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date: 22 February 2020

(p. 1121) Subject Index

(p. 1121) Subject Index

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number.

abdomen/abdominal muscles
anatomy and physiology 5–6, 68, 91f, 92, 93–4
disordered voice 56
posture 102
subglottal pressure 69
abdominal (diaphragmatic) breathing 69, 896
absolute pitch 423, 852, 859
absorption (psychological) 906–7
absorption (sound propagation) 242, 242f, 246–7
academic coursework, conservatories 699
a cappella choral singing 784, 851–62
accuracy
intonation 288–91, 289f, 290f, 291f, 292f
occasional singers 359–61, 362, 363, 364
professional singers 355
singing difficulties 336–8, 341, 344–7, 346f
Vocal Sensorimotor Loop 359
acoustic assessment of the disordered voice 37–8
acoustic domain 1029–30
acoustic oscillator 76–9
acoustics
of different genres 167–86
emotions, inference of 304–8, 305t
science of 422
stage 247–8
virtual 1089–90
voice quality 190–9
acoustic sensitivity functions 156–7, 157f, 160–1, 163
acoustic spectrum 110–11, 114–17
acting instruction/skills 656–7, 698
addiction, drug and alcohol 953–4
adenoids, enlarged 42
adjacent singers 250
adolescence 522–5
life-cycle of the voice 23–4
youth culture 419–20, 427
Advancing Interdisciplinary Research in Singing (AIRS) project 400–6, 402t, 403f, 405f
aerodynamics
assessment of the disordered voice 38
measurements 993, 996, 999–1006, 1001f, 1002f, 1010, 1012, 1014
physiology 68–70 see also glottal airflow
aesthetic benefits of community singing 577
affective state of singer 302, 307
affect vocalizations 297
Afghanistan, Herati children 519
Africa
linguistic diversity 758–9
vocal music 751, 756–62, 767
age factors
adolescent male voice change 524–5, 525f
choral singing 927–8
community singing 573
conservatories 690
English cathedral tradition 815–16
perceived gender confusability 521, 522f
repertoire selection 610–11
timbre changes 521
agency 907
agent showcases 699–700
(p. 1122) agility exercises 603, 604t
aging process
communication 379–80
disordered voice 56
life-cycle of the voice 22–5, 25t
physical effects 586–7
presbyphonia 34–5
professional singers 663
psychological effects 587–8
therapeutic use of singing 382–3 see also life-cycle of the voice
airflow see glottal airflow
AIRS Digital Library 400–6, 402t, 403f, 405f
alcohol addiction 953–4
Alexander Technique 62
allergies 42
altos 173, 557
Alzheimer’s disease 382
Amies Project 954
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 42
analog domain 1029–30
analog-to-digital (A/D) converters 1042–3
analysis by synthesis 1007, 1081–2, 1092
Anang people, Nigeria 519, 911
anatomy 54–5
female adolescent voice change 552, 554
hearing system 225–6, 226f, 244–5
laryngopharynx 20
larynx 7–14, 8f
male adolescent voice change 552
nasopharynx and soft palate 17
oropharynx, tongue, jaw, and lips 17–19
pharynx 16, 16f, 19
respiratory system 5–7, 7f, 88–97, 88f
vocal tract 3–4, 4f
Anglican Church 808, 810–11
animal vocalizations
cat’s purr 111
emotion 297, 298
neuroscience 258–60, 263
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 258, 259f, 263–4, 264f, 265, 265f
mental imagery 272
antiphony 759
anxiety
disordered voice 58–9
non-singers 635
older singers 594, 595
performance see performance anxiety
social 576
symptoms 676t, 676, 677
therapeutic singing 945, 950
trapezius muscle 96
aphonia 35
Apple Lossless compression 1045
appoggio 68–9
apprenticeships 702
architecture 424–5
arcuate fasciculus (AF) 268–9
Aristotle 966
Arnold, Godfrey 993
arousal
catastrophe model of 675, 676
continuum 676, 676f
arthritis 586, 593
articulation
disordered voice 34
pedagogy 710
systematic development of vocal technique 601
articulatory synthesis 1080, 1081f, 1081
artistry
emotion 301–2
professional singers 658–9
art singing 711t
aryepiglottic muscles 12, 12f
arytenoid cartilages 7–8
ascending pattern, vocal exercises 604t
asthma
benefits of singing 894, 895, 899
community singing 576, 580
disordered voice 42
attachment, maternal–infant 432–4, 439–42, 904–5
audiation 272
audiences
effects on heart rate 924, 925
group singing and social identity 847
audio compression 1045–7, 1046f
audio-vocal integration 263, 266
auditions 653
conservatories 689, 691–2, 693–4
music theater 654
(p. 1123) opera and oratorio 655
performance anxiety 661
auditory cortex 259f, 260, 263–5, 269
mental imagery 271–2
auditory feedback
congenital amusia 341
development of singing 518
processing 260–1, 262–6
Australia, group singing and social identity 843–4
authority, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 877
autonomy 903, 907, 912
Avalon Media System 397
babbling 460, 462, 474, 512
Bach, J. S. 425
ballads 186
Barannikov, Kostya 493
barbershop singing 285–6, 861
baritones 173, 173f, 174, 174f, 176–7, 177f
bass-baritones 235f
basses
a cappella choral singing 860
acoustics 174, 174f
intonation 283, 283f
self-to-other ratio 250
bass ratio 246
Baul, Purno Das 502
Baul music 490, 491, 497–503, 505–6
Beethoven, Ludwig van 425, 942
bel canto singing 414
Bell, Alexander Graham 1029
belly breathing 69
belly-in posture 102, 103
belly-out posture 102–3
belting
acoustics 180–1
history of research 1008
pedagogy 714, 717
Berliner, Emil 1029
Bernoulli effect 995, 1011–12
bhaoyaiya 498
bhatiyali 498
bifurcations 731–2
bilingualism 474, 513–14
binary system 1036, 1037–8, 1038t
biofeedback 1057–69
bipolar disorder 36, 945
bit-depth 1040–1, 1041f, 1042f
bits (digital domain) 1036
Blonk, Jaap, Rhotic 740–1, 742f
blooming tone 1062, 1063f
blues singing
acoustics 181–2, 182f
characteristics 717
perceived quality of singing performance 317, 320t, 322t, 322f, 324
body alignment 601
Boethius 422, 423
bonding, maternal–infant 432–4, 439–42, 904–5
Boyce, William 824
boys
cathedral choirs 520–1
developing voice 22–4, 209, 210f, 516, 519
English cathedral tradition 807, 809, 810, 815–16
perceived gender confusability 521, 522f
youth choirs 798–9 see also gender factors
breathing see respiration
breath noise 204–6
breath register 716
breath support 718
breathy phonation
acoustics 182, 182f
breath support 718
gender differences 207
glottal adduction 119, 120f, 121
British Library Sound Archive 395–6
Broadway singing 177–8, 179f
Bulgarian folk singing 183–4
bullying of male adolescents 538, 543–4, 545, 546
bytes (digital domain) 1036
call-and-response singing 756–7, 759, 760–1
camera, side-view 1054
Canada
Kwakuitl and Coast Salish peoples 416–18
Inuit people 414, 415
(p. 1124) cancer
disordered voice 39
laryngeal 41t
therapeutic use of singing 382
cardiovascular effects of singing 921–3, 924–6
career management, professional singers 662–3
caregivers, therapeutic singing 950, 953, 956
cartilages of the larynx 7–9, 23
Caruso, Enrico 425
castles 424
catastrophe model of arousal 675, 676
cathedral choirs 424, 778
development of singing 520
English cathedral tradition 805–18
female adolescent voice change 561
girls 552
male voice change 815–16
perceived gender confusability 561
cerebellum 258, 262, 268
mental imagery 272
chaos in voice 731, 733
Charukhim, Nikolai 493
Cherubini, Luigi 981
chest register 122–4, 125f, 126–7
aBducted vs. aDducted 129t, 130f, 130–6, 131f, 132f, 134t
barbershop singing 286
cartilaginous adduction vs. membranous medialization 129–36
eigenmodes of vocal fold vibration 124, 126f
English cathedral tradition 809
history of research 965, 971, 975, 976, 981–2, 984, 1007, 1008
pedagogy 714
videokymogram 122f
chewing muscles 19, 34
childcare settings 479–80
children
attachment and bonding 432-4, 439–42, 904–5
choral singing 783, 791–802
cognitive benefits of singing 908
communication 369–73, 376–7, 379
cultural factors 489–507
developing voice 23, 199–207, 339–40, 340f, 343, 356, 460–3, 511–26
digital libraries of singing 398–9, 403f, 404
invented song-making 471–84
life-cycle of the voice 23, 25t
maternal singing 431–5, 438, 439–42, 455–64, 905, 907, 949
motivation 670
pitch perception 341
sensitivity to music 458–9
singing difficulties 338, 349
as super-listeners 459
therapeutic singing 950, 956 see also boys; girls
Children’s Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES) 398–9
China
ancient 421, 422, 423
Fujian-Taiwan nursery rhymes 496
pedagogy 755–6
traditional singing 752–6, 753t, 767
choir formation 250–2, 251t
Choir in Focus research network 776–7, 785
choir placement 250
choirs see choral singing
choir spacing 250–2
chora 499
choral conducting 782, 785, 823–48
authoritarian tradition 831–2
communication 826, 829–31
English cathedral tradition 811–12, 815
elusive perfection model 879–81, 882
enactment model 874–9, 875f
evolution 823–4
feedback 828, 829, 832–3
gesture 825–7, 866, 878
leadership 825, 844–5
legitimacy model 869–73, 870f, 881
magnitude 830
modern conductor 824–5
nature of 865–7
reflection 833, 881
rehearsal 827–9
as “sensemaking” 869–73, 870f, 879
singers’ perceptions of leadership 865–82
vocal identity 844–5
youth choirs 793–4, 796, 799–802
(p. 1125) choral singing
a cappella 784, 851–62
acoustics 175–6
architecture 424
benefits 889–95, 892t, 893t
communication 381
community building 953–4
conceptualizations 777–9
conducting see choral conducting
conservatories 698
contemporary concepts and practices 775–86
directivity 249
environmental factors 241, 249, 250–2
female adolescent voice change 562–3, 565
future research 784–6
hearing 233–4
historical dimensions 779–81
instrumental developments 425
intonation 283–5, 283f, 284f, 285f
lung function and breathing improvements 893–900
male adolescent voice change 536
non-singers 510
older singers 591–5
perceived quality of singing performance 323
physiological effects 923, 924, 926–31
practice-based and practice-developing studies of 781–4
psychological aspects 779–81, 906, 908–14, 920
social dimensions 779–81
social identity 837–48
timbre 233–4
youth choirs 791–82
chorus effects (digital domain) 1044–5
chromatic scale 423
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 895–900, 898t, 940–1
Chukovsky, Kornei 493, 506
churches 424
cigarette smoking 32, 61
circle of fifths 852
classical singing
characteristics 710–19
comparison with traditional Chinese singing 752–3, 753t
conservatories 690–704
culture and performance practice 711t
emotion 300, 308
genres 707–9
history of research 1008
intra-personal communication 378
pedagogy 721–2
perceived quality of singing performance 317, 320, 321t, 321–3, 322t, 322f
professional demands 656, 658
registers 124, 125
timbre 133, 135–6
value systems 936–7
voice training 209 see also opera singing
clavicular breathing 96
benefits of singing 896
latissimus dorsi 99
older singers 592, 593
physiology 69
clipping (digital domain) 1046–7, 1046f
closed quotient 72, 114
genres of singing 178f, 179, 180, 181
history of research 1006, 1009, 1011
CNRS Musée de l’Homme audio archives database 397–8, 400
Coast Salish people 416–17
cognitive benefits of singing 907–8
cognitive impairment 955 see also dementia
coherence, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 877–8
colonialism
children’s singing 491, 494, 495–6, 503, 505, 506
literacy vs. orality 939
coloratura 98, 99–100
commercial music production, use of voice synthesis in 1082
commitment (mental preparation) 668–71
(p. 1126) communication
choral conducting 826, 829–31
emotion 373–6, 905–6
inter-personal 371–8
intra-personal 371–6, 379–81
neuropsychobiological perspectives 371–3
ontogeny 369–71
singing as 369–83
therapeutic singing 381–3
communicative musicality 476, 478
community building 951–6
community choirs
benefits 576–80, 579t
empowerment 946
gender factors 571–82
motivations 574–6
therapeutic uses 949–56
types of choirs 573, 573f
value systems 936
competency 903, 906–7, 912, 913
older singers 910–11
composers/composition
choral singing 783
therapeutic singing 942–3, 956
voice in computer music composition 1091–2
youth choirs 793, 797–9
compression (digital domain) 1043
computer music composition 1091–2
concatenative synthesis 1080, 1080f, 1081, 1090
confidence
benefits of singing 908
community singing 576, 577, 578, 582
development 682–4
female adolescent voice change 562, 564
male adolescent voice change 539
non-singers 636, 640
congenital amusia 343–4
development and 338–40
future directions 349
performance profiles 344–8, 346f, 347f
pitch perception 340–1
remediation 349
conjunct pattern, vocal exercises 603, 605t
Consensus Auditory–Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) 38
conservatories 689–705
audition repertoire 693–4
auditions 698–90, 694
coursework 697
curricula and student expectations 694–5
ensemble classes 698–701
ongoing training, advanced study, and apprenticeships 701–3
postgraduate auditions 692
references 694
selection process 689–90
selection process pitfalls 692–3
singing teacher 695–6
spoken voice instruction 696–7
successful selection 693
training progression 690–1
undergraduate programs 691–2
vocal coach 696
young artist programs 703–4
consonance 281–2
consonants
final 1063–5, 1064f, 1065f
speech vs. song 197, 198, 199t
systematic development of vocal technique 603–8, 607t
unvoiced 193, 199t
vocal tract 151–2
voiced 192–3, 199t
contact, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 877, 878
contact quotient 72
contemporary commercial music (CCM)
characteristics 713, 714–19
culture and performance practice 711t
genres 707–9
pedagogy 721, 722–4
professional demands 659
Sub-Saharan Africa 761
teacher’s role 664
timbre 135–6
Continuous Response Measurement Apparatus (CReMA) 316
control, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 875, 880
Cooksey stages (male adolescent voice change) 523–5, 524f, 534–6, 535f, 556
(p. 1127) cool-downs 62
Coorie Doon project 442
Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Macaulay Library 398
corniculate cartilages 8
countertenors 381
country singing
acoustics 181
characteristics 714, 715, 717, 718, 719
culture and performance practice 712t
pedagogy 722
courbe vocale see phonetograms
creaky (vocal fry) register 122, 123
extra-normal voice 732, 735t
pedagogy 714
videokymogram 122f
crib songs 478
cricoid cartilage 7
cricothyroid (CT) muscles
anatomy and physiology 10, 11–12, 74–5
pitch and range, control of 20, 21f, 21–2
registers 124, 127
systematic development of vocal technique 602–3, 609–10
timbre 119
critical distance (reverberation radius) 243–4, 251
Croatian folk singing 184, 209
crying 512
cultural factors see socio-cultural factors
cuneiform cartilages 8
cysts 39, 40, 40t
d’Arezzo, Guido 424
deaf mothers 463
death
grieving process 941–2
singing for dying people 941, 946, 949
decibels (dB)
hearing 230
power and pressure ratios 230, 231t
sound pressure level (db(SPL)) scale 230
dehydration 35
DeLattre, Pierre 1011
delay (digital domain) 1044
dementia 586
psychological benefits of singing 909, 910
therapeutic singing 382, 945, 948, 950, 953
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ituri people 418, 427
demusicalization 937, 946, 948
Dent, Edward 811–12
depression
agency, lack of 907
community singing 576
disordered voice 36, 58–9
therapeutic singing 945, 951, 954
depth kymography 979
descending pattern, vocal exercises 604t
developing voice 189–212, 356, 509–26
acoustic features of voice quality 190–9
congenital amusia 338–40, 340f, 343–4, 349
influencing factors 525–6
processes 199–207
puberty 207–8
singing as a developmental behavior 511–25
tone deafness 343–4
voice training, effects of 208–9, 210f
devotion, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 877, 880
dhrupad vocal music 763
diaphragm
anatomy and physiology 5–6, 54–5, 68, 91–2, 91f, 104
appoggio 69
disordered voice 33
healthy voice 54
posture 102, 103
subglottal pressure 69, 70, 98
diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing 69, 896
diatonic key system 422, 423
diet see nutrition
difficulties, singing 333–50
assessing 336–7
“average” and “poor” singing in the adult general population 336–8
communication 378
congenital amusia 338–40, 343–8
future directions 349–50
pitch perception 340–1
remediation 348–9
self-perceptions 335
sensorimotor explanations 342–4
terminology 334
“tone deafness” 343–8 see also disordered voice
(p. 1128) diffraction (sound propagation) 242–3, 244
diffuse field 243, 250–1
DigiCult 396–7
digital domain 1027–47
audio 1038–9
audio compression 1045–6
binary, bits, and bytes 1037–8
bit-depth 1040–1
entering the 1041–3
processing within the 1043–5
sampling 1037
sampling-rate 1039–40
digital libraries 393–407
defined 394n
development of the AIRS Digital Library 400–6
examples 394–9
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) 1043
diphthongs 1065–7, 1066f, 1067f
diplophonia 31, 736
directionality
microphones 1030–1
singers 241, 244, 248–50, 248t, 249f
direct sound 243, 246, 250
disjunct pattern, vocal exercises 603, 605t
disordered voice 31–46, 56
aging process 34–5
implications for practice 44–6
laryngological assessment 36–7
mind, body, and voice 35–6
movement disorders of the larynx 41
neuroscience 258
non-organic 38–9
organic vocal fold changes 39–41
speech pathology assessment 37–8
stressors 58–60
systemic diseases 42–3
voice team 37 see also difficulties, singing
dissonance 281–2
distance teaching 1085–9, 1087f
Dodart, Denis 966–7
dorsal breathing 92
dorsal premotor cortex 264–5, 265f
dream goals 672
drug addiction 953–4
Dutrochet, Henri 971, 980
dying people, singing for 941, 946, 949
dynamic glottis closure
future research 1015
history of research 1009, 1010
dynamic level, vocal exercises 607t, 608–9
dysarthria 258
dysfunctional voice see disordered voice
dysphonia (hoarseness) 31
management 60, 62
muscle tension 660
spasmodic 43t
vocal fold damage 45
dysplasia 41t
dystonia 42
ear, anatomy 225–6, 226f, 244–5
early music 711t
early reflections 243, 246, 248
echo (digital domain) 1044
ectasias 39, 41t
edema 40t
Edison, Thomas Alva 1029
Egypt, ancient 421, 422, 823
electroglottography (EGG) 976, 979
contact quotient 72
history of research 992, 997t, 1003, 1004, 1005, 1005f, 1006
electrolaryngography 72
electromyography (EMG) 42
history of research 997t, 1012–13
Elevate project 941, 945, 950, 957
elusive perfection model, choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 867, 879–81, 882
embodiment, computer music composition 1091–2
emergencies, vocal 45
emotion 297–309
benefits of singing 905, 908, 910, 920
children 438, 463
communication 373–6, 379, 905–6
determining factors 300–2
development of singing 511, 514
disordered voice 35–6, 58
externalization by the voice 298–9
intonation and 292–4
maternal singing 440, 455, 457, 458, 511, 905
non-singers 624n, 635, 637
perception 303–8, 323, 324
(p. 1129) repertoire selection 611
therapeutic singing 944–6
emotional capital 511
infants 905
singing as 375–6
emotional resilience 578–9, 582
emotional script 300–1
emphysema 896
empowerment
choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 875, 880
therapeutic singing 946–51
enactment model, choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 867, 874–9, 875f
English cathedral tradition 805–18
boys’ voices and Anglicanism 810–11
“breaking” voices 815–16
choirmasters 816–17
manliness and gamesmanship 813–15
personnel changes 808
Romantic and anti-Romantic 811–13
singing style 806–8
spiritual changes 808–9
ensembles
conservatories 698–701
environmental factors 247, 250
intonation 283–5
non-singer phenomenon, prevention of 643
Sub-Saharan Africa 759, 760–1
therapeutic singing 382 see also choral singing; community choirs
environmental factors 241–52
a cappella choral singing 860
adjacent singers 250
architecture 424–5
choir formation and spacing 250–2
choral conducting 872–3
directivity 248–50, 248t, 249f
hearing 236–8, 244–6
mental preparation for the performer 668, 669–70
room acoustics 241, 243–4, 244f, 246–7
sound propagation 242–3, 244
stage acoustics 247–8
epiglottis
anatomy and physiology 8
history of research 969
life-cycle of the voice 23
epilarynx (hypopharynx/laryngopharynx)
anatomy and physiology 3–4, 20
gender differences in adults 25
timbre 116f, 117
tuning the vocal tract 155–6, 156f, 158, 161, 163
equalization (EQ, digital domain) 1043–4
equally tempered tuning (ETT)
a cappella choral singing 851, 853, 855, 858, 860–1, 862
intonation 282, 288, 290–4, 292f, 293f
equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) 1078
erythema 40t
essential tremor 42
Estonia
choral singing 780
“Singing Revolution” 912
estrogen
aging process 586
female adolescent voice change 553
menopause 586, 663
Ethiopia
linguistic diversity 758
vocal music 757, 759, 760, 761
ethnic factors
community singing 573
perceived quality of singing performance 327, 327t, 328t
voice change 522
Europa-Cantat (ECA-EC) 791
Europeana 397
evolution 471, 475, 928
emotion, expression of 297–8
laryngeal-motor cortical pathway 274
male vs. female speaking voice 534
relatedness aspect of music 905
singing 356
Ewe people 625, 627
excitation moment 1003, 1006, 1010, 1012
exercise
healthy voice 62
phonation threshold pressure 71
vocal exercises, design of 602–10, 604t
expiration see respiration
expiratory reserve volume 90f
exploration, vocal 639
expression see emotion
(p. 1130) extra-normal voice 729–46
chaos 733
common extended vocal techniques 733, 734t
multiphonic combinations/multiple sound sources 736–45, 737t, 738f, 742f, 743f
parameters 729–32
parametric change 740–5
subharmonics 732
tori 732–3
voicing, degree of 737–9
extrinsic laryngeal muscles 13–14, 14f
extrinsic tongue muscles 17, 18f
Eykman, L.P.H. 969, 971, 994
Fach 655, 663, 703, 712, 722
history of research 972
falsetto register (head register) 123, 124, 125f, 126–7
aBducted vs. aDducted 129t, 130f, 130–6, 131f, 132f, 134t
barbershop singing 285
cartilaginous adduction vs. membranous medialization 129–36
communication 380–1
eigenmodes of vocal fold vibration 124, 126f
English cathedral tradition 809–10
history of research 965, 971, 975, 976, 981–2, 984, 1007, 1008
male adolescents 537, 539–41, 540f, 541f
pedagogy 714
videokymogram 122f
false vocal folds 13, 969
family, and children’s singing 476–9
Family Script Theory 840
fast Fourier transformations (FFT) 1043
fatigue
physical 35
vocal 33, 35, 39
feedback
a cappella choral singing 860
biofeedback 1057–69
choral conducting 881
choral singing 828, 829, 832–3
neurofeedback 1057
real-time visual feedback 1050–4, 1057–69
somatosensory feedback processing 261–3, 266–70
Voice Range Profile 1071–7 see also auditory feedback
female voice see girls; women
Ferrein, Antoine 967, 972
fetus
attachment and bonding 433–4
communication 374–5, 374f
foundations of singing development 511
maternal singing 431–2, 434–9, 442, 904, 905, 948–9
final consonants 1063–5, 1064f, 1065f
fioratura exercises 603, 604t
FLAC compression 1045
flageolet (whistle) register 123
communication 381
history of research 1008
pedagogy 714
sopranos 173
videokymogram 122f
Fleisch pneumotach 999, 1000, 1012
flexibility, vocal 31
flow experiences 662, 678
choral conducting 827–8
mental preparation 670
physiological effects 924, 925–6
psychological benefits 906–7
flow glottograms 71, 72
flow phonation
acoustics 182, 182f
breath support 718
glottal adduction 119, 120f, 121
fluctuations 112
flute register see flageolet (whistle) register
flutter
echoes 246
hearing 229
folded limit cycle (subharmonics) 731, 732
folk psychology, and non-singers 626–7, 641
folk singing
acoustics 183–4, 209
children’s singing 497–8, 500–1, 506
China 752–6
emotion 301
Korean pansori 416
perceived quality of singing performance 317, 320t, 322t, 322f, 323
Folkways project 396
formant analysis 1052f, 1053
(p. 1131) formants 15, 169–70, 170f
classical singing styles 171f, 171–6
emotion 298
gender differences in adults 25
healthy voice 57–8
history of research 1005, 1006, 1007–9
intonation 284
lips 19
model of human sound production 149–51
non-classical singing styles 177–85
pedagogy 715, 717
physiology 76–8
posture 103
tongue 19
vocal tract 152–63, 155f, 156f, 159f, 160f, 162f, 164f
voice quality 193–5 see also singer’s formant
formant tuning 121
Fourier Transformation 1043
France
choral singing 780
Revolution 780
frequency adjustment, means of 20–2
functional residual capacity 89, 90f
fundamental frequency (F0) 112, 169
a cappella choral singing, tuning in 852, 853–4, 858–9
anatomy and physiology 15, 19, 20
assessing singing 336
auditory feedback processing 260
classical singing styles 171–3, 173f
development of singing 513–14
emotion 298, 305, 306
female adolescent voice change 556, 561–2
healthy voice 57
hearing 227–8
hearing modeling spectrography 1079
history of research 1006, 1010, 1014
intonation 281, 283–92, 288f, 292f
life-cycle of the voice 23, 24
model of human sound production 149
non-classical singing styles 178, 180, 181
physiology 72, 73, 74–5
pitch 227–8
puberty 208
real-time visual feedback 1051, 1052f
singing difficulties 344
3D printed vocal tracts 1084–5
voice quality 196
Voice Range Profile 1071–5
Galen of Pergamon 966
Garcia, Alberto 980
Garcia, Manuel P. 965, 973–4, 975, 980–1, 982–3, 991
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 42–3, 660
gender factors
adult voice, differences in 24–5
choral singing 783
closed quotient 72
communication 380
community singing 571–82
life-cycle of the voice 22–3
repertoire selection 610–12
voice quality 206–7 see also boys; girls; men; women
generalization (systematic development of vocal technique) 608
genioglossus muscles 17
genres
pedagogy 707–25
professional singers 653
Germany
cathedral choirs 807
choral singing 780–1
opera houses 655
girls
adolescence 23–4, 522–3, 551–65
cathedral choirs 520–1
classification of voice 557–60
developing voice 22–4, 209, 210f, 516, 519
perceived gender confusability 521, 522f
puberty 23, 207–8, 521–2, 553, 555
voice development phases 557, 558t see also gender factors
glissandi 1061–2, 1062f
globus pallidus 272
glottal adduction 1009
acoustics 169, 170
cartilaginous adduction vs. membranous medialization 128–36, 129f, 129t, 130f, 132f, 134t
genres of singing 178, 179, 182
timbre 117–21, 118f, 119f
(p. 1132) glottal airflow 112–14
acoustics 168–9
adduction 119
developing voice 200
genres of singing 179
idealized waveform 113f
model of human sound production 149–51
timbre 116
voice source spectrum 114–17, 114f, 115f, 116f
glottal chink 119, 555
glottal closure
developing voice 201, 201f, 202
future research 1015
gender differences 207
history of research 966, 969, 976–7, 1009, 1010
older singers 592
glottal leakage 73–4
glottal wave
loudness, control of 22
pitch and range, control of 20
goal setting
anxiety management 682
confidence, building 683
mental preparation for the performer 671–4, 675f, 682, 683
Gore, Sir Frederick 809
gramophone 1029
granuloma 41t
Greece, ancient 421–2
choral conducting 823
choral singing 779
Gregory, Pope 424, 552
grieving process 941–2
Groningen Voice Research Lab 997–1009
growl 735t
Guillemin, A. 971, 994–5
Gutzmann, Hermann 991, 992
habituation (systematic development of vocal technique) 608
Haida people 417
hamatsa rituals 417–18
Harakara, Gagan 499
harmonization (digital domain) 1045
Haydn, Joseph, “Piercing eyes” 611t
head register see falsetto register
healthy voice 53–63
management of voice problems 60–3
vocal “stressors” 58–60
voice production 54–8
hearing 225–39
aging process 586, 590, 593, 594
anatomy 225–6, 226f
environmental factors 241, 244–6, 247
fetus 436–7
loudness and decibels 229–32, 231t, 232f
modeling spectrography 1077–9
neonates 370
pitch 226–9, 229f
problems 955
singing 234–8, 234f, 235f, 237f
timbre 232–4
truth in 1055–6
heart rate, effects of singing on 921–3, 924–6
Helmholtz, Hermann L.F. 970, 973, 1003n, 1006, 1011
Helmholtz resonators 242
hemorrhage, vocal 41t, 45, 660, 890
Herati children, Afghanistan 519
Heschl’s gyrus 259f, 260
heterophonic texture (traditional Chinese singing) 752
high-frequency energy 238
Hindustani singing tradition 762–6
Hippocrates 966
hoarseness (dysphonia) 31
management 60, 62
muscle tension 660
spasmodic 43t
vocal fold damage 45
hormones
aging process 35
effects of singing on 923–4, 929–30
female adolescent voice change 24, 552, 553
hospices, singing in 942, 954
hospitals, singing in 941, 945, 949–50, 957
Hua’er music 755
humanism 426
humanity 426–7
humming baths 948
hunter’s whistle theory 971, 972, 994–5
Husson, Raoul 995
hydration 60–1
hygiene, vocal 60–1
hyoglossus muscles 17
hyoid bone 8–9
hyperfunction 1009, 1013
hypopharynx (epilarynx/laryngopharynx)
anatomy and physiology 3–4, 20
gender differences in adults 25
timbre 116f, 117
tuning the vocal tract 155–6, 156f, 158, 161, 163
Iceland, Karlakórinn Hreimur 839–43, 845, 846, 848
identity
choral singing 837–48
community singing 574, 578, 581
female adolescents 562–5
male adolescents 539
non-singers 628–30
social 847–48
socio-cultural factors 490–1
therapeutic singing 943 see also selfhood
idioms
of different genres 720t
pedagogy 710, 719–21
imitation
children as vocal imitators 459–60
development of singing 520
immune system, effects of singing on the 923–4
improvisation
conservatories 698
Indian classical vocal music 764–5
therapeutic singing 942, 953
India
children’s singing, socio-cultural factors 489–92, 495, 497–507
choral conducting 823
classical vocal music 751, 762–7
pedagogy 762–4
Indiana University 397
individuality, in practice sessions 613
infant-directed speech (“motherese) 211, 370, 434–5, 438–9, 905
infants see children
ingressive phonation 735t
inner hearing/inner singing 639, 640
inspiration see respiration
inspiratory reserve volume 90f
instrumental developments 425–6
insula 261, 262, 263–4, 264f, 265, 265f, 269–70, 270f
mental imagery 272
subdivisions 264f
intensity (vocal) and age, relationship between 204, 204f
interarytenoid (IA) muscles
anatomy and physiology 10, 11
chest vs. falsetto register 133
timbre 117, 118
intercostal muscles
anatomy and physiology 55, 68, 92, 93, 94
appoggio 68–9
healthy voice 55
subglottal pressure 69, 70, 98f
International Federation of Choral Music (IFCM) 797
intersubjective space, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 878–9, 881
intonation 281–94
a cappella choral singing 851–62
accuracy 288–92
ensemble singing 283–6
expression and 292–4
vibrato 286–8
voice quality 196–9
intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 264, 265, 265f
intrinsic laryngeal muscles
aging process 586
anatomy and physiology 10–13, 12f
electromyography 1012–13
systematic development of vocal technique 610
timbre 111, 116
intrinsic tongue muscles 18f, 19
Inuit throat singing (katajjaq) 414, 415
invented song-making, children’s 471–84, 518–19
emergence 475–8
functions 481–2
nature of 472–5
prompts and supports 478–80, 482–3
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 928–30
Ituri people, Democratic Republic of the Congo 418, 427
(p. 1134) jaw
acoustics 169
anatomy and physiology 17, 19, 76
jazz singing
acoustics 181–2, 182f
characteristics 713, 714, 715, 716, 717
culture and performance practice 712t
pedagogy 722
perceived quality of singing performance 317, 320t, 322t, 322f, 323
jitter 112
just noticeable difference (JND)
intonation 293
pitch 229f, 229
just tuning
a cappella choral singing 852, 853–62
intonation 282, 284, 286
Kaiser, Louise 994n
Kargyraa method, Tuvan overtone singing 733, 740
Karlakórinn Hreimur 839–43, 845, 846, 848
Karnatic singing tradition 762–6
katajjaq (Inuit throat singing) 414, 415
Kaulong people, Papua New Guinea 414
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald 53
khayal vocal music 763
King’s College, Cambridge choir 806–8, 809, 811–17
Kirtan singing 497, 502
knowledge of results (KR) 1055, 1056, 1057, 1058
Korean pansori 416
Kwakuitl people, Pacific Northwest 416–18, 427
Laban, Rudolf 826, 827
language study, conservatories 697
laryngeal cancer 41t
laryngeal mirror 965, 973–4
laryngeal web 41t
laryngitis, acute 40t
laryngocele 41t
laryngography 997t
laryngokymography 997t
laryngological assessment 36–7
laryngology 993, 1016
laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) 42–3, 59–60
laryngopharynx (epilarynx/hypopharynx)
anatomy and physiology 3–4, 20
gender differences in adults 25
timbre 116f, 117
tuning the vocal tract 155–6, 156f, 158, 161, 163
laryngoplasty, medialization 44
laryngoscopy 973–9, 984
history of research 993, 1009, 1016
larynx
aging process 586
anatomy and physiology 3, 7–14, 8f, 70–1, 75, 76, 534, 536
cartilages 7–9, 23
developing voice 200, 202
disordered voice 33, 42, 43t
electromyography 42, 997t, 1012–13
extrinsic muscles 13–14, 14f
female adolescent voice change 554
gender differences in adults 24
history of research 966–72, 980, 982–4, 994, 997t, 1012–15
intrinsic muscles see intrinsic laryngeal muscles
life-cycle of the voice 23
male adolescent voice change 534, 536, 537, 539
movement disorders 42, 43t
older singers 593
timbre 109–10 see also vocal folds
laser treatment 44
lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscles
anatomy and physiology 10, 11
chest vs. falsetto register 133
timbre 117, 118
latissimus dorsi
anatomy and physiology 6, 92
subglottic pressure, control of 98–101, 100f, 101f
Latvia, “Singing Revolution” 912
leadership see choral conducting
learning difficulties, people with 956
legit 714
legitimacy model, choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 867, 869–73, 870f, 881
Lehmann, Andreas 776
Leoncavallo, Ruggero 425
(p. 1135) levator palatini muscles 17
libraries, digital see digital libraries
Library of Congress 396
Lieder singing 301, 306, 426
Liège University 399
life-cycle of the voice 22–5, 25t
life review 910
limit cycle 731
linguistic diversity, Sub-Saharan Africa 758–9
linguistic skills of professional singers 656
Linked Dual Representation Model 359
lips 19, 76
Liscovius, C.F.S. 970–1
Lithuania, “Singing Revolution” 912
Living Song project 799
loft register see falsetto register
Lombard Effect/Reflex 236
long-term average spectrum (LTAS) 1053
developing voice 201, 203, 204, 208f, 208, 209, 210f
genres of singing 176–7, 177f, 179f, 179, 180f, 181, 184, 185f, 185
male adolescent voice change 541f, 541
speech vs. song 197–8, 197f
vocal tract 154, 155f
voice quality 195–6, 197–8, 197f
Lorenz Strange Attractor (chaos in voice) 731, 733
lossless compression 1045
lossy compression 1045
loudness
control of 22
disordered voice 31
emotion 306
formants 170, 174
genres of singing 174, 180, 181, 182, 184
hearing 229–32, 231t, 232f
speech vs. song 196
subglottal pressure 72
voice quality 196
loud-speakers 1030
Luchsinger, Richard 975–6, 993, 1000, 1012
lullabies 431, 435, 438, 440–1, 442
cultural factors 456
therapeutic singing 949
lungs
aging process 34
anatomy and physiology 5, 54–5, 68, 88, 89–90
benefits of singing 940–1
disordered voice 56
healthy voice 54
life-cycle of the voice 23, 200
pubertal growth spurt 534
respiratory illness 889–900
subglottal pressure 70
Macaulay Library 398
maestro writing tradition 865–6
Magdalen College, Oxford choir 809
Magendy, Francois 968–9, 971, 980
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
history of research 997t, 1007
3D digital waveguide mesh 1083
Mahler, Gustav 425
male voice see boys; men
Malgaigne, Joseph-François 968, 969, 971
mandible 19
Mann, A.H. 811–12, 814, 816
masking 245, 250, 658
masterclass teaching at a distance 1085–9, 1087f
mastery
and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 874–7, 881
psychological benefits 906
mastication, muscles of 19, 34
materialism 414, 415
Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) 433
Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) 433
maternal singing 431–43, 455–64
bonding and attachment 432–4, 439–42
development of singing 512, 513, 513f
fetal, neonatal, and early infant response 436–9
mood regulation 905, 908
nature of 456–60
qualities 434–5
relatedness 904–5
therapeutic singing 948–9
ubiquity 431–2
mathematics 421–6
(p. 1136) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) 73, 114, 114f
meaning, in therapeutic singing 944–6
mechanical oscillator 71–5
mechanical voice models 1089–90
medialization laryngoplasty 44
medications 44, 60, 660
Melba, Nellie 425
melodie singing 426
memory
aging process 586, 588
Alzheimer’s disease 382
congenital amusia 341
equal tempered tuning 862
fetus 437
non-singers 624n, 640
problems 948, 954, 955, 956
tunnel 624n
men
acoustics 169–70, 171–6, 174f, 175f, 176f
aging process 35, 586–7
chest vs. falsetto register 122–3
communication 380–1
community singing 572–82
contact quotient 72
English cathedral tradition 807, 810
healthy voice 57, 58
hormones 35
Icelandic choirs 839–40
life-cycle of the voice 23
physiology 74, 77, 78
respiration 103
vocal tract 154–5, 161
voice use in different genres 714 see also gender factors
menarche 555–6
menopause
disordered voice 35
hormone replacement therapy 586, 663
life-cycle of the voice 24
physical impacts 586
professional singers 663
menstrual cycle 24, 40
mental health
aging process 586
benefits of singing 893
community singing 576, 578, 580
therapeutic singing 945–6, 949, 953
mental imagery
anxiety management 678, 681–2
confidence, building 683, 684
neuroscience 271–2, 273f, 372
professional singers 658
mental preparation for the performer 667–84
anxiety management 674–83
commitment and motivation 668–71
conservatories 700–1
developing self-confidence 682–4
goal setting 671–4
mentorship, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 875–6, 880
Merkel, Carl Ludwig 970
Mersenne, Marin 423
meter, infants’ sensitivity to 458, 459
mezza voce 1008, 1015
mezzo-sopranos 235, 235f, 557, 609–10
microphones 1030–4
frequency response 1032f, 1033f
polar patterns 1032f
pre-amplifiers 1034–6
mid register (voix mixte) 126–7, 713
mindfulness 61, 678, 957
Mingograph 1004
mirroring effect, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 878
mix register 135, 713, 714
modal register see chest register
modesty, and choral singers’ perceptions of musical leadership 880
monasteries 424
Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) 339, 341, 343, 347, 349
mood effects of singing 578, 908, 910
Morgagni sinus 969, 971, 972
Morgagni, Giovanni Battista 994–5
“motherese” 211, 370, 434–5, 438–9, 905
mothers
communication 370–1, 374–5, 374f, 376
deaf 463
post-natal depression 376
voice quality, acquisition of 210–11 see also maternal singing
motivation
group singing and social identity 838
mental preparation for the performer 668–71, 671f
(p. 1137) motor learning 614–17, 615t
movement skills 656–7, 698
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 494
MP3 compression 1045
mucosal bridge 41t
mucosal tears 41t
Müller, Johannes 969–70, 983
multidimensional scaling, extra-normal voice 739–45, 742f, 743f
multiple sclerosis 42
multiple sound sources 736–45, 737t, 738f, 742f, 743f
muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) 39
musculoskeletal problems 32, 60
Musée de l’Homme audio archives database 397–8, 400
musical instruments 697
musical intervals 421–3
musical leadership see choral conducting
musical lexicon 372, 377
musical notation
China 754
development 423–4
Ethiopia 757, 757f
musical scales see scales, musical
musical scores 761
Musical Skills Battery 343, 344t, 349
musical skills of professional singers 656
musical theater
acoustics 176–7, 177f, 178f
auditions 653–4
characteristics 713, 714, 716, 717, 718
conservatories 690–704
culture and performance practice 711t
emotion 301
genre 709
pedagogy 722
professional demands 656, 657–8
registers 124
Music Early Learning Programs (MELPs) 475, 480
Music Round the World Project (London, UK) 492–7, 506
music teachers see teachers and coaches
music theory 699
music therapy see therapeutic singing
mutism 258
Myers–Briggs inventory 587
myoelastic-aerodynamic theory 56, 111, 966, 984, 994, 995
narrow-band spectrograms 1052f, 1052–3
hearing modeling spectrography 1077–9, 1078f
nasals at the beginning of prevoiced stops 1067–9, 1067f, 1068t, 1068f
nasopharynx 3, 17
naturalism 414, 415
Natural Voice Network 939, 946
negative self-talk 679, 680
neonates
attachment and bonding 433, 434, 440
communication 375, 376
development of singing 511–12
hearing 370
maternal singing 431–2, 434–5, 437–9, 440–2, 457, 904–5
voice quality, acquisition of 210–11
neural control of vocalization 258–60, 259f
neurochronaxy theory 983n, 995
neurofeedback 1057
neuroscience 257–74
auditory-vocal motor control 263–6
brain regions involved in singing 258–63
communication 371–3, 373f
mental imagery 271–3
professional vs. amateur singers 921
somatosensory-vocal motor control 266–70
Vocal Sensorimotor Loop 358–9
neutral phonation
acoustics 182, 182f, 183f
breath support 718
Nicholson, Sir Sydney 816
Nigeria
Anang people 519, 911
linguistic diversity 758
vocal music 757, 760, 761
Yoruba people 414
“noble” (belly-in) posture 102, 103
nodules, vocal folds 39, 40t, 660, 982
noise singing 418–20
non-organic voice disorder 38–9
(p. 1138) non-singers (NSs) 334, 335, 343
assessment 638
attribution and re-identifying as 623–33, 631f, 632f
choirs for 510
cultural factors 378, 622–3
enabling singing re-entry 633–6, 634f
experiential profile 623–5
meaning of term 622
pedagogy 621–45
prevention of the adult “NS” phenomenon 642–4
social coping techniques 633
normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) 177, 178f, 181–2, 182f, 183f
normal phonation 119, 120f
notation, musical
China 754
development 423–4
Ethiopia 757, 757f
numerical voice models 1090
nursery rhymes 435, 493–7, 503, 505–6
nutrition
disordered voice 35
gastroesophageal reflux 59–60
healthy voice 61
professional singers 660
Nyquist theorem 1039–40
oblique inter-arytenoid muscles 12, 12f
occasional singers, vocal performance in 355–65
accuracy and precision 359–61
communication 378
how singing works 357–9
measuring 362–4
Oertel, M.J. 974–5
oesophageal balloon 1000
Ohm’s acoustical law 228
older singers 585–97
amateur choristers 591–5
group singing and social identity 843–4, 848
health and wellbeing benefits 595–7
physical impacts of aging 586–7
professional soloists 589–91
psychological benefits 908–11, 913
psychological impacts of aging 587–8
voice training approaches 588–9
open quotient 114
genres of singing 179
history of research 1006, 1010–11
opera singing
acoustics 171–7, 177f, 178f, 179f, 185–6, 209
auditions 655
characteristics 715, 718
conservatories 696, 701–3
developments 425–6
emotion 300, 301, 302, 305, 306, 307
intonation 286–7, 287f, 288f
intra-personal communication 378
older singers 588, 589–91
Peking 185f, 185, 186
perceived quality of singing performance 321–3
professional demands 656, 657–8
oral cavity
developing voice 202–3
gender differences in adults 25
lips 19, 76
older singers 592
soft palate (velum) 17, 23, 76
source-filter theory 194f see also tongue
orality, and therapeutic singing 937, 939–40
oral tract area plot 1053f, 1054
oratorios 425, 655
Ord, Boris 812, 813, 814, 815, 816, 817
organic vocal fold changes 39–41
oropharynx 3, 17–19, 18f
oscillatory vocal movement 735t
Oshanin, Lev 493
Ostrovsky, Arkady 493
outcome goals 673, 674
“outline” songs 471–2, 475, 512
overload, in practice sessions 613
overtone singing 183, 184f
Tuvan throat singing 416, 733, 734t, 740
Oxford Movement 808, 810
oxytocin 923–4, 928
palatoglossus muscles 17
panic attacks 677
pansori singing 416, 735t
(p. 1139) papilloma, recurrent respiratory 41t
Papua New Guinea, Kaulong people 414
paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) 43t
parallelism 759
paralysis, laryngeal 43t
“parentese”/“motherese” 211, 370, 434–5, 438–9, 905
paresis, laryngeal 43t
Parkinson’s disease 42
Parratt, Sir Walter 812
passaggio 555, 1006, 1008
passive respiration (tidal breathing) 5, 7f, 89
pathology see disordered voice
peace-making projects 952–3
peak-to-peak pulse amplitude in one cycle 72–3
“pear shape down” (belly-out) posture 102–3
“pear shape up” (belly-in) posture 102, 103
pedagogy
adult “non-singers” 621–45
Chinese vocal music 755–6
conservatories 689–705
emotion 308–9
female adolescent voice change 560, 564
genres 707–25
history of research 982–4, 991, 993, 1013, 1016
Indian classical vocal music 762–4
male adolescent voice change 536
masterclass teaching at a distance 1085–9, 1087f
maternal singing 464
mental preparation for the performer 667–84
older singers 585–97
perceived quality of singing performance 329–30
physiology 74, 75, 79–80
professional singers 651–65
singing difficulties 348–50
Sub-Saharan African vocal music 761
systematic development of vocal technique 601–18
3D printed vocal tracts 1085
timbre 132–6
voice analyses 1049–69
Peking opera 185f, 185, 186
pelvic floor 96–7
perceptual features see hearing
Perceptual Magnet-Effect (PME) 211
perfectionism, and performance anxiety 677
perfect pitch 423, 852, 859
performance
accomplishments, and confidence 683
choral conducting 875
conservatories 699–700
group singing and social identity 846
planning 617–18
preparation by professional singers 657 see also mental preparation for the performer
performance anxiety
disordered voice 36
heart rate 924
management 674–82
profes