- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Contributors
- Theorizing Gender-and-Organization: Changing Times…Changing Theories?
- Disturbing Thoughts and Gendered Practices: A Discursive Review of Feminist Organizational Analysis
- Organizations as Symbolic Gendered Orders
- Was will der Mann?
- Feminism, Post-Feminism, and Emerging Femininities in Entrepreneurship
- ‘Meaning That Matters’: An Organizational Communication Perspective on Gender, Discourse, and Materiality
- Female Advantage: Revisited
- The Rocky Climb: Women’s Advancement in Management
- Leadership: A Matter of Gender?
- Negative Intra-Gender Relations between Women: Friendship, Competition, and Female Misogyny
- Sex, Gender, and Leadership: What Do Four Decades of Research Tell Us?
- Gendered Constructions of Merit and Impression Management within Professional Service Firms
- Gender and Careers: Obstacles and Opportunities
- The Glass Cliff: Examining Why Women Occupy Leadership Positions in Precarious Circumstances
- Power and Resistance in Gender Equality Strategies: Comparing Quotas and Small Wins
- Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
- Organizational Culture, Work Investments, and the Careers of Men: Disadvantages to Women?
- Challenging Gender Boundaries: Pressures and Constraints on Women in Non-Traditional Occupations
- Contextualizing Men, Masculinities, Leadership, and Management: Gender/Intersectionalities, Local/Transnational, Embodied/Virtual, Theory/Practice
- Masculinities in Management: Hidden, Invisible, and Persistent
- Masculinity and Sexuality at Work: Incorporating Gay and Bisexual Men’s Perspectives
- Doing Gender Differently: Men in Caring Occupations
- Masculinity in the Financial Sector
- Masculinities in Multinationals
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter attempts to reverse Freud’s famous question about what women want. Irigaray has said of Freud that he is not speaking of two sexes but of one: that when speaking of women, ‘The ‘feminine’ is always described in terms of deficiency or atrophy’ (Irigaray 1991: 119). Hence, the feminine is always defined by lack, by the desire for the male organ. As Irigaray contends, in Freudian theory, the feminine is defined as the necessary complement to the operation of male sexuality. The masculine defines, the feminine complies. The masculine creates and stages a text. It enacts via a verbal fiat. The feminine is placed in a position of deference to it: always the lesser, always in a position of supplication. Made to submit, women are repeatedly punished for their irremediable lack. This chapter speculates on the possibility of a discourse of maternity which might bring the possibility of social change.
Heather Höpfl, University of Essex, UK.
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