- Preface and Acknowledgements
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- China: Authoritarian Capitalism
- Hong Kong: Hybrid Capitalism as Catalyst
- India: From Failed Developmental State Towards Hybrid Market Capitalism
- Indonesia: Oligarchic Capitalism
- Japan: Coordinated Capitalism Between Institutional Change and Structural Inertia
- Laos: Frontier Capitalism
- Malaysia: Personal Capitalism
- The Philippines: Inequality–Trapped Capitalism
- Singapore: Open State-Led Capitalism
- South Korea: Plutocratic State-Led Capitalism Reconfiguring
- Taiwan: Sme-Oriented Capitalism in Transition
- Thailand: Post-Developmentalist Capitalism
- Vietnam: Post-State Capitalism
- Business Groups in Asia: An Institutional Perspective
- Corporate Governance and Business Systems in Asia
- Culture and the Business Systems of Asia
- Employment Relations and Human Resource Management in Asia: Explaining Patterns in Asian Societies
- Financial Systems in Asia: Where Politics Meets Development
- MNEs in Asian Business Systems
- National R&D Systems and Technology Development in Asia
- The Co-evolution of Global Sourcing of Business Support Functions and the Economic Development of Asian Emerging Economies
- Social Capital in Asia: Its Dual Nature and Function
- The Role of the State in Asian Business Systems
- A Survey of Strategic Behaviour and Firm Performance in Asia
- Pictures of the Past: Historical Influences in Contemporary Asian Business Systems
- Beyond Production: Changing Dynamics of Asian Business Groups
- Change and Continuity in East Asian Business Systems
- Asian Business Systems: Implications and Perspectives for Comparative Business Systems and Varieties of Capitalism Research
- Asian Business Systems: Implications for Managerial Practice
Abstract and Keywords
This article provides an overview of culture in Asia. Culture is defined as shared meaning interpreted in institutions in patterns that are best analysed through a complex adaptive systems framework. The understanding of the variety of Asian cultures begins with certain socio-economic givens, such as level of development. Data are then presented to reveal variations between societies in values, social axioms, and patterns of socializing. Clusters of countries are proposed, namely the Advanced Cities, Japan, the Advanced North-East, the Emerging South-East, and the Post-Socialist. The effects of culture on organizations are introduced via analysis of vertical order, horizontal order, and differences in rationale. This article contributes to the literature on business systems and varieties of capitalism as well as international management.
Gordon Redding is a professor of Asian Business and Comparative Management at INSEAD, Singapore, Professor Emeritus of Management Studies, University of Hong Kong and the Secretary General of the Head Foundation, Singapore.
Michael Harris Bond is Visiting Chair Professor of Psychology at the Department of Management and Marketing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
Michael A. Witt is a professor of Asian Business and Comparative Management at INSEAD, Singapore, and an Associate in Research at the Reischauer Institute, Harvard University, US.
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