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date: 14 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is devoted to the biology of singing. Immediate effects have been extensively scientifically studied. Breathing and its synchronization with heart rate variability has been an important theme. Endocrine (endorphins, oxytocin, cortisol, testosterone) and immunological (TNF alpha, fibrinogen, immunoglobulines) reactions have also been studied during singing. In collective singing, cohesiveness is a major factor. Singing in a group during a choir rehearsal has stronger stimulation effects on oxytocin secretion than chatting in the same group. High levels of oxtytocin coincide with strong feelings of cohesiveness. In addition, oxytocin dampens anxiety and pain. Long-term effects of singing training and regular practice have been less extensively studied but there is evidence that singing training may influence such things as the brain´s development, the ability to synchronize heart and lung function, and the level of regenerative activity in the body.

Keywords: breathing, heart rate variability, oxytocin, regeneration, singing training, regular practice, choir singing

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