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date: 30 March 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is about women who have broken into non-traditional, male-dominated work. The overall aim of the chapter is to examine and analyse common pressures and constraints these women experience. These are particularly identified around three areas: the continuing over-representation of women in domestic responsibilities and its impact on their perceived professionalism; structural barriers in the way the occupations are performed; and finally hostile cultural environments within the workplace. It will use four exemplars of non-traditional occupations where the author has conducted qualitative empirical research; Civil Service management, academia, construction engineering, and the priesthood in the Church of England. The Civil Service was feminized but men retained the management of it; academia has been identified as one of the last bastions of male power; construction is the most male occupation after coal mining; and the Church of England refused to ordain women as priests until the 1990s.

Keywords: women, non-traditional occupations, pressures and constraints

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