- The Oxford Handbook of Skills and Training
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Skills and Training: Multiple Targets, Shifting Terrain
- Disciplinary Perspectives on Skill
- Skill Builders and the Evolution of National Vocational Training Systems
- The Changing Meaning of Skill: Still Contested, Still Important
- A New Social Construction of Skill
- Measuring Job Content: Skills, Technology, and Management Practices
- Accreditation and Assessment in Vocational Education and Training
- Education and Qualifications as Skills
- Pre-Employment Skill Formation in Australia and Germany
- Skill Development in Middle-level Occupations: The Role of Apprenticeship Training
- What Is Expected of Higher Education Graduates in the Twenty-first Century?
- Employer-Led In-Work Training and Skill Formation: The Challenges of Multi-Varied and Contingent Phenomena
- Unions, the Skills Agenda, and Workforce Development
- A Working Lifetime of Skill and Training Needs
- Skill Under-utilization
- Business Strategies and Skills
- Measuring Skills Stock, Job Skills, and Skills Mismatch
- The Individual Benefits of Investing in Skills
- The Economic and Social Benefits of Skills
- Theorizing Skill Formation in the Global Economy
- Different National Skill Systems
- Skill Ecosystems
- Employment Systems, Skills, and Knowledge
- Skill Demands and Developments in the Advanced Economies
- Approaches to Skills in the Asian Developmental States
- Emerging Economic Powers: The Transformation of the Skills Systems in China and India
- Projecting the Impact of Information Technology on Work and Skills in the 2030s
- International Skill Flows and Migration
- Professional Skills: Impact of Comparative Political Economy
- Skills and Training for the Older Population: Training the New Work Generation
- Rethinking Skills Development: Moving Beyond Competency-Based Training
- Who Pays for Skills?: Differing Perspectives on Who Should Pay and Why
- Current Challenges: Policy Lessons and Implications
- Author Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article critiques models of competency-based training in vocational education and training in Anglophone countries and contrasts it to ‘kompetenz’ in Germanic countries. It identifies six key problems with Competency-Based Training (CBT): first, CBT is tied to specific ensembles of workplace roles and requirements; second, the outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work as it currently exists; third, CBT does not provide adequate access to underpinning knowledge; fourth, CBT is based on the simplistic and behaviourist notion that processes of learning are identical with the skills that are to be learnt; fifth, the credibility of a qualification is based on trust, not what it says a person can do; and sixth, CBT is based on a notion of the human actor as the supervised worker. The article argues generic skills are not the alternative, and it uses a ‘modified’ version of the capabilities approach as the conceptual basis for qualifications.
Leesa Wheelahan is an associate professor and the William G. Davis Chair of Community College Leadership at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto. She has published widely on vocational education and training, competency-based training, the links between education and work, and post-secondary education policies. Her publications include Why Knowledge Matters: A Social Realist Argument (Routledge, 2012).
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