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date: 23 February 2020

(p. 657) Index

(p. 657) Index

Abbott, Andrew, 145
Acemoglu, Daron, 93, 103n6, 131, 622
actors
and critical junctures, 77–79, 90–92, 94–96, 98–101
in functionalism, 311–314
in historical institutionalism, 5–9, 15–18, 31–33, 38–39, 57–58, 108, 152, 189, 223, 271–272, 310–313, 344, 446, 488–494, 498, 513
in HIWS analysis, 419, 423–432
in political structures, 35–37
societal, in state-building, 186, 188–189
See also Non-state actors; Preferences, Private actors
Adcock, Robert, 147
Africa
authoritarian regimes in, 215
economic development, 169–171
human rights courts in, 602, 605–606
informal institutions in, 276
political party changes in, 226–227
state development in, 182, 185
agency, 8–10, 14, 41, 56, 64–66, 90–92, 97–98, 118–119, 147–148, 566
in democratization studies, 197–200
-structure problem, 150, 155–159, 315
See also Actors
agenda control, 126–128, 130, 234, 617
Ahlquist, John S., 244
Ahmed, Amel, 61, 231
Aidi, Hishaam D., 261
Aldrich, John H., 315
Alm, James, 111, 113–114
Alter, Karen J., 494, 499n4, 519, 592, 595, 596, 599
Althusser, Louis, 35
Amenta, Edwin, 419
American exceptionalism
in penal policy, 380
and social policy dynamics, 340–341
American Political Development (APD)
coalitions in, 132–133
and historical institutionalism, 21–22, 289, 312–314, 381
ideas in, 152–153
race and citizenship in, 358–359, 362, 370, 380
and the state, 294, 302, 653
study of law and, 326–329, 333
study of political parties and, 310–320
Amsden, Alice H., 561
Anderson, Benedict, 354
Anderson, Karen, 398
Ansolabehere, Stephen, 124
antecedent conditions, 78–80, 90, 93–94, 96–98, 101, 103n7, 241, 260, 597–599
anticipated reactions, 127, 130
Argentina, 71, 173, 202, 225, 259, 262, 265, 469
ascriptivism, in American politics, 152
Asher, Robert, 632
Asia
and decolonization, 173–174, 178
economic development in, 167–169, 172–173, 175–178
human rights in, 599, 602–603, 606
labor relations in, 263–264
political parties in, 226–227
security institutions in, 556–562
social policies in, 243, 248, 251
authoritarian institutions, 165, 209, 217–219
and labor, 262–265
and security institutions, 558–559
shaping of welfare regimes by, 242–243
in Southeast Asia, 82–83
(p. 658) authoritarianism
counter-revolutionary, 215–217
durable, 208–219
in political party changes, 232–233
reproduction of, 217–218
revolutionary, 210–215
successor parties in, 226–227
authority, 4–5
and coalitions, 7
delegation of, 8, 64, 591, 612, 646–648
in European Union, 389, 392, 396–397, 412, 444, 504, 509, 526–529, 582–586
fragmentation of, 341–345
and institutions, 9, 278, 281, 553
international, 538–539, 549–550, 553, 576–577, 591
moral, 468–469, 472, 478, 480
overlapping, 12–14, 289–291, 332–333, 512
personal, 276
and political parties, 320
and power, 130–133
and religion, 470–473, 479, 524
and state development, 170–171, 182, 185–186
supranational, 486–487, 492–499
in United States, 291, 296, 335–337, 339–349, 367, 615–623, 629
Avdagic, Sabina, 430
Azari, Julia R. K., 277, 282
Baccaro, Lucio, 458
Bachrach, Peter, 126
Baratz, Morton S., 126
Barker, Vanessa, 377
Barkey, Karen, 185, 191n8
Barnett, Michael N., 154, 183
Bases, Daniel, 638
Bates, Ed, 598
Baumgartner, Frank R., 124, 128, 129, 459, 463n3
Beckert, Jens, 154
Béland, Daniel, 425
Bell, Daniel, 406
Bensel, Richard Franklin, 187
Berger, Suzanne, 396
Berins Collier, Ruth, 10, 89–90, 182, 199–201, 227, 257–259
Berle, Adolfe, 634, 637
Berlin, Isaiah, 92
Berman, Harold, 395
Berman, Sheri, 136, 151, 160n3
Bernstein, Edward, 587n5, 630–631
Bevir, Mark, 147
Binder, Leonard, 561
Bleich, Erik, 151
Blum, Gabriella, 533–534
Blum, John Morton, 632
Blyth, Mark, 97, 98, 103n11, 144–146, 148, 149, 160n3, 272
Boix, Carles, 231
Boughton, James, 630
Bratton, Michael, 276
Bretton Woods agreements, 545, 579, 618, 627–639
Bril-Mascarenhas, Tomas, 251n4
Broockman, David, 135
Brooks, Sarah, 247–248
Brown v. Board of Education (US Supreme Court), 328
Brownlee, Jason, 185
Bulmer, Simon, 499
bureaucracy, 17, 169–170
bureaucratic autonomy, 300–303
development of, 246, 360
and state building, 186, 298
Burgess, Katrina, 259–260
Burley, Anne-Marie, 494, 495
Burnham, Walter Dean, 311
Busemeyer, Marius, 19
See also Capitalism
Büthe, Tim, 44, 489, 499
Cameron, Maxwell, 229
Campbell, Andrea Louise, 298, 343, 346, 650
Campbell, John L., 60, 144–146, 149, 160n3, 424
Campbell, Michael C., 377–378
Canaday, Margot, 302–303
(p. 659) capitalism
and business, 453–463
and democracy, 408–409, 539
and development, 168–169, 177, 243
and financial systems, 439–442, 445
and historical institutionalism, 132, 398, 453
varieties of, 34, 62, 243, 398, 442, 455–459
Capoccia, Giovanni, 10, 17, 66n2, 91, 92, 95, 201, 230, 266, 562–563, 595
Caporaso, James A., 394
Caraway, Teri L., 17, 201, 263–265, 267n8
carceral state (United States), 367–382
Carnes, Matthew E., 242, 248, 251n6
Carpenter, Daniel P., 17, 66n4, 135, 301–302
Casanova, Jose, 475, 476
causes (causal, causality, causation)
conjunctural, 40–41
constant, 80–81, 191n3
critical junctures and, 77–80, 91–94
as filters, 72–75
and gradual change, 80–82
graphical approach to, 72–76
historical, 71, 89, 157–158, 182
in historical institutionalism, 5, 9–10, 20, 35–39, 53–55, 71–87, 107, 147, 339–430, 363, 459, 487–488
multiple conjunctural, 40–41
ordering, 75, 202
time-variant, 80–81
Centeno, Miguel Ángel, 184
Central Asia, 276, 277
Cerami, Alfio, 424
change
agents, 490–492
endogenous theory of, 148, 149
explanations of, in HIWS analysis, 424
ideational, 96–98, 157–159
in primal environment, 58
radical, 14, 97–98, 266
and stability, 80, 157
strategies of, 63–64
transformative, 101–102, 458–459
Chen, Anthony S., 71
Chile, 262
Christian Democratic parties, 473–474
church–state relations, 469
citizenship
and U.S. carceral state, 368
civil rights, in United States, 325–326, 354–355
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (US), 297–298, 332, 360–362
civil society, 248–249
coalitions
and authoritarianism, 242–244
cross-class, 454–455, 459
and institutions, 7, 19, 39
formation of social, 40
and political parties, 226–234
and politics, 39–42, 131–135
regional orders, 555–562, 567–568
and social policies, 350
transnational, 493
and welfare regimes, 242
cognitive (cognition), 6, 8–9, 16, 57, 60, 156–158, 346, 418
bias, 107
frameworks (templates), 35–38, 65, 114–119, 147
and ideas, 151–152, 272
Cohen, Cathy J., 375
Collado, Emilio, 634
Collier, David, 10, 89–90, 182, 199, 200, 227, 257–259
Collier, Ruth. See Berins Collier, Ruth
Collins, Kathleen, 276
common law, 277, 282, 331, 457
communism
durability of, 208–209
and religion, 478–479
unions after, 263
comparative politics, 163–166
European states in, 391–400
and historical institutionalism, 4, 163–164, 303–305, 567, 652
ideas in, 147, 151–152
informal institutions in, 270–271, 275–278
panel-based estimation techniques in, 32–33
policy coalitions in, 131–132
politics as structured process in, 34–39
(p. 660) comparative statics, 51–52
conjunctures, 40–42, 44–45, 46n3
Conran, James, 157
constructivism, 143, 147, 150, 154–156, 418, 513, 534, 573
context, 108, 111
effects of, 9, 32–34
temporal, 6, 31, 38–39, 57, 265, 487–491, 540, 555–560
See also contigency
contingency, 10–11, 77–78, 85, 92–93, 95, 223, 456, 507, 561
conversion, as mode of institutional change, 13, 64–65, 158, 274
Cook, Linda, 250
Cook, Maria Lorena, 262, 263
Cooper, Robert, 526
courts
Economic Community of West African State Court of Justice, 596, 605
European Court of Human Rights, 600–604
and European supranationalism, 493–496
human rights, 599–606
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 602–604
international, 590–608
Supreme Court (US), 328
critical juncture(s), 89–103
and antecedent conditions, 93–94
causation and, 77–80
closing of, 77–79
definitions of, 10, 77, 89
and development of weak institutions, 99–100
duration of, 10, 77
evolution of concept of, 89–91
in historical institutionalism, 10–11, 91–92
and change, 41–42, 55, 56, 96–98, 100–101
and legitimation of new institutions, 96–98
and path dependence, 82
and processes of endogenous change, 100–101
role of, in international order, 540–542
in state development, 182–183
critical realignments, 41, 242–243
Croome, J., 621
Crosland, C. A. R., 409
Crouch, Colin, 424
Crowley, Stephen, 261, 263, 264
Culpepper, Pepper D., 145, 460
Dahl, Robert A., 195, 197–199, 201, 203
Dauber, Michele Landis, 304
David, Paul A., 102n2
de Figueredo, John, 124
De La O, Ana, 473
decolonization, 171–173, 230, 548, 581
delegation
of authority, 531–532
in delivery of social policies, 298, 343
to international organizations, 393–394, 591
tariff reform and, 616–617, 623
democracy, 119, 131, 174, 202, 204, 224–225, 240, 264, 282, 403, 528
American (in the US), 329, 335, 304, 574, 613
Christian, 470
and common law, 277
and communist parties, 232
consolidated (consolidation of) 388, 403, 407, 410–411
development of, 5, 203
durability of, 195
in East Asia, 559
electoral, 276
emergence of (rise of), 199, 201, 539
European, 403–414
foundations of, 54
in Latin America, 176
liberal, 61, 199, 388, 544
and party formation, 228–230
popular, 470
promotion, 214, 531, 576–577, 595
and Protestantism, 471
representative, 388
social, 33, 177, 380, 412–413
and social policy, 240, 241
socioeconomic determinants of, 200
transitions to, 199, 200, 256, 261, 264, 389
and unions, 165, 256, 262, 266
violent, 276
(p. 661) democratization
authoritarian parties in, 232–233
episodic vs. trajectory-centered analyses, 201–203
focus of, on institutional change, 196
and institutions as independent variables, 199–201
and keystone institutions, 203
studies, 164, 195–205
timing/sequencing in, 198–199
separation between HI and, 196–198
developing countries
economic development in, 169–170
in GATT negotiations, 621, 622
labor in, 256–267
origins of welfare regimes in, 241–246
social policy in, 239–252
transformation of welfare regimes in, 247–249
development strategies, 170, 174–175, 243–245
diachronic effects, 343–345
DiMaggio, Paul J., 52–53, 55
Ding, Xueliang L., 65, 274
displacement, as mode of institutional change, 13, 19, 63, 272–274, 393, 427, 438, 507
Dobbin, Frank, 53, 297
Donnelly, Shawn, 445
Downing, Brian M., 184, 191n3, 199, 201
Downsian framework, 124–125
Doyle, David, 96–97
Drezner, Daniel W., 425, 646
drift, as mode of institutional change, 13, 19, 63–64, 152, 157–158, 189, 272–274, 281, 320, 347–348, 393, 426–427, 429, 442, 447, 507, 565, 576
Dulio, David A., 317
East Asia
democracy in, 559
security institutions in, 555–562
welfare regimes in, 248–249
Eastern Europe
authoritarianism and labor in, 263
neoliberal reform in, 259–261
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 596, 605
economic development
in post-World War II Europe, 409–410
states and, 167–179
economic inequality, 124, 134, 348, 359, 368–379
economic sociology, 154–155
See also Sociology
economics, 11, 59, 60, 90, 92, 102n1, 131, 155, 421, 645
Edlund, Jonas, 114
education, and religion in Europe, 472
Egypt, 261
Eichengreen, Barry J., 441
Ellis, Christopher, 137
Elman, Colin, 418
Elman, Miriam Fendius, 418
Elster, Jon, 145
embedded liberalism, 628, 637
endogenous change, 58–59, 99–102, 304, 446, 488–489, 499, 511, 566, 644, 649–651
conversion as, 64–65
ideas in, 148, 149, 156
and informal institutions, 273, 650
and political parties, 312–316
processes of, 100–101
Epp, Charles R., 332
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 153, 332
equity, and tax compliance, 113
Ertman, Thomas, 80, 94–95, 183, 201, 396
Eskridge, William N., 132
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, 62, 242, 420, 422, 431
Etchemendy, Sebastián, 260, 267n7
Europe
adaptive informal institutions in, 282
business interests in, 460–462
central banks in, 583–584
enforcement of international law by, 596
financial systems in, 438–448
historical institutionalism in study of, 387–389
(p. 662) integration, 396–397
market regulation, 504–514
monetary cooperation in, 153–154
political party change in, 228–229
regulatory agencies of, 648–649
religion and politics in, 467–481
state development in, 183, 391–400
states and economic development in, 167–168
supranationalism in, 486–500
European Central Bank (ECB)
as global institution, 582–585
supervisory authority of, 444
European Commission (EC)
market regulation by, 508–513
strategic constructivism of, 154
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), 600–604
European Court of Justice (ECJ)
and regulation of economic markets, 508–509, 511
supranationalism for, 493–495
European Parliament, 488, 496–498
European Union (EU)
European Central Bank, 582–585
change agents in, 490–492
constitutionalization of, 494–496
criticism of, 504
and European Parliament, 488
European states vs., 396–397
historical institutionalist studies of, 389
internal market regulation in, 504–514
regulatory framework of, 442–447
and sovereignty, 526–529
Evans, Peter B., 572–573, 650
evolutionary dynamics, 547–549
exhaustion, as mode of institutional change, 19–20, 273–274, 427
and social policies, 350–351
experimental methods
between-subject experimental designs, 120n2
and decision making by individuals, 110–111, 114–115
in historical institutionalism, 107–120
and institutional interactions, 118–119
need for, 115–118
and political institutions vs. public policy, 111–112
in social science, 117–118
and study of politics, 44–45
and study of the welfare state, 108–110
tax compliance example, 111–114
Falk, Armin, 117
Falleti, Tulia G., 11, 71, 93
Farhang, Sean, 297–298, 329
Farrell, Henry, 118–119, 144, 282
feedback effects
in historical institutionalism, 11, 99, 341–489
and interest-group politics, 650
negative, 120n4, 334, 350, 351, 389
positive, 11, 38, 82, 84, 99, 135, 424, 622–623
self-reinforcing, 347
and state development, 650
in supranationalism, 488–489
transnational, 511–512, 643–644, 650–651
Ferejohn, John, 118, 132
financial system(s), 438–448
emergence/evolution of domestic, 439–442
EU’s regulatory framework, 442–447
international, 627–628, 636–638
international effects of, 446–447
Finegold, Kenneth, 420
Finnemore, Martha, 145, 154
Fioretos, Orfeo, 582, 627, 637
Fishlow, Albert, 176
Fleckenstein, Timo, 429
Fligstein, Neil, 60, 145
formal institutions
defining informal institutions in relation to, 275
functionality of informal institutions vs., 278–282
informal vs., 270
structuring of politics by, 271
founding legacies, 165, 217–218, 258, 260–261, 265–266, 627
Fourcade, Marion, 154
fragmentation
and American political institutions, 341–343
state capacity vs., 295–300
(p. 663) Frenkel, Jacob A., 580
Frieden, Jeffry A., 625n4
Frymer, Paul, 297
Fukuyama, Francis, 192n12, 395
functionalism
anti-functionalism, 53
and failed state-building, 185
and informal institutions, 278–279
in study of American political parties, 310–312, 314–315
Galvin, Daniel J., 17, 80–81
Galvin, Dennis C., 283
Garrett, Geoffrey, 145
Gaventa, John, 135
Geertz, Clifford, 39
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 617–624
Germany, 151–152, 168, 528, 455
Gerring, John, 116
Gerschenkron, Alexander, 439
Gibson, Edward L., 199–200
Giger, Nathalie, 430
Gilardi, Fabrizio, 446
Gilpin, Robert, 540, 547, 548
Gilroy, Paul, 357
Gingrich, Jane, 79–80
global financial crisis of 2008, 14, 444, 638
global institutions, 572–587
and informal institutional change, 577–578
International Monetary Fund, 579–582
and lack of hierarchical state, 574–575
power assymetries in, 578
and structures of intergovernmental organizations, 575–577
global regulation, 642–653
and international political economy, 644–647
relative sequencing in, 647–650
transnational feedbacks in, 650–651
globalization
and historical institutionalism, 20, 156
of production and trade, 611
states and economic development, 176
and welfare policies, 241, 247
Go, Julian, 71
Goldstein, Judith, 36
Goldstone, Jack A., 212
Gough, Ian, 245
Gourevitch, Peter, 51, 53
governance space, 460–462
gradual institutional change (see Incremental change)
Great Britain, 33, 154, 167–168,
Greif, Avner, 16, 58–59, 66n3, 101, 155, 274
Grossman, Emiliano, 444–445
Grzymala-Busse, Anna Maria, 227, 232, 276–277, 282
Hacker, Jacob S., 15, 63–64, 66n6, 125, 133, 145, 273–274, 320, 341, 346–350, 423, 425, 426, 429, 457, 459, 573
Haggard, Stephan, 242, 243
Hague Peace Conference, 592, 593, 597–598
Hall, Peter A., 8, 62, 144–146, 149, 156, 158, 159, 160n3, 272, 317, 428, 454, 585–586
Hamilton, Alexander, 613
Hattam, Victoria C., 344
Häusermann, Silja, 350, 429
Hay, Colin, 144–146, 149, 150, 160n3
Heclo, Hugh, 419
Helleiner, Eric, 17
Helmke, Gretchen, 275, 278–279
Herbst, Jeffrey, 182, 184–185
Hilton, Adrian, 414n5
historical institutionalist–welfare state nexus (HIWS), 417–432
critiques of, 423–426
development of, 417–419
flexible responses of, to rival hypotheses, 426–428
hard core of, 419–426
heuristic power of, 418
methodological/theoretical challenges to, 429–431
progressive adaptation of, 428–429
protective belt of, 426–429
Hix, Simon, 498
Hobsbawm, Eric, 404, 414n2
Hogan, John W., 96–97
Howard, Christopher, 295, 341, 423
Howell, Chris, 458
Huber, Evelyne, 134
Huntington, Samuel P., 199, 209, 210, 219
ideas, 6–8, 11, 142–159
and agency problem, 155–159
in American politics, 152–153
as analytic variables, 142–143
in comparative politics, 151–152
in economic sociology, 154–155
emergence of literature on, in 1990s, 148–149
in historical institutionalism, 143–146, 272
in HIWS analysis, 424–425, 429
interactions of institutions and, 119
in international and comparative political economy, 153–154
and “necessary materialism” of HI, 146–147
and preferences, 14–17
philosophical problems, 149–151
Ikenberry, G. John, 419, 541, 542, 574
Immergut, Ellen M., 398, 424, 425, 511
import substitution industrialization (ISI)
and economic development, 175
in Latin America, 11
model of, 175
and social policy in developing countries, 244
increasing returns, 11, 55, 56, 90, 216, 346, 397, 424, 431, 440, 540, 554, 568n4, 574
deterministic, 83–84
and international order, 545–547
path dependence as, 82–84
and self-reinforcing sequences, 82–84
and welfare state, 421–422, 424
incremental change, 13–14, 77, 204, 313, 333, 427, 442, 507, 563, 627, 637, 645
causal logic of, 80–82
in HIWS analysis, 427
ideas as agents of, 158
in institutions of political economy, 458
individuals, decision making by, 110–111, 114–115
Indonesia, 173, 174, 177, 215, 216–217, 219n4, 264, 267n8, 273, 528, 531, 559
industrialization
and business interests, 454
and financial systems, 439
and state development, 167–170, 174–176
industrialized countries
social policies in, 241, 249
welfare regimes in, 244
inequality. See Economic inequality
informal institutions
accommodating, 277
adaptive, 165, 270–284
competing, 276
complementary, 277
in comparative politics, 275–278
defined, 279
endogenous change in, 650
formal vs., 270
(p. 665) in European market regulation, 513
functionality of formal institutions vs., 278–282
global institutions, 577–578
indigenous informal institutions, 280
institutional change, 577–578
personal connections, 277–278
substitutive, 276–277
informal security regimes, 251–252n7
institutional analysis, 1, 5, 14, 111, 116, 149, 272, 282, 329, 344
collaboration of, 15–18, 118, 148, 418
as comparative statics, 51–52
holistic approach to, 283–284
institutional change, 13, 16, 20, 38–41, 44, 51–66, 113, 115, 157, 184, 189, 196, 201, 248, 317, 327–329, 422, 429, 432
and business, 457, 459
and comparative statics, 51–52
and courts, 333–334
and critical junctures, 77–80, 92–93, 95–103
endogenous change, 58–59, 64–65, 98, 149, 156–157, 270, 350, 497, 644, 647, 650–651
episodic analyses of, 201–203
financial systems, 442
global regulation, 644, 649, 651–653
and historical institutionalism, 4, 12–14, 16, 39, 51–54, 99, 272–274, 283
and ideas, 148–159
and informal institutions, 270, 272–274, 283
and international courts, 595–596
in international economy, 628–629
in international security, 540, 554, 565–567, 582
modes of, 12–14, 165, 273–274, 279, 426, 507, 627, 637
and political parties, 224–226, 228–234
principal-agent analysis of, 59
punctuated change, causal logic of, 77–80
in rational choice approach, 52, 57–59
in sociological approach, 52–53, 60
in supranationalism (European Union), 489–493
uncertainty, and, 43
in United States trade policy, 611–617
institutional complementarities, 43–44, 62, 440, 442, 445, 447
institutional development, 55, 89–102, 199, 202–203, 227, 270, 290–291, 315, 327, 333, 355–356, 393, 398–399, 485, 487–490, 499, 505, 513, 574, 643
alternatives to critical junctures in analysis of, 98–101
institutional legacies, 18, 60, 77, 101, 165, 181, 210, 217–218, 229, 250, 256, 258, 389, 396, 472, 506–507, 513, 519, 629–630, 637
institutional reform (See Institutional change)
institutionalization of advantage, 130–134
institution(s)
in agency problem, 158
arenas of conflict conceptualization of, 100–101
as “chosen structures,” 148
definition, 7, 89
distribution of power by, 43
formation of, 94–96, 98, 101
impact on racial formation of, 358–361
as independent variables in democratization studies, 199–201
interactions between, 118–119
keystone, 164, 203
legitimation of new, 96–98
mutual reinforcement by coalitions and, 42
origins vs. development of, 181
policies as, 345–346
of political economy, 458
parchment institutions, 275
reproduction of, 56, 62–63, 99, 217–218, 283–284
shaping of politics by, 39
weak, 99–100
Inter-American Bank (IAB), 632–634, 636, 637
Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR), 602–604
intercurrence, 10, 14, 64, 359, 456, 465
definition, 12–13
and financial systems, 441–442
(p. 666) and historical institutionalism, 10, 14, 289
and judiciary, study of, 326–327
as source of institutional change, 61–62
interest-group politics
and conflict, 31
feedback effects on, 650
and social policy dynamics, 344–345
and transformation of ideology, 137–138
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 562–565
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 628, 635
international law and courts, 519, 590–608
timing and design of, 597–599
creation of, 591–595
and critical junctures, 595–597
human rights courts, 599–606
rule of law approach, 607–608
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
establishment of, 628
funding of, 575
as global institutions, 579–582
IMF Institutes, 577
international order, 538–551
evolutionary dynamics of, 547–549
increasing returns to institutions, 545–547
and path dependence, 542–544
regional, 545, 555–562
role of critical junctures in, 540–542
international organizations (IOs), 574–577, 586n1
international political economy
and global regulation, 644–647
ideas in, 153–154
international regulatory conflicts, 645–646
international relations (IR), 517–519
and historical institutionalism, 4, 446, 553, 572, 574, 652–653
security institutions in, 553–554
and sociological institutionalism, 16–17, 554, 577, 585–586
international security
historical institutionalism in, 553
state power in, 518
Iraq, 185, 533, 556, 560, 564–565
Ireland, 469, 472, 475, 494, 478–480, 527, 600
Italy, 110, 112–113, 379, 396, 411, 441, 443, 469, 478, 509, 633
Jabko, Nicolas, 154, 446
Jacobs, Alan M., 19, 157, 291, 348
James, Harold, 583–584
Jefferson, Thomas, 356, 613
Jones, Bryan D., 459
Jordan, 245–246
judicial authority, 326–334, 344, 389, 392–393, 395, 486–487, 531, 591
judicial retrenchment, 333–334
Kagan, Robert A., 329, 330
Kahneman, Daniel, 42
Kaiser, Wolfram, 473
Kalyvas, Stathis N., 94, 96
Katzenstein, Peter J., 454, 487
Katznelson, Ira, 7–8, 15–16, 368, 422
Kaufman, Robert R., 242–243
Kelemen, R. Daniel, 10, 66n2, 91–92, 95, 266, 562–563
Keohane, Robert O., 36
Kersh, Rogan, 152
Keynes, John Maynard, 409, 627, 628
Keynesianism, 272, 408–409, 579
Kimball, Erin, 17
King, Desmond S., 8, 152–153, 307–308, 298, 425–426
Kingston, Christopher, 66n3
Kleine, Mareike, 513
Koger, Gregory, 317
Koivu, Kendra L., 17
Korpi, Walter, 128, 134, 137, 424
Krasner, Stephen D., 38, 145, 487, 518, 543
Kratochwil, Friedrich, 145
Krebs, Ron, 97
Kurtz, Marcus J., 183–185
labor, 49, 65, 165, 188, 199, 233, 297, 359, 362, 370, 379, 399, 417, 424, 427, 429–430, 439, 454, 456, 458–460, 557, 614
and authoritarian legacies, 262–265
(p. 667) in developing and post-communist countries, 256–267
incorporation, 89–90, 227–229, 257–258
and legacy unions, 165, 264
and neoliberal reform, 259–262
organized, 318–319
party incorporation of, 258
and state building, 240–247
in United States, 318–319, 340–350, 619–620, 623–624
Laitin, David D., 16, 58–59, 274
Lakatos, Imre, 417–418, 431, 432n1
Lamont, Michèle, 159
Larsen, Christian Albrekt, 425
Lasswell, Harold, 453
Latin America, 10–11, 89, 164, 199, 225, 227, 230, 242–243, 248, 251n7, 275, 469, 519, 528, 592, 598
authoritarianism and labor in, 263
bilateral lending to, 630–631
democracy, 199–201, 204
economic development, 167–178
import substitution industrialization in, 11
neoliberal reform in, 259–262
political party changes in, 225–228
role of, in Bretton Woods agreements, 630–636
state capacity in, 183–184
study of labor in, 257–259
welfare regimes in, 248–249
Lauth, Hans-Joachim, 277
law, 4, 138, 187, 232, 258, 277, 282, 295, 362, 393, 439, 548, 576, 619, 642, 646
enforcement, 367–375, 459,
and Europe, 394–397
and European Union, 392, 493–499, 506–512, 527, 596
and gender, 375–376
international, 590–608
and origins of European states, 395
expansion of judicial authority, 330–332
and institutional change, 332–334
and judiciary (United States), 325–336
labor law in developing countries, 262–264
labor law in United States, 295–298
and political development, 328–330
and “rights revolution,” 325–326
soft law, 445–446
study of, 325–328
layering, 19, 63–64, 100, 120n4, 152, 157–158, 189, 272–274, 289, 291, 349, 393, 427, 438, 507, 519, 535, 562, 565, 576, 637, 638n9
in Bretton Woods agreements, 634–635
cross-national, 643, 650–651
definition, 13, 347
in financial system changes, 442, 444, 447
as mode of institutional change, 13, 63, 273
in Non-Proliferation Regime, 562, 565
in social policy changes, 347–348
Lebanon, 245–246
LeBas, Adrienne, 211, 230
Leblond, Patrick, 444–445
Lee, Cheol-Sung, 248–249
Lee, Yoonkyung, 267n9
Leibfried, Stephan, 422
Levi, Margaret, 145
Levitsky, Steven, 99–100, 103n12, 192n12, 275–279
Levy, Jonah D., 650
Lewis, Orion A., 156
liberalism, 8, 152
embedded, 628, 637, 646
neoliberalism, 259–262
Ordo-liberalism, 508, 587n7
and race/citizenship in United States, 356–358
liberalization, 14, 62, 232, 257, 447, 476, 505
in European markets, 509–512
Lieberman, Evan S., 90–91
Lieberman, Robert C., 13, 15, 118, 153, 425
Linz, Juan J., 200, 304
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 89–90, 228, 424–425
lock-in effect(s), 91, 203, 334, 397, 422, 565, 568n4, 574, 578, 634–635, 637
Longstreth, Frank, 271, 421
Lowi, Theodore J., 460
Luebbert, Gregory M., 197–200
Lynch, Julia F., 93, 344, 388, 428–429
Lynch, Mona, 377
MacKenzie, Donald A., 154–155
MacLean, Lauren Morris, 250
(p. 668) macro-micro continuum, 6
macro-structures, 6, 32, 35, 66
Madison, James, 613, 625n3
Maggetti, Martino, 446
Mahoney, James, 11–13, 17, 38–39, 55, 64, 90–91, 145, 160n3, 189, 198, 199, 234, 273, 446, 489, 573
Maioni, Antonia, 344
Malaysia, 173, 177, 208, 209, 215–218, 559
March, James G., 53, 66n5, 145, 623
Mares, Isabela, 242, 248, 251n6, 455
market(s), 16, 80, 98, 131–132, 178, 256, 273, 389, 408, 454, 471, 561, 563, 612, 643, 644–646
and European integration, 408–409, 439, 497–498
financial, 438–447
global regulation by, 646
internal (Europe), 504–513
and neoliberal reform, 259–264
religious, 475–477
regulation, 644–651
shift from banks into, 440–442
and United States, 612–619
and welfare regimes, 247
See also Finance, Labor, Liberalization
Martin, Cathie Jo, 75
Martin, David, 468, 479
Marx, Anthony, 357
Marx, Karl, 40, 56, 127, 475
material-cognitive continuum, 6
Matthijs, Matthias, 154
Mattli, Walter, 44, 495
Mayhew, David, 125
Mazower, Mark, 407
McDermott, Rose, 116
McKelvey, Richard, 126–127
McLennan, Rebecca, 367
McNamara, Kathleen R., 149, 153, 583
Meiji Restoration, 168–169
Mettler, Suzanne, 116, 295, 296, 349
Meyer, John W., 529, 586
micro-foundations. See micro-level analysis
micro-level analysis, 6–7, 8, 32, 35, 125, 129–130, 136–137, 155, 233, 425, 430, 475, 461, 573
Middle East, 164, 208
security institutions in, 555–562
social policy in, 245–246
Migdal, Joel S., 185–186
military institutions
and origins of European states, 394–395
and security institutions, 558
Milward, Alan S., 396
mobilization of bias, 126–127, 133
Moe, Terry M., 43, 59, 61, 65, 131, 133
monetary policy and institutions, 36, 153–154, 399, 411–412, 444, 447, 519, 579–584
Moore, Barrington, Jr., 55, 197, 198, 199–201
Moravcsik, Andrew, 445
Morgan, Kimberly J., 298, 343, 428
Morgenthau, Henry, Jr., 629, 630, 632–636, 639n16
Morrison, Bruce W., 41–42
Morton, Rebecca, 115
Mügge, Daniel, 445
Muhammad, Khalil Gibran, 371
Murakawa, Naomi, 372
Murillo, María Victoria, 99–100, 103n12, 192n12, 259
Myers, Adam, 95–96
Myrdal, Gunnar, 356
nation
nation-building, 168, 185, 357, 396, 478
and religion, 477–480
United States, 297, 354–360, 611, 613–615
nation-states, 5, 37, 41, 163, 354, 355, 392, 396, 472, 486 493, 508, 573, 576, 644
nationalism
American, 152–153
in Europe, 405–407
and religion, 478
religious, 469
necessary conditions, 10, 72–79, 80, 100, 191
negative feedback. See Feedback effects
neoliberal institutionalism, 554–555
neoliberal reform, 167, 259–262, 458–459
neorealist institutionalism, 554–555
network analysis, 18, 143–146, 160n4, 248
network(s), 35–38
bureaucratic, 186, 461
effects, 38, 43, 90
informal, 277, 510, 573
(p. 669) international, 606, 646, 651
and political parties, 224–227, 313–314, 316–319
relations, 36–38, 44, 137
New Deal politics
and Bretton Woods agreements, 629–630
race and welfare policies of, 359–360
Newman, Abraham L., 519,
Nicholls, Curt, 95–96
Nigeria, 170–171, 183, 528, 605
Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth, 137
non-governmental organizations. See non-state actors
non-state actors, 185, 191n8, 239, 245, 249, 282, 284, 460, 474, 530–531
failed state-building due to, 185–186
international litigation by, 592, 596, 607
security threats by, 521–522, 526, 532, 535
non-state welfare provision, 165, 245, 249–251
norms, 65, 101, 112, 156–157, 391, 523, 576, 586, 636
North, Douglass C., 59, 90, 144–146, 155, 271–272, 545
North Africa, 245
nuclear non-proliferation, 560–565, 567
O’Donnell, Guillermo, 200, 275
Offe, Claus, 410
Oliver, Robert, 632, 636
Olsen, Johan P., 53, 145, 623
Opielka, Michael, 431
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), 119–120n1, 240
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), 577
organizational sociology, 52–53, 274, 573. See also sociological institutionalism
Orloff, Ann Shola, 419, 420, 423–427
Orren, Karen, 12–13, 62, 145, 367
Ost, David, 266n4
Ostrom, Elinor, 3, 56, 117–188
pacts, 215–216
protection, 184, 215–218, 232
provision, 216
Paczyńska, Agnieszka, 260–261, 266n5
Paden, Catherine M., 373
Patashnik, Eric M., 132, 320, 346, 349
path dependence, 38–40, 63, 72, 82–86, 102n1, 142, 164, 289, 291, 304, 326, 333, 397, 420, 422, 424, 438, 445, 568n4
and critical junctures, 10–11, 90, 92, 99–102
critiques of, 425–426, 649, 652
and democratization, 198–199
in development of EU institutions, 505
in development of international institutions, 540, 542–544, 553–556, 561, 565, 567, 568n4, 572
and historical contigency, 12–13
in historical institutionalism, 10–12
and ideas, 151–154
of institutional change, 55, 56, 62
and reactive sequences, 12, 84–86
and self-reinforcing sequences, 82–84
and social policy, 246–247, 339, 393
in state development, 181–184
with sufficiency, 85–86
permissive conditions, 10–11, 182–184, 489, 556, 566
in creation of international courts, 597–598
in state development, 182–183
Peters, B. Guy, 424–426
Pfau-Effinger, Birgit, 431
Philippines, 216, 173, 174, 177, 187, 216, 559
Pierre, Jon, 424–426
Pierson, Paul, 4, 15, 33, 35, 42, 43, 54, 56, 57, 63, 64, 66n6, 125, 133, 144–146, 160n3, 181, 185, 294, 311, 312, 320, 334, 346–348, 398, 420–424, 426–427, 439, 446, 457, 459, 489, 505, 584, 622
Piven, Frances Fox, 305
Pizzorno, Alessandro, 228
pluralism, 5, 52
critique of, 125, 128, 135, 420
legal, 391, 395
religious, 475
and study of power, 126
Polak, Jacques J., 580, 587n5
policy, 42–43, 293–295, 527, 529, 573, 579
advantages institutionalized with, 131–133
and bias, 19, 20, 20, 119, 125–128, 132
and business, 453–463
citizenship, 357–362
coalitions, 310–320
drift, 157, 273, 281, 348, 426–427, 429
diffusion, 60
and experimental method, 116
failure, 19, 581
fragmentation, 298, 341–342
global, 642–651
implementation, 188–189, 191, 327, 332
and institutions, 7, 43, 345–346
and power, 134–138
regimes, 320
and religion, 468–475, 480–481
social, 32, 33
social policy in industrialized countries, 241, 417–431
trade, 611–624
policy feedback, 18, 59, 304, 334, 339, 346–347, 349–350, 420, 488, 540, 650–651
political authority. See Authority
political development
and critical junctures, 90–91
definition, 45, 367
in Europe, 404–407
in historical institutionalism, 5, 20–22, 55, 283
and path dependence, 38
in United States law, 328–330
political economy
comparative, 5, 125, 134, 154, 227, 271–272, 453–455, 458–459, 463, 555, 567
in Europe, 388–389, 397–398, 409
institutions in, 34, 97, 125, 278, 283, 427, 458
international, 4, 153–154, 644–647, 555, 565, 644–646
mechanisms in, 43, 156
and religion, 473, 475–477, 480
in United States, 339–340, 348–350, 380
political parties, 223–235
authoritarian successor parties, 226–227
Bolshevik Party (Russia), 213, 214
changes in networks, 316–319
Christian Democratic parties, 473–474
collaboration, 317, 318
Democratic Party, 318–319
as focus of democratization studies, 199–200
as formal organizations, 313–316
future research, directions for, 234–235
German Social Democratic Party, 150
historical institutionalism as unique approach to understanding, 223–226
influence on American politics of, 310
as long coalitions, 313–314, 316–319
Muslim Brotherhood (Egypt), 225
as networks, 313–314, 316–319
party-state complexes, 209–210
and party system characteristics, 224–227
Peronism (Argentina), 225
post-communist, 227, 232
processes of change in, 313
and regime institutions, 231–233
and religion in Europe, 470–471
in service, 314–316
and social cleavages, 227–231
United States, 310–320
political salience, 40, 110, 123, 343, 349, 388, 460–462, 498
political science
experimental methods in, 115–118
and functionalism, 311
historical institutionalism in, 4–8, 14, 18, 20–22, 89–92, 111, 138, 163, 181–182, 392, 435, 487
and ideas, study of, 143, 147, 154–155
institutional analysis in, 4–6, 14, 114, 142, 147
and international relations, study of, 553, 574
and power, study of, 124–125
and process, study of, 31–32, 45
(p. 671) and structure, study of, 35–36, 99
views of race in, 356–357, 380–381
See also American politics; Comparative politics; European politics; International relations
Polsky, Andrew, 319–320
Pontusson, Jonas, 145
positive feedback. See Feedback effects
Posner, Elliot, 85, 445, 446, 490
Posner, Eric A., 607
Powell, Walter W., 52–53, 55, 60
power, 124–139
agenda–setting, 490, 494–497
and business interests, 298, 426, 453–4603
and coalitions, 7, 39–43, 64, 126, 133, 231, 242–243, 413, 453, 459, 555–557, 567
formation of, as historical process, 134–136
fragmentation of, 299–302
hidden dimensions of, 126–129
and historical institutionalism, 6–8, 19, 129–130, 136–138, 241, 456–457
institutional distribution of, 43, 490
and institutionalization of advantage, 130–134
and international organizations, 564–565, 575–578, 581–582, 591
judicial, 327–330
measurement of, 190–191, 192n12
resource approach, 34, 127, 240, 340, 350, 420, 423–424, 431
and revolutionary authoritarianism, 211–215
structural, 459, 642–643, 646–647
and unions, 259–265, 318
preferences
formation of, 35–37, 481n2, 481n3, 647
in historical institutionalism, 6–9, 14–16, 108, 230, 241, 328, 339, 441, 445, 454–456, 487–492, 494, 505, 636, 643
and ideas, 467–468, 472
and informal institutions, 19, 652
and institutions, 100, 147, 511, 513, 576
in rational choice institutionalism, 52, 119
strategic, 36–37
tariff reform and congressional, 616–617
of voters, 125–127
private enforcement, 297–298, 330–335, 596–597, 607
private interest governance, 298, 330, 460–461, 492, 507
productive conditions, 10–11, 93, 182–184
Protestantism, 468–472, 477
Przeworski, Adam, 200, 409
public policy, 15, 108, 345
and institutions, 132, 271, 279, 295, 361, 381, 107, 111
institutional change in, 459
political institutions vs., 111–112
punctuated equilibrium, 12–13, 38, 54–56, 63, 77–80, 83, 100, 234, 273, 442
Quadagno, Jill S., 419
Quaglia, Lucia, 445, 446
Quiggin, John, 144
race in U.S. politics, 293–305
and American liberal tradition, 356–358
and anti-statism, 296–298
and bureaucratic autonomy, 300–303
and citizenship, 354–363
and cleavages, 355, 360
and comparative HI approach, 303–305
and equality, 354–355
and formation of American state, 361–363
and fragmentation vs. capacity of the state, 295–300
historical background, 354–355
and incarceration, 293, 355, 361, 370–372, 373–375
Indian removal, 360
and inequality, 19, 359–360, 367–382
and persistence of segregationalist racialist order, 299–300
and power, 133
racial formation, impact of institutions and state on, 358–361
race relations, in UK and France, 151
Radnitz, Scott, 283
Ragin, Charles C., 40
Rajan, Raghuram, 441
(p. 672) rational choice institutionalism, 4, 52, 130–131, 242
and historical institutionalism, 4, 6–8, 119, 136, 142–144, 146–149, 152, 155, 271–272, 418–419, 424–425, 487, 573, 591
ideas in, 147, 148, 156
institutional change in, 54, 57–59
reactive sequences, 12, 72, 82, 84–86, 87
backlash processes, 84, 85
in labor, 258, 259, 284n3
reversals, in, 84, 85
See also Sequencing
Reagan, Ronald, 299, 346
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934 (RTAA) (US), 615–617
Reform Act of 1832 (Great Britain), 94–95
regulation
capacity of, 647–650
in European Union, 442–447, 504–514
global, 642–653
of religion, 476
in United States, 297, 301–302, 348, 379
Reiter, Dan, 530
religion (Europe), 467–481
and doctrine, 468–474
monopolies, 475–476, 479
and political integration, 473–474
and political movement/parties, 470–471
and welfare regimes, 471–473
Rémond, René, 472
republicanism, in American politics, 152
retrenchment
judicial, 333–334
social (welfare) policy, 63–64, 240, 265–266, 346–347, 398, 421–422, 430
revolution, 74, 168, 171–173, 398, 404–408
and change, 59, 273
security forces, 211–212
paths of, 209–215
path of counter-revolution, 215–217
“rights-revolution” (United States), 325–327, 335, 360–361
Rhodes, Martin, 344, 430
Richard, Scott F., 134
Riker, William H., 623
Rittberger, Berthold, 487, 496–498
Robinson, James A., 93, 131, 622
Rodden, Jonathan, 473
Rodrik, Dani, 148, 155
Roeder, Philip, 396
Rokkan, Stein, 89, 90, 228
Roman Catholic Church, 469, 472–473, 480
Romano, Cesare, 592
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 331, 370, 549, 629, 631, 635
Rosenberg, Gerald N., 65, 328
Rosamond, Ben, 145
Roth, Alvin, 117
Rudra, Nita, 247, 252n9
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, 199–201, 572–573
Ruggie, John Gerard, 546, 628
Russia, 168, 213–214, 250, 476, 533
Rustow, Dankwart, 195, 197
Sabel, Charles. F., 513
Sartori, Giovanni, 233
Saylor, Ryan, 183
Scharpf, Fritz W., 145, 489
Schattschneider, Elmer Eric, 126, 611
Schedler, Andreas, 276
Schermers, Henry G., 600
Schickler, Eric, 57, 63, 273
Schimmelfennig, Frank, 487
Schmidt, Vivien A., 144–146, 150, 160n3, 425, 428
Schoenfeld, Heather, 374
Schumpeter, Joseph A., 543
Schwartz, Jordan, 634
Scott, James C., 186
Scott, W. Richard, 55
security institutions (international), 553–568
in East Asia and Middle East, 555–562
in neoliberal institutionalism, 554–555
in neorealist institutionalism, 554–555
nuclear non-proliferation regime, 562–565
security regimes, 251–252n7
Selznick, Philip, 274
sequencing
in democratization studies, 198–199
relative sequencing, in global regulation, 643, 647–650
(p. 673) self-reinforcing sequences, 82–84
in study of unions, 261–262
Service, Robert, 213
Sewell, William H., 41
Shah, Timothy, 471
Shapiro, Ian, 145
Shepsle, Kenneth A., 43, 52, 58, 66n1, 145
Shickler, Eric, 651
Shonfield, Andrew, 440
Sikkink, Kathryn, 272
Silverstein, Gordon, 326, 330
Simmons, Erica, 93, 103n7, 267n12
Simon, Jonathan, 378
Skidelsky, Robert, 409
Skidmore, Thomas, 173
Skinner, Richard M., 317
Skowronek, Stephen, 12–13, 62, 145, 294, 367
Slater, Daniel, 75, 76, 82, 93, 103n7, 184, 186, 215–218,