161, 165, 331–2, 362, 395, 398, 538–52
and the Black Church 401–7
Holy Spirit 10, 18, 47, 54, 62–3, 114, 258–9, 267, 342, 357, 303, 373, 386, 592, 693n3, 703
Home, Henry 314–15, 318
homo-
erotic 80, 209, 213, 217, 219, 249, 422, 616
sexual
acts 163, 358, 372–3, 389, 543, 546
as default term 610
relationships, and Buddhism 480
sexuality 5, 11, 13, 18–30, 38–9, 69, 80, 109, 111–12, 145, 157–8, 163, 249, 346, 383, 395, 399
and Anglican Communion 346–54
behavioural genetics of 81
and Black churches 400–03, 407
evolutionary theories of 80–1
invention of 611–13, 615
naturalization of 618; see also gay; lesbian(s)
as pathology 617–18
and Pentecostal Churches 357–75
sociality 535
honour-shame codes 310–11, 314, 317–18, 351, 361, 601
Hrdy, Sarah B. 71
Humanae vitae 331, 380
Hume, David 316–18
Hunt, Mary 509, 644
identities 6, 20, 26–8, 35–7, 43, 105–7, 123, 153–5, 163–4, 166, 250, 415, 459, 510, 518, 618–19, 622, 624, 627, 653, 670–1; see also identity
multiple 146, 148
identity 10, 12–13, 19–20, 25, 34, 36–7, 91, 96, 102, 108–9, 111–12, 130, 133, 139, 154, 163, 208, 225–7, 235, 313, 335, 350, 369, 420–2, 462, 494, 534, 539, 550, 564, 608, 613–15, 619, 621, 636–7, 640, 671
bisexual 641–3, 645–8
homosexual 158, 249, 388, 400, 421–2
lesbian 624, 627–9, 642, 647–8
mistaken, in Buddhism 469
sexed 146–9
without essence 155–6, 160; see also gender; intersex; sexual; transgender
illusion 92, 101
image of God 21, 40–1, 47, 88, 242, 268, 284, 345, 373, 383, 516, 586, 542, 591, 595, 672
imago dei 21, 540–3, 548, 591, 633–4, 637
Incarnation 40, 46, 58, 161, 232, 256, 270, 500, 528, 531, 629–31
in lesbian theology 637–8
indecent theology 4, 161
individualism 69, 564, 574, 585, 594
(p. 712) individuality 23, 126, 373, 436, 438–9, 576
individuation 94–5, 101, 114
inequality 5, 39, 225, 432n1, 437, 617, 651, 692, 696–7
intermarriage 183–4, 194–5
intersectionality 9, 37, 224–5, 232
intersex 8, 12, 14, 69–85, 82–3, 144, 153–5, 157–8, 162, 243, 327, 371, 380, 515, 539, 549, 608, 636, 665, 667–8, 691–2
and Church of England teaching 661
definitions 658–9
and Evangelical Alliance 662
people 515, 657–74
and same-sex marriage 661
Irigiray, Luce 36–7, 354
ish and ishshah 174, 6, 184, 200
Isherwood, Lisa 23–4
Issues in Human Sexuality 348–9
Ivarsson, Frederick 223, 226
IVF 330
Jantzen, Grace 44
Jerome 207, 243–4, 246, 248, 251, 273
Jesus
and dunamis 630–1
on friendship 701–3
humanity of 162, 630
maleness of 58–9, 345, 404
masculinity of 137, 230–2
and politics of purity 651–2
re-imaging 630; see also God; body of Christ; Christ; Kingdom of God
as Transgressive Christ 161–2
Joan of Arc 26
Jordan, Mark 163–4, 207, 274n2, 614–16
Josephus 190, 195, 197, 207
jouissance 514, 518–19
Judaism 415, 425–8
Jung, Carl G. 94–5, 101
just loving 546, 548
justice 11, 23, 28, 33, 35, 37, 43, 207, 215, 263–4, 317, 335, 396–7, 407, 487–503, 557
-making 505–6, 511–13, 516
as a virtue 557, 562–3, 565, 570
Kali 460
Kant, Immanuel 35
karma 467, 469
Keenan, James 325, 328, 331, 550, 564
Kempe, Margery 628–9
kin
altruism 595, 602
selection 71
Kingdom of God 13, 22, 27, 229, 360, 544, 596, 601
Kinsey, Alfred 640–1
Klein, Melanie 92
Kristeva, Julia 37, 518
Kübler-Ross Elizabeth 90
Kwok Pui Lan 514
Lacan, Jacques 36–37, 526, 531–2
Lambeth Conference 1998 348
Laqueur, Thomas 33, 36, 38, 222–3, 354
law, natural 39, 85, 263–5, 310, 312, 314–16, 318, 324, 334–5, 496, 542–3, 577, 660
lesbian(s) 13–14, 20, 25, 64, 81, 129, 148, 156, 158, 214, 220, 349, 360, 422, 510, 515, 610, 619, 624–38, 641–4, 647–8, 650
continuum 626–7, 637
hermeneutical circle 625
romance 210–11
sexuality 501, 510
theology 4, 163, 525, 624, 649, 651
lesbianism 13, 19, 347, 360, 364, 415, 420–1, 510, 515, 628, 647
Letter to Women 38
Leviticus 18, 364
LGBT 80, 112, 129, 359, 390, 670
and the Black Church 404–7
affirmed in Pentecostalism 367–70, 373
LGBT, Pentecostal caucuses 367–8
LGBTQ 640, 645–6, 648, 652
LGCM 347–8, 610
Li Tim-Oi, Florence 341, 343
liberation theology 4, 23, 32, 161–3, 371, 396–7, 405–6, 512, 541, 628, 652, 682
libido 490–1, 518
liturgy 40, 42, 53, 59–60, 165, 341–9, 698n6
Locke, John 311–12, 318
Loughlin, Gerard 154, 159–60
love 6, 101, 138, 177, 202, 308–9, 499
(p. 713) agapic, agapeic 527, 534, 595, 605
community of 564, 591, 606
confluent 575
conjugal 13, 331, 352, 578, 580–1, 585, 593, 599
consummate 542, 548
covenantal 305, 371, 579–80, 632
divine and homoerotic 217–19
equal-regard 13, 595, 601
erotic 45, 493, 525–6, 529, 531–6, 629, 688, 696
human, of God 60, 462, 525, 527–8, 535–6, 629, 693
mutual 191, 202, 274, 304, 306–7, 309–10, 379, 440, 489, 564, 570, 577–8, 593, 629, 691; see also mutuality
names for 524, 696
of neighbour, neighbourly, neighbour-love 13, 44–6, 62, 497, 511, 527–8, 602, 564, 618, 629, 695
of the other 13, 533–6, 564, 702–3
psychological approach 90, 93, 96, 102
radical 43, 162, 631, 648
romantic 282, 544, 575, 580–1, 585
self-giving 26, 331, 579–80, 595, 645
sexual 6, 509, 529, 535, 564
as substitute for religion 575
that dare not speak its name 609–10
tri-personal 541, 550
as a virtue 5, 60, 498–9, 557, 563–5, 570, 582
warrior 211–13; see also agape; caritas; desire; epithumia; eros; friendship; God; Nygren; self-love
Luther, Martin 508, 528, 577
Lutheranism, marriage in 306–8
magisterium 11, 14, 38–9, 318, 323–4, 328, 330, 546–8, 585, 645, 604
malachoi and arsenokoitai 209–10
male/female binary 162
maleness 14, 20–1, 26, 209, 228, 420, 468, 668
and femaleness 14, 20–1, 25–6, 106, 420, 657, 660, 665, 670
manliness 223, 227, 233, 250
marital values 603
marriage
as antidote to lust 532
arranged 175, 191, 193
as ascetic practice 60, 63–4, 560, 587
in Buddhism 470
chaste 273
clandestine 278, 305
clerical 244, 279–81, 292, 304–5
companionate 173, 574, 603
as commonwealth 310–12
consummation of 567–9, 662, 664
as contract 263, 266, 297, 309, 318, 442, 577–8
as covenant 308–10, 371, 380, 543, 579
deinstitutionalization of 573–4, 576, 585
egalitarian 6, 62, 582, 597, 603
ends of 264, 331, 578, 582
equal-regard 594–5, 601
evangelical views of 377–91
as exchange 177, 264
and friendship 578–9, 697–8
gay 347, 354, 619 see also same-sex
as gendered hierarchy 175–7
goods of 248, 273, 317, 525, 559, 581–2
in Hebrew Bible 173–88
heterosexual 20–1, 111, 262, 336, 355, 360, 372, 423, 428, 557, 583–4, 632, 662
incestuous 193, 201
indissolubility of 247, 264–5, 309, 380–1, 568, 584, 586–7
individualized 574, 576
as interpersonal union, partnership 335, 556, 570, 577–9, 586
Levirate 195, 379
of Mary and Joseph 267
monogamous 256, 305, 313–15, 518
as natural institution 577
natural law of 305, 314–18
in the New Testament world 189–204
patriarchal 6, 177, 186, 470, 477
structure of 186
in patristic period 247
polygamous/polygynous 190, 194–5, 351–3, 443, 470
as a process 570
(p. 714) as property relation 175, 7
in Protestantism 304–18
as public institution 566, 569
romantic model of 575, 580–1
as sacrament 21–2, 273, 276–8, 304, 306, 309, 543, 577, 602, 605
as social estate 306–8, 577
in Song of Songs 185
spiritual 244
as taking of women 175
not working 632; see also cohabitation; gay marriage; one flesh; remarriage
Martin, Dale 228–30
Mary (mother of Jesus) 10, 40, 59, 192, 198, 211, 243, 255–69; see Virgin Mary
Mary and Martha 626
Mary Magdalene 106, 113
masculine and feminine 59, 114, 126, 145, 384
masculinity 9, 106–7, 109, 114, 223–35, 282, 579
and femininity 107, 127, 325–6, 498, 634
Maslow, Abraham 99
masturbation 110, 204, 209, 275, 292, 294, 299, 307, 400, 496
mating strategies 76–78
McCarthy, David M. 581, 585–7, 599, 605
McNeill, John J 646–7
Meeks, Wayne 228–9
men, problem of, in Judaism 418
Mendel, Gregor 70
menstrual, menstruation 106, 183, 276, 299, 415–16, 426, 441–2
misogyny 324–6, 333, 336, 415, 475, 650
modesty 11, 107, 111–14, 251, 292, 310, 415–20, 508
Mollenkott, Virginia 515, 644, 665–6
Mombo, Esther 345, 350
monasticism 21, 26, 28, 64, 245, 249, 262, 281, 288, 304–7, 692–5
and Buddhism 12, 469–71, 473, 476–81
monosexism, monosexuality 14, 642, 647, 653
Monti, Joseph 16, 583–4
Moore, Stephen 226
mother, as metaphor 27, 45, 59, 110, 113, 215, 255–69, 280, 282, 284, 289, 404–5, 445
motherhood, of Mary 10, 59, 258–9
mothers, mothering, motherhood 39, 44, 59, 93, 108, 112, 126, 143, 149, 174–5, 179, 182, 184, 186, 193, 200, 210, 218, 255–69, 280, 283–4, 308, 313–15, 324, 326, 461, 475, 481–2, 518, 538, 592–5, 599, 602–5
Movement for the Ordination of Women (MOW) 342
mutuality 22–4, 29, 229, 439–40, 533, 547, 564, 595, 597, 624, 629, 631, 633, 647–8, 669, 690, 698, 703
narcissism 13, 212, 274, 494, 500, 532–5
natural law 39, 85, 263–5, 310, 312, 314–18, 324, 334–5, 496, 542–3, 577, 660
natural selection 76–78
Nelson, James 4, 13, 21
neo-Darwinism 70
niddah 415–16
nocturnal emissions 289, 295
non cogere principle 55, 57
non-theism, in Buddhism 468
norms and rules, distinctions 583–4
Nygren, Anders 308, 524, 535
Object-Relations theory 92–3, 99–100
O’Donovan, Oliver 379, 390, 619–21, 661, 663
Oedipal process 37
Oedipus Complex 89
On the Collaboration of Men and Women 38
Onan 274, 379, 496
one
flesh 190–1, 200, 202, 305, 379, 381, 385, 508, 664
gender-free, in Hinduism 453
-sex model 33, 36, 38, 222
ordination of women 39
in Anglican Communion 340–5
and the Black Church 404
in Buddhism 470, 474–7
in Scotus 267–70
Origen 45, 204, 243, 246
Origen 45
Osborne Report, 347–8
para phusin 25, 56
parental investment theory 77–85
parenthood 599
fictive, metaphorical 283–4
single 6, 150, 539, 576, 593–4, 597–8
parenting 112, 315, 494, 539, 576, 599, 605, 680
patriarchy 11, 19, 21, 23, 26, 34, 125, 131, 241, 307, 309–10, 415, 510, 593–4, 601, 626, 628, 651
in Buddhism 472–5
in Islam 432, 434, 436–7, 445–7
pederasty 212, 249, 610
penetration 216, 416, 491, 497, 567
privileging of 663–5
performativity 25, 146, 158–9, 489, 510, 636
person 34, 101, 328, 334, 414, 510, 579, 682–3, 692
personage 158, 163, 608, 611–12, 615–17
personhood 47, 453–4, 457, 494
ascribed to deity in bhakti 461–2
persons, homosexual 63
Peter Damian 163, 293–5, 614–15
Philadelphia Eleven 342
Philo 190, 195, 197, 199, 203, 207, 229
pilegesh 178–80; see also concubinage
pollution 106, 110, 274, 295, 299, 442, 497
polygyny 177–80, 191, 195–6
in Qur’an 442–3
Pope
Benedict XVI 333, 508, 549
John Paul II 21, 38, 326, 330, 333, 380, 558, 560, 579, 591
Paul VI 331, 585
porneia 201, 380–1
pornography 148, 493–4
post-colonial 37
theory 34, 164, 230–1, 514, 682
post-colonialism 12, 156, 346, 362–3, 652
postmodernism 7, 33–4, 41–42, 46
power
-in-community 499–500
disciplinary 513
relations 44, 121, 128, 131, 139, 145, 147, 419
practical theology 593–4, 601
Prajapati, lord of progeny 453
premarital sex; see sex, premarital
premarital/marital divide, in Judaism 419–20
procreation 21, 190, 199, 202, 247, 264, 276, 307, 313, 330, 385, 400–1, 414–15, 423–4, 427, 457, 490, 496–7, 501, 506–8, 515, 542–3, 559, 569–70, 578–80, 582, 598, 660, 663
Halakhic interpretation 424–5
procreative and unitive 330, 332–3, 379
projection 90, 92
promiscuity, in Hebrew Bible 181–2
pronatalism, in Judaism 425
prostitutes 180, 182, 189, 199, 203, 210, 234, 273, 295, 315, 399, 610
prostitution 202, 248–9, 273, 306–7, 313, 315, 317, 332–3, 351, 470
psychosexual development 89–90
puberty 558
pure relationship 575, 581
purity 113, 127–9, 201, 260, 283, 289, 294, 386, 496, 506, 513, 651–2, 693, 696
in Hebrew Bible 181–5
in Qur’an 441, 445
purusa and prkrti 456
queer 20, 26–7, 29, 219, 280, 505, 511–12, 517, 618, 625–6, 628, 641, 652–3
Jews 420–1
meanings of 154–5
theory, and New Testament 224–5, 229–30, 232–5, 622
queerness, four marks of 154–9
Qumran 190–1, 194
Qur’an, open hermeneutic for 447–8
Rambuss, Richard 628
rape 202, 208, 209, 210, 217, 289, 488–9, 547
in Hebrew Bible 179–80, 183, 194
in marriage 497
about power, gender, and race 495
about power and sex 490
about power, not sex 489, 499
about power, using sex 493–5
statistics 488
in war 492
Ratzinger, Joseph 10, 329
reciprocality, reciprocation, reciprocity 532–5, 564, 690, 696, 703
Red Queen hypothesis 76
relationality 12, 21, 24, 41, 44, 89, 92, 101, 496, 499–500, 540–2, 550, 633, 689, 695, 697–8, 700, 703
remarriage 201–2, 247–8, 304, 309, 314, 352–3, 377, 586, 597
and evangelicalism 380–2, 390–1
renunciation 109, 244–7, 250
reproduction 8, 10–11, 25, 40, 70–1, 75, 77, 79–80, 108–12, 116, 121, 127, 149–50, 233, 256–63, 270–86, 346, 353, 379, 415, 424, 427–9, 454, 469–70, 508, 511, 525, 531, 671, 679
fictive, social 278, 281–3
in Hindu theology 454–7
Rich, Adrienne 626–7
Richard of St Victor 62, 262, 266, 605
rights 142, 270, 313–14, 317, 358, 360, 362, 365, 367, 369, 417, 419, 436, 445, 563–70, 591
civil 340–2, 346, 358, 361, 397, 399, 684
conjugal 276, 305, 413, 416, 437
disability 682
human 19, 37, 313, 347, 354, 360, 365, 367, 467–9, 495, 532, 593, 635
lesbian 635
natural 311–12, 314, 318
reproductive 37, 39, 323–4, 327, 330–3, 405
sexual 37, 180, 202, 266, 362, 364, 366, 563, 680
Robinson, Gene 349–50
Roman Catholic Church 11, 14, 113, 120, 161, 323–39, 543, 577, 604, 662
Romans 1: 360, 364, 613, 616, 627, 646
Roughgarden, Joan 79, 82–3
Ruether, Rosemary R. 34–5, 324, 596, 602, 604, 626
Runciman, W.G. 121–2
Ruth and Naomi 210–11, 219, 632
Sacred Feminine 106
sadomasochism 12, 24, 498, 515
Saiving, Valerie 44
Sakyadhita 475–8
Salt-N-Pepa 544–5
Salzmann, Todd and Michael Lawler 334–5
same-sex 69–74, 80, 95, 150, 158, 209, 365, 400–1, 611, 618, 646, 661
attraction, 69, 80, 372, 388, 400–1, 610, 641–2, 644–5, 661
couples 11, 13, 60–4, 336, 355, 366, 406, 582, 603
friendships 697
intercourse 25, 80, 111, 183
love
in Bible 211, 213–14
in Judaism 422
in Leviticus 208–9
marriage 360–1, 363, 395, 405, 421
and the Black Church 406–7
relations 203–4, 206–221, 244, 275, 293–4, 323–4, 327, 330, 335, 348–9, 363–4, 371–2, 535, 546, 621, 627
in evangelicalism 387–90
unions 335–6, 360, 557
blessing of 347, 349, 353, 355, 511; see also desire; gay marriage; pleasure
Second Vatican Council 122, 318, 577–8, 585
Sedgwick, Eve K. 154, 157, 165–6, 224, 621
seed 63n4, 185, 194, 242, 256–7, 272, 275, 291–2, 294, 425–8, 454; see also semen
(p. 717) self 18–20, 24–5, 37, 43–5, 109, 148, 226, 437, 458, 464, 493, 534, 564, 574, 664, 668, 690–2
-acceptance 101, 512
-actualization 99, 575
boundaries of 628
-care 513, 547
-control 226, 231, 244, 250, 494, 506
-denial 621
-esteem 464, 494, 559, 563
Ideal 95, 101
-identification 641–3
-love 274, 511, 564
sexual 19–20, 389, 679
universal 461
virtual 28
-worth 511, 690
selfhood 18–19, 109, 464
selfish gene 71
sex
anal 248, 272, 275, 294, 296, 298, 422
asking too much of 505–6, 513, 517
before marriage 181, 192–3, 199, 357, 370, 399, 417, see also sex, pre-ceremonial, pre-marital
commodification of 545
definition of 559
determination 69–85
difference 78, 82, 223; see also sexual difference
education 11, 395, 402
essentializing 38–39
and evangelicalism 377–94
evolution of 69–85
and marriage in Protestantism 1500–1900, 304–19
meanings of 559
and power 489–95
in Hinduism 460–1
origins of 8, 69, 75–76
outside marriage 248–9, 274, 386, 391, 425, 460
pre-ceremonial 387, 569
premarital 13, 360, 385–6, 399, 401, 568
social concept of 144
as transcendent experience 539, 548
sex/gender distinction 138–40, 143, 145–6, 224, 436–7, 515–16
sexism 34, 142, 324, 473, 647, 652, 658, 677
in Buddhism 473
sexual
arousal, and violence 490–3
assault 217, 488–95, 497
attraction 90, 191, 219, 373, 613, 640–3, 647, 689, 696–7, 704
measurement of 640–1
difference 21, 27, 33, 346, 354, 421, 426, 437, 512, 535, 580, 635
in the Anglican Communion 353–5
in Judaism 421
in Qur’an 437–8
differentiation 11, 82–3, 256, 326, 432, 437, 455, 659
dimorphism 8, 82–3, 98, 539–40, 546–8
diversity 8, 80–1, 539, 543, 546–7, 550
energy 451, 454, 457, 459–61
experience, first 557–71
identity 20, 25, 43, 102, 157–8, 327, 388, 419, 423, 505, 510–11, 543, 548, 621, 641, 653 see also bisexual identity, identity
impulse, in Hinduism 450–1, 457
justice 4, 12, 489, 496–500, 547
misconduct, in Buddhism 470, 479–80
orientation see orientation
pleasure 12, 97, 185–7, 190–1, 276, 386, 414, 505–21, 559–60, 570, 668, 691
and Augustine 424, 470, 506–7
and ageing 514–15
and BDSM 515
and Buddhism 470, 514
eschatological perspective on 506, 517–18
evangelicals and 508–9
(p. 718) in feminist theologies 509–11
as God-given 509–12
historical overview of 506–9
as justice-making 511–12
non-orgasmic 514–15
orgasmic 513
selection 76–80
theory 69–85
slavery 492
theology, theologies 4, 13, 22, 54, 515, 517, Part VIII, 624, 638, 643–4, 650, 657–8, 668, 670, 672, 657, 668, 670, 672, 676, 678
for people with disabilities 683–4
violence 12, 488–91, 494–5, 498, 547, 651; see also violence
sexuality
in Anglican Communion 346–54
and anthropology 105–16
and attachment theory 97–8, 102
biological 43, 69, 140, 525
Black 399, 401
Buddhist evaluations of 469–71
category of 89, 109, 108, 155, 163, 642–3
and childhood 89–90, 100
concept of 5, 18, 25, 525
construction of 26, 33, 105, 158, 635
control of 105–8, 128–30
definition 558–9
and disability 679–80
discourse of 5–6, 19, 160
domain of vulnerability 489
in evangelical churches 376–91
essentialist view of 24
and friendship 596–8
goodness of 21
in Hinduism 12, 450–66
holistic view of 649–50
influence of patristic period on 241–51
in Judaism 11, 413–28
and modernity 5, 6, 18, 21, 29
and play 94
polymorphous 39
privatization of 24
and psychology 88–103
and queer theory 153–166
and Qur’an 440–1
and resurrected bodies 517–18
secularization of 525, 529, 535
theological study of 18–30
theorizing, in Hinduism 457
woman’s 180–1, 185–7, 204, 400
Shadow 94–5, 101
shame 47, 196, 197, 201, 201, 249, 317, 488, 507–8, 512
sin 27, 64, 110–11, 161, 203, 243–4, 246, 259–61, 298–9, 307–8, 313, 359, 372–3, 380, 386, 400, 418, 508, 534, 612, 653, 666
against nature 248, 274–5, 293–5, 298
original 40, 42, 44, 102, 243, 246, 259–62, 507, 517, 559
single, singleness 13, 22, 26–7, 195, 201, 279, 313, 385–7, 419–20, 437, 565, 568, 622, 624–6, 676
slavery 395–7, 399, 442, 492, 512n4, 547, 692
social justice 11, 28, 669; see also justice
Sodom 207–8, 217, 274, 288, 294
sodomite 163, 294, 610–12, 614–16
sodomitic 275, 611–12, 614
Some Issues in Human Sexuality 613, 646, 660
Song of Songs (Canticles) 45, 63, 185, 187, 191, 246, 251, 288, 508
St Andrews Day Statement 619–21
Stoics, Stoicism 199, 202, 243, 306, 559
stone butch 633–4
Stuart, Elizabeth 26, 163, 518, 525, 619, 621, 632–3
subjectivity 34, 36–7, 147–8, 462, 513, 529, 533, 587, 594, 634–5
submission 383, 515, 599–600, 604, 651
mutual 385
subordination 34, 40, 141–3, 190, 223, 229, 233, 247, 324, 440, 563, 626
subordination, in Trinity 384, 604
Superego 89, 91, 94
tantra 457, 459–61, 464
Tantric sex 471
(p. 719) Tertullian 243, 247, 251, 559, 601
Thatcher, Adrian 599–600, 515n5, 645–6
Thecla 636–7
third gender 107
transgender 12, 14, 29, 98, 153, 160–2, 165, 214, 216, 218, 371, 423, 510
definitions of 659–660
transpersonal psychologies 95–8
transsexual, transsexualism, trans-sexuality 140, 144, 327, 662, 664
transvestism 230
transvestites 400
Trinitarian theology of relationality 499–500
truth, moral nature of 324, 328–9
veil, in Qur’an 443–4
via creativa 24–27, 29
via negativa 22, 28
via positiva 20–22, 28
via transformativa 27–9
violation 491, 495
violence 24, 29, 182, 206–7, 209, 308, 491, 217, 512, 547, 563, 651, 669
against women 139, 440, 487–503
domestic 150
research on 491; see also abuse; sexual violence
Virgin Mary 26, 45–6, 106, 113, 283–4, 288
virginity 10, 26, 192–3, 244–6, 267, 506, 583, 597
in Judaism 281
in medieval Christianity 271, 279–81, 283
superiority of 559–60
virtue(s) 13, 22, 23, 60, 114, 227, 237, 306, 469, 471, 507, 513, 569–70
for beginning sex 557–8, 560
and character 562–3
definition 560
ethics 13, 560–1
for relationship 23–4, 546–8, 563–5, 557–60
Weber, Max 124, 131
Weeks, Jeffery 34, 440, 610, 648
Weil, Simone, on friendship 689
Wilde, Oscar 609–10, 614
Williams, Rowan 349–50, 353, 530–2
Wilson, Edward O. 71
Winnicott, D.W. 93, 495
Witte, John, Jr. 576–7, 603
Wittig, Monique 145
wives and husbands 573–88
woman, concept of 35–6, 143–6, 149
womanhood 38–9, 116, 138, 142–5, 384, 564
women
and the Black Church 403–5
in conservative institutions 129–32
assuming male power 627–8
as patrons 251
as property 492, 496
secluded 251
diverse subjectivities of 635
veneration of, in Tantra 460–1
yab-yum image 471
YHWH 212, 215–18
cult of 216
Zizek, Slavoj, on love 531–3
zygotes 73, 77