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date: 13 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reviews four decades of research on the linkages among sex, gender, and leadership by examining status, preferences, stereotypes, attitudes, behaviours, and effectiveness associated with the leader role in relation to gender stereotypes and roles. First, it reviews women’s status over recent decades. Second, it considers preferences for male versus female leaders in general. Third, it compares leader stereotypes with gender stereotypes and examines whether leader stereotypes have changed over time. Fourth, it reviews attitudes towards female leaders. Fifth, it investigates whether (and if so, how) female and male managers differ in their behaviour and overall effectiveness as leaders. Finally, it considers implications for future theory, research, and practice.

Keywords: Sex, gender, leadership, status, preferences, stereotypes, attitudes, behaviour, effectiveness

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