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date: 24 August 2019

(p. 787) Index

(p. 787) Index

absolutism, see under monarchy
acting companies
Children of the Chapel Royal 618, 623, 751, 756
Children of the Queen’s Revels 318, 751
Children (or Boys) of St Paul’s 641, 756
The King’s Men 618, 623, 760
Leicester’s Men 762
Lord Strange’s Men 105
patronized by members of the Council 196
Pembroke’s Men 105
shut down, by James I 751
tour on the European Continent 762
The Queen’s Men 196
adiaphora (in religion) 402, 409
Aesop 203
Albert, Archduke, ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands 377
Alberti, Leon Battista 709, 717–18
Alexander, Sir William of Menstrie 168, 169–70, 173, 317, 340
Allen, William Cardinal 193, 295, 327, 369–70, 381
Alleyn, Edward 707, 762
Almain 270–1, 274–85
disinterest in constitutional structures 276
Expositio circa deisiones Magistri Guillielmi Occam 270, 275–85
views on the autonomy of the secular domain 275–6
views on human rationality 274–5, 278, 281, 282–3
views on limits to papal and royal authority 276–80
views on private property 275–6, 277, 280
views on the supremacy of the public interest 277
Anderson, Sir Edmund 128
Andrewes, Lancelot 238, 272 n. 10, 349, 558
Anjou, Francis de Valois, Duke of, see under Valois
Anabaptists 564
Anne Boleyn 352, 561, 574–5
Anne of Denmark, Queen of Great Britain, consort to James VI and I 53, 169, 171
Annius of Viterbo 236
Antichrist 419, 420–1, 432
Aphthonius, Progymnasmata. 200, 209–10, 211
apocalyptic ideas 330, 344
architects 662
Shakespeare and Sidney refer to 717
architecture 6–7, 653–66, 677
artisanal craftsmanship in 654, 656
chivalric and neo-medieval themes in 461, 471
classical influences on 663–5 and Fig. 37.6
decorative elements in 656–8 and Figs 372–4, 660, 661
as a discipline and profession 662–3
ecclesiastical, adapts to the Reformation 665–6
foreign craftsmen and influences in 664–5
geometric patterns in 657 and Fig. 37.3, 661
innovations in, during Shakespeare’s period 660
local traditions in 656
pattern books for 664
and the ‘rebuilding of rural England’ 659–60
and socio-economic change 658–9
in Stratford-on-Avon 654, 655 Fig. 37.1
and surveyors 662
(p. 788) architectural features
ceilings 660
clocks 661
halls 660, 661
hearths and fireplaces 660, 661
Arden, Edward 122–8
suits over attainder and estate of 127–38
see also under Warwickshire
Arden, forest of 142–3
Arden, Robert 130–8
Imprisonment of 137
Aristotle 282–3, 324, 402, 411, 440, 441, 446
Arminiansm 80
Arthurian lore and mythology 144, 216, 313, 465
Ashfield, Sir Edmund 163
Augustinian theology 418, 419–20
automatons 678, 679–81, 684, 695–7
associated with black arts 696–7
Bacon, Anthony 39, 41, 42, 56
Bacon, Sir Francis 43, 64, 76, 137, 247, 276, 555, 566, 576, 698
denounces Essex as a Catiline 264
a writer of politic histories 218, 221, 235
a writer of political tracts 182, 187–8, 299
Bacon, Sir Nicholas 295, 307, 312
Bagot, Lewis 446–7, 452
Bagot, Walter 446, 450, 352
Baldwin, William, Treatise of Morall philosophie 307–8
Bale, John 193, 420, 432, 480
Kynge Johan 562–3, 573
ballads 453, 541, 724, 742
concerning the Devil 427
‘The Cucking of a Scold’ 516
improvised, in plays 761
a source of tunes for theatrical lyrics 758
Bancroft, Richard, Archbishop of Canterbury 184, 185, 187–8, 335, 482
supplies books to library of Prince Henry 166
Baudoin, François 235
Beale, Robert 403
Bellarmine, Robert 28
benefit of clergy 545, 549, 553
Bertram, Cornelis 270
De politia judaica 270–4 passim
resembles Hebrew republic to Geneva 272–3
views on Hebrew institutions 272–4
views on law and law-making 273–4
views on liberty 274
views on providential history 273
the Bible 140, 385–97 passim
biblical language 385, 390–1
biblical nomenclature, for devils 418–19, 421
the Catholic (Rheims Douai) Bible 388–9
‘Englished’ through translation and interpretation 395–6
the Geneva Bible 388–9
influence upon English culture 393–7
influence on the law 394
the King James Bible 387 and Fig. 22.1, 388
numbers of, printed and sold 391–2
oaths taken upon, in Shakespeare plays 392
prices of 392
and primary education 390
reading of 391
references to marriage inserted in 396
sale and distribution of 391–3
Shakespeare’s references to 384–5, 388–9, 397
as source for embroidery 394, 395 and Fig. 22.2
as source for forest imagery 140
as source for liturgical language and primers 389–90
as source for painting and printed images 676, 742–4 and Fig. 40.8
as source of political and constitutional ideas 270, 271–4, 281, 301, 393–4
as source for royal and royalist imagery 393–4
vernacular translations of 385–8
Bingham, Sir Richard 111
Blackfriars (London) 583, 616–32,
actors and theatre managers resident in 630
anxiety about disorder within 621, 624
aristocratic residents of 617, 619, 620–1, 626
artists and visual print sellers in 727, 741 (p. 789)
economic opportunities in, created by the playhouse 627–8
lacks a functional church 622
liberty and the privileges of 617, 624, 627
plague within 621
poor residents of 625
puritans in 617–18, 623–4
residents’ petitions 618–20, 621–6, 627, 630, 631
St Anne’s church and parish 617, 622–3, 630
self-government of 621
theatres 583, 617–18, 620–32 passim, 749, 755
trades and tradesmen in 627–8
Blount, Charles, Baron Mountjoy and Earl of Devonshire 169, 261, 489
Bodin, Jean 235, 276, 290, 347
the Bond of Association (1584) 126
Bonner, Edmund, Bishop of London 480–1
Botero, Giovanni 289–90, 292, 295, 297, 301, 303–4, 305
Brathwait, Richard 475
Browne, William 177
Buchanan, George 331
Burbage, James 618, 623, 630
Burbage, Richard 623
Burghley, Lord, see under Cecil, William
Butler, Samuel, Hudibras 518
Brooke, Henry, Lord Cobham 43, 46, 49–50, 227, 351, 354, 626–7, 760
building materials 654–60
glass 660
lead 660
long-distance transport of 655–6
oak panelling 661
plaster 660
recycled from monasteries 659
regional patterns in 654
stained glass 666, 667
thatch 654, 660
tile 654, 660
timber, daub and wattle 654, 656, Fig. 37.2
building types
churches 665–6
civic halls 660–2
great country houses 662–3 and Fig. 37.5
Burton, Robert 728, 736
Caesar, Julius 201, 266 303–4
discussed by Clement Edmondes 259–62
paralleled to Philip II 254
Caesar, Sir Julius 57, 62
Calvinism 36, 89, 269, 272–4, 274, 281–2
anti-Calvinism 344
and concepts of equity 400, 407
Cambridge University 190
the ‘Cambridge connection’ 22
Gate of Honour, Gonville and Caius College 663–4 and Fig. 37.6
Presbyterianism within 35
Camden, William 216, 218, 221, 341, 343, 566
absorbs European historiography 244–6
views on British origins 341–3
Campion, Edmund 121, 183, 190, 223–4, 327
cant speech 588
Carey, George, first Lord Hunsdon 619, 625, 760
Carnival 328
Carr, Robert, Earl of Somerset 61
Cary, Elizabeth 317
Castiglione, Baldesar 476, 710
Catherine of Aragon 560, 574, 577
the Catholic Reformation 292
Catholicism
satirized in visual images 730–1 and Fig. 40.2
stigmatized as poison 564
successes of, explained 420
Catholics
appeals to law and equity by 404
the Archpriest controversy 185
clandestine correspondence of, conducted by women 505
and the common law 75, 127–33
and conspiracies against Elizabeth I 124–5, 564–5
on the Continent 108, 367–83 passim
devotional texts produced by 382
education of 375–6, 380
English, hostile to Celts 327–8
fear and suspicion of 294, 371, 373–4, 376, 383
and France 377–9
and international commerce in books and ideas 374–5, 376, 381–2
linguistic abilities of 380–2 (p. 790)
look for Spanish support 377
loyal and disloyal 55, 369–70, 373, 376
merchant 375
protected by the Earl of Essex 40–1
and public controversy 180, 381
purchase titles as baronets 61
at the royal court 126
secret correspondence of 506
seminaries and religious houses of 179–80, 376–7, 379–80, 388
treatment of, by the government 35, 80, 369
in Warwickshire 123–5
Catiline 251, 262, 264–5
Caus, Saloman de 175, 679–80 and Fig. 38.1, 695–6, 697, 698
Protestant outlook of 696
Cavendish, William, Earl of Newcastle 473–4
Cecil, Sir Robert, first Earl of Salisbury 39, 51–65 passim, 99, 143, 621
activities in parliament 51–2, 54, 58–60
attitude toward Catholics 55
collecting and cultural patronage of 63, 708, 712
created Earl of Salisbury 55, 70
diplomatic activities 52, 54, 55
early life 51
final illnesses and death 61–2
financial administration of 56–8, 61, 64, 81
financial reforms proposed by 54, 58–60
and the Gunpowder treason 55
hostility toward 56
houses and building projects of 53, 55–6, 62–3, 656
libels against 63, 73, 354
links through marriage to old nobility 56, 63
offices held by 52, 53, 56
paintings owned and collected by 708, 712
paralleled to Cicero 265–6
and peace with Spain 52, 54, 64
personal finances and debts 62–3, 64
promotes commerce and colonization 54
properties of 52, 53, 55, 62–3
recovers politically from father’s death 52
relationship with James VI and I 41, 52–4, 55, 57, 60
religious views of 62
rivalry with Earl of Essex 43–4, 47, 52
secretaries of 56
and the succession to Elizabeth I 52, 53–4, 64, 67–8
Cecil, Thomas, second Lord Burghley 53
Cecil, William, Lord Burghley 21–36 passim, 90, 126, 130, 257
attacks against 21, 121, 181, 294, 296, 487
books dedicated to 223, 241–2, 245, 311
and the Court of Wards 24, 37, 52
collects paintings 712
criticizes Archbishop Whitgift 403
death 52
early career and training 22
encourages Camden’s Annales 245
engages in political communication and propaganda 27–30, 182–3
evaluations of, by historians 22
financial management of 24, 33–4
friction with other courtiers 43
intellectual culture and values 23–4, 25–8
involvement in Arden-Somerville case 127
his ‘Meditation on the state of England’ 33
military management by 32
mistrusted by James VI 41, 52
obsessed with genealogy 24–5
a patron of histories 241, 242, 244
political management by 25–36
promotes interests of Robert Cecil 39, 43, 44, 45
and regulation of preaching 30
relationship with Elizabeth I 23, 31, 39
religious views of 23, 28, 35, 36
and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex 24, 37, 39, 43, 44, 45
supports peace with Spain 46
tomb 65, 471
use of the press 42, 245
Cecil, William, second Earl of Salisbury 63
Celtic peoples
hostility towards 327
languages of 331
and the origins of Britain 329–30, 331
censorship 226–9, 730–1, 744
(p. 791) Chaloner, Sir Thomas 160, 161, 168
Chamberlain, John 647
Chapman, George 88, 159, 171, 172, 175, 176–7, 247, 508
Bussy d’Ambois 310, 317
The Memorable Masque of the Middle Temple 176
translates Homer 176–7
influenced by Senecan drama 317–18
Charles I 81, 300, 394, 503, 579
and royal forests 145, 153–5
Chaucer, Geoffrey 709, 739
Chichester, Sir Arthur 79, 80
chivalry and chivalric culture 70, 164, 460–76 passim
chivalric histories 217
chivalric orders 467
chivalric revival 461–4
chivalric values 466–8
and duelling 475–6
expressed through art 460–3 and Fig. 26.1, 471, 472, 476
fostered by militias and artillery companies 472–3
French 467–8
and funeral monuments 471, 472, 476
and the gentry 468–76
and horsemanship 473–4
impacts war 465–6, 468
and pride in family lineage 471–2
in Shakespeare 296, 305
Churchyard, Thomas 462, 464
Cicero 23, 219, 250, 265–6, 306–7, 312–13, 315–16, 401, 406
in grammar school syllabuses 201, 204, 206, 210, 212, 495, 498
civility 70, 76, 476
civic humanism 324
Cleland, John 161, 163
coats of arms, see under heraldic devices
Cockson, Thomas 745 and Fig. 40.8
Coke, Sir Edward 48, 49, 75, 128, 132, 137, 264, 478–9, 488–9, 490, 552, 577, 578
frustrates Robert Arden’s efforts to regain lands 138
library of 238
collecting of art 63, 704–23 passim
and artistic treatises 719
concept of, created by Florentines 705
documentary sources concerning 706–8
by Elizabethan aristocrats 668, 712–16
by Jacobean aristocrats and courtiers 711–12, 723
by the ‘middling sort’ 707, 721, 722
printed images 730, 734
by Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester 705, 713–15
spread of, in England 704–5, 711–16, 723
Collier, John Payne 626
colonies and colonization 228–9, 344
envisaged in the Scottish Isles 324
translated books relating to 243
Commines, Philippe de 234, 241, 242, 291
conciliarism 269, 270–1, 275–85 passim
and Shakespeare 285
constitutional ideas
the ancient constitution 288, 297, 320
concerning Anglo-Scottish union 323–4
concerning emergencies and exceptions 276–9, 293
concerning judicial institutions 272–3
concerning legislatures and representative assemblies 273, 279–80
concerning liberty 274, 275
concerning property rights 275–7, 280
concerning reason 274–5, 278–9, 282–3, 303
concerning representative assemblies 279–80
concerning royal successions 192–3
concerning secular and sacred domains 273, 275–6
concerning sovereign power 277, 280
and moral thought 250, 283
Polybian 271
and reason of state 302
the Roman constitution 250–3, 266–7, 295, 302–3, 314, 316
Cornwallis, William 299, 300, 303, 304, 309–10, 315, 449
Cotton, Sir Robert Bruce 68, 167, 239, 245–6
counsel 83
(p. 792) the Court 81
as centre of elite society 71
court culture 170
favourites 568
news and gossip 507–8
and poison 562, 567–8
politics within 87, 125–7, 317
reputation of 72–3
sexual scandals within 526–7
women in 507–8
Coverdale, Miles 387–8, 389
biblical translations of, used by Shakespeare 390
cuckolds 520–1, 529–42, 738–9 and Fig. 40.6
Cuckold’s Haven 533, 541
early modern obsession with 532–3
as failed patriarchs 530, 532
and horns 520–1, 530, 532–9
jokes about 533, 534, 539, 541–2
in literary culture and the theatre 538
and misplaced jealousy 534, 539
and the myth of Acteon and Diana 533–4, 538
Shakespeare’s references to 539
stories concerning 520, 534
varieties of 534
wittols 532, 534, 539, 540
custom 74, 335–6
and antiquarian research 75
in English culture 334–5
Dallington, Robert 160, 162, 247–8, 299–300, 301, 303
Daniel, Samuel 74, 88, 167, 169–72, 218, 221, 247, 252
Tethys Festival 171–2
summoned before Council 317
Darcy, Edward 130–8
Davies, John 488, 496
Davies, Richard 349
Dee, John 239, 245, 425, 697, 716, 717, 719
defamation 478, 538
Dekker, Thomas 587, 595, 637
The Gull’s Hornbook 640, 644, 645
Devereux, Robert, second Earl of Essex 24, 37–50 passim
ancestry and family 37, 349
Apologie of 188, 254, 260, 296–7
and chivalry 41–2, 466
circle and clients of 41, 42, 49–50, 89, 251–2, 265, 296, 315, 465, 469, 486
clashes with other courtiers 43, 45, 46, 48–9, 482
compared to Catiline 264–6
contemporary responses to 251, 262, 263–4
cultivates public support and popularity 41, 42, 45, 46–7, 49, 187–8, 254, 257, 350
as defender of nobility and noble lineages 349–51
distributes knighthoods 350
as Earl Marshal 46, 350
and the English succession 48, 118, 253
inherits paintings 716
in Ireland 47, 48–9, 112, 116–20, 260, 261, 359
jousts and tilts 41, 42
lauded by Lord Henry Howard 43
love affairs of 44, 527
marriage to Frances Sidney (née Walsingham) 37, 44
as martyr figure 50
military ambitions and campaigns of 37–9, 41, 45–8, 85–6, 94, 100, 112, 253–4, 256, 304, 350, 464
paralleled to Roman heroes 256–7, 260–2
as patriot 73, 257
racial ideas of 349–51
rebellion, trial and execution 49–50, 52, 115, 264, 317, 371, 486, 507
receives dedication to Parsons’s Conference on the next succession 45
relationship with the Cecils 24, 37, 39, 43–4, 45, 47, 49, 296–7, 487
relationship with the Earl of Leicester 37–8, 39
relationship with Elizabeth I 39, 41–50 passim, 296–7, 351
relationship with Henry IV of France 39, 44
relationship with James VI and I 41, 48, 49, 50, 118, 505
relationship with Sir Philip Sidney 38, 42 (p. 793)
relationship with Sir Walter Ralegh 38, 43, 45, 46, 49, 486
religious patronage of 42
religious views of 40–1
resentment towards 43–4
and Shakespeare’s plays 47, 50, 117, 371–3
views on war with Spain 40, 41, 45, 46–7, 256, 296–7
youth and education of 37–8
Devereux, Walter, first Earl of Essex 91
the Devil and devils 363, 418–34 passim
appearances and visions of 422, 423, 426–7, 428, 429–31
and baptismal rites 421–2
Beelzebub 357
in cheap print 427
and the Church 420–2
and deathbed struggles 423
defences against 425
as an inner spiritual presence 422–5, 428, 434
names of 418–19, 430
Lucifer 29, 418, 433
perceived as real 419–20
and poison 562, 578
in popular culture 425–31
possession by 430–1
and the problem of evil (theodicy) 420
relation to demons 419, 421
in the theatre and Shakespeare 422, 429, 431–3
in theology 419–22, 429
visual representations of 783–4 Fig. 40.8
and witchcraft 425, 428–30
D’Ewes, Sir Simonds 474–5
Diana 533–4, 538, 689–90, 700
Ephesian 690, 691 Fig. 38.4
grove and fountain of 690–2
dissimulation
and poisonings 563, 568
in politics 290, 291, 300, 301
Doleman, R., see under Parsons, Robert
Donne, John 478, 501
Dowland, John 758–60
Drake, Sir Francis 45
Drayton, Michael 144, 159, 171, 172–3
Poly-Olbion 173–5, 693
Drebbel, Cornelius 695–6, 697
Droeshout, Martin 737–8 and Fig. 40.5
Drury, Sir William 458–60 and Fig. 26.1
Du Bartas, Guillaume de Salluste 173, 175
Dudley, Ambrose, Earl of Warwick 123, 128
Dudley, Robert Earl of Leicester 37–8, 85–6
accused of poisonings 567–8
books dedicated to 241, 311
a collector and patron of art 705, 713–16
and dramatic performances 311–12
dynastic pretensions of 123, 127
exploits Catholic plots for personal gain 125–8
and Holinshed’s Chronicles 229
influence over Elizabeth 101, 568
and Kenilworth Castle 122, 123, 685–8 and Fig. 38.3, 705, 749
libels against 124, 181, 195, 351, 567–8
and the murder of John Somerville 128–9
Netherlands expedition of 88, 93–5, 108, 458–60, 465–6, 469
seeks to discredit Christopher Hatton 125–6
theatrical patronage of 196
duels and duelling 70, 100, 467, 474–5, 550–2, 555, 558
Dugdale, William 123, 127, 643, 686
the Earl Marshal’s court 354
Earle, Bishop John 648
economic change (in provincial England) 659
Edward VI 22, 299, 329, 393, 483, 561
Egerton, Stephen 617, 618, 619, 622–3, 623–4, 628–30
Elizabeth, Princess, daughter of James VI and I 61, 173, 176, 698, 760
wedding of, commemorated in visual prints 734
Elizabeth I
coronation procession of 638
health of 30
and issues of gender 83, 84–5, 526, 531
and Merry Wives of Windsor 526
perceived weakness of 296–7, 315
plots against 30, 121, 124–6, 183, 565–6, 575–7
policy making under 82–3 (p. 794)
Rainbow Portrait of 297
relations with ministers and courtiers 23, 31–2, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 296–7
relations with her military commanders 39, 40, 85, 87, 100, 101, 260
sits to Nicholas Hilliard 710
views concerning war with Spain 40
vulnerable to sexual scandals 526–7
women attendants of 507–8, 526–7
Elizabethan entertainments
Elvetham 749, 753
Kenilworth 749
the Elizabethan Settlement 27, 302
the Elizabethan succession 39, 41, 48–9
and Ireland 118
and Robert Cecil 52, 53–4, 64, 67–8
as subject of controversy 191–3, 195–6, 311–12
Elstrak, Renold 728, 732, 739
Whilst Maskinge In Their Follies All Doe Passe 735 Fig. 40.4
Elyot, Sir Thomas 292, 295, 709
emblems 163–4
relation to impresas 164
emotion and passion 438–67 passim
ancient theories of 440
anger 448–9, 450, 451, 454, 550, 555
and the body 439–40
and Christianity 440, 443, 452, 457
control and regulation of 442–3, 444, 445, 450–2, 554
and crime 557
in early modern drama 448, 449
embodied in objects 447–8
evoked or assuaged by letters 206–7, 443, 445, 446–7, 450
humoral explanations of 438
invested in material objects 447–8
in modern philosophies 440
and modes of conduct 447, 457
and morality 441
of non-élite people 453–5
overwhelming 437–8, 441–2, 449–51
praiseworthy 443
relationship to reason 452–3
in rhetoric 206, 446
in social and political relationships 442–57
theories about 438–40
terminology of 437–8 and n. 3
engineering 678–81 and Fig. 38.1, 695–7
creates illusions of enchantment and magic 679–81, 695–7
Vitruvian 679, 697
engravings, see under printed images
envy 252, 257
equestrianism 472–3
equity 278–9, 398–417 passim
courts 401
criteria for applying 405–6, 407
debates over 401
interpreted by conformist Protestants 407–11
and legislative intent 402
and magisterial discretion 401
and the maintenance of order 408–10, 411
and public utility 410–11
relationship to mercy 400
and religious nonconformity 399, 402–11
Erasmus, Desiderius 200–3, 204–9, 292, 307, 310, 347, 499
De conscribendis epistolis 204, 498, 500
De copia 208–9, 211
Erasmian principles 304
essays 299
ethnicity and ethnic divisions 75–6, 117–18
see also under Ireland
Evans, Henry 623, 625, 630
Evelyn, Mary 510
executions 543, 545–7, 559, 583, 638
as ‘homicide by justice’ 544
exile and exiles 367–83 passim
Catholic, 368–73,
as a constructed category 370
maintain ties with England 375
penalized by the government 371–2
Protestant, in England 368
on the stage and in literature 367, 368–73, 380, 383
suspicions of 371, 373
fables 201, 203, 209
fairies 141, 142
the Fall 273–4, 303
(p. 795) Farrant, Richard 617–18, 620
female education
in the home 495, 497
in writing and basic literacy 496–7
Field, John 184, 241, 617
Field, Richard 290
Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester 559, 560
Fitzalan, Henry, twelfth Earl of Arundel 165
Fitzgerald, James Fitzmaurice 117–18
Fitzgerald, William, thirteenth Earl of Kildare 118–19
Fitzherbert, Thomas 299, 303
Fitzwilliam, Sir William 110–11
Flacius, Matthias 245–6
Fleming, Abraham 224–5, 230
Florio, John 172
Foxe, John 221–2, 244, 480–1, 571, 564, 573
forests 139–55 passim
Arden 142–3
in the Bible 140
communities 147–55
conflict and violence within 144–55
courts 144, 149–50, 154
cultural memories of 142
culture of 141, 144
disafforested districts 142–3, 145, 153
enclosures 151–2
in English literature 140–1
in Ireland 141
forest landscapes 148
liberties and exemptions 147–8, 152
as microcosms of political societies 143–4
officers 146–7, 149, 150, 154
royal 142, 145–6, 149
royal administration of 148–55
and the royal prerogative 145–6, 154–5
in Shakespeare’s plays 139–40, 143–4, 145, 150–1
social conditions within 143, 145–51, 152–3
Waltham 145, 146, 147–8, 151, 154–5
in Warwickshire 142
Windsor 144, 145, 146, 148–51, 154–5
Fortescue, 193, 221, 335–7, 480, 481, 564, 571, 573
France
civil and religious conflicts in 90, 91, 182
English Catholics in 377–9
Frith, Mary 637
Fulbecke, William 263–6 (see also under Roman history)
compares Essex to Catiline 264–6
views on monarchy 266–7
Fullerton, Sir James 624
Fulwood, William 499, 503
furniture 661–2, 667
in churches 666
Gaelic culture and traditions 74, 76, 355
bardic poetry 355–6, 358
and ethnic difference 356
ideas of lineage and race in 355–61
relating to rules of succession 355
undermined by English government 360
see also under Celtic peoples
gardens 63, 678–703 passim
enchanted 681, 682, 694–703
express relations between art and nature 685, 690, 697
as false paradises 681
as fusions of art and nature 685
heraldic symbolism in 684
Hampton Court 682–5 and Fig. 38.2
influenced by Horace 699–700, 701
literary descriptions of 688
the locus amoenus 702
mannerist 694
marvels in 678, 679
Ovidian imagery in 685, 687, 691–2, 700
as places of scientific display and experiment 684, 695
privy 683–4, 689
sculptures in 684, 689–90, 691 Fig. 38.4, 692
topiary arts in 684–5, 689 (p. 796)
the Union Jack depicted in 692
waterworks and fountains in 687, 689, 690, 692
woods and wildernesses in 688–9, 692
see also automatons
Gardener, Sir Robert, Chief Justice of Ireland 115–16
Garnier, Robert 310, 316–17
Gascoigne, George 748
Gates, Geoffrey 462, 463, 464
genealogy 24–5, 192–3, 232, 236, 349, 667
in Scotland 353
gender roles and stereotypes 528–42 passim 737–8 and Fig. 40.5, 740
disorderly women 521, 529, 532
domineering wives 516–17
inverted by Shakespeare 523–26
and Queen Elizabeth 526–7
scolds 513–14, 516, 529
visual representations of 737–40 and Figs 40.5 and 40.6
Gentili, Alberico 252, 263
Gentillet, Innocent 293
Geoffrey of Monmouth 216, 217, 218, 236
Germanic languages 323, 326–7
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey 88
Gondomar, Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count of 730–1 and Fig. 40.2
Gorboduc, see under Inns of Court plays
Gouge, William 530, 617, 618, 619, 623, 624, 628, 629–30, 631, 632
opposes Blackfriars Theatre 618
governance and government structures
Chancery 28, 127, 401
commissions of the peace 25–6
the Court of Wards 24
forest law and administration 144–55
High Commission 30, 35, 402–3, 636–7
intelligence gathering 39
the lieutenancy 25
local 32
magistracy 25, 78, 531
and ‘men of business’ 83–4
military recruitment and conscription 32, 465
military strategy and policy 84–5
and the nobility and gentry 25, 31, 69–72
offices 34–5
parliament 34
the Privy Council 28–9, 31, 84, 124
and religious conformity 35–6
in Ireland 75
in Scotland 76, 78
and taxation 32–3, 34, 57–60
venality within 34–5, 61, 64, 81
Grafton, Richard 220
grammar schools 200–12 passim, 446
instruction in composition 201, 211, 497–8
instruction in Greek 201
instruction in Latin 201
instruction in note-taking and commonplacing 202–3
instruction in reading practices 201–3
instruction in stylistic analysis 202–4, 208–9, 211
Paul’s school 640–1
syllabuses and textbooks 200–1, 204, 206
see also rhetoric
the Great Contract 560
Greene, Robert 587, 646–7
Greville, Fulke 147, 315–16, 317, 349
Greville, Robert, Lord Brooke 361
Grimestone, Edward 243
Guicciardini, Francesco 234, 241, 299
Guise, François Duke of 182, 296, 378
and popularity 187
the Gunpowder Plot 55, 294, 322, 638,
visual representations of 731 and Fig. 40.2, 746
Guyon, Louis 571, 572
Hall, Edward 221
Hall, Hugh 125, 127
Hall, Joseph 162, 164–5, 482
Hardwick New Hall 708
Harington, Sir John 62, 65, 161, 490, 720, 727
Harriot, Thomas 167
Harley, Brilliana 424, 506
(p. 797) Harrison, William 223, 224, 659–60
Harvey, Gabriel 288, 462–4
the Harvey-Nashe pamphlet war 481–2
Hastings, Henry, third Earl of Huntingdon 32
Hatton, Sir Christopher 38, 39, 111, 128, 311, 407, 642, 672, 710
ties with Warwickshire Catholics 125–7
Hawkins, Sir John 45
Hayward, Dr John, 48, 76, 168–9, 195, 218, 221, 222, 225, 246
Henrisoun, James 328–9, 330
Henry, Prince of Wales (d. 1612), 58, 61, 159–78 passim, 247, 299, 353
books and library of 165–7
as collector and patron of the visual arts 705, 711–12
and colonial projects 171–2, 176
creation as Prince of Wales 171, 341
engravings and 175
and gardens 679, 692
household of, serves as academy for young peers and gentry 70, 160–1, 165, 167
household tutors 161–2, 165, 496
likened to Neptune 693
and militant Protestantism 177, 344
neo-Latin poetry patronized by 164
patronage of literature 159–60, 164–77, 318
patronage of translations 170, 175–6
patronage of work on British themes 170–5
prospective marriage of 60–1
rumoured poisoning of 579
writers associated with 159–65, 167, 168–9, 173–8
Henry III, King of France 182
Henry IV, King of England 703
Henry IV, King of France 38, 40, 44, 46, 47, 52, 67 301, 378
assassination of 60, 161–2
Henry V, King of England 289, 304
Henry VII, King of England 218, 703
Henry VIII, King of England 352, 386, 393, 462, 464, 560, 682, 705
heraldic devices 666, 667, 722–3
and beasts, in gardens 684
in civic architecture and furniture 661–2
in portraits 670 and 671–3 Figs 37.8, 37.9, and 37.10
referred to by Shakespeare 722
Herbert, Henry, second Earl of Pembroke 713
Herbert, Philip, Earl of Montgomery and fourth Earl of Pembroke 712
Herbert, William, first Earl of Pembroke 712
Herbert, William, third Earl of Pembroke 712, 718
Herbert of Cherbury, William Lord 466–8 473, 474, 475, 476
Heywood, Jasper 311
Heywood, Thomas 692
Higford, William 470
Hilliard, Nicholas 710, 715, 720
historical knowledge 213–14, 219–20
historical revisionism, see under historiography (modern): revisionism
historicism 1–2, 4–5
cultural materialism 3
and formalism 1, 2
The New Historicism 2, 140
histories
collections of 238–40
dedicated to Elizabethan statesmen 241–3
early modern definitions of 214, 220
ecclesiastical 235, 245
and the Essex circle 246, 248, 296
as government propaganda 241–3
of Europe’s wars of religion 242
European 232–5
of the New World and Asia 235, 243
of Rome 250–68passim (see also under Roman history)
as sources of exempla 194–5, 219, 237, 258, 290, 372
as sources of geographic and political information 247–8
as source of political expertise 232–4, 237, 290–1
translations of, from European languages 240–3, 258
historiography (medieval and early modern)
adapted by dramatists 196–9, 247
and ancillary disciplines 237
annalistic organization in 216
and antiquarian studies 236, 237, 238, 245 (p. 798)
and biblical interpretation 271–4, 277
causal analysis in 233, 234, 235, 237
chivalric emphases in 217, 471–2
chorography 232
chronicles 215–22, 234
classical models for 218–19, 234
clerical chronicles and histories 216
concerning Anglo-Saxon England 246, 326–8, 330–1, 336–7
concerning British antiquity 330
concerning British churches 329–30
concerning constitutional change 251, 253, 266–7
concerning court manoeuvring 180, 245, 246–7
concerning methods of subjugating conquered people 260–1
concerning military expertise 258–9
concerning national, ethnic and racial origins 323–32 passim, 342–3, 346
concerning the Roman occupation of Britain 341–2
concerning successions to the throne 192–3
and conspiracy stories 180, 372–3
continental European 231–2, 233–8
in the early Tudor period 218
and the Essex circle 246, 248
exchanges between continental and English 244–5, 248–9
among French politiques 235
and genealogy 192–3, 232, 236
as guide to political behaviour and intentions 193–5, 372–3
guides to reading history 237
historical portraits 233, 732–4 and Fig. 40.3
humanist influences on 224–5
and humanist reading practices 194, 232–3, 237
literary style and 264
modern analyses of 11, 225–6, 230
news sheets, pamphlets and tracts 234, 242–3
organizational frameworks of 216
and polemical arguments 180–6, 191–2, 245–6, 262, 265
and political analysis 234–5, 237
‘politick’ histories 194–5, 235, 243, 246
providence and providential interpretations in 235, 237, 252, 273
and reason of state 289
regnal histories 218–19
in Renaissance Italy 234
scope of 213–14
sources and evidence in 234, 236, 237, 247
synoptic histories 247–8
and the theatre 195–9, 246, 372–4
universal histories 234
urban chronicles 217
use of sources in 234, 235–7, 245, 263, 265
vernacular chronicles and histories 217
and vernacular culture 213
verse histories 217, 252
see also under secret histories
historiography (modern)
and the ‘cultural turn’ 4
of early modern chivalry 460–1
of the early Stuart period 3, 66–7
of the Elizabethan period 5, 233–8
of emotions and passions 437–42, 455–6
of English architecture 653–4
of English art and art collecting 711–12
of English Catholics 374–5, 380
of homicide 544–7
of ideas of kingship 287–8
intellectual history 12–13
interdisciplinary approaches within 3–5
and Marxism 3, 4, 14
on patriarchy and gender order 521–3
‘post-revisionism’ 5–6
of religion 13
revisionism 2–3, 8, 14, 16
of visual prints 724–5
social history 14, 521
Whig 3
the history play 195–9
presents politics as process and puzzle 197–9
rhetoric structures of 198
Hoby, Margret 424
Holbrooke, William 629, 636
Hole, William 174–5, 176
Holinshed, Raphael 117, 119, 223
censorship of 226–9 (p. 799)
Chronicles 215, 220, 222–30 passim
death of 224
modern critical assessments of 225–6, 230
Holland, Compton 727–8
Braziliologia, a Booke of Kings 732, 734
Holmes, Matthew 751
Holyband, Claude 641
homicide
categories of, in Shakespeare’s England 544–5, 546, 549 table 31.2
committed with guns 549–50
committed with knives, staffs, and common instruments 550
committed by poison 548, 550, 559–75 passim
infanticide 547, 548
involving masters or mistresses and servants 548–9
and the law 552–5
manslaughter 545, 552, 554–5
puritan views of 555
rates 545–6
resulting from family quarrels 547–8, 556
in self-defence 553
by servants 559–60
in Shakespeare’s plays 555
spikes, in Shakespeare’s lifetime 545–6
by the state 544, 546
trial records 547–7
victims 547
by witchcraft 547, 550
by women 550, 557
see also under duels, murder, poison
homilies 29, 390
familiar to Shakespeare 394
honour 70, 143, 151, 354, 449, 460, 467, 470, 474–6
family 122, 471
and homicide 555
and military service 87, 460
royal, and forest preserves 144–5, 154
the sale of 354–5
Hooker, John 228
Hooker, Richard 74, 184–5, 284, 335, 409–11, 415
Horace 201, 498, 699–701
households
and disorderly women 532
homicides within 547–9 and 548 table 3.1, 559–60, 575
as miniature commonwealths or states 530–1
order within 530, 542
and patriarchy 532
Howard, Alatheia (née Talbot), Countess of Arundel 705, 712, 714 Fig. 39.2, 720–1, 723
Howard, Charles, Earl of Nottingham 45, 46, 56, 232, 253, 487, 711
Howard, Lord Henry, Earl of Northampton 55, 56, 81, 371, 723
advises Earl of Essex 43
appointed to the Privy Council 53
attacks Elizabethan heralds 352
an intermediary, between Robert Cecil and James VI 52–3
Howard, Thomas, Earl of Arundel 705, 712, 713 Fig. 39.1, 723
Howard, Thomas, Earl of Suffolk 53, 55, 56, 63, 64, 243
humanism 23, 214
and education 24, 189–90
Erasmian 307
the ‘new’ humanism 287, 289–90, 315
and reading practices 194, 201–3, 232
Hume, David of Godscroft 322–5, 337, 341, 345, 353
and British principles 323–4
De unione 322–3
proposes British coat of arms 338–40 and Figs 19.1–19.3
reacts to Camden’s account of Scottish history 343
scheme for Anglo-Scottish union 322–4
Hume, George, Earl of Dunbar 56, 71
humoral theory 138–40, 532, 737 Fig. 40.5, 738
hunting 143, 145–50 passim, 152
gifts of game and venison 146, 150, 154
poaching 150
imprese 164–5
The Inns of Court 126, 196, 310–11, 484, 600
literary and dramatic activities within 311, 313, 487–8, 760
Inns of Court plays
Gismond of Salern 312
Gorboduc 195–6, 311–12, 313, 315, 316
The Misfortunes of Arthur 313, 316
music in 748
Senecan influences on 311–16
Inversion (as a cultural theme) 528–42 passim
and skimmingtons 537
and the state 531
Ireland
Catholic opposition and protests within 73, 79, 80, 111, 360–1
conquest of, illuminated by Roman history 261
corruption in 110, 115–16
costs of governing 59
Elizabethan wars in 44, 47–9, 109–16
English armies and soldiers in 109, 111–16
English factions in 44
English government and administration of 71, 110, 359–60
English views of 103–20 passim, 356
ethnic and national identity in 117–19, 356
faith and fatherland ideology in 358
Gaelic lords and lordships 76, 110–12, 355, 360
in Holinshed’s Chronicles 223, 227–9
Irish soldiers 76, 107–9, 111, 116
Jacobean settlement of 69–70, 71
law within 74–5, 78, 361
nobility in 71, 73, 76
in plays by Marlowe and Shakespeare 103–6
popular politics in 360
reform campaigns in 110
Shakespeare’s attitude towards 103
social conflict in 356–7
‘surrender and regrant’ agreements in 110
Ulster 110–11, 119
Isabella, Archduchess, co-ruler of Habsburg Netherlands 377
James V, King of Scotland 354
James VI and I 277
and the Arden-Somerville case 130, 138
attitude towards law 76
denounces women’s fashions 738
dislikes bargaining with parliament 60
and the English succession 41, 44–5, 50, 52–3, 67, 330–1
and episcopacy 71, 80
favourites of 61
fears witches 426
financial problems of 33, 56–8, 59–60, 81
hunting by 54, 55, 144, 146
and the inflation of honours 61, 72–3
and his nobilities 53–4, 69–72, 353–4
obsessed with purity of his lineage 353
and his parliaments 59, 72
and peace 67–8
as poet and patron of poets 173
political patronage of 72, 81
progresses by 54
published treatises of 68, 69, 163, 173, 353–4, 393
relations with the second Earl of Essex 40, 48, 49, 50, 505
relations with Robert Cecil 52–65 passim
religious policies of 72, 80–1
sales of titles and offices under 61
and Scottish courtiers 59, 71, 72, 81
seeks to curtail violence 69–70
seeks to integrate his kingdoms 71, 76–7
seeks to reform Scottish local governance 77
views on bloodlines 69, 353–4
views on hereditary kingship 68–9
James, William, 439, 441
Jenner, Thomas 736
Jesuits 182, 294, 565, 575–6
John, King of England 193, 563–4, 571
Johnson, Robert 760–1
Jones, Inigo 7, 169, 170, 171, 175, 176, 665, 705, 707, 712, 719
Jones, Robert 755
Jonson, Ben 7, 11, 56, 63, 164, 265, 618, 630, 639, 724
Bartholmew Fayre 758
Eastward Ho 759 (p. 801)
Every Man Out of his Humour 644, 647
and Prince Henry 159, 161–2
Volpone 540–1
Jouanna, Arlette 347–8
Kenilworth Castle, see under Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester
Knollys, Sir Francis 151
Kyd, Thomas 317
The Spanish Tragedy 309
Kyffyn, Maurice 115–16
Landscape design 682
see also gardens
Lane, Ralph 114–15
Laneham, Robert, see under Langham
Langham, Robert 685–8, 697, 749
Larkin, William 711
Law 74–8
answerable to religion 405
ceremonial 405–6
and the common good 277, 407
the common law mind 74, 334–5
and custom 74–5, 334–5
flexible vs. rigorous applications of 398, 400, 401–11
God’s 273–4, 349, 405
as an instrument of reform 75
and the integration of Britain 76
the law of nature and human law 405, 411
and litigation 77–8, 129–34
manipulation of, by Burghley and Leicester 126–32, 134, 136
and opposition to Anglo-Scottish union 335
as a profession, in London 600, 643
Roman and civil 264, 291
and royal forests 144–5
and the royal prerogative 302
shaped by biblical precedents 394
the spirit vs. letter of 406, 412–16
see also equity
Le Brun, Charles 439
Lee, Sir Henry 464
Leominster Guildhall 655, 656, Fig. 37.2
Leonardo da Vinci 703
Leslie, John, Bishop of Ross 192, 329
letters 493–511 passim
ciphered, secret and sensitive 504–6
circulation, copying and preservation of 508–10
classical models for 498
collections of 508–9, 510–11
emotions expressed in 443, 445, 446–7, 450
empty space within 502–4
formulas for 499–500
functionality of 497, 498, 499
handwriting and hands in 497, 502
and the illiterate 494–5, 501
instruction in writing, 204–8, 210–11, 495–502
letter-writing manuals 204, 496, 499–500, 503
material features of 502–6
and news 507–8
as political documents 509
as practical tools 497–8
produced by professional scribes and secretaries 494, 501–2, 643
in Shakespeare’s plays 494
signing and addressing of 503
as a social skill and activity 498, 506–8
types of 206–8, 499
written by women 493–511 passim
Lewis, John of Llynwene 175
Lewkenor, Lewis 233, 247, 376
libels 72–3, 153, 185
anonymous 491–2
anti-Catholic 480–1, 483, 485–6
attacking the Church or bishops 485–6, 488–9
attacking courtiers or the court 486, 489–90
attacking the Earl of Essex 49, 189, 296, 477–8, 486
attacking Essex’s enemies 486–7
attacking James I 489–90
attacking John Whitgift 484, 490
attacking ordinary people 488
attacking Robert Cecil 56, 63, 73, 296, 354, 478, 486, 487, 489
attacking Sir Walter Ralegh 489
the bishops’ ban of (1599) 482
by Catholics 477, 481 (p. 802)
‘Cecil’s Commonwealth’ 181
circulation and collection of 477, 490–1, 536, 538
and classical satire 482
about cuckolds 491, 535–6, 538
by Essex and his circle 485–7
and the Inns of Court 487–8
Jacobean 489–90
laws concerning 478–9
Leicester’s Commonwealth 124, 125, 126, 181, 194, 195, 198, 351, 372–3, 381, 491–2, 509, 567–8, 573, 577
popularity of 483
in print and manuscript 477, 479–80, 483, 484–9, 490–1
promoted by government 479, 480
Scottish 477
sexual 484, 489, 490, 536, 568
Star Chamber prosecutions of 490, 538
The Treatise of Treasons (1572), 121, 180, 181, 194, 195, 295, 351
verse libels 477–92 passim, 536
in the universities 484–5
and wit 477–8, 488
libraries and archives 165–7, 219
of academics and students 239–40
Bodleian 719
consulted by statesmen 239
histories represented in 238–40
including works on visual arts 719
and patronage relationships 167
of political and historical documents 237, 239, 245–6
Prince Henry’s 165–7
Lipsius, Justus 289–91, 292, 297, 298, 300, 301–3, 304, 305, 309, 315, 316, 442
English editions of 290
literacy 495–6
and cryptography 504
female 495–7
writing manuals 496, 498, 499
Livy 234, 251, 315
Lloyd, Llodowick 300, 301
Lodge, Thomas 309
Loftus, Adam, Archbishop of Dublin 115–16
London crime and vice 580–595 passim
abandoning children 592–3
concentrated in peripheral areas 582
contemporary perceptions of 587–93
cozening 588, 646
criminal lifestyles 593
criminal nicknames 594
cutpurses 583, 593–4, 646
disorderly lodging houses 613
disorderly and ‘loose’ women 590–2, 593
distribution of 584
habitual offenders 590–2
near St Paul’s Cathedral 646–7
organized 647
poverty, as a cause of 588
prostitution 583, 584, 589, 592, 593–4, 646
rogue literature 587, 589–90, 645, 646
theft 589–90
and the underworld 588, 591
London (general references)
Africans within 584–5
Bridewell 582–4, 586, 589, 590–1, 604
citizenship 604, 605
clergy in 600–1
denization 604
disparities of wealth within 580–1, 597
divided houses in 613, 614
economic change in 597, 599
family networks in 599, 603, 614
fishwives and female hawkers in 585–6
foreign-born resident in 585–5, 598, 602, 603–4, 619, 627, 641, 725
Irish in 602
Lord Mayor’s pageants 637
migration into 582, 584, 590, 598–603
military conscription in 112–13
population growth 581–2, 595, 597, 599
poverty 613
Protestant immigrants in 602–3, 619–20
riots 621
river traffic and trade 585–6
sermons in 628–9, 636
stage performances and theatres in 583, 599, 617–18, 620–4 passim, 626
stranger churches in 619–20
street life 580–1, 582–6, 614
vagrants in 116, 580, 581, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588–91, 604
wage-earners 599, 604, 606, 611
watermen 586
women in 585–94 passim, 601, 603, 606, 609, 611
London households and families 596–615
apprentices and apprenticeships in 598, 599–600, 603, 605, 608, 610–11
births and pregnancies 606–7
broken by adult mortality 608
child mortality in 607–8
domestic servants in 601, 603, 610, 611–12
emotional bonds within 611–12
employ wet-nurses 607
integrated in neighbourhoods 595, 598–9, 606, 613–14
kinship ties between 614
lodgers and 612–13
marriage and household formation 598, 604–6
merchant marriages 605–6
mortality in 607–8
multi-generation households 609
remarriage 608
resources and household formation 605
size 597, 607–8, 610
step-children and parents 609
wetnursing 607
widows and widowers 608–10
London (places within)
Bishopgate 582
the Clink Prison 583
Cuckolds Haven 533
Faringdon Within 584
Faringdon Without 584
the Fleet 606
Fleet Street 583, 584
The Greene Dragon Inn 593, 594
Newgate Market 584
Old Bailey Yard 583
the Royal Exchange 727
Shoreditch 582
Silver Street 583
the South Bank 583
the Strand 56
suburbs 582, 600, 604
the Thames 585
Turnmill (Turnbull) Street 583
Long Meg of Westminster 601
Lopez, Rodrigo 565–6
Lords Lieutenant 25
Lucan 316
Lucy, Sir Thomas 124, 476
Lumley, John Lord 688, 692, 700–01, 702, 719
art collection of 716, 720
library of 165, 700
Mac an Bhaird, Fearghal Óg 355
Machiavelli 121, 234, 238, 246, 249, 252, 266, 282, 290–2, 300–1, 305, 320
adapted by reason of state theorists 290
and analyses of princely conduct 289, 297
anti-Machiavellianism 293–4, 300
associated with poisoners 568
blamed for tyranny in France 293–4, 352
Discorsi 318
English reception of 288–9, 297–9
Machiavellian counsel 296–7
Machiavellian plots 21, 125, 180, 181 n. 5, 182, 293–5, 352, 568
Machiavels 265
on Rome 320
and the stage 296
stresses importance of soldiers 462
translated works of 241
machines
perpetual motion 695–7
see also automata
Machyn, Henry 519, 533
magic 679, 696–7
enchantment 681, 697–9, 701
the Renaissance magus 697
mannerism 681–2, 694
Manners, Roger, Earl of Rutland 707, 711
manuscripts 477
Marlowe, Christopher, 247
Edward II 104–6, 296
Faust 433
The Jew of Malta 296
Marston, John