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date: 30 March 2020

(p. 535) Index

(p. 535) Index

abstract individualism 20, 24, 27, 112
academia see educational sector
accountants 2, 32
Acker, Joan 63–4, 68
adolescence, and influences on career 293–5, 296
advertising sector 33
affirmative action
legislation 190–1
programmes 303
Afghanistan, constraints on women’s work interests 188
age factors
attitudes towards female managers 257
preferences for male vs female boss 254
sexual harassment 358
agency
crisis management 321
discourse 137–8
leadership 159, 160, 161, 226, 304
negative intra-gender relations between women 230
organizational citizenship behaviours 373
agreeableness 260
ambitions and aspirations
barriers to women’s advancement in management 181–2, 186
impression management 277
multinational corporations 523
negative intra-gender relations between women 240
non-traditional occupations 401
self-perceptions 293–6
stereotype threat 299
androgyny
leadership 165–6
workaholism 382
anti-discrimination legislation 183
assertiveness 155
attitudes, leadership 158, 257–8
audit 447
Australia
management 19, 191
men in caring occupations 481
sexual harassment 358
Australia Security Exchange (ASX) reporting requirements 190, 191
autocratic leadership style 154, 155, 210, 261, 305
sexual harassment 355
availability, impression management of 277–8
awareness raising/training 336
baby boomers 254
banking sector see financial sector
Barnevik, Percy 526
Bartlett, Christopher 519, 524–6
benevolence 158, 159
‘best person’ discourse 271, 272, 273
body see embodiment
bullying 354, 365
masculinities in management 451
and sexual harassment, links between 353
victim 358
bureaucracy
poststructuralism 65–6
Weber 57, 58
Burrell, Gibson 65
Butler-Sloss, Lady 269–70
(p. 536) cabin crew, male 486, 488, 492–4
Calás, Marta B. 66–7
career capital 284, 285–6
career counselling 296
career exploration programmes 296
career motivation 186
career referents, visibility of 299–300
careerism in multinational corporations 523, 525, 527, 528
careers 293, 307
advancement see career advancement
challenging gender boundaries 393–413
gender equality strategies 332–48
glass cliff 314–28
self-perceptions and career aspirations 293–6
workplace entry 296–300
workplace obstacles 300–3
caring occupations, men in 480–3, 494–5
doing masculinity 484–5
gender as practice and performance 483–4
gender resistance 485–7
masculine body performances 487–9
performing emotions, service, and masculinity 490–1
performing gender in space 491–4
castration
fear of 101
women’s construal as castrated 102
ceremonial work 90–1, 92
change, and female leaders 322–3, 327
charismatic leadership see transformational leadership
childcare
double standard 373
female managers 203
mumpreneurs 117, 119–20, 121, 124
work–family conflict 301
childhood influences on career 293–5
‘chill factor’ in non-traditional occupations 407–8
choice, and entrepreneurship 112–13, 115–16
Church of England see priests, women
Civil Service management 1, 393
family life 396, 412
geographical mobility 402
glass cliff 406
homosociality 403
selection and promotion 400
sexual harassment 409
socialization 405
structural barriers 397
clergy see priests, women
communal leadership style 159, 160, 161, 226, 304
crisis management 321
communication see discourse
competence rules 90
competition
financial sector 508–9
hypercompetitive ideology 278, 279–80
negative intra-gender relations between women 224, 225, 232, 235–9, 243
computer science 295, 298
connective leadership 209, 214
construction engineering sector 393
career development 399, 400
family life 396, 397, 412
geographical mobility 402
glass cliffs 406
homosociality 403–4
interpersonal relationships 408
men’s networks 404, 405
mentors 407
recruitment 398
sexual harassment 410, 411
socialization 405
structural barriers 397
threats to masculinity 408
working conditions 401
contingent reward 259, 260, 261, 262
corporate capitalism 505
corporeal feminism 31
corruption 159
courtesy system 88–9
Crenshaw, Kimberle 67
crisis management 202
see also glass cliff
(p. 537) Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities (CSMM) 418, 422–5
critical theory 86
cultural capital 284, 285–6
cultural frame, gender as a primary 23
culture
as barrier to women in management 182–3, 201–2, 210, 373
barriers to women, gender differences in perceptions of 374
de-masculinization of leadership ideals 213–14
gay and bisexual men 468
long work hours 374–6
masculinities in management 439, 443, 444–7
non-traditional occupations 403–5
ostensive definition 78–9
postmodernism 440
sexual harassment 354, 355, 357
supportive cultures 383–6
symbolism 78–82, 88–91
women working in men’s cultures 371–2
work–family environment 303
workaholism 382
Daft, Douglas 527
de-masculinization of leadership ideals 212–14
democratic leadership style 154, 155, 205, 206–7, 261, 305
developmental opportunities 160, 179
différance 86
directors of companies 1, 2, 163
discourse 130–1, 145–6
communication as discursive–material evolution 135–8, 142–4
constitutive claims in gender and organization studies 131–4
as outcome 131, 132, 133, 134
Penn State scandal 142–4
as performance 131–2, 133, 134
as social text 132, 133–4
strategic 504–5
violence, gender, and organization 138–44
discrimination, gender
anti-discrimination legislation 183
as barrier to women’s advancement in management 178–9, 184–5, 191
career advancement 305–6
descriptive vs prescriptive 297
entry into the workplace 296–9
first generation 2
glass cliff 323–4
and homosociality 233
non-traditional occupations, men in 486
non-traditional occupations, women in 371, 395, 400
overt vs covert 183
and quotas 344
second generation 2
discrimination, racial 184
discursive review of feminist organizational analysis 53–4, 67–8
feminist theory, organizational analysis, and changing discursive grounds 63–7
history and Management and Organization Studies 54–63
diversity management 185, 303, 336, 340, 344
divorce 301
doing gender 29–31
discourse 130, 131–2, 133, 134, 136–7
entrepreneurship 108
financial sector 501–2, 507–8, 513
impression management 274
leadership 211, 212
masculinities in management 443, 445–7, 448
men and masculinities 462
men in caring occupations 483–5, 487–9, 491–5
merit 273
negative intra-gender relations between women 225–8, 229, 230
professionalism 280
spatial aspects 491–4
symbolism 78–9, 91–2
domesticity 113, 115–16, 117, 119
double bind 23
courtesy 88
leadership 160, 161, 165
men in caring occupations 482, 488, 489
negative intra-gender relations between women 229
dragon symbol 79–82
(p. 538) Eastern societies
career advancement strategies 192–3
constraints on women’s work interests 188–9
economic crisis (2008) 441, 499, 500–1, 507, 508, 509, 512, 531
editors of national newspapers 1
education system, and career aspirations 295, 296
educational attainment see human capital
educational sector 393
career development 399
family life 396, 412
female participation 1
geographical mobility 402
glass cliffs 406
homosociality 403
interpersonal relationships 407–8
male networks 404
male teachers 481, 482, 488–9, 490, 491
mentors 406
promotion 401
sexual harassment 409, 410
structural barriers 397–8
work–family conflict 301
effectiveness
leadership 305
self-efficacy 294, 296
effeminacy 469
effeminophobia 469
email harassment 357
embodiment
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 429–31
gendered organizations, theorizing 31–3
men in caring occupations 487–9, 493, 494
emotional intelligence 157–8
emotions, performing 490–1
Employment Protection Act (UK) 353
empowerment, and entrepreneurship 112–13
entrepreneurship 107–10, 123–4, 212
in multinational corporations 525, 526, 527, 528
postfeminism 110–23
entry into the workplace 296–300
equal opportunities 337
legislation 191
second generation gender discrimination 2
symbolism 82
Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) 360
equal rights 82
equality strategies 332–4, 347–8
changing organizations towards gender equality 334–9
post-equity experiments 339–41, 345–7
quotas 342–7
erection symbolism 97, 98, 99, 101, 102–3
ethics and morality
cultural obstacles facing women in management 373
leadership 158–9
ethnicity and race
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 426–7
entrepreneurship 109
glass cliffs 326
quotas 342–3
racial discrimination 184
European Commission 360
European Equal Treatment Directive 360
evaluation and appraisal processes 297
and career advancement 305–6
gender in organizations, theorizing 21
managers 185, 210, 256
non-traditional occupations 399–400
evolutionary psychology 236
excessive entrepreneurial femininity 117, 122–3
extreme jobs 375–6, 381
face time 377
family leave 301
family life
career aspirations and expectations 295
extreme jobs 381
geographical mobility 402
and management 203
multinational corporations 519–20, 528–30
non-traditional occupations 395–7, 398–9, 402, 411–12
pay gap 300–1
supportive work cultures 385
workaholism 380
as workplace obstacle 300–3, 374
favouritism, in-group 323
femininity/ies
discourse 132
doing gender 226, 227, 228
emphasized 109, 112, 237, 242
entrepreneurship 108–10, 116–24
excessive 117, 122–3
gay and bisexual men 468
individualized 117, 118–19
leader stereotypes 255, 256, 259–60, 262, 304
leadership 160, 205–6, 211, 213, 214–18
maternal 117, 119–20
men in caring occupations 480–1, 482, 490, 491, 492, 494, 495
negative intra-gender relations between women 229, 237, 242
postfeminism 111, 112, 114–15, 116–17
professional service firms 280
relational 117, 120–2
violence 139
feminism
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 419
entrepreneurship 107–8, 124
gender equality strategies 340, 347
globalization 37, 38
phallic order 103
and postfeminism 111
second-wave 17, 60, 63, 109, 115, 116, 124
symbolic approach and the linguistic turn 84–5, 86, 87
third wave 109, 124
see also specific feminisms
feminist organizational analysis, discursive review of 53–4, 67–8
feminist theory, organizational analysis, and changing discursive grounds 63–7
history and Management and Organization Studies 54–63
feminization of work 82
Ferguson, Kathy 65–6
financial sector 499–501, 507–14
discourses on management and masculinity 501–7
gendered organizations, theorizing 33
stockbrokers 25, 33
Finland, multinational corporations 528, 529
flexible working practices
impression management 278
pay gap 301
flow at work 379
Follett, Mary Parker 59–62
Frankfurt School 86
French feminism 85
Freud, Sigmund 95, 96
friendships, and negative intra-gender relations between women 225, 231–5, 241, 243, 244
Gantt, Henry 57
gay and bisexual men 460–3, 474–5
queer theory 470–4
sexualities 466–70
in the workplace 464–5
gay and bisexual women 468–9
non-traditional occupations 409
queer theory 473
in the workplace 464–5
geek leadership 431
gender-cultural feminism 114
gender diversity management 185, 303, 336, 340, 344
gender fatigue 184–5, 187, 192
gender in organizations, theorizing 19–20, 27, 28–9, 33–4, 39
through cognitive processes 21–3
gender = sex - women (and men) 20–1
organizational mechanisms of stratification 24–6
women’s position 23–4
gender schemas 298
gendered organizations, theorizing 20, 33–6, 39
doing/(un)doing gender 29–31
embodiment 31–2
masculinity, hierarchy, and the gender order 33
produced, producing, and reproducing 26–9
sexuality 32
gendering practices 30
Generation X 254
(p. 540) Generation Y 254
geocentric men 522–4, 526, 527
geographical mobility 402–5
ghettos, female 203, 216
Ghoshal, Sumantra 519, 524–6
Gilbreth, Lillian and Frank 57
glass ceiling 178, 186, 251, 302
gender in organizations, theorizing 21, 24
gender stereotypes 256
interventions 303
non-traditional occupations 395
glass cliff 161, 184, 202, 203, 252, 314–15, 328
archival evidence 315–16
experimental evidence 316–25
future research 326–7
gender in organizations, theorizing 21
non-traditional occupations 406
practical implications 327–8
glass escalator/elevator 21, 481
glass wall 178
global financial crisis (2008) 441, 499, 500–1, 507, 508, 509, 512, 531
global mindset managers 526–8, 532
globalization 37–8, 373–4
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 429
intersectional and transnational feminism 39–42
long work hours culture 375
gossip 236
Gottlieb, Howard 524–5
Govindarajan, Vijay 519, 526–8
Gupta, Anil 519, 526-8
Health and Safety at Work Act (UK, 1974) 360
health effects
long work hours culture 376–7
workaholism 279
health sector
female participation 1
male nurses 481, 482, 486, 488, 489, 490–1
heroic leadership 213, 424–5
heteronormativity 460–1, 464, 469
gendered organizations, theorizing 32
queer theory 471
home working 382–3
homophily, and negative intra-gender relations between women 225, 231–5, 241, 243, 244
homophobia 466, 469
homosociality
embodied perspective on men’s leadership 429–30
financial sector 508, 510, 511
in management 202
merit 273
in multinational corporations 523, 524, 531, 532
and negative intra-gender relations between women 225, 232–5, 241, 243, 244
non-traditional occupations 398, 403–4, 412
Hopkins, Harry 58, 59, 62
hostility in non-traditional occupations 403–11
human capital
as barrier to women in management 181, 201
merit 284, 285–6
and status 251, 253
Human Relations School 57, 62
human resources (HR) 203, 216
hypercompetitive ideology 278, 279–80
Ickes, Harold 58–9, 62
ideology, feminine leadership as 215–16
impression management 192, 269, 270, 285–6
conceptualization 273–5
gender factors 276–8
ingratiation 270, 275–6
and meritocracy 281–5
professional service firms 269–86
in-group favouritism 323
India, gender quotas 165
individual deficit model 178
individual gender equality strategies 335–7
individualism
abstract 20, 24, 27, 112
(p. 541) entrepreneurship 112–13, 116, 117, 118–19, 122
individualized consideration and promotion 157
induction process 399
informalism in multinational corporations 524, 525, 527, 528
ingratiation 270, 275–6
inspirational motivation 157
intensity of work 377–8
International Labor Organization (ILO) 18
internet harassment 357
interpersonal relationships
maintenance of 305
non-traditional occupations 407–8
intersectionality 27, 38–43, 67, 442
entrepreneurship 109
leadership 426–7
negative intra-gender relations between women 226
Japan
crisis management 323
long work hours culture 376
job shadowing 296
Jobs, Steve 430
Johansson, Leif 524
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss 64, 66
knowledge, gendering 30–1
labour force participation 251, 304
lack of fit model 254–5
laissez-faire leadership 155–6, 205, 209, 260, 261
Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities 423
gender stereotypes 259, 262
sexual harassment 355
leadership 200–19, 249–51, 262–3
attitudes 257–8
behaviour and effectiveness 258–62
career advancement 304–6
changing context of 165–6
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 417–32
effectiveness of female and male leaders 162–4
gender equality strategies 335
gender in organizations, theorizing 21, 29
‘great man’ theory 419
ideology of leading-ness 419–20
investigatory problems 206–9
merit and impression management within professional service firms 269–85
preferences 252–4
societal outcomes, effects of female leadership on 164–5
status 251–2, 253
stereotypes 254–7
training programmes 335
work–family conflict 301
see also management
leadership styles 204–7, 217, 304–5
sex-related 154–7
sexual harassment 355, 357
see also specific leadership styles
leaky pipeline metaphor, career obstacles 293, 294
legal sector 1, 2, 32, 269–70
legislation
affirmative action 190–1
anti-discrimination 183
equal employment opportunities 191
legislative bodies 158
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual (LGBT) people 464–5, 467, 472
liberal feminism
entrepreneurship 108, 111–12, 114, 119, 120
feminist vs housewife opposition 115
gender in organizations, theorizing 20
‘natural’ sexual difference 114
retreatism 115
liberal humanism 27
librarians 482
likeability vs self-promotion 301
linguistic turn and symbolism 84–7
lubricant, feminine leadership as 216
(p. 542) McCarthyism 56, 58, 59
madness 105
mainstreaming, gender 338
Maljers, Floris 525
management 201–3
barriers to women, gender differences in perceptions of 374
caring operations, men in 486
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 417–32
cultural obstacles facing women 373
directors of companies 1, 2, 163
female advancement 175–93
female advantage 153–66, 306
gender equality strategies 335, 342
glass cliff see glass cliff
history 54–6
long work hours culture 374–5
management development programmes 335
masculinities in 438–56, 499–514
multinational corporations 40–1, 517–31
negative intra-gender relations between women 223–44
non-traditional occupations 393, 396–7, 400, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 409, 412
organizational violation 356, 357
quotas, gender 342
think manager—think male see think manager—think male (TMTM) association
women in 371–2, 439–41
Women in Management research 20–1, 64–5, 249
women working in men’s cultures 371–2
workaholism 382
Management and Organization Studies (MOS)
development 54–63
discursive review 54–68
disembodiment 31
sexuality 32
theorizing gender-and-organization 17, 18, 19, 26, 29, 31, 32, 34, 42
management-by-exception
Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities 424
transactional leadership 259, 260–1
masculine ethic 201–2
masculinity/ies
contextualizing 417–32
de-masculinization of leadership ideals 212–14
discourse 132
doing gender 226, 227, 228
embodiment 33
entrepreneurship 108, 118–19, 120–3
financial sector 499–514
hegemonic 230, 233, 237, 242, 423, 424, 425, 443, 461–2, 484, 503, 508, 513, 530–1, 532–3
hidden 447–9
invisible 449–53
leadership 160, 204–5, 213–14, 217
leadership stereotypes 255–6, 257, 259–60, 262, 304
liberal feminism 112
in management 438–56, 499–514
multinational corporations 519–32
and negative intra-gender relations between women 229, 230, 235, 237, 242
non-traditional occupations, men in 480–95
non-traditional occupations, women in 408
persistent 453–4
postfeminism 114–15
professional services firms 280, 285
sexuality 460–75
and starting salary 298
threats to 408
violence 139
workaholism 382
workplace entry 297, 298
materiality 135–8, 142–4, 145–6
maternal discourse 105–6
maternal matrix 104
Mayer, Marissa 384
mentorship 187
career aspirations 296
glass ceiling interventions 303
non-traditional occupations 406–7
mergers and acquisitions 506
merit 269–70, 285–6
as barrier to women’s advancement in management 185, 189
(p. 543) conceptualization 270–3
entrepreneurship 118, 119
gender in organizations, theorizing 25, 27
gendered organizations, theorizing 29
impression management 281–5
multinational corporations 523, 527
pay gap 300
professional service firms 269–86
metrics 104
metrosexuality 104, 506
microenterprises 38
militarism and leadership, association between 420
mimetic processes 191
misogyny, female 224–5, 232, 236–7, 239–43, 244
mobility, geographical 402–5
modern sexism 183–4
Mohanty, C. T. 66
monitoring and control
erection symbolism 97–8, 101, 102–3
masculinities in management 446
metrics 104
morality see ethics and morality
motherhood
as barrier to women’s advancement in management 179, 180
mumpreneurs 117, 119–20, 121, 124
penalty 300–1
motivation, inspirational 157
multiculturalism 300
multinational/transnational corporations 517–18, 532–3
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 428
geocentric information 522–4
global mindset managers 526–8
globalization 37–8
‘ideal’ manager, disrupting the image of the 528–30
management texts revisited 520
managing 517–31
transnational business masculinity and its discontents 530–2
transnational managers 524–6
mumpreneurs 117, 119–20, 121, 124
negative intra-gender relations between women 223–5, 244
doing gender well and differently 225–8
female misogyny 239–43
gendered contexts 229–31
homophily, homosociality, and studies of gender 231–9
neo-liberalism
embodiment 31
globalization 37, 38, 39
individualism 113
meritocracy 279
Netherlands, gender quotas 342–5
network theory 225, 233, 234
networking
and leadership 209
non-traditional occupations 398, 404–5
New Deal 56, 58–9
newspaper editors 1
‘nonpreneurs’ 117, 122–3
non-traditional occupations, men in 480–3, 494–5, 505–6
doing masculinity 484–5
gender as practice and performance 483–4
gender resistance 485–7
masculine body performances 487–9
performing emotions, service, and masculinity 490–1
performing gender in space 491–4
non-traditional occupations, women in 393–7, 411–13, 505–6
career development 399–400
chilly climate 407–8
geographical mobility 402–5
glass cliff 406
recruitment 398–9
role models and mentors 406–7
selection and promotion 400–1
sexual harassment 408–11
socializing into the profession 405
structural barriers 397–8
threat to masculinity 408
working conditions 401–2
Norway, gender quotas 163–4, 342, 343, 344
nurses, male 481, 482, 486, 488, 489, 490–1
nurturance 259, 260
(p. 544) organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) 373
organizational communication studies 135–6
organizational psychology 420
organizational theory 17–19, 43
intersectional and transnational feminisms 39, 40, 42
negative intra-gender relations between women 226, 227, 234, 237
organizational violation 354, 355–7, 365
overtime 280
unpaid 383
parent care 301
patriarchal matrix 103–4
patriarchy
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 417, 428
negative intra-gender relations between women 230, 236, 239, 241
transnational 428
pay gap 300–1
expectations 295
gender in organizations, theorizing 25
interventions 302
non-traditional occupations 395
Penn State scandal 142–4
perceptions as barriers to female advancement in management 180–2
performativity see doing gender
Perkins, Frances 58, 59, 62
Perlmutter, Howard 519–20, 522–4, 525, 526, 527
personality, and transformational leadership 260
phallocentricity 97–100, 101–3
political sphere 1, 316, 326
positionality, and symbolism 87–91
postcolonialism 66–7, 108
post-equity approach to gender equality 333, 338, 339–41, 345–8
postfeminism 109–24
post-heroic leadership 213–14, 424
postmodernism
entrepreneurship 108
Management and Organization Studies 65
organizational cultures 78
symbolic approach and the linguistic turn 84, 86
poststructuralism
discourse 130, 132, 134, 136–7
discursive review 53
doing gender 483
entrepreneurship 108
leadership 206
Management and Organization Studies 65–6
men and masculinities 441–2, 448, 462
symbolic approach and the linguistic turn 84, 85
power
empowerment, and entrepreneurship 112–13
gender equality strategies 333, 334, 339, 340–1, 343–4, 345, 347–8
homosociality 430
multinational corporations 531
non-traditional occupations 403
organizational violation 355–7
sexual harassment 353, 354, 355–7
practising gender 89
pregnancy 32
presenteeism 377
Priapus 97
priests, women 393
family life 396, 412
geographical mobility 402
glass cliffs 406
homosociality 403
interpersonal relationships 407
recruitment 398
selection and promotion 400
sexual harassment 409
structural barriers 397
threats to masculinity 408
working conditions 401–2
Pringle, Judith K. 67
private sector, and sexual harassment 358
(p. 545) probationary periods 399
professional service firms (PSFs), merit and impression management within 269–70, 278–85, 285–6
conceptualizing impression management 273–5
conceptualizing merit 270–3
gender factors in use of impression management 276–8
ingratiation 275–6
self-promotion 275
professionalism 280–1, 283–5
entrepreneurship 122, 123
promotion
barriers 304–6
leadership styles 157
managers 256
meritocracy in professional service firms 279
non-traditional occupations, men in 481
non-traditional occupations, women in 396, 400–1, 402, 405, 408
ways to increase chances of 192
psychoanalytic feminism 108
psychological well-being 379
psychology
evolutionary 236
and management 201
organizational 420
social 85–6, 87
submission to 100
public sector
female participation 1
management 441
sexual harassment 358
sexual minorities 467
Queen Bees 224, 226, 243
queer theory 461, 464, 475
bisexualities 470–4
quotas, gender 333, 339, 342–8
India 165
Netherlands 342–5
Norway 163–4, 342, 343, 344
racial discrimination 184
radical equality strategies 337
radical feminism 108, 114, 132
rape 140, 141
ratification rituals 90
recruitment and selection
interventions 299
managers 210, 256
non-traditional occupations 398–9, 400–1, 403–4
stereotypes 297, 299
relational entrepreneurial femininity 117, 120–2
Renschler, Andreas 527
reproduction 32, 102
resistance
to gender equality strategies 333–4, 339, 341, 344–5, 346, 347–8
to loss of gendered power 449
by men in caring occupations 485–7, 493–4
retreatism 113, 115–16, 117, 119
rituals 88–9, 90
role congruity theory 255
role models
career aspirations 293–5, 296
non-traditional occupations, men in 482
non-traditional occupations, women in 406–7
role theory 22, 33, 297
roles, gender
as barrier to women’s advancement in management 179–80
leadership 249, 251, 255
salaries
financial sector 509–10
starting 298
see also pay gap
Salieri phenomenon 407
Sandberg, Cheryl 384
Sandusky, Jerry 142–3
Saudi Arabia, constraints on women’s work interests 188
Scandinavian countries, work–life balance in 189
scapegoating see glass cliff
scientific management 57, 58, 61–2
second sex 84
self-efficacy 294, 296
self-employment 107–10, 123–4, 212
postfeminism 110–23
self-perceptions and career aspirations 293–6
self-promotion and self-advocacy 192, 270, 275, 285
gender factors 276–7
vs likeability 301
Sex Discrimination Act (UK, 1975) 360
sexual difference, ‘natural’ 113–15, 116, 117, 119, 121
sexual harassment (SH) 353, 365–6
antecedents 354–5
best practice model 362–4
discourse 139, 140, 142
effects 359
legal and administrative responses 360
non face-to-face forms 357
non-traditional occupations 395, 408–11
policies 360–1
reporting 359–60
scale 353–4
sexuality, power, and organizational violation 355–7
tertiary interventions 362
training 361–2
victim 358
see also bullying; violence
sexuality/ies 460–75
embodiment 32
glass cliff 326
non-traditional occupations, men in 489, 492, 493, 494
non-traditional occupations, women in 409
of organization 463–4, 474
organizational violation 355–7
poststructuralism 65
short-term contracts, and sexual harassment 358
Slaughter, Anne-Marie 384
smart leadership 430–1
social capital 186–7
impression management 277, 278
management 203
merit 284, 285–6
negative intra-gender relations between women 225
social constructionism 86
social psychology 85–6, 87
social role theory 22, 297
socialist feminism 108
socialization
and leadership 209, 210, 217
negative intra-gender relations between women 230, 234
non-traditional occupations 405
socializing 203, 404–5
solidarity expectations 224
sponsorship 187
impression management 277, 278
Sri Lanka, career advancement strategies in 192–3
status
leadership 251–2, 253, 255
non-traditional occupations 395
status characteristics theory 22
status construction theory 255, 256
stereotype threat 298–9, 300
stereotypes
as barriers to female advancement in management 176, 180–2, 185, 186, 187, 191
career advancement 305, 306
career aspirations 294, 295
descriptive vs prescriptive 160–1
gay and bisexual men 468, 469, 471
gender in organizations, theorizing 21–2, 23, 24
gendered organizations, theorizing 27, 31, 33
glass ceiling 303
glass cliff 317–22, 323, 324, 328
impression management 275–6, 277
leadership 159, 160, 165, 166, 209, 219, 249, 252, 254–7, 258–60, 261, 262, 304–5
leadership studies 208
negative intra-gender relations between women 239, 240
(p. 547) same-sex friendships 232
violations 373
workplace entry 297, 298–9, 300
stockholders 25, 33
strategic discourse 504–5
stratification, organizational mechanisms of 24–6, 34
Strauss-Kahn, Dominique 140
stress 203, 382
structural factors in leadership 209–11
structural feminism 191
structural gender equality strategies 337–48
Sun Tse 95, 96, 100
supervisors
and career advancement 180, 305
work–family environment 303
supervisory attitudes 186
Sweden, financial sector 510
symbolic interactionism 483
symbolism 91–2
castration 101
discourse 136
erection 97, 98, 99, 101, 102–3
gender and organizational cultures 78–82
gender as the symbol of difference 76–8
positionality 88–91
symbolic approach and linguistic turn 84–7
tool kit of the symbolic researcher 82–4
violence 142
systems theory 86
task orientation 205, 255, 305
career advancement 306
transactional leadership 260
telephone harassment 357
teleworking 382–3
text–conversation dialectic 132, 133, 134
theoretical perspectives 17–19, 43–4
discourse 130–46
discursive review of feminist organizational analysis 53–68
entrepreneurship 107–23
gender in organizations vs gendering organizations 19–36
gendered organizations, gendered globalization, gendered work 37–8
intersectional and transnational feminist analyses 38–40
men’s wants 95–106
organizations as symbolic gendered orders 76–92
think crisis—think female (TCTF) association 21, 318, 319–20, 326
think manager—think male (TMTM) association 21, 159, 254, 255–6, 371
glass cliff 317–18, 319, 320–2, 326, 327
time pressures on managers 203
tokenism
gay and bisexual men 468
non-traditional occupations 407
touch 489
training and development
gender equality strategies 335, 336
sexual harassment 361
transactional leadership 155–6, 157, 205, 217, 260, 261
Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities 423
gender stereotypes 259
transformational leadership 155–6, 157, 165–6, 205, 209, 217, 431
career advancement 306
Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities 423
gender stereotypes 259–60, 262
glass cliff 318
transnational corporations see multinational/transnational corporations
transnationality
business masculinity 530–2
contextualizing men, masculinities, leadership, and management 427–9
feminism 38–43, 108
managers 524–6, 430
travel
and globalization 375
non-traditional occupations 402–5
undoing gender 29–31
leadership 211
men in caring occupations 495
negative intra-gender relations between women 226
(p. 548) uniforms, and sexual harassment 358
United Kingdom
entrepreneurship 107
financial sector 508
gender segregation 481
men in caring occupations 481
merit and health care allocation 271
political positions and the glass cliff 316, 326
sexual harassment 353, 354, 358, 360
United Nations 18
United States of America
career advancement strategies 193
entrepreneurship 107
female leadership 164
female top managers 191, 252, 301
glass cliff 326
leader stereotypes 254, 255
Management and Organization Studies 56, 58, 61
New Deal 56, 58–9
preferences for male vs female boss 252, 254
sexual harassment 354
socio-political struggles (1970s) 63
theorizing gender-and-organization 24, 25, 26, 43
women’s educational attainment and workplace status 251, 253
universalism and leadership 158, 159
unpaid overtime 383
values, leadership 158
van Houten, Donald 63–4
van Kleeck, Mary 58, 62
violence 354, 356, 365
discourse 138–44, 145
negative association of aggression with transformational leadership 259, 260
non-traditional occupations 409
Penn State scandal 142–4
virtual leadership 429–31
visibility 192, 270, 275
and gender quotas 347
in non-traditional occupations 406
volubility 23–4
wages see pay gap; salaries
war and leadership 420
web imagery, women’s management position 205
Weber, Max 57–8
Women in Management (WIM) research 20–1, 64–5, 249
work addiction 378–80, 381–2
work intensity 377–8
work–life balance 189
gender equality strategies 340
meritocracy 280
see also family life
workaholism and work addiction 378–80, 381–2
working conditions in women’s non-traditional occupations 401–2
working hours
effects 376–7
face time/presenteeism 377
long work hours culture 374–6, 384–5, 401
meritocracy 279–80
non-traditional occupations, women in 401
professional service firms 279–80
World Economic Forum (WEF) 18–19
Zaki, Wahib 524–5
zero tolerance towards sexual harassment 361