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date: 22 September 2019

Index

Index

Please note that page references to Figures or Tables will be in italics

(p. 1083) Aakhus, E. 766
Aartsen, M. 385
Abbreviated Duke Social Support Index (DSSI) 805
ABC (Activating events-adversities, Beliefs-Consequences) model
goals 844
optimal ageing, promoting 937, 940
rational emotive behaviour therapy 843–8
Abrams, R. C. 506
abuse of elders 571–83
ageism 573
chronological age 572–3
defined 572
and families 713
and human rights 573
intervention studies 577–9
and interviewing older adults 176
neglect 572
practice implications 579–80
prevalence and incidence 573–9
risk factors 576–7
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
‘ACT Hexaflex’ 643, 644, 670
adapting to specific issues of ageing 649–50
compared with CBT 647–9
for dementia care-givers 658–74, 766, 769
cognitive fusion and conceptualized self 667–8
experiential avoidance 661–6
personal values 669–70
potential limitations of interventions 670
rumination and worry preventing present moment awareness 666–7
description of approach in reference to older people 643–7
development strategies 651
empirical literature 642
evidence of effectiveness 650–1
international aspects 1067
metaphors, use of 650, 660
model 644
personal values 669–70
psychological flexibility 643
values, emphasis on 645
workability of currently employed strategies 644–5
access function, inhibitory framework 132
access issues
cognitive-behavioural therapy 603–5
dementia care-givers, interventions 819–20
mental health system variables 954–6
psychological therapy, for older people 604–5
acculturation 782, 805–6
Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-Revised (ARSMA-II) 806
acetaminophen 886–7
actigraphy 535
Action on Elder Abuse (UK) 572
ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly) study 323, 592
active cognitive reserve 133
active resignation 156, 157
(p. 1084) activities of daily living (ADLs) 188, 192, 193–5
cognitive decline 307, 311, 324
Acton, G. J. 76
Acute Pharmacology of Late-life Mania (GERI-BD) 868
acute stress response 368–9
adaptive resignation 156
additive functional disability 456
Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood 366
ADLs (activities of daily living) see activities of daily living (ADLs)
Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study 323, 592
advanced illness 355–77
cancer 366, 367, 447, 452
common clinical issues 358–69
existential issues 365
grief 364–5
palliative care
appropriate situations 357
defined 356–7
unique nature 369–70
physical symptoms 359–62
practice implications 370–1
psychiatric disorders 365–9
psycho-social-spiritual reactions 358, 362–5
strain in interpersonal relationships and unfinished business 363–4
stress associated with treatment decisions 362–3
unique nature of hospice and palliative care work 369–70
Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome 175
aerobic activity 478
affection 90
ageing, normal see ‘normal’ ageing
‘ageing paradox’ 637–8
ageism 573, 644
agentic stories 679
‘age of resignation,’ old age as 144–5
age-related macular degeneration 166
Akiyama, H. 116, 190, 209, 210, 1065
Akkerman, R. 766
Alberts, G. 170
alcohol
combining with psychoactive medications 553
lifestyle risk factors 586–7
Short Michigan ALCOHOLISM Screening Test Geriatric Version (SMAST-G) 559, 560
standard drink equivalents 551, 552
use guidelines 551–3
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 5578, 559
Alexopoulos, G. S. 422
ALFs (assisted living facilities) 110, 113, 114, 336
Alpass, F. M. 390
Alzheimer’s Association 804
Alzheimer’s Australia 594
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 395
anxiety, late-life 475
beta amyloid deposition 44, 587
changes occurring in 44
in China 1047
comorbidities 450–1
as continuum 14
depression 399–403
comorbidities 401–2, 450–1
prevalence 400–1
and diabetes 44
early-onset 13, 226, 255
information-processing resources 131
and insomnia 532
late-onset 226
as leading cause of death 336
as most frequent cause of dementia 44
provisional diagnostic criteria 400
and psychosis 497
versus schizophrenia 497
semantic knowledge deficits 229
and social activity 591
see also dementia
Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale 1027
Alzheimer’s Disease International 797
Alzheimer’s Disease International World Alzheimer Report (2010) 336
American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
(p. 1085) Expert Panel on Quality Mental Health Care in Nursing Homes 341
working group 339, 341
American Bar Association (ABA) 249, 255, 256
American Geriatrics Society 341
American Psychological Association (APA)
ABA-APA capacity framework 255, 256
Assessment of Capacity in Older Adults Project Working Group 2005 249, 255
Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Older Adults 185–6, 188
Taskforce on Dementia Assessment 292
American Psychological Association Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS) 65
AMSTEL study 53
Amsterdam Study of the Elderly 52
amygdala 473
amyloid plaques, in dementia 227, 238
An Aging World: 2008 (Kinsella and Wan) 337
analgesic ladder (WHO) 886, 888
analgesic trial 898
analytical psychology 7, 146
Anetzberger, G. 579
Angermeyer, M. C. 949, 950
Anstey, K. J. 48
antecedents, everyday competence 307
anti-depressants 53, 274, 275, 277, 419, 539
combined with other therapies 858
monoamine oxidase inhibitors 418
poor response to 448
prophylactic 452
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) see selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 398, 479
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) 479
tricyclic anti-depressants 418, 860
antihistamines 539
antioxidants 587, 590
Antipsychotic Review 760
anti-psychotics 494, 496, 539
Antonucci, T. C. 116, 190, 209, 210
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule IV 164
anxiety, late-life
and advanced illness 367–8
biological factors 473
care-giving 478–9
clinical significance 471–2
cognitive-behavioural therapy 74, 479, 606–7, 1012
cognitive impairment 475
combination treatment 864
comorbidities 52–3
contexts and settings 474–7
and depression 476–7
description of symptoms 167, 173
exposure therapy 1011–14
general medical comorbidity 477–9
genetic correlates 473
and interviewing older adults 173
and loneliness 1050
longitudinal research 50–4
neuroanatomical correlates 473
neurologic comorbidities 475
Parkinson’s disease 476
phenomenology 471
‘post-fall anxiety syndrome’ 13
practice implications 480
prevalence and incidence 51–2, 470–1
primary care 474
psychiatric comorbidities 476
risk factors 52
thought content 611
treatment 53–4, 479–80
sequential 864–5
virtual reality techniques 1011–14, 1019, 1020
anxiolytic medications 499
apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene 586
appetite loss, in advanced illness 361
Arbesman, M. 321
Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs) 1034
Arean, Patricia 276, 420
Arensman, E. 67
Armenia, cataract prevalence 166
Armstrong, D. 491
Arredondo, P. 787
ARSMA-II (Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-Revised) 806
Asia Pacific, hearing loss prevalence 165
(p. 1086) assessment, geropsychological 184–222
assessing older adults, main components and characteristics 186–7
assessment-intervention-evaluation process 190–1
capacity see capacity
civil capacity 248
cognitive functioning see cognitive functioning, assessment
complicated grief 847
comprehensive, multidimensional and multilevel 187–91
demand 186–7
environment 210–11, 212–13
functionality and activities of daily living 192, 196–7, 198, 199
insomnia 535–6, 538
instruments 188, 191–215
measures 191–215
mental health, affect and satisfaction 199, 205
practical implications 216
psychometric properties 189–90
psychosis 491–2
quality of life 211, 214–15
social functioning 205, 209
assessment-intervention-evaluation process 190–1
Assessment of Living Skills and Resources (ALSAR) 188
ASSIST (drug use questionnaire) 559, 560
assisted living facilities (ALFs) 110, 113, 114, 336
assistive technologies 818
atherosclerosis 454
Atlanta VA Medical Centre for Mental Health Clinic 1013
attachment theory 694
attachment to the self-story, in ACT 645–6
attitudes to ageing 18, 446–7, 644
therapist variables 952–3
AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) 557–8, 559
Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) 199
augmentation treatment 866–70
cognitive-behavioural therapy 615, 617, 641
Australia
capacity issues 256–7
guardianship law 254
long-term care 348
Mental Health First Aid Training (MHFA) and Research Program 952
peak groups and organizations 1076
Austria 348, 1075
autobiographical memory 129, 677
Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) 290
automatic thoughts 360
AVLT (Auditory Verbal Learning Test) 199
awareness of age-related change (AARC) 638
Babbage, D. R. 1003
‘Baby Boomers’ 549, 550, 554
Baddeley, A. D. 130
Badgett, M. V. L. 781
Balamurali, T. B. 574–5
balance exercises 1030
Ballard, C. G. 760, 766–7
Ball, K. 323
Balsis, S. 505
Baltes, M. M. 8, 311, 930, 931
Baltes, P. B. 8, 930, 931
Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) 589
Barca, M. L. 48
Barriers to Mental Health Services Scale 955
barriers to treatment and mental healthcare utilization 949–69
access issues
cognitive-behavioural therapy 603–5
dementia care-givers, interventions 819–20
mental health system variables 954–6
psychological therapy, for older people 604–5
age attitudes and stereotypes 18
attitudes to older adults 952–3
client variables 949–52
dementia care-givers 804–7, 819–20
ethnic minority groups 960–2
healthcare costs and service utilization 455
integrated care models 956–7
lifespan perspective 18
(p. 1087) long-term care 339, 341–2
mental health literacy 952
mental health system variables 954–7
perception of needs and attitudes towards mental health treatment 951–2
personal 917–18
practical 917
practice implications 963
rural areas, older populations in 957–9
special populations 957–62
stigma 949–50
telehealth and rural older adults 959–60
therapist variables 952–4
training issues 953–4
Barr, W. B. 288
Barry, K. L. 175, 554
Bartels, S. J. 863, 956
basal ganglia, neurodegenerative disorders 448–9
BAS (Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics) 806
Bashford, C. 76
Baxter, A. J. 470
BCs (behaviours that challenge), in dementia 753–75
beliefs 755
causes 754–5
cognitive-behavioural therapy 760–9
defined 753–4
iceberg analogy 755, 756
list 755
non-pharmacological approaches in dementia/evidence base 7589
practice implications 768–9
preventative approaches 757
three-axes model 755, 756
traditional psychotherapy methods 755
BE-ACTIV (Behavioural Activities Intervention) 420
de Beurs, E. 52
Beck, A. T. 270, 420, 508, 515, 608, 609, 616, 762
Beck Depression Inventory 624, 861
Beekman, A. 48, 49, 638
Behavioural Activities Intervention (BE-ACTIV) 420
behavioural confirmation 90–1
behavioural plasticity 133
behavioural treatment
behaviour modification programmes 16–17
late-life depression 419–20
radical behaviourism 641
suicidal ideation 274–7
beliefs
explicit and implicit 18
and personality 534
positive, of self 683
spirituality and religion 783, 806–7
Belleville, S. 11, 322
Bell-McGinty, S. 314
Bender, M. 880–1
Bengtson, V. L. 87
Bennett, D. A. 591
Benyamini, Y. 418
benzodiazepines (BZs) 53, 551, 857
bereavement 838–9
and depression, in old age 841–2
intervention strategies 77–8
and loneliness 382
Berlin Aging Study 14
Berman, J. S. 77
Bernston, G. 386
Best, C. 992
beta amyloid deposition, in AD 44, 587
Bhar, S. S. 677, 679
Bharucha, A. J. 996, 1003
bias issues
cognitive functioning 232
meta-analyses 78–9
Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS) 806
Bielak, A. A. M. 49–50
biological clock see circadian rhythms
biological deficit approach 98
biological factors, ‘age-unfriendliness’ of biological system 5
biopsychosocial approach to mental health 344–5
and family therapy 710
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) ageing 788
(p. 1088) bipolar disorder
associated symptoms and disability 493
combination treatment 857, 862–4
course 495–6
prevalence 495
psychosocial interventions 496–7
treatment 494, 495
Birren, J. E. 184, 190
Biswas-Diener, R. 928, 935
Blazer, D. G. 417, 638–9
Blow, F. C. 175, 495, 554
BLSA (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) 589
Blueprint for Change: Achieving Integrated Health Care for an Aging Population (APA) 956
body mass index (BMI) 44, 589
bodyscan 668
Bohlmeijer, E. 72, 78, 423, 678
Bonanno, G. A. 838
Bonder, B. R. 607
Bookwala, J. 418
Bootzin, Richard 539
borderline personality disorder (BPD) 507
Bordin, E. S. 514
Borrell-Carrió, F. 344
Boston Naming Test, Australia 1071
Boston-New Haven Collaborative Study of the Treatment of Acute Depression 625
Bowlby, J. 694
Boyle, P. A. 319
BPD (borderline personality disorder) 507
BPT (brief psychodynamic therapy) see brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT)
brain
biopsy data 591
CNS disorders 448–9
death of neurons, in PD 436
lesions 225, 288, 396, 454
neuroanatomical correlates in anxiety 473
normal cognitive ageing 224–5
physical exercise, effects on 588–9
plasticity see plasticity, brain
psychological ageing, mental health problems in course of 13–14
white-matter lesions/hyperintensities 225, 449
Brandstädter, I. 8
Brazil 27, 28
breathing exercises/mindful breathing 539, 668
breathlessness 359–60
brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT)
late-life depression 422–3
personality disorders 512–13
BRITE (Brief Intervention and Treatment for Elders) project, Florida 561
Brodaty, H. 76
Brody, E. M. 307
Bronfenbrenner, U. 146, 149–50
Bronx Aging Study 591
Brownell, P. 579
Brown, G. 677, 679
Brown, R. G. 404, 766
Bryan, C. J. 174
Buccello-Stout, R. R. 1017
Buchman, A. S. 388
Buddhism 962
Buffum, M. D. 887
Bulgaria, cataract prevalence 166
Burke, A. E. 576
Burnside, I. 678
Burton, L. A. 288
Busch, R. M. 288
Butler, J. 650
Butler, R. N. 675, 682
Byers, A. L. 51
Cacioppo, J. 386
Cahn-Weiner, D. A. 314
CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) study 587, 590
Calamia, M. 231
Calmer Life Program 917
Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) 290
Camp, C. 878, 881, 884
Canada
Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health 950
capacity issues 249
long-term care 348
peak groups and organizations 1076
cancer 366, 367, 447, 452
capacity 248–66
(p. 1089) assessment 254–9
empirically supported tools, use of 258–9
framework 255–6
values and multicultural differences 256–8
when to assess 254–5
and competency 248–9
definition 248–9
guardianship law 250–4
science of 259
types 249–50
Cappeliez, P. 679, 685
cardiorespiratory fitness 588–9
cardiovascular diseases 44, 477–8
Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study 587, 590
Caregiver Family Therapy (CFT) model 722, 725, 726, 727, 728, 729
Caregiver Self-Assessment Questionnaire 808–9
care-giving
anxiety, late-life 478–9
characteristics 1036–7
informal 115
intervention, meta-analyses 76–7
and social capital 115–17, 118, 119
care homes 336
Carnelley, K. B. 849
Carpenter, P. A. 130
Carr, D. 840
Carstensen, L. L. 1065
Cartwright, F. 930
cataracts 166
Cattan, M. 390–1
CCM (clinical case management) 420
CCMs (collaborative care models) 274, 275
CCRCs (continuous care retirement communities) 110, 113, 114
ceiling effects 232
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) 716, 807
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), US 561
central executive (working memory) 130
central nervous system (CNS) disorders 448–9, 551
Cenzer, I. 384
CEPIS (Community-based Early Psychiatric Interventional Strategy), Singapore 956
CERAD-NB (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropsychological Battery) 290
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) 993
cerebrovascular disease (stroke) 33, 449
cognitive-analytic therapy 700
depression in see post-stroke depression (PSD)
functional disability 446
as most frequent cause of dementia 44, 46
CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) 716, 807
CFT (Caregiver Family Therapy) model 722, 725, 726, 727, 728, 729
CGT (complicated grief therapy) 843
Chapin, J. S. 288
Chappell, N. L. 573
Charlesworth, G. 761
Chen, H. 953
Chen, Y. 397
Cheston, R. 880–1
Chibnall, J. T. 886
children, social support from 1052–4
‘Children of the Great Depression. Social Change in Life Experience’ (Elder) 148
Chile, population ageing 26
China
cohort flow and historical embeddedness 12
dementia 1047, 1050
depression 1046–7, 1048–9
epidemiology 1046–58
family as informal source of social support 1052–5
4-2-1 structure 1053
geropsychological research and practice 1043–63
only-child policy 1053
peak groups and organizations 1076
population ageing 26
(p. 1090) ‘six privileges’ for older patients 1056
social support
from children 1052–4
entertainment and cultural life 1056
formal 1055–8
government 1055–6
legal rights service 1056–7
Medicare 1056
as protective factor 1052
social life service 1056
social organization 1057–8
from spouse 1054–5
suicide 1051
summary of mental health problems 1052
traditional Chinese medicine 962
China Health Statistic Yearbook 1051
China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) 1046
cholinesterase inhibitors 231
Chompunud, M. L. S. 575
Chou, K. L. 52
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 33, 456, 477
chronological age
abuse of elders 572–3
and concepts of time 147
population ageing 26
Ciarrochi, J. 650
CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Review) 440
Ciechanowski, P. 422
circadian rhythms 169, 529
citalopram 275, 403, 405
Clare, L. 75
Clark, L. A. 477
Clark, P. 739
Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium, Community Engagement Key Function Committee and Workshop Planning Committee 916
clinical case management (CCM) 420
Clinical Dementia Rating Scale 49
clinical geropsychology
defined 3
empirical studies, growth 79–80
gerontological theory 614
importance 184
lifespan perspective see lifespan perspective
meta-analyses in field of 66–7
role of families in 711, 712, 713–14
taxonomy of clinical phenomena addressed by 12–13
limitations 14–15
‘tool box’ 19
clinical significance 471–2
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale 1013
Clougherty, K. 627
clozapine 494
CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) 1046
CNS Vital Signs 290
Cochrane Collaboration 65
Cochrane Library 67
Cognitive Analytic Therapy and Later Life (Hepple and Sutton) 693
cognitive-analytic therapy (CAT) 691–709
borderline presentations 697–8
carers of people with dementia 702–3
case examples 696–704
central theory 692, 693
complex presentations 697–8
dementia, following 700
description 691–2
development 691
‘dilemmas’ 694, 695
emergence of distress in later life 693–5
endings 692–3
‘goodbye letters’ 693, 698, 699
long-term disabling conditions 700
narcissistic presentations 698
neglect and trauma in early life 693–5
procedures 692
reformulation letter 692, 696, 703
rejection of therapy 695
sequential diagrammatic reformulation 692, 699, 701, 704, 705
stroke, following 700
therapeutic relationship 692, 693
cognitive behavioural analysis system of therapy (CBASP) 515
cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) 603–21
access to for older people 603–5
(p. 1091) age-appropriate models, with older people 613–16
anxiety 74, 479, 606–7, 1012
application with older people 608–9
augmented approach 615, 617, 641
characteristics for older people 640–3
cognitive triads 761, 762–3
combined with other therapies 606
comorbidities 457
compared with ACT 647–9
Comprehensive Cognitive formulation 610
computer-based 474
dementia
behaviours that challenge in 760–8
depression and anxiety in 607–8
practice implications 768–9
demographic context 603–4
depression
age-appropriate models 615–16
cognitive decline 325
efficacy 605–6
in later life 420–1
meta-analyses 73, 76
dominant models 16
effect sizes 11
efficacy 605–7
endings 613
evidence-base 639
for family and paid carers 765–7
formulation frameworks 761, 763–5
insomnia 75–6, 539, 540–1
low- and high-intensity 604
in-the-moment 761–2
multimodal cognitive-behavioural therapy (MCBT) 891
in nursing homes 474
pain management 890–1
personality disorders 512
psychosis 494
and reminiscence 677
sleep problems 75–6
suicidal ideation 277
synthesis with acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) 637–57
three-phase treatment model 609, 611–13
wisdom theories 616
cognitive bibliotherapy, late-life depression 421
cognitive defusion, in ACT 644, 668
cognitive development, in ageing 125–43
cognitive trajectories, assessing over time see cognitive functioning, assessment
functional integrative approach 135–7, 140
general cognitive abilities 127–8
individualized intervention approach, course 138, 139
information-processing resources 128–31
inhibitory functioning 132–3
interviewing in relation to 166–7
normal ageing 44, 125–43
normal cognitive ageing 224–5
plasticity see plasticity, brain
practice implications 137–8, 139
speed of processing 132
theoretical overview 126
Cognitive Drug Research Computerized Assessment System (COGDRAS) 290
cognitive functioning 199, 200–4, 206, 207–8
abnormal cognitive changes in later life 226–8
assessment 199, 200–4, 206–8
assessing normal and abnormal changes in cognition 228–9
case example and practice implications 239–41
intelligence, memory and learning 2014
mental status 2001
obstacles to overcome 230–3
over time, in later life 223–47
predicted difference approaches 233, 235–6
prediction of change, versus recording of change 236–7
reliable change, assessing 233
serial assessments, use of 230
simple difference approaches 233–5
single assessments, concerns regarding 229–30
decline, functional sequelae 306–34
ecologically valid tests 318
future research aims 236–7
ipsative trajectories, deriving 237
(p. 1092) self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews 319–20
specific cognitive functions related to everyday behaviour 313–16
standardized neuropsychometric tests 316–18
summary of key principles 241
utilization of practice effects in clinical practice 237–9
cognitive fusion, in ACT 643, 667–8
cognitive impairment see neurocognitive disorders
cognitive plasticity 133, 135
cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) 494
cognitive reserve 133, 134, 314
cognitive specificity 762
Cognitive Stability Index (CSI) 290
cognitive therapy for personality disorders (CT-PD) 515
Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS) 763
cognitive triads 762–3
cognitive restructuring 612
CogState 290
Cohen, H. L. 785
Cohen-Mansfield, J. 498, 763, 880, 882, 890
Agitation Inventory 884
cohorts
cohort effects 41, 148, 441
cohort flow, and historical embeddedness 11–12
and concepts of time 147–8
Cole, J. C. 75
Cole, M. G. 66
collaborative care models (CCMs) 274, 275
Colon, W. I. 321
Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale 270
combination treatment 857, 858–64
anxiety disorders 864
augmented approach 866–70
bipolar disorder 862–4
definition of strategies 857–8
depression 606, 858–62
placebo use 859, 860
relapse prevention 860
comfort 90
Committee on Aging of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry 954
Community-based Early Psychiatric Interventional Strategy (CEPIS), Singapore 956
community living 110–13
community partnerships, developing 916–17
comorbidities
additive functional disability 456
anxiety and depression, late-life 476–7
attitudes to ageing 446–7
chronic disease in older adults 440–3
consequences of physical disease 444–53
definitions and principles 439–40
demoralization 444–5
drug effects 452–3
epidemiology 440–4
etiological complexity 10
general medical 477–9
healthcare costs and service utilization 455
implications 455–9
interdependence of psychology and biology 436–7
mood disorders 53, 440–3
anxiety 52–3, 475, 476, 477–9
depression 49–50, 415–16
physical comorbidities with 436–69
mortality, increased 456–7
neurologic 475
practice implications 460
psychiatric 476
psychosocial aspects of chronic disease 444
reciprocal relationship between chronic disease and mood disorder 438
resources 448
risk factors 439–40
role function 447
service delivery 458–9
significance 437–9
substance abuse/misuse 175
symptom amplification 455–6
treatment 457–8
compensation 88
competency 248–9
complicated grief 13, 364, 839–41, 847–8, 851
Complicated Grief Inventory 839
complicated grief therapy (CGT) 843
components, everyday competence 307
(p. 1093) Composite International Diagnostic Review (CIDI) 440
Comprehensive Cognitive formulation (CCF) 610, 640
Comprehensive Guide to Interpersonal Therapy (Weissman, Markowitz and Klerman) 623, 627
Compton, W. M. 553
Computer Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) 290
Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) 290
computerized testing, use of 290–1
concurrent validity 189
Confucianism 962
Conn, D. K. 869
Consensus Sleep Diary 537
Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) 290
constructivism 145
content validity 189
continuous care retirement communities (CCRCs) 110, 113, 114
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) 253
conversion disorder 436
convoy model
convoy composition 116
network characteristics 106–7
situational factors 107
and social capital 105–8
theories of ageing 1065
Convoy of Social Relations 209
Conwell, Y. 174
Cook, E. A. 678
Cooper, C. 574–5, 766
coping strategies, avoidant 418
Coping with Caregiving (CWC) programme 809, 811, 812, 813
variations 81415
core vulnerabilities 510
and therapy 511–13
Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) 170, 402, 450
coronary heart disease 449
correlational studies, meta-analyses 66–7
correlation coefficients, meta-analyses 64
Cosley, D. 676
Covinsky, K. 384
COX-2 887
Coyne, A. C. 576
CPT (current procedural terminology) 743
Craighead, W. E. 863
Crawford, J. R. 236
Crawford, S. 111
C-reactive protein 586
Cronbach, L. J. 190
cross-sectional research
anxiety disorders 51
heterogeneity 7
limitations 41
loneliness 385–6, 387
personality disorders 506
CRT (cognitive remediation therapy) 494
crying, pathological 402
CSAT (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment), US 561
CTS (Cognitive Therapy Scale) 763
Cuijpers, P. 72, 73, 419, 423
culture
acculturation 782, 805–6
capacity issues 256–8
cultural context
and dementia care-giving 802–3
social capital 107, 111–12
‘culture change’ in nursing homes 346–8
and ethnicity 167–8
Cun Cao Chun Hui (CCCH), Chinese NGO 1057–8
current procedural terminology (CPT) 743
Currier, J. M. 77
Cutler, L. J. 210
CWC (Coping with Caregiving) programme 809, 811, 812, 813
variations 81415
cybercycling 1015
cybernetic revolution 970
cybersickness 1018–19, 1020
cytokines 508
Dai, B. 73
DALY (disability-adjusted life year) 440, 442
(p. 1094) Daly, J. M. 574
Daneman, M. 130
Darwin, C. 762
databases 67, 185, 191
Davila, J. 513
Davitt, J. K. 957
daytime sleep 529
DBT (dialectical behaviour therapy) 277, 512, 513
DCM (depression care management) 867
DCS (depression clinical specialist) 913
deafness 165–6
death ideation 268
death reactions 355–6
death rehearsals 156
Decade of the Brain (1990s) 950
decision-making
interpersonal psychotherapy 632
science of 259
declarative memory 129, 130
Deeg, D. J. H. 418
deep brain stimulation 436
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) 2013 778
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome 175
deletion function, inhibitory framework 132–3
delirium
in advanced illness 361–2
drug effects 452
Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D–KEFS) 199
deliteralization techniques, in ACT 668
delusions, in psychosis 490, 491
dementia 498
dementia
abnormal cognitive changes 226–8
aetiologies 286
and alcohol 587
anxiety 475, 607–8
associated symptoms and disability 498
behaviours that challenge in 753–75
beliefs 755
causes 754–5
cognitive-behavioural therapy 760–9
defined 753–4
iceberg analogy 755, 756
list 755
non-pharmacological approaches in dementia/evidence base 7589
practice implications 768–9
preventative approaches 757
three-axes model 755, 756
traditional psychotherapy methods 755
cardiovascular risk factors 44
China 1047, 1050
cognitive-analytic therapy 700
course 498
degenerative 286
delusions 498
and diabetes 44
and everyday behaviours 312
and exercise 44, 1028
exercise in 1028
G8 summit (2013) 336
global challenge 35
and lifestyle risks 584
pain in 876–7
prevalence 7, 45, 497–8
projected increase worldwide 585
questionable 1016
reversible 286
smoking 585–6
stroke as cause 44, 46
treatable 286
treatment 499
vascular 227, 449, 589, 1047
dementia care-givers
ACT applied to 658–74, 766, 769
application of ACT principles 660–1
cognitive fusion and conceptualized self 667–8
experiential avoidance 661–6
personal values 669–70
potential limitations of interventions 670
rumination and worry preventing present moment awareness 666–7
assessment approaches 802–9
background variables and cultural content 802–3
caring for 797–836
assessment approaches 802–9
evidence-based interventions 809–17, 810
practice implications 820–1
(p. 1095) cognitive-analytic therapy 702–3
consequences of care-giving 799–801
‘cultural context’ and diversity 802
evidence-based interventions 809–17, 810
experiential avoidance 661–6
avoidance of events related to dementia 663–4
avoidance of ‘failure’ as a care-giver 664–5
avoidance of positive emotions and associated guilt 661–3
general avoidance of aversive internal events 665–6
guilt at not being ‘perfect’ 664–5
thought suppression 665–6
gender differences 798–9
identity 798–9
interventions, evidence-based 809–17, 810
barriers to accessing 819–20
effects 816–17
multicomponent intervention programmes 816
psycho-educational skill-building interventions 809, 811, 812, 813, 814–15
psychotherapy-counselling 813, 816
utilization of, across the globe 819
mindfulness-based approaches 767–8
multicomponent intervention programmes 816
multi-dimensional measures 808–9
outcomes 807–9
potential buffers and barriers 804–7
primary and secondary stressors 801, 803–4
primary care-giver 799, 800, 801
psycho-educational skill-building interventions 809, 811, 812, 813, 814–15
psychotherapy-counselling interventions 813, 816
tasks undertaken by 799
theoretical models of care-giver distress 801–2
dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT) 313
Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) 289
Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) 227
demographic context
cognitive functioning 231–2
cognitive-behavioural therapy 603–4
global demography of ageing 28–31, 652
suicidal ideation 272
demoralization 444–5
Dendukuri, N. 66
Deng, J. 587
Denmark 148, 152, 154
Dennis, J. A. 75–6
Department of Health and Human Services Substances Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration, US 642
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), US 628, 634, 742
Interprofessional Team Training and Development (ITT&D) Program 738
dependence, substance misuse 555–6
depression care management (DCM) 867
Depression Care Model 913
depression clinical specialist (DCS) 913
‘depression-executive dysfunction syndrome’ 448
depression, late-life 412–35
and advanced illness 366–7
aetiology 414–17
in Alzheimer’s disease 399–403, 450–1
and anxiety 476–7
augmentation treatment 866–7
and bereavement 841–2
biological origins 415–16
cerebrovascular disease (stroke) 449
comorbidities 49–50, 415–16
diathesis-stress models 15
epidemiology 412–14
etiological pathways 10
and gender 109
versus grief 15
immunology 508
incidence and prevalence 48–9
and insomnia 533
intervention, meta-analyses 72–3
and interviewing older adults 172
late-onset 269
longitudinal research 47–50
with memory complaints 297–8
minor depression 275, 276
neuroendocrine and neurochemical sequelae 454
in Parkinson’s disease 403–6
positive psychology interventions 938
practice implications 424
prevalence 35, 145, 413–14
protective factors 417–18
psychological origins 416
as under-recognized and undertreated 413
risk and protective factors 49
social-demographic risk factors, China 1047
social origins 416–17
somatic symptoms 172
subsyndromal 10, 445
subthreshold symptoms 47
thought content 611
trajectory 47–8
treatment-resistant 448
vascular 10, 172
despair 6
Deutchman, D. E. 190
Developmental Model of Small-group Processes 738
development, defined 146
deviance 151–2
Devos, D. 405
diabetes, as risk factor in AD and dementia 44
diagnoses, psychiatric 6
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; DSM-5) 6, 14, 399, 404, 1052
comorbidities 440
dementia 226, 312
insomnia 529
longitudinal research 42, 45, 47, 51
personality disorders 501, 505, 507
psychosis 491, 492
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) 164, 396
diagnostic instruments, accuracy 67
Diagnostic Interview Schedule IV 164
dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) 277, 512, 513, 858
diathesis-stress models of depression 15
DIB-R (DSM-IV criteria for borderline) 507
Diehl, M. 307, 308, 309, 310, 638
Diener, E. 928, 935
Dieppe, P. A. 345
diet and nutrition, lifestyle risk factors 590
Dietrich, S. 949, 950
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 225
dignity 345
disability, in older adults 33–4
bipolar disorder 496
functional 446
and loneliness 388–9
long-term disabling conditions 700
schizophrenia 493
suicidal ideation 273
‘Years Lost to Disability’ 35
discriminant validity 189
disease risk factors 35–6, 37
disinhibition 171–2
distress first approach 893–5
Ditommaso, E. 382
divalproex 868
Dixon, J. 572
D-KEFS (Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System) 199
DLB (Dementia with Lewy Bodies) 227
Dobransky-Fasiska, D. 916–17
Dong, M. 1050
Doron, I. 254
DPM (Dual Process Model), grief 838
Dreier, Ole 146
Drennan, J. 385
Driessen, E. 423
Drinka, T. 739
driving 316
drug treatment see pharmacological treatment
DSSI (Abbreviated Duke Social Support Index) 805
DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) 225
DTRs (dysfunctional thought records) 612
Dual Process Model (DPM), grief 838
(p. 1097) Dual-Process Model of Assimilative and Accommodative Coping (Brandtstädter and Rothermund) 2002 8
dual tasks 131
Duberstein, P. R. 11, 72, 73–4, 76, 78
Duke University Religion Index 807
Dutch National Survey of General Practice 915
Duval, S. J. 64
DVD products 818
dying with dignity 345
Dykstra, P. 382–3
Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) 322
dysfunctional thought records (DTRs) 612
dyspnoea, advanced illness 359–60
D’Zurilla, T. J. 276
EAPA (European Association of Psychological Assessment) 190
ecological environment 146
ecology of human development 150
Edelstein, B. 170, 413–14
Eden Alternative 346
Edwards, J. D. 323
EF (executive functioning) 313, 314
effect sizes 11, 642
ego integrity 6, 683–4
eight (‘ate’) action principles 898–9
El Afify, N. A. W. 338
elder abuse see abuse of elders
Elder, Glen 148
ElderLynk programme 958
elder mistreatment 572–3
electroencephalogram (EEG) 292
electronic databases 67, 185, 191
elemental realism, in CBT 648
El-Mansoury, T. M. 389
EM (episodic memory) 129, 313, 314, 315, 320, 493
emergency rooms 791
emotional lability 402
emotions/thoughts, lack of acknowledgement or suppression 665–6
Empira Collaborative 346
end of life (EOL) 345, 355, 357, 358
energy, low, in advanced illness 360–1
English, S. K. 342
EnhanceFitness (EF) 1033
EnhanceMobility (EM), in assisted living memory care units 1033–4
Ennis, S. 698
epidemiology
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale 716
China 1046–58
comorbidities 440–4
insomnia, late-life 530–1
late-life depression 412–14
meta-analyses 66
personality disorders 505–7, 519
population ageing 31–6
episodic buffer 130
episodic memory (EM) 129, 313, 314, 315, 320, 493
Equality and Human Rights Commission 577–8
equifinality, lifespan theory 8
Erikson, E. H. 6, 683–4, 933
errors, test 189
escitalopram 864, 865
ethnicity/ethnic minority groups
barriers to mental healthcare utilization 960–2
insomnia 531
interviewing older adults 167–8
etiological complexity 8, 9, 10
Europe, peak groups and organizations 1076
European Association of Psychological Assessment (EAPA) 190
European Social Survey 385
Evans, L. K. 75
event-based tasks, errors in 131
everyday behaviour
activities of daily living, assessment 192, 193–5
cognition and social cognition, effects 311–12
factors affecting 311–13
functional 306–8
interventions addressing 320–4
task-specific vs process-specific 320–3
timing 323–4
self-reports 309, 310
(p. 1098) specific cognitive functions related to 313–16
subjective and objective methods for assessing, advantages and disadvantages 310
temporal sequencing of losses 312
Willis model 307
see also functionality
Everyday Problems Test (EPT) 308–9
evidence-based practice (EBP)
cognitive-behavioural therapy 639
dementia care-givers 809–17, 810
family therapy 714–15
insomnia 538–41
interpersonal psychotherapy 628
meta-analyses 62
‘push’ and ‘pull’ strategies 955
reminiscence therapy 675, 682
substance abuse/misuse 549
excessive daytime sleepiness 534–5
executive functioning (EF) 314, 315
exercise
and anxiety 478, 479
and cardiovascular health 478
care-giver characteristics 1036–7
in cognitive impairment 1025–44
and dementia 44, 1028
empirical basis for increasing 1031–5
incorporating into interventions for cognitively impaired individuals 1036–8
intervention studies 1027
introducing programme 1037–8
lifestyle risk factors 587–9
mid-life, as protective factor 588
observational exercise studies 1026
participant characteristics 1037
physical performance in older adults with cognitive impairment 1025–6
practice implications 1035–6
record keeping 1038
Seattle Protocols 1028–31
studies 1027–8
trainer qualifications 1037
existential issues 365
Ex Memoria 900
Experience Corps programme 593
experiential avoidance
definition, in ACT 641, 643, 661
experiential avoidance, in dementia care-givers 661–6
avoidance of events related to dementia 663–4
avoidance of ‘failure’ as a care-giver 664–5
avoidance of positive emotions and associated guilt 661–3
general avoidance of aversive internal events 665–6
guilt at not being ‘perfect’ 664–5
perfectionism 665
verbal rules 664
experimental validity 189
exposure therapy 647, 1011–14
factor-analyses 94
Faculty of Psychologists working with Older People in the UK (FPOP) 618
FAI (Forensic Assessment Instruments) 258
Faison, W. E. 491
false negative/positive results 189
familism 806
Family-based Structure Multi-system In-home Intervention model 715
family-focused therapy (FFT) 863, 869
family intervention therapy (FIT) 494
family therapy 710–31
and behaviour 717
causality, circular vs linear 717, 718
choosing family-level interventions 712, 713
effectiveness with ageing families 714–16
family development 717–19
family systems 717
identified patient 710
medical 719–27
practice implications 727–8
problem-solving 728
role of families in geropsychology 711, 712, 713–14
theory and clinical approaches 716–27
traditional models 717
(p. 1099) Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) 559
FAST (functional adaptation skills training) 494
fatigue 168, 360–1
fats, dietary 590
FCI (Financial Capacity Instrument) 258
Federal Drug Administration (FDA), US 499
feedback loop, closing 1003
female life expectancy, selected developed countries 32
Fernández-Ballesteros, R. 185, 190, 211
Ferssizidis, P. 645
FFT (family-focused therapy) 863, 869
‘file-drawer’ problem, meta-analyses 64
filial piety 806
Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI) 258
FINGER (Finnish Geriatric Intervention study to prevent impairment and disability) 593
Finland, loneliness in 385
Finnish Geriatric Intervention study to prevent impairment and disability (FINGER) 593
Fiske, A. 417, 418
FIT (family intervention therapy) 494
fixed effects models, meta-analyses 64
Flaherty, J. 579
floor effects 232
flourishing, on long-term care 348
Floyd, M. 421
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 134, 320, 473
FN (fotonovela) 811
Fokkema, T. 384
Forensic Assessment Instruments (FAI) 258
formative function, CBT formulation frameworks 763
Forsman, A. K. 73
Forstmeier, S. 72–3, 78, 79
FRAMES model, brief interventions 562, 563
France
convoys of social relations 116–17
Multi-domain Alzheimer Preventive Trial 593
population ageing 29
Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. 781
Freedman, V. A. 110
Freud, S. 837
Freund, A. 308
Frieswijk, N. 97
frontal connectivity, decreased 225
Frontal Systems Behaviour Inventory (FrSBe) 319
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) 227, 229
FTD (Frontotemporal dementia) 227, 229
Fuld Object–Memory Evaluation (FOME) 1017
functional adaptation skills training (FAST) 494
functional brain imaging 436
functional contextualism 648
functional integrative approach 135–7, 140
functionality
Activities of Daily Living see Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
additive functional disability 456
assessment considerations 324–5
factors affecting everyday behaviours 311–13
functional disability 446
functional everyday behaviours 306–8
functional sequelae of cognitive decline, later life 306–34
interventions addressing everyday behaviour
task-specific vs process-specific 320–3
timing 323–4
measurement 308–11
physical functioning and health status 1969
practice implications 324–5
relevant cognitive functions, assessment 316–20
social functioning 205, 209
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 134, 320, 473
functional orchestration model 138, 140
Fung, H. H. 1065
GAD (generalized anxiety disorder) see generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
GAI (Geriatric Anxiety Inventory) 42, 205
G-ARSMA (Geriatric Acculturation Ratings Scale for Mexican Americans) 806
(p. 1100) Gartland, D. 992
Gaskall, A. 693, 694
Gatz, M. 8, 53, 417, 955
Gaunt, David 148
GDS (Geriatric Depression Scale) 67, 205, 366, 807, 808
Gellis, Z. D. 957
GEM (Geriatric Evaluation and Management unit) 733, 738, 743
gender
and care-givers 798–9
defined 108
and depression 109
insomnia 531
and loneliness 388–9
and social capital 107–9, 111
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 53, 471, 474, 478, 479, 638
cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) 606, 607
combination treatment 857, 858, 865
perception of needs and attitudes towards mental health treatment 951
general knowledge 130
generational differences, concepts of time 148
genetic factors, anxiety 473
George, L. 149, 638
Geriatric Acculturation Ratings Scale for Mexican Americans (G-ARSMA) 806
Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) 42, 205, 1071
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) 67, 205, 366, 807, 808, 1017
Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) 360, 423
Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit (GEM) 733, 738, 743
Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS) 270, 1072
Germany
attitudes to ageing 18
convoys of social relations 116–17
guardianship law 253–4
long-term care 348
Gerontological Personality Disorders Scale (GPS) 506
gerontological theory 614
gero-transcendence 6
Gibson, M. C. 337
Giddens, A. 153
Gierveld, J. 381, 384
Gilbert, P. 695
Giles, G. M. 991
Gilleard, C. 576
Gillespie, A. 992, 1001
Gitlin, L. 816, 881
‘giving up–given up complex’ 445
Global Burden of Disease Study (WHO) 440
Global Network of Age-friendly Cities and Communities (GNAFCC) 1064
glucocorticoid receptor gene 473
GMT (goal management training) 320, 322
goal management training (GMT) 320, 322
Goldfried, M. 513
Goldman, J. 735
Golub, R. M. 576
Go/No-go or Stop signal tasks 133
Grabowski, D. C. 348
Graham, C. 766–7
‘grasshopper’ generation 148
Greeley, D. R. 315
Greenhalgh, T. 345
Green House Project 346, 347
grief
advanced illness 364–5
ambiguous 848–50
anticipated 848–50
of care-giver 848–50
cognitive grief therapy 837–55
complicated 13, 364, 839–41, 847–8, 851
comprehensive assessment 842
continuing bonds 838, 846
versus depression 15
interpersonal psychotherapy 628–31
interventions 847–8
as normal process 837–8
uncomplicated (adaptive) 839–41, 845–7, 851
GRIP & GLEAM (G&G) courses, Self-management of Well-being Theory (SMW) 96, 97, 98–9
Grisso, T. 258
guardianship law
alleged incapacitated person at hearing, encouraging presence of 252
(p. 1101) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 253
guardianship across globe 253–4
implications of evolving US law in clinical practice 251–2
incapacity standards 251
international perspectives 252–4
legal standards 256
less restrictive alternatives, diversion to 252
limited guardianship and functional evaluation 251–2
US perspectives 250–2
Guetin, S. 403
Guevara, J. P. 75
guided discovery 612–13
Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Older Adults (APA) 626
Haan, L. 493
Hackett, M. L. 397
Hagans, C. L. 190
Haight, B. K. 678, 685
Haley, W. E. 953
hallucinations 361, 491
haloperidol 499
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) 67, 73, 270, 404, 405, 624, 631
combination treatment 859, 869
Han, B. 345
Han, L. 67
Hansson, R. O. 837
Haraven, T. K. 151
Harbison, J. 577
HAROLD (Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults) 134
Harré, R. 145
Harris, Y. 346, 347
Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) 342
Harvan, R. A. 742
Hasher, L. 132
Haslam, C. 682
Hawkley, L. 386
Hayden, K. M. 224
Hayes, S. C. 642
Head Mounted Display (HMD) 1018, 1019
Health & Care Professions Council (HCPC), UK 733
Health and Retirement Study (HRS), US 384, 591
Health Development Agency (HDA), UK 559
Healthy IDEAS intervention 916
hearing loss/impairment 165–6
Heckhausen, J. 91
Hegel, Mark 276
Heikkinen, R. L. 49
Heinemann, G. D. 739
Heisel, Marnin 276
Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) 134
Hendricks, G. J. 74
Heo, M. 67
Hepple, J. 693, 697, 698
Herman, D. O. 233
Hertzog, C. 136
heterogeneity 7–8
hierarchy of needs 89–91
high blood pressure 36
high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging 225
Hildreth, C. J. 576
Hiller, J. E. 111
Hill, R. D. 224
Hinrichsen, G. A. 627
hippocampal injury, in AD 451
historical embeddedness, and cohort flow 11–12
Hitch, G. J. 130
Høglend, P. 515
Holtzman, R. E. 591
Homer, A. C. 576
homosexuality, attitudes to 776
Honolulu-Asian Aging Study 585, 592
hopelessness 445
Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) 240, 241
horizontality, transitions 146
Horowitz, S. V. 506
hospices 357, 369–70, 792
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 366
hospitals 792
Housing Enabler, The (Iwarsson) 211
(p. 1102) Howard, P. 1003
HPPAE (Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education) 342
Hsu, Y. 682
Huang, C.-H. 415
Hultsch, R. A. 136
humanistic tradition 6
human rights, and elder abuse 573
human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) 473
Hurwitz, B. 345
HVLT-R (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised) 240, 241
Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test 176
Hyer, L. 369
hypertension 449
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) 473
dysregulation 454
hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus 529
IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) see Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)
IADLQ (self-report measure of IADL functioning) 316
IAPT (Increasing Access to Psychological Therapy), England 604, 616
IASMHS (Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services) scale 962
iCare study 811
ICIDH (International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps) 192
Ideal Memory Test (IMT) 233
Identification Card for Senior Residents (ICSR), China 1056
immunology and depression 508
IMPACT (Improving Mood–Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment) trial 274, 275, 276, 422, 913
Impact of Event Scale (IES) 1013
Improving Mood–Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) trial 274, 275, 276, 422, 913
IMT (Ideal Memory Test) 233
Increasing Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT), England 604, 616
India, Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007–2011) 578
individualization 881–2
inference 189
information and communication technologies (ICT) 970–89
communication medium 973–5
heavy users 979, 980
information source 975–6
Internet 17
leisure activity 977–8
‘lurkers’ 978
and older adults 970–1
online communities 971–3
use that adults make of 973–8
and well-being 978–81
passive entertainment 978
practice implications 983–4
task-oriented tool 976–7
information-processing resources 128–31
Inglis, E. A. 994
inhibitory functioning 132–3
insight 295, 298–9
insomnia, late-life
assessment 535–6, 538
beliefs and personality 534
chronic 529, 530
circadian rhythm changes 529
clinical assessment flow chart 538
clinical risk factors 531, 532
cognitive-behavioural therapy 75–6, 539, 540–1
daytime sleep 529
and depression 533
diagnosis 529–30
drug treatment 539, 541
epidemiology 530–1
ethnic differences 531
evidence-based interventions 538–41
excessive daytime sleepiness 534–5
gender differences 531
incidence 530, 532
(p. 1103) intervention, meta-analyses 75–6
and interviewing older adults 175–6
medical and psychiatric illness 532
negative consequences 534–5
pain, chronic 533
practice implications 541
sleep patterns, normal changes in ageing 528–9
sleep structure and continuity 528
social and behavioural changes 533–4
symptoms 530
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) 188, 192, 1026
cognitive decline 311, 313, 314, 315, 318
instruments, assessment 188, 191–215
integrated care models 956–7
integrated cognitive therapy (ICT) 515
integrated psychological therapy (IPT) 494
intelligence tests, standard 128
intention to treat (ITT) designs, CBT 606
Interpersonal Inventory, IPT 631
Interference trial, D-KEFS Colour Word Test 318
internal consistency, test measures 189
International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics 337, 1045
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) 6, 14, 306
psychosis 491, 492
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 306
International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) 192
international clinical geropsychology
clinical assessment and intervention approaches 1066–8
datasets, large 1068–71
development of tools and interventions 1071–3
ideas and approaches, sharing 1065–8
interventions tested across populations 1072–3
longitudinal research 1068–71
need for 1064–82
peak groups and organizations 1075–7
potential hurdles and resources 1074–5
strategies and resources 1073–4
tests used 1072
theories of ageing 1065–6
training and practice 1073–5
International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse 572
interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) 857, 863, 869
Interpersonal Deficits 626
Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults (Hinrichsen and Clougherty) 627
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) 622–36, 1067
clinical case examples 628–33
grief 628–31
interpersonal role disputes 631–3
combination treatment 858, 859, 860, 861, 866
depression 625–7
Initial Sessions 624, 628–9, 631–2
Intermediate Sessions 624, 629–30, 632–3
origins and structure 623–5
personality disorders 512
practice implications 634
suicidal ideation 275–6
Termination 624–5, 630–1, 633
therapeutic ethos 623
training of students and clinicians 627–8
interpersonal relationships, strain in 363–4
interpersonal role disputes, interpersonal psychotherapy 631
interprofessional education (IPE) 742
interprofessional geriatric healthcare 733–52
conceptual framework 738–9
context 739–40
definitional issues 734–5
interprofessional teams
developing a psychologist’s role 744–5
empirical support for 727–8
future research directions 748
(p. 1104) international model of healthcare team performance 738–41
interprofessional vs multidisciplinary healthcare teams 735, 736, 737
team training for psychologists 745–8, 747
teamwork competences, psychologists 743–4
Model of Team Performance 738, 741
national position statements on interprofessional care and education 742
policy implications 742–3
practice implications 743–4
process 740
productivity 740
structure 739
Interprofessional Team Training and Development (ITT&D) Program, US Department of Veterans Affairs 738
inter-rater reliability 189
intersectionality paradigm 109
interventions
abuse of elders 577–9
bereavement/grief 77–8, 842, 847–8
care-giving 76–7
child welfare model 577
depression 72–3
drug treatment see pharmacological treatment
everyday behaviour, addressing 320–4
evidence-based, for dementia care-givers 813, 816–20
barriers to accessing 819–20
effects 816–17
psycho-educational skill-building interventions 809, 811, 812, 813, 814–15
psychotherapy-counselling interventions 813, 816
utilization of, across the globe 819
exercise 1027, 1036–8
see also exercise
external aids 299
family therapy see family therapy
hierarchical model 577
improvement of positive well-being 78
international clinical geropsychology 1071–3
LGBT adult community 791–2
lifespan perspective 15–18
memory strategies 299
meta-analyses 67–78, 68–71
multicomponent intervention programmes 816
neurocognitive disorders 293–6, 298, 299
neuropsychological, defined 293
participatory model 577
positive psychology 938
primary level 577, 579
psychological model 577
psychosocial 398, 890–1
psychotherapy-counselling care-giver 813, 816
quasi-legal model 577
secondary level 577, 580
sleep problems 75–6
task-specific vs process-specific 320–3
taxonomy 15–18
tertiary level 577, 580
timing 323–4
interviewing older adults 163–83
age-related sensory changes 165–6
circadian rhythms 169
cognitive changes 166–7
content areas for assessment 172–6
disinhibition 171–2
ethnicity and culture 167–8
health problems and medications 168
language 171
length and format 171
medical and biological considerations 168–9
online communities 976
pain 168–9
psychological disorders 172–4
rapport building 170, 177
setting 169–72
structured and semi-structured interviews 164, 319–20
suicide attempts 174
tools 177
trust 170–1
unstructured interviews 164–5
(p. 1105) Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) scale 962
Inwarsson, S. 211
IPSRT (interpersonal and social rhythm therapy) 857, 863, 869
Iran, population ageing 26
Ireland, long-term care 348
Irwin, M. R. 75
ischaemic heart disease 33
Iselin, M. G. 627
Iylhä, M. 385
Jablensky, A. V. 495
Jacelon, C. 345
Jacobson, N. S. 234
Jakobsons, L. J. 613
Japan
convoys of social relations 116–17
guardianship law 253
long-term care 348
Jefferson, A. L. 317–18
Jensen, G. M. 742
Jeste, D. V. 74, 324
Jette, A. M. 111
Jogerst, G. J. 574
John A. Hartford Foundation Geriatric Interdisciplinary Team Training Program (GITT), US 742
Johnson, J. K. 314
Jones, D. A. 385
Jones, R. 650
Jorge, J. A. 998
Jorge, R. E. 67, 397
Joshi, S. 579
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 322
journey, life as 152–3
Jung, C. G. 7
KAD (Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease) 804
Kahn and Antonucci Convoy Model 209
Kahn, R. L. 930
Kalaga, L. 577
Kaltman, S. 838
Kang, J. 76
Kanter, J. W. 515
Kareholt, I. 591
Karlin, B. E. 650
Kasl-Godley, J. E. 365
Kass, R. A. 979
Kastenbaum, R. 370
Katz, P. 337
Katz, S. 145, 154
Kauppinen, M. 49
Kemp, C. L. 113, 114
Kennedy, K. M. 225
Kerr, I. B. 700
Kessler, R. C. 12, 849, 1065, 1066
Keyes, C. L. M. 205, 935
Kimura, M. 397
Kingston, P. 577
Kinsella, K. 337
Kitwood, T. 702, 880
Kivipelto, M. 586
Klerman, G. 623
Knight, B. G. 604, 637, 953, 955
Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease (KAD) 804
Koder, D. A. 607
Kong, E. H. 75
Kop, W. J. 508
Korea, PASCAL health recommendation 594
Korporaal, M. 388
Kovach, C. R. 879, 885
Kraaij, V. 66–7
Kramer, A. E. 135
Kryger, M. H. 532
Kungsholmen Project (1987–1996) 11
Kunik, M. E. 884
Lachs, M. S. 571, 574, 576–7
Laidlaw, K. 420, 646
lamotrigine 869
language issues 171, 895, 996
late modern time 145
latent class analysis (LCA) 404
later life see older adults
Latino Americans, acculturation measures 806
Lawlor, B. 388
Lawson, B. 418
(p. 1106) Lawton-Brody IADL scale 319
Lawton, M. P. 307, 346
LCA (latent class analysis) 404
Leahy, R. 515
Learmouth, A. 390–1
LEARN model 803
Lebanon, social relations 108
Lee, H. J. 77
legal rights service, China 1056–7
leisure activity 977–8
Lemke, S. 211
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) ageing 776–96
acculturation status 782
age and cohort 780–1
biopsychosocial framework 788
diversity within older adult community 780–4
diversity within subgroups 784–6
international status 782
LGBT identity 783
life course perspective 783–4
MetLife study 777, 779
military status 783
multiple minority identities 780
older adult culture 777–9
older bisexual men 785
older lesbians 786
preparing psychologists to address within healthcare settings 786–90
awareness 787
creating a welcoming environment 790
knowledge 787–8
lifelong learning 788–90
skills 788
race and ethnicity 781–2
resilience factors 779
socio-economic status 781
specific integrated healthcare settings, interventions 791–2
spirituality and religion 783
Levine, B. 322
Levine, J. M. 577
Levin, M. 642
Levy, B. R. 644
Lewis, M. S. 318
life course perspective, transitions 145, 146, 783–4
life course as chain of transitions 149–52
see also transitions
life expectancy and population ageing 31, 32
lifelong learning 788–90
life review/life review therapy 16, 678–9
meta-analyses 72
lifespan perspective 3–25
barriers to treatment of older adults 18
chronic pathological processes persisting from earlier life periods 14
cognitive abilities 127
cohort flow and historical embeddedness 11–12
constructivism 145
core propositions 7–12
dysfunctional psychological reactions to normal ageing 13
ecology of human development 150
etiological complexity 8, 10
heterogeneity 7–8
intervention strategies 15–18
longitudinal research 54
mental health
defining in old age 5
positive, in old age 6–7
mental health problems
barriers to treatment of older adults 18
in old age 5–6
pathological ageing of brain 13–14
multidimensionality 4
paradigms 4
plasticity 133
plasticity and resilience 10–11
practical implications 18–19
successful development and ageing 85–7
taxonomy of clinical phenomena 12–13
limitations 14–15
see also transitions
Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) 588
lifestyle risks and cognitive health 584–600
alcohol consumption 586–7
body weight 589–90
diet and nutrition 590
mental activity 591–2
physical activity 587–9
(p. 1107) practice implications 592–4
risk factors 585–92
smoking 585–6
social activity 591
Li, J. 73
Lindenberg, S. 91
lithium carbonate 868
living environments 109–15, 118
planned 113–15
Livingston, G. 574–5
LLGRR (Look.Listen.Guess.Respond.Repeat) 896–8, 899
Loates, M. 698
Lomranz, J. 418
loneliness 381–94
and anxiety 1050
and bereavement 382
cross-sectional research 385–6, 387
defined 381
and disability 388–9
and emotional isolation 382, 385, 386
in European countries 384
explanations 382–3
findings 383
and gender 388–9
and health 387–90
in media 382
myths 382
practice implications 390–1
prevalence and major trends 383–7
and social isolation 381, 382, 385, 386, 388
as social stigma 382–3
longevity 153–4
Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) 51
longitudinal research 40–61
advantages and limitations 41–2
attitudes to ageing 446
availability of data 43
cognitive development, in ageing 126
cognitive disorders 44–7
community living 110
comorbidities 442, 443
contributions towards clinical geropsychology 42–3
depression 47–50
heterogeneity 7
independent variables 41
insomnia 533
international clinical geropsychology 1068–71
overview 40
within-person variance 41
prevalence and incidence of disorders 44–5
prevention and treatment of disorders 47
risk and protective factors of cognitive decline 45–6
use of longitudinal designs in specific disorders 43–7
long-term care (LTC) 335–54
barriers to quality mental healthcare in general LTC 339, 341–2
biopsychosocial approach to mental health 344–5
defined 335–6
financing 338–9, 340
flourishing 348
international long-term care trends 337–8
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) ageing 792
mental health screening 343–4
nursing homes see nursing homes (NH)
practice implications 348–9
prevalence rates in institutional care 343
staffing 341–2
telehealth 959
World Bank report (2010) 338
long-term memory 129, 130
long-term overt or hidden etiological pathways 8
lorazepam 868
Lothian, K. 345
LSNS (Lubben’s Social Support Network Scale) 805
LSNS-R (Lubben’s Social Network Scale–revised) 209
Luanaigh, C. 388
Lubben’s Social Network Scale – revised (LSNS-R) 209
Lubben’s Social Support Network Scale (LSNS) 805
Luijendijk, H. J. 414
Lui, L.-Y. 314
Lustbader, W. 347
Lyness, J. M. 11, 72
(p. 1108) MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) 258
Mackenzie, C. S. 951, 956
MAFS (Measure of Awareness of Financial Skills) 309, 310
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 225
major depressive disorder (MDD) 13
advanced illness 360, 366
perception of needs and attitudes towards mental health treatment 951
suicidal ideation 269, 275, 277
Major Neurocognitive Disorders 312
Maltby, T. 384
manic depression see bipolar disorder
Manly, J. J. 258, 993
MAPT (Multi-domain Alzheimer Preventive Trial) 593
March, S. 849
Markovitz, J. C. 623
Marriott, A. 766
Masi, C. 390
Maslow, A. 91
massage 892
MAST-BD (Medication Adherence Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder) 497
MAST-G (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test) 559, 560
Matarazzo, J. D. 233
Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) 289
Mazure, C. M. 509
MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) 767
MBEC (mindfulness-based elder care) 768
McBee, L. 768
McCracken, L. M. 650
McDavis, R. J. 787
McDonald, L. 578
McDougall, F. A. 638
MCI Screen 290
McMillan, T. M. 993
measurement errors, tests free from 189
Measure of Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS) 309, 310
mechanisms, everyday competence 307
medial prefrontal cortex 473
medical family therapy 719–27
Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) 192
Medicare, US 357, 734
Medication Adherence Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder (MAST-BD) 497
medications
acetaminophen and NSAIDS 886–7
anti-depressants see anti-depressants
cholinesterase inhibitors 231
and interviewing older adults 168
and memory problems 131
NMDA-receptor antagonists 231
opioids 360, 887–9
Medina-Walpole, A. 342
meditation 539
Mediterranean diet (MeDi) 590
Meeks, S. 850
memory and remembering
autobiographical memory 129
and cognitive development, in ageing 44, 167
cognitive development, in ageing 128, 129, 130
declarative memory 129, 130
depression with memory complaints (case study) 297–8
episodic memory 129, 313, 314, 315, 320, 493
Ideal Memory Test (IMT) 233
long-term memory 129, 130
mobile computing technology, rehabilitation services 994
procedural memory 129, 130
prospective memory 131, 315, 324, 1001
retrospective memory 129
semantic memory 130
short-term memory 129, 130
strategies 299
virtual reality techniques 1015, 1016
working memory 130, 132, 137, 493
Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) 316
mental activity, lifestyle risk factors 591–2
mental health
assessment, geropsychological 199, 205, 206
(p. 1109) biopsychosocial approach to 344–5
complete 928
defining in old age 5
positive, in old age 6–7, 207–8
screening 343–4
Mental Health Commission of Canada (MMCC) 950
Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) 205
Mental Health First Aid Training (MHFA) and Research Program, Australia 952
mental illness, in old age
acute stress response 368–9
advanced illness 365–9
anxiety see anxiety
barriers to treatment of older adults 18
common mental disorders 34–5
definition of mental health disorders 6
depression see depression
epidemiological data 66
interviewing older adults 172–4
lifespan perspective 5–6, 13–14
longitudinal designs, use in specific disorders 43–7
mood disorders in older adults with chronic disease 440–3
pathological ageing of brain 13–14
personality disorders (PDs) see personality disorders (PDs)
prevalence and incidence of disorders
anxiety 51–2
cognitive disorders 44–5
depression 48–9
risk and protective factors
anxiety 52
cognitive disorders 45–6
depression 49
treatment see treatment
Mercado, E. 134
Merchant, M. L. 574
Messick, S. 189
meta-analyses 62–83
advantages 65–6
bias issues 78–9
cognitive functioning 231, 324
on correlational studies 66–7
course of diseases 67
dementia 586
depression, late-life 419
diagnostic instruments, accuracy 67
epidemiological data 66
in field of clinical geropsychology 66–7
formal guides 65
limitations 66
meta-analytic approach 62–6
plasticity and resilience 11
practice implications 79
prevention and intervention 67–78, 68–71
reminiscence therapy 679, 680–1
risk factors 66–7
robustness of results 80
software 64–5
steps 63
metabolic syndrome 494
metacognitive abilities, higher-order 137
metaphors, use of in ACT 650, 660
meta-regression analysis 50
Meyers, B. S. 67
MHC-SF (Mental Health Continuum Short Form) 205
MicroCog 290
micronutrients 590
MIDS (Mid-Life in the US National Study of Americans) 934
Migliorelli, R. 400
Mihailidis, A. 1002
Miklowitz, D. J. 863
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
aetiologies 286
anxiety, late-life 475
case study 298–9
cognitive assessment 238, 240
everyday behavour 313, 324
exercise 1026, 1027–8
plasticity and resilience 11
Mild Neurocognitive Disorder 312
Miller, L. S. 318
Miller, S. C. 346
mindfulness-based approaches
advanced illness 367
dementia care-givers 668, 761, 767–8
lifespan perspective 16
(p. 1110) Mindstreams (Neurotrax) 290
Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI) 164, 396, 474
Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) 67, 199, 289, 314, 397, 405, 1017, 1034
cognitive decline 239, 240
Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) 192
minor depression 275, 276
MIST (Memory for Intentions Screening Test) 316
Mitchell, A. J. 66, 67, 289
Mitchell, P. B. 495
MMCC (Mental Health Commission of Canada) 950
MMQ (Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire) 1017
MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) see Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)
MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) 192
Moak, G. S. 957
mobile computing technology, rehabilitation services 990–1010
abstract solutions, testing 999–1001
adaptive assistants 998
attention, focusing 993–4
clinician support for 992
cognitive functions, other 997–8
concepts and principles 990–1
current knowledge 991–8
emotional functioning 997
evidence requirement 992–3
feedback loop, closing 1003
functional problems 1000
GPS positioning 997
knowledge limitations 998–9
language 996
memory and remembering 994
practice implications 999
rate of technological change 999
risks and benefits, weighing 1004
self-management 994–6
single-case research 1004
technological change, rate of 999
useful technology, utilizing 991–2
use mainstream technology 1001–3
wayfinding 996–7
MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) 199, 289
Model of Selective Optimization with Compensation (Baltes and Baltes) 8
Model of Team Performance, interprofessional geriatric healthcare 738, 741
moderator analysis 64
modern time 145
Mohlam, J. 769
Moniz-Cook, E. 765
monoamine oxidase inhibitors 418
monotherapies 857
monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) 590
Montessori intergenerational dementia programming approach 880
Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale 67
Montgomery, P. 75–6
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) 199, 289
mood disorders
acute stress response 368–9
anxiety see anxiety
behavioural aspects 453–4
biological aspects 454
comorbidities 53, 436–69
consequences 453–5
depression see depression
and neurocognitive disorders 295–6
in older adults with chronic disease 440–3
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) see post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
reducing negative mood states 683
MOOSE guidelines (Meta-analysis of Observational STudies in Epidemiology) 65
Moos, R. 211
Morgan, D. 849
Morgan, V. A. 495
mortality, causes 32–3
motivation 91, 294–5
Motivational Theory of Life-span Development (MTLSD) 87, 88–9, 98, 660
Mottram, P. G. 73, 418–19
MTLSD (Motivational Theory of Life-span Development) 87, 88–9, 98, 660
MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) 590
(p. 1111) Mullins, L. 388
Mulroy, M. 571
multidimensionality 4, 87, 105, 125, 185, 187–91, 838
assessment, geropsychological 187–91
multidirectionality 4, 86, 87, 125, 185
Multi-domain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) 593
Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) 1017
multifunctional friend 93
multimodal cognitive-behavioural therapy (MCBT) 891
Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure (Moos and Lemke) 211
multiple sleep latency test 535
multiplism perspective 188
Munk, K. P. 155, 157
Murphy, C. E. 67
Murray, Y. 785
narrative of consolation 157
National Centre for Social Research and Institute of Gerontology, King’s College London 573
National College of Probate Judges (NCPJ), US 255
National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) 12, 51, 52, 951
National Dementia Preventative Health Strategy, Australia 594
National Dementia Strategy, UK 594
National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) 51
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 554
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) 551, 558
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Study 623, 625
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders (NIDCD) 165
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 559, 560
National Institutes of Health-Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) 226
National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) 399, 402, 593
National Registry of Evidence Based Programmes and Practices (SAMHSA) 642
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 550
Naughton, C. 575
NCS-R (National Comorbidity Survey Replication) 12, 51, 52, 951
needs, hierarchy of 89–91
negative automatic thoughts (NATs) 360, 611, 612
neglect
defined 572
in early life 693–5
neighbourhood 112
Neimeyer, R. A. 77, 190
Netherlands
Dutch National Survey of General Practice 915
peak groups and organizations 1076
networks, social 105–7
community living 110–11
gender differences 107–8
and loneliness 381–2
networks, support, network structure 106–7
neural plasticity see plasticity, brain
neuroanatomy, anxiety 473
Neurobehavioural Cognitive Status Exam 319
neurocognitive disorders 285–305
advantages of evaluation 291
affective status 297, 299
anxiety, late-life 475
assessment over time see cognitive functioning, assessment
case examples 297–9
causes of dysfunction in later life 286, 288
common neurobehavioural features of select conditions 287
computerized testing, use of 290–1
depression with memory complaints (case study) 297–8
evaluation 288–92
exercise
(p. 1112) and health promotion 1025–44
incorporating into interventions 1036–8
feedback 292–3
functional everyday behaviours 306–8
functional sequelae of cognitive decline 306–34
goals and motivations 297, 298
insight 295, 298–9
intervention 293–6, 298, 299
longitudinal research 44–7
mild cognitive impairment
case study 298–9
exercise 1027–8
plasticity and resilience 11
and mood disorders 295–6
neuropsychological profile and insight 297, 298–9
physical exercise 1025–6
practice implications 300
risk and protective factors of cognitive decline 45–6
subjective cognitive impairment 14
test data 295
unique factors and current compensatory methods and activities 297, 299
virtual reality, effects on cognitive decline 1014–17
neurofibrillary tangles, in dementia 227
neurogenesis 588
neuroimaging 292
neuronal atrophy 225
NeuroPage (assistive technology) 701
neuroplasticity see plasticity, brain
neuropsychiatric approaches, in depression 395–411
Alzheimer’s disease 399–403
Parkinson’s disease 403–6
practice implications 406–7
stroke 395–9
Neuropsychiatric Inventory 450
Neuropsychological Assessment Battery 319
neuropsychometric tests, standardized 316–18
neuroticism 273
Neville, S. 390
‘new ageing cultures’ 154
Newcastle model 763
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, US 341
New Zealand
long-term care 348
peak groups and organizations 1076
Nezu, A. M. 276
NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 554
NIAAA (National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) 551, 558
Nicassio, P. M. 75
nicotine 586
NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) 559, 560
NIDCD (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders) 165
Nieboer, A. P. 91
Nigeria, abuse of elders 575
NIMH (National Institutes of Mental Health) 399, 402
NITE-AD (night-time insomnia treatment and education in Alzheimer’s disease) 1032
NMDA-receptor antagonists 231
non-mental health settings, psychological interventions in 911–26
broadening of treatment 912–17
community-based treatments 915–16
community partnerships, developing 916–17
future directions 918–20
practice implications 917–18
primary care-based treatments 912–15
non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep 528
Nordhus, I. H. 73
‘normal’ ageing
cognitive development 44, 125–43, 224–5, 241
dysfunctional psychological reactions to 13
and personality 505
positive experience see positive ageing
psychology of ageing, psychology of age and psychology of the aged 184
sleep patterns, changes 528–9
successful development and ageing 84–103
theories 4
(p. 1113) normativity 148, 151
Northouse, L. L. 77
nortriptyline 397, 405, 859, 860
NSAIDS (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) 886–7
NSDUH (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) 550
Nurses’ Health Study, exercise 588
nursing homes (NH) 336
anxiety, late-life 475
‘culture change’ in 346–8
residents, promotion of mental health and quality of life in 348
suicide risk 174
nutritional factors 590
OAWI (older adults with insomnia) 530, 531, 533, 534, 535, 536, 538, 539, 541, 542
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) 478
odds ratios, meta-analyses 64
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) 970–1
O’Keeffe, M. 574
olanzapine 494, 499
old age see older adults
older adults
CBT, age-appropriate models 613–16
defining mental health in old age 5
depression
trajectory of 47–8
see also depression
disability in 33–4
and information and communication technologies (ICT) 970–1
interviewing see interviewing older adults
mental illness in 5–6
personality disorders, impact on late-life adaptation 507–9
positive mental health in 6–7
stress factors 510–11
well-being and old age 929–33
Older Person’s Mental Health Service 457
O’Neill, B. 992, 993
O’Neill, D. 571
online communities 971–3
use that adults make of 973–8
and well-being 978–81
opioids 360, 887–9
optimization 88
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) 473
orchestration, functional 138, 140
Orellano, E. 321
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 970–1
Östlund, U. 345
Ostwald, S. K. 766
outcomes, everyday competence 307
Pachana, N. 344
pain
advanced illness 359
chart-documented rates 876
chronic, in insomnia 533
in dementia 876–7
distress first approach 893–5
distress messages 877
eight (’ate’) action principles 898–9
interventions see pain interventions
and interviewing older adults 168–9
language of 895
LLGRR (Look.Listen.Guess.Respond.Repeat) 896–8, 899
practice implications 899–900
suicidal ideation 273
Unmet Needs Model see Unmet Needs Model
PAINAD (pain screening) 894
pain interventions 885–93
individual non-pharmacological 889–90
pharmacological 886–9
physical/functional 891–2
psychosocial 890–1
systemic non-pharmacological 892–3
Palhagen, S. E. 405
Pallesen, S. 73
palliative care 355, 366
appropriate situations 356–7
defined 356–7
unique nature of hospice and palliative care work 369–70
PANAS (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale) 205
panel studies see longitudinal research
panic disorder 474
(p. 1114) Panza, F. 336
Paragraphs About Leisure–Form E (PAL-E) 979
paraphrenia 491–2
parens patriae doctrine 250
Park, D. C. 131
Parkinson’s disease (PD) 395, 403–6
anxiety, late-life 476
depression
clinical correlates 405
etiological complexity 10
frequency 404
longitudinal evolution 405
treatment 405–6
psychology and biology, interdependence 436
Park, N. 384
paroxetine 403, 405, 860, 866
PASCAL health recommendation, Korea 594
PASRR (Preadmission Screening and Resident Review) 344
‘Passengers of the Bus’ cognitive defusion exercise, in ACT 668
passive cognitive reserve 133
passive entertainment 978
pathological crying 402
PATH through Life Study, depression 47
pathways, etiological 8, 9, 10
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) 270
Patient Self Determination Act 1995, US 252
‘patterned change’ theory 92–3
Paul, C. 387, 389
Paykel, E. 623
Paykel Suicide Scale 270
‘Peaceful Mind’ (therapy for anxiety in dementia) 403
PEARLS (Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives for Seniors) 422
Pedersen, N. L. 53
Pepin, R. 955
period, and concept of time 148
Perissinotto, C. 384, 388
PERMA model, psychological well-being 928, 929
personality development, lifelong 6
personality disorders (PDs) 504–26
ageing and personality 505
avoidance of diagnosis by clinicians 504
case study 516–18
comorbidity with Axis I disorders 506
core vulnerabilities 510, 511–13
cross-sectional research 506
epidemiology 505–7, 519
impact on adaptation in late-life 507–9
and interviewing older adults 173–4
present moment, working in 515–18
and relationships, in older age 513–14
stress factors in old age 510–11
therapeutic alliance 514–15
treatment 509–13
personality traits 935
Person Centred Care 760
person–environment fit 210, 310
person-environment–related interventions 17
Petkus, A. J. 649
PET (positron emission tomography) 44, 134, 225
Pew Internet and American Life Project (PIALP) 971
PFC (prefrontal cortex) 473
PGCMS (Philadelphia Geriatric Moral Scale) 205
pharmacological treatment
analgesic ladder (WHO) 886, 888
anti-psychotics 494, 496
anxiety 53
anxiolytic 499
cognitive functioning 231
combining with psychotherapy 856–75
depression
in Alzheimer’s disease 402–3
late-life depression 418–19
in Parkinson’s disease 405–6
post-stroke depression (PSD) 397–8
effects 452–3
insomnia 539, 541
and interviewing older adults 168
pain 886–9
Phelan, A. 580
Philadelphia Geriatric Moral Scale (PGCMS) 205
Phillips, Jeanne 954
Philp, I. 345
phonological loop system (working memory) 130
(p. 1115) physical activity see exercise
physical health problems
advanced illness 355–77
assessment of physical functioning and health status 1969
cancer 366, 367, 447, 452
cardiovascular diseases 477–8
cerebrovascular disease 33, 449, 700
chronic diseases, racial diversity 168
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 33, 456, 477
CNS disorders 448–9
consequences 444–53
dementia care-givers 800–1
demoralization 444–5
disease risk factors 35–6, 37
drug effects 452–3
and families 720
functional disability 446
and interviewing older adults 168
ischaemic heart disease 33
mortality, causes in old age 32–3
physical comorbidities with mood disorders 436–69
psychosocial aspects of chronic disease 444
resources 448
role function 447
suicidal ideation 273
symptoms 359–62
terminal illness 445
PIALP (Pew Internet and American Life Project) 971
Picot, S. J. 77
Pike’s Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology, US 604, 743, 953
Pillemer, K. 574, 576–7
Pinquart, M. 11, 72–4, 76, 78, 79, 117, 185, 190, 385, 420
Pitkala, K. 387
planned living environments 113–15
plasticity, brain 126, 133–5
availability 134
customizability 134–5
decreasing in age 5
experience-dependent and functional 320
lifelong 19
lifespan perspective 10–11
reconfigurability 134
and social activity 591
see also brain
pleasant events, Seattle Protocols 1030
Ploeg, J. 578
PM (prospective memory) 131, 315, 324, 1001
Pollack, M. E. 990, 995, 1002
polysomnography 535
polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) 590
population ageing 26–39
and access to psychological therapy 603, 604
changing social patterns 30–1
chronological age 26
common mental disorders 34–5
disease risk factors 35–6, 37
epidemiology 31–6
global demography of ageing 28–31
life expectancy 31, 32
mortality, causes 32–3
and socioeconomic development 27, 28
Portugal
capacity issues 249
loneliness in 384–5, 387
Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) 205
positive ageing 927–48
assimilating positive psychology strategies 938
characteristics 933
expanding professionals’ horizons 938–9
future directions 941–2
negative to positive models of ageing well 930–2
optimal ageing
defined 932–3
promoting 937
promoting older adults’ community connectedness 937–8
psychological well-being 928, 929
well-being and old age 929–33
Wellness and Mental Fitness Kit for Positive Ageing 939–40, 941
Positive Aging (Hill) 224
Positive Aspects of Caregiving Scale 805
(p. 1116) positive health 934–9
comprehensive assessment of mental and physical health in sociocultural/historical context 936
positive assessment of client strengths and reserve capacities 936–7
positive mental health, lifespan perspective 6–7
practice implications 935–6
promoting 937
suggested positive psychology interventions for older adults 936–9
positive psychology 86, 927–8, 929, 935–6, 941
interventions 936–9
Wellness and Mental Fitness Kit for Positive Ageing 939–40, 941
positron emission tomography (PET) 44, 134, 225
‘post-fall anxiety syndrome’ 13
postmodern 154–5
postmortem studies 15
post-stroke depression (PSD) 395–9
clinical correlates 396–7
diagnosis and epidemiology 396
etiological pathways 10
and family history of depression 67
pharmacological interventions 397–8
prevention 398–9
psychosocial interventions 398
treatment 397–8
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 52, 471, 473, 474
and advanced illness 366–7
virtual reality techniques 1012, 1013, 1014
posture 1017–18
Pot, A. M. 678
Poulsen, R. 346
Powers, M. B. 642
practice affects (PE) 239
practice effects 42
pragmatism 648
Preadmission Screening and Resident Review (PASRR) 344
predicted difference approaches, cognitive assessment 233, 235–6
predictive validity 189
prefront cortex (PFC) 473
premodern times 145, 148
present-centred therapy (PCT) 1013
present moment, contact with
lack of contact with 643
personality disorders 515–18
rumination and worry preventing in dementia care-givers 666–7
Present State Exam 396
prevention and intervention
bereavement 77–8
care-giving 76–7
depression 72–3
improvement of positive well-being 78
meta-analysis 67–78, 68–71
plasticity and resilience 11
sleep problems 75–6
see also intervention
Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial (PROSPECT) 274–5
Preville, M. 53
primary care, anxiety 474
Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIIME-MD) 474
Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly study (PRISM-E) 561
Prince, M. 387
PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews) 65
PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly study) 561
PRMQ (Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire) 316
problem adaptation therapy (PATH) 608
problem-solving therapy (PST)
late-life depression 421–2
personality disorders 512
Seattle Protocols 1030–1
suicidal ideation 274, 276
procedural memory 129, 130
Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives for Seniors (PEARLS) 422
progressive muscle relaxation 539
Project to Enhance Aged Rural Living 959
Prolonged Grief Disorder see complicated grief
(p. 1117) Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) 316
prospective memory (PM) 131, 315, 324, 1001
prospective studies see longitudinal research
PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial) 274–5, 913
protective factors
cognitive decline 45–6
depression 49
late-life depression 417–18
social support 1052
suicidal ideation 273
see also risk factors
prototypical pathways to psychopathology 8, 9
Proulx, K. 345
Pruchno, R. A. 930
pseudodementia 697
psychiatric disorders see mental illness, in old age; mood disorders
psychoactive prescription medication misuse 552–3
psychodynamic research tradition 6
psychodynamic therapy 16, 73, 515
psychological flexibility, in ACT 643, 648
Psychological Well-Being (PWB) 6, 88, 98, 800, 928, 929
Psychological Well-Being Scale 979
psychology databases 67, 185, 191
psychometric properties 189–90
psychosis, in older adults 490–503
bipolar disorder
associated symptoms and disability 493
course 495–6
prevalence 495
treatment 494, 495
delusions 490, 491
dementia
associated symptoms and disability 498
course 498
prevalence 497–8
treatment 499
general assessment approach 491–2
phenomenology 490–1
practice implications 499
schizophrenia
associated symptoms and disability 493
course 492–3
prevalence 492
treatment 494, 495
psychosocial development 7
psychosocial interventions
biopsychosocial approach to mental health 344–5
bipolar disorder 496–7
combination treatment 863–4
lifespan perspective 16
pain 890–1
post-stroke depression (PSD) 398
schizophrenia 494, 495
psycho-social-spiritual reactions 358, 362–5
psychotherapy
combining with medication 856–75
dementia care-givers 813, 816
depression
in Alzheimer’s disease 403
late-life depression 419–24
in Parkinson’s disease 406
PsycInfo database 185
PTC (present-centred therapy) 1013
quality of life (QoL)
assessing 211, 214–15
and China 1045, 1046
in nursing homes 348
questions, interview 171
QUOROM (Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses) 65
Rabin, L. A. 288, 319
race and ethnicity 781–2
RAID (Rating for Anxiety in Dementia) scale 170
RALLI (Resources and activities for life-long independence) 1033
RAM (Risk Appraisal Measure) 808
Randall, M. 190
(p. 1118) random effects models, meta-analyses 64
randomized controlled trials (RTCs)
Alzheimer’s disease 402
anxiety, late-life 479, 913–14
bipolar disorder 496
cognitive functioning 324
combination treatment 857, 859, 868
depression 423
Parkinson’s disease 405
stroke 397
exercise 1027
family therapy 715
longitudinal research 50
meta-analyses 62, 63, 75–6
mobile computing technology, rehabilitation services 993, 999
pain 885
physical exercise 588
reminiscence therapy 675, 684
virtual reality techniques, older adults 1016, 1019
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep 528, 532
rapport building 170, 177
Rating for Anxiety in Dementia (RAID) scale 170
rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT)
ABC model 843–8, 850
functional and dysfunctional cognitions 845
rational versus irrational thinking 843–4
Raz, N. 225
RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) 290
RBMT (Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test) 199
RCI (Reliable Change Index) 234, 235
RDAD (Reducing Disability in Alzheimer’s Disease) 1031, 1033
translation 1034–5
REACH (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health) study 715
REACH II (Resources for Enhancing Adult Caregiver Health) 716, 808, 816
reading span task 130
Reasons for Living–Older Adults Scale (RFL-OA) 174
REBT (rational emotive behaviour therapy) see rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT)
recall tests 129
record keeping 1038
Redesigning Continuing Education in the Health Professions (Institute of Medicine) 742
Reeves, S. 735
regression analysis 316, 470
regression to the mean 232
Reichelt, F. K. 761
Reig, A. 185
Reitz, C. 586
relapse prevention diary 613
relationships, social 6–7, 104
relative value units (RVUs) 743
relaxation techniques 74, 479, 539, 640, 891
reliability, psychometric properties 189
Reliable Change Index (RCI) 234, 235
Religious Orders Study 224
remembering see memory and remembering
reminiscence therapy 16, 675–90
definition of reminiscence 675, 676
effect sizes 11
efficacy 679, 680–1, 682, 686
group-based reminiscence 682
late-life depression 423
life review 678–9
and loneliness 391
meta-analyses 72
reminiscence and therapy 676–9
reminiscence as component of therapy 677
reminiscence as therapy 677–9
‘reminiscence bump’ 129, 676
simple reminiscence 677–8
spontaneous reminiscence 676–7
summary of literature 684
transmissive reminiscence 424
treatment mechanisms
ego integrity 683–4
positive beliefs of self 683
reducing negative mood states 683
social engagement 682–3
see also life review
REM (rapid eye movement) sleep 528, 532
Remsburg, R. E. 345
(p. 1119) Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) 290
re-personalization 763
Repertory Grid technique 190
reserve, cognitive 133, 134
residential aged care facilities (RACFs) 336
resignation 156
resilience
and brain plasticity 10–11
mental health, defining in old age 5
resources 448
restraint function, inhibitory framework 132
retirement
continuous care retirement communities (CCRCs) 110, 113, 114
effects of 13
Health and Retirement Study (HRS), US 384, 591
Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) 384
retrospective memory 129
reversible dementia 286
Revised Memory and Behaviour Problems Checklist (RMBPC) 804
Revision of World Population Prospects 549
Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scale (RIAS) 199
Rheingold, H. 971–2
RIAS (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scale) 199
Ribeiro, O. 387, 389
Risk Appraisal Measure (RAM) 808
risk factors
abuse of elders 576–7
anxiety 52
cognitive disorders 45–6
comorbidities 439–40
depression 49, 414
disease risk factors 35–6, 37
lifestyle 585–92
meta-analyses 66–7
prevalence 37
suicidal ideation 174, 268, 271–3
vascular dementia 227
see also particular conditions; protective factors
risperidone 499, 868
Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) 199
Robb, C. 953
Roberts, B. W. 505
Robillard, M. 869
Robinson, R. G. 67, 396, 397
Rokach, A. 382
Role Disputes 626
role play 632
roles
change of 150–2
concept 149–50
obligations, freedom from 153–5
role function 447
Role Transitions 626
Roseberry Park (RP) framework 764, 765
Ross, L. A. 323
Rostad, B. 418
rostral anterior cingulate cortex, hypometabolism 448
Rothermund, K. 8
Rotterdam Study, smoking 585
Routasalo, P. 387
Roux, F. J. 532
Rowe, J. W. 930
Royall, D. R. 314
Royeen, C. B. 742
Rubin, S. S. 838
Rudd, M. D. 174
rural areas, older populations in 957–9
telehealth and rural older adults 959–60
Rydstrom, J. 153
Ryff, C. 86, 87, 88, 98, 930, 934, 979
Ryle, A. 691, 697, 700
Safran, J. D. 760
Sajatovic, M. 868
Salthouse, T. A. 132
SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) 561
sample attrition 41
(p. 1120) Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire 807
saturated fat (SFA) 590
SBIRT (screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment) 562–4
SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) 475
Schaie, K. W. 127
Scheck, S. A. 413–14
Schedule for Evaluation of Individual QoL (SEIQoL) 211
Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) 475
Schei, B. 418
schema-focused therapy (SFT) 515, 516
Schieman, S. 112
Schierenbeck, I. 73
schizophrenia
associated symptoms and disability 493
and capacity 255
course 492–3
early-onset 492, 493
and paraphrenia 491
prevalence 492
psychosocial treatments 494, 495
treatment 494, 495
virtual reality techniques 1016
Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. 315
Schneider, A. L. 868–9
Schoevers, R. 52, 53
Scholey, K. A. 607, 761
Schut, H. 838
Schutte-Rodin, S. 535, 536
SCID (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) 164, 396, 474
science, philosophy of 648
Scogin, F. 419
Scottish Health Action on Alcohol Problems (SHAAP) 558–9
screening
mental health 343–4
and prescreening 556
substance abuse/misuse 556–61
SDR (sequential diagrammatic reformulation) 692, 699, 701, 704, 705
SD (standard deviation) 233–4
Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS)
cognitive development, in ageing 127, 128
cohort flow and historical embeddedness 11–12
datasets 1068
Seattle Protocols 1028–31
key components 1029–30
pleasant events 1030
problem-solving 1030–1
theoretical rationale 1028–9
Secker, D. 766
secondary deviation 447
sedatives 539
SED (Standard Error of the Difference) 234
SEE (Standard Error of the Estimate) 233
Segal, Z. V. 760
Selection, Optimization and Compensation (SOC) model 87, 88, 89, 98, 660, 931
functional everyday behaviours 307, 308
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 397, 398, 418, 479
combination treatment 856–7, 870
neuropsychiatric approaches, in depression 402, 403, 406
self
ego integrity 6, 683–4
personality development, lifelong 6
positive beliefs of 683
self-as-context, in ACT 668
Self-Efficacy Measure 805
Self-management Ability Scale (SMAS) 96
Self-management of Well-being Theory (SMW)
applied to ageing well 92
core self-management abilities 93–4
GRIP & GLEAM (G&G) courses 96, 97, 98–9
origin 89–92
patterned change in resources and need fulfilments 92–3
practice implications 95–7
‘success’ criteria 94
successful development and ageing 85, 87, 95–7, 98
self-report questionnaires 319–20
‘Self States Sequential Diagram,’ in CAT 697
Seligman, M. 927, 934, 935
SELSA-S scale, loneliness 385
(p. 1121) Selwood, A. 574–5
semantic memory 130
SEM (Standard Error of Measurement) 232–3, 235
Sense of Mastery tool 805
sensitivity 190
sensory changes, age-related 165–6
sequential diagrammatic reformulation (SDR) 692, 699, 701, 704, 705
SERA (Simesta de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos) 211
Serial Trials Protocol (STP) 879–80, 885
serotonin gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) 15
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) 479
sertraline 402
service delivery 458–9
severe acute respiratory system (SARS) 1064
SFT (schema-focused therapy) 515, 516
SHAAP (Scottish Health Action on Alcohol Problems) 558–9
Shah, S. N. 850
Sham, P. 766–7
Shankardass, M. K. 578
SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) 384
Sherman, E. 288
Shore, M. 991
Short Michigan ALCOHOLISM Screening Test Geriatric Version (SMAST-G) 559, 560
Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) 199
Short Quality of Life Questionnaire (CUBRECAVI) 211
short-term memory (STM) 129, 130
short-term pathways, etiological complexity 8
Shreve-Neiger, A. 413–14
Shurgot, G. R. 955
sight, problems with 166
simple difference approaches, cognitive assessment 233–5
simulate real-life tasks (SRLTs) 322
Singapore, Community-based Early Psychiatric Interventional Strategy 956
Singer, B. 933
Singh, N. 767–8
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 415
Sinunu, M. 338
Sitzer, D. I. 74, 324
SL-ASIA (Suinn-Lew Self Identity Acculturation Scale) 806