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date: 12 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Intonation is an important aspect of sung performances. This chapter presents someinvestigations of vocal ensemble and solo singing. The magnitude of the standarddeviation of f0 (SDF0) in a choral section of a high-quality choir is discussed, as areintonation effects of common partials, the presence of high-frequency partials, andvibrato-free tone production, which all tend to reduce SDF0, i.e., to facilitate intonation.Other topics include accuracy, expressivity, and the role of equally tempered tuning ofaccompanying instruments. Reaction time for f0 correction of intonation errors is slow,suggesting that copying the pitch from fellow singers in an ensemble is not a usefulstrategy. The f0 pattern used in legato performances of sequences of short notes isdescribed as well as solo singers’ intonation strategies in different musical and emotionalcontexts. Likewise, professional music listeners’ tolerance to intonation inaccuracy seemsto vary depending on context.

Keywords: vibrato, solo singing, ensemble singing, common partials, accuracy, expressivity, reaction time, equally tempered tuning

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