Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 24 February 2020

(p. 745) Subject Index

(p. 745) Subject Index

accountability, and crisis leadership 422, 427
actor-specific behavioural models 328
adaptive leadership 213–14, 218
adhocracy 527
adversarial leadership 2, 692, 694, 695, 700
advocacy groups 349–50, 350–1
Afghanistan 72
African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) 665
African political leadership 659–60
Afro-centric perspective 660
attitudes towards 707–8, 712
benevolent dictatorship 667
biographical analysis 665
charismatic leadership 666
concept of 660–1
connotations of term 660, 661
dynastic trends 664
effective leadership 664
future research 666–8
hybrid leadership 667
lack of good leadership 664
leadership ethics 663
legitimacy of 665–6
marginalized status 660
military coups 668
personal rule and leadership styles 663–4
phases of scholarship on 661
populism 381
pre-colonial period 663
state of scholarship on 661–2
transformational leadership 664, 665
Ubuntu approach 662
visionary leadership 664
women leaders 667, 694
African Union (AU) 665, 667, 668
agency/structure dualism 11–12
feminist critique of 80–1
agenda-setting:
international organizations 597, 606
media’s role 411
rational choice theory 163–4
aggregative (majoritarian) democracy 44, 45–6
aggression levels, experimental research on 270
Albania 649, 655
ambiguity, dealing with 151
ambition 135
motivations for seeking power 135–7
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA, Peru) 381
Amsterdam Treaty (1997) 603
Andorra 72
Andrew, Hurricane 425
anthropology and political leadership 187, 188–9
action approaches to 182–3
authority 179
Big Men 180–1
chieftainships 180–1
contribution to study of 179, 189
cross-cultural and temporal variability of 176
cultural brokerage 183–4
definition of 178
importance of political leadership 177–8
institutions 188
Italian Mafia 188
nature of leadership 178–9
new areas of research 185
observational analysis 283–4
oratory 186
(p. 746) Pahktun tribes 182–3
patron-client relationships 183–4
recent studies 187–8
ritual and symbols 185, 187
shadow elite 187–8
small-scale societies 179–80
studies of 176–7
as system of social relationships 176, 179
transactional leadership 182–3, 184
Antwerp 50
Arab Spring 333, 353, 357, 386
Argentina 627
military rule 631
non-autocratic government 631
Perón’s leadership 629–30
populism in 381, 382
Armenia 644, 648, 652, 654
Asia, populism in 381
assembly democracy 43
leadership in 45–8
associates of leaders 95
impact of leadership style 122
at-a-distance analysis 296
assessment of psychological characteristics 296
automated content analysis 308
of behaviour 296–7
changes in psychological characteristics 303
computer-based coding systems 300–1
concerns over 301–2
conflict behaviour 303
connecting with other research programmes 309
contributions of 302–6
critical assessment of state of the art 306–8
democratic peace 304–5
development of larger datasets 301
diversionary theory 303
ex-revolutionaries’ success in governing 303–4
future research 308–9
increasing the scope of 308
integrative complexity 298–9, 303–4
lack of date 306–7
Leadership Trait Analysis (LTA) 299, 304
limitations of 306–7
methodological concerns 307
motive analysis 299–300
normative implications of 306
operational code analysis 300, 304–5
practical benefits of 306
psychobiography 297–8
qualitative approaches 297–8
quality of decision-making 303
quantitative approaches 297, 298
use of additional constructs 307
validity of 296, 301
verbal behaviour of subjects 298
Athens 34, 45, 47
austerity, and public administration 110
Australia 494, 495, 496, 536, 569
regional politics 566
representation of women 692, 698
Austria 49, 473, 477
Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ) 376, 382
authoritarian personality 392–3, 707
authoritarian regimes, institutional analysis of 205
authority:
civic leadership 354–6
conflation of leadership with 355
Confucian conception of 58
contraction during crises 126–7
forms of 179
leader-centred approaches 347–8
performance 261–2
political leadership 25
autocratic leadership:
identity interpretation 157
Latin America 628–31
Azerbaijan 652, 654
Baltic states 656
bandwagoning, and Chinese political leadership 620, 621
bargaining, and leadership:
presidential leadership 95, 197, 441–2
public service bargains (PSB) 523
Basque region 566
Behavioural Revolution 87
Belgian Flemish Interest (VB) 382
Belgium 49, 494, 498
populism 385
beliefs of leaders 120–1
decision-making 230
operational code 121, 300
strength of 121
Belize 72
benevolent dictatorship 667
Big Men, in anthropology of leadership 180–1
biographical analysis 314, 709
African political leadership 665
Chinese political leadership 619, 620
collective biography 318, 320, 619
comparative study of presidential leadership 318
deconstructive approach of postmodernism 318
examples of 319–22
factors influencing contemporary biography 315
feminist biographers 321–2
focused approach to leadership 317–18
future directions of 323–4
group biography 509
historical development of 314–16
indeterminacy 317
insider biography 321
ket debates in leadership biography 316–18
lessons learned from 322
limitations of 322
methodological considerations 316–17
practical implications for leadership analysis 323
prime ministerial power (UK) 513–14
psychobiography 297–8, 317–18, 320–1
regional political leadership 567–9
state of the art 322–3
Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA) 638
Bolivia 627
delegative democracy 636–7
Botswana 664
bounded rationality, and decision-making 227–8
brands, increasing use of 414
Brazil 628
legislative leadership 635
military rule 631
non-autocratic government 631
brinkmanship 419–20
Bulgaria 649
bureaucracy:
ethnographic studies of bureaucrats 106–8
representativeness of 106
study of bureaucratic elites 106
bureaucratic politics model of decision-making 228–9, 596
business leadership 267, 268, 272, 273, 363, 400, 550–1, 624, 662, 677, 683, 705, 709
cabinet leadership 6
cabinets:
collective responsibility 496
decision-making 537
prime ministers’ relationship with 496
see also ministers
California, referendum democracy 46
Canada 494, 495, 496, 534, 569
populism 380
representation of women 692, 698
career politicians 674, 676
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict 328
Catalonia region 566
caudillismo, and Latin American populism 381, 384–5
Central Europe, see post-communist leadership
character 135
charisma 89, 257
African political leadership 666
charismatic parties 383
contested nature of 244
coterie charisma 383
leader-follower relationship 711
meaning of 244–5, 382, 392–3
populist leadership 382–3, 386
positivist approaches to 244
power of 393
(p. 748) relational nature of 393
social construction of 244–6
strong/weak versions of 244
checks and balances 51
democratic political leadership 42
monitory democracy 43
Chile 631, 632
China, political leadership in 613
anti-rightist campaign 614
authority of position 618, 622
bandwagoning 620, 621
biographical analysis 619, 620
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 614, 619
collective biographical analysis 619
Cultural Revolution 614, 615
Deng Xiaoping’s era 615–17, 621
economic focus of 616
factional politics 622–3
future research 623–4
generational succession 617, 621
group cohesion indexes 621
historical perspective on 613–14
ideology 614–15, 616, 617
institutionalization of political power 618
leadership succession 615, 616
Mao Zedong’s era 614–15, 620–1
Mao Zedong Thought 615
military leadership 618–19
power-balancing 618, 622
power indexes 621
power structures 618–19
practical implications of theoretical debates 623
provincial leaders 618, 621–2
quantitative approaches 619, 621–2
regime legitimacy 623
research methods 619–20
systems approach to 620–1
theoretical debates 620–3
transformation in reform era 621
two-front leadership 615, 616
winner-takes-all model 617–18, 622
see also Confucianism
China, Republic of (ROC) 613–14
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 613, 614, 615, 619
factional politics 622–3
generational succession 617
leadership succession 615, 616
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference 614
citizen committees 47
civic leadership 347, 352–3
advocacy groups 349–50, 350–1
challenge to premisses of leadership 352–3
challenging power and legitimacy 352
civil society 348–52
constituted/non-constituted leadership 355–6
followers 356–8
future of 358
intention and causality 353–4
leadership as action 348
leadership without position and authority 354–6
non-coercive power 354
power 354, 356
spaces of 357–8
third sector 348–9
uncivil society groups 351
voluntary organizations 348, 349
CIVICUS 350
civil rights movement (USA) 354
followership 356–7
civil servants, relations with ministers 540–1
civil society:
advocacy groups 349–50, 350–1
civic leadership 348–52
conflation with third sector 348–9
contentious politics 351
deliberative democracy 351
distinctions within 350
meaning of 350
social movements 351–2
in southern hemisphere 350
transforming agenda of 350–1
voluntary organizations 348, 349
clientelism, in Latin America 384
climate change:
impact of leadership 591
perceptions of leaders 589–90
(p. 749) coalition governments:
constraints on ministerial autonomy 538–40
portfolio allocation theory 537
prime ministers in 495
removal of ministers 538
cohabitation, and semi-presidential systems 477–8, 480
collaborative governance, tensions with representative democracy 409–10
collaborative leadership 2
empirical evidence of networked leadership 407
in networks 406–7
public administration 109
skills required 407, 408–9
tensions with leader’s role in mediatized world 412–14
collective leadership, and consensus democracy 50
collective responsibility 496
Colombia:
non-autocratic government 632–3
presidential power 635
communication:
crisis leadership 426–7
prime ministers 497
communicative democracy 47
Communism, downfall of 642
Comparative Studies of Election Systems (CSES) 365
complexity, integrative 298–9, 303–4
complexity theory 354
conflict behaviour, and at-a-distance analysis 303
Confucianism 57–8, 69–70
acquisition of leadership qualities 61
authority of political leaders 58
centrality of leadership 57–8
delegation 64–5
gender hierarchy 60–1
ideal ruler-ruled relationship 58
inspirational leadership 62–4
leadership and generation of good political order 58–9
leadership qualities 61, 62
moral and political judgement 59
moral authority of leaders 63
officials’ practical knowledge 64
ordinary greatness 61–2
origins of 57
political authority 58
priority of leaders over institutions 59–60, 69–70
ren (benevolence) 57
role of leaders 70
selection of leaders 67–9
strategic vision and role of leaders 65–7
universal virtues 62
virtuous leaders 59, 60
yi (righteousness) 57
consensus democracy 44
collegial leadership 50
leadership in 49–50
Switzerland 46
Conservative Democracy Taskforce (UK) 505, 512
Conservative Party (UK) 494
constituted/non-constituted leadership 348, 355–6
constructivism 240, 241
contentious politics, and civil society 351
contextual analysis:
adaptive leadership 213–14, 218
assessment of approaches 217–20
challenge facing 221
contingency models 212–14
dealing with range of context factors 217–18
event-making and eventful leaders 211
executive leadership 216–17
future of 220–1
Greek writers 211–12
importance of context for leadership 210–11
institutionalist approaches 214–16
international relations 216
interpretive approach 219–20
leader’s relationship with prevailing orthodoxy 216–17, 446–7
local political leadership 551–4
Machiavelli 212
macro-approaches 216
methodological problems 218–19
(p. 750) modernist-empiricist approach 218–19
new institutionalism 215–16
ontological status of context 218–19
overview of the field 211–12
party rules for (de)selecting leaders 214–15
problem-centered approach 213
selection of contextual factors 219
situational theories 212
strength of context-leader causal nexus 220
when and how context matters 211
contingency theory of leadership 102, 118–20, 151, 707–8
contextual analysis 212–14
lack of evidence for 151
peace/crisis context 119–20
requirements for role 119
selection of leaders in different political systems 118–19
selection process 119
coordination 169
crisis leadership 425
hierarchical leadership 169–70
Copenhagen Accord 591
Copenhagen summit (2009) 591
core executive concept 205
comparative studies 519
prime ministerial advisory systems 521–2
prime ministerial power (UK) 506–8, 511
Costa Rica 627, 632
Côte d’Ivoire 664
counterfactuals 4
crisis leadership 418–19
account-giving after crisis 422, 427
authority-accountability nexus 421–2
crisis communication 426–7
decision-making 126–7, 419, 424–5
definition of crisis 420
distributed leadership 425–6
effectiveness of leaders 429
future research 428–9
information overload 423
international organizations 606
learning 423, 428
macro-level crises 420–1
making sense of crisis 422, 423–4
meaning-making 422, 426–7, 429
perceptions of crisis 421
prime ministers 498
public expectations of 418, 426, 428
roles of leaders 421–2
shaping responses 422, 424–6
social construction of crises 244
social science research on 419–21
strategic coordination 425
threat-rigidity thesis 424
critical discourse analysis 398
political nature of 399
Croatia 566, 651, 652
Cuba 631, 633
Cuban Missile Crisis 123–4, 227, 418
cultural brokers, political leaders as 183–4
cultural capital 187
Cultural Revolution 614, 615
culture:
context for leadership 396–7
language 399
cybernetic decision-making 227–8
Czechia 643, 647, 655
Czechoslovakia 655
Danish People’s Party (DFP) 382
deception and political leadership 94
Machiavelli 30
Plato 27
Weber 37
decision-making 9, 225
at-a-distance analysis 303
automatic/fast system 232
beliefs of leaders 230
bounded rationality/cybernetic models 227–8
bureaucratic politics model 228–9
cabinets 537
during crises 126–7, 419, 424–5
decisional biases 230–2
deduction versus induction 234
future research 235–6
group decision-making 231–2
groupthink 231
impact of experience on 127–8
impact of stress on leaders 123–4
importance of process relative to outcome 233
leadership style 230
(p. 751) local government 289–90
models of 225
multiple-advocacy model 231–2
network governance 406
operational code analysis 230, 235
organizational process model 228
personality of leaders 230
poliheuristic model 229
poliheuristic model of decision-making 235
polythink 232
prospect theory 229
rational choice/cognitive debate 232–5
rational choice model 226–7, 233, 234
reflective/slow system 232
tensions between leader’s role in networked/mediatized world 412–14
variety of cognitive models 234
delegation:
Confucianism 64–5
epistemic division of labour argument for 167
expressive voting 172
principled agents 171
rational choice theory 173
rational ignorance 167, 172, 173
strategic argument for 167–8
transaction cost argument for 166
voter behaviour 171–2
vulnerability argument for 166
delegative democracy:
features of 636
Latin America 627, 635–9
deliberative democracy 47, 351
rhetoric 260–3
demagogues 45, 256, 257
democratic leadership 41–2
aggregative (majoritarian) democracy 44, 45–6
assembly democracy 43, 45–8
checks and balances 42, 51
consensus democracy 44, 46, 49–50
dependence on leadership 42
dilemma of leaders in 8, 42
direct democracy 44
hybrid democracy 51–2
identity interpretation 157
indirect democracy 44
integrative (non-majoritarian) democracy 44
kaleidoscopic leadership 52
monitory democracy 43, 50–1
origins of democracy 43
paradox of 41, 42–3, 706
participatory democracy 44, 47–8
pendulum democracy 44, 46, 48–9
political leadership in 7–8, 38–9
populist democracy 383
possibility of 156
representative democracy 43, 48–50
selection of leaders 118–19
typology of democracies 44
voter democracy 44, 45–6
democratic peace, and at-a-distance analysis 304–5
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 664
democratization:
economic performance of post-communist states 654–5
impact of external conditionality 652
impact of historical factors 655–6
Latin America 633–5
optimal leadership model in post-communist states 644–5, 646–7, 648, 654
optimal time for producing new constitution 649, 650–1
parliamentary systems 645, 647–8, 656
political culture 655
presidential systems 645, 648
second-stage revolutions 651–2
semi-presidential systems 478–9, 648
type of leader and impact of 649–51
demographics, impact on leader selection 119
demos 45
Denmark 494, 526, 692
developing countries, attitudes towards political leadership 707–8, 712
development, and benevolent dictatorship 667
Developmental Leadership Program (DLP) 665
devolution, and regional political leadership 572
(p. 752) direct democracy 44, 165
participatory democracy 47–8
referendums and initiatives 46
voter democracy 45–6
directional leadership 585
discourse analysis 92, 253, 398
political nature of 399
discourse studies 399
discretion:
ministers 537
public administration 107–8
discursive institutionalism 204
discursive rhetoric 262–3
distributed leadership 2
crisis leadership 425–6
diversionary theory 303
divine right of kings 628
domination, and leader-led relationship 149
Dominican Republic 630
doxa 186
drama 396–7
drama democracy 404, 411–12
see also performance
Eastern Europe:
politics of dead bodies 187
populism 380
Easter Rising (1916) 304
Economist Intelligence Unit 645
Ecuador 627
delegative democracy 637–8
role of armed forces 633
effectiveness of leaders 212
Egyptian revolution 248–9, 353
electoral behaviour, see voter behaviour
electoral systems:
impact on leadership expectations 700
impact on party organization 203
impact on prime ministerial power 490
impact on women’s representation 692–3
elites 550
British political class 243
difficulties in identifying 550–1
elitism 379
shadow elite 187–8
study of bureaucratic elites 106
emotional deprivation 95
emotional intelligence (EQ) 5, 150, 320, 445
emotions, and rhetoric 393–4
epistemic communities 601
Estonia 643
ETA 566
ethics, and political leadership 96–7
African political leadership 663
Ethiopia 72
ethnographic studies of bureaucrats 106–8
Europe, attitudes towards political leadership 707, 712
European banking and debt crisis 110
European Central Bank (ECB) 602, 603, 604
European Coal and Steel Community 603
European Commission 188, 602, 603, 604, 607, 699
European Council, President of 604
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 602, 603, 604
European Economic Community 603
European External Action Service 604
European Parliament 188, 698–9
European Union:
agency of member states 596
anthropological studies of 188
competing bodies within 52
leadership in 602–4, 715
leadership role in climate change 589–90
regions 565
subsidiarity 572
evolutionary theory 272, 276, 277
executive leadership:
contextual analysis 216–17
delegative democracy in Latin America 635–9
old and new democracies 201
presidential and parliamentary systems 199–200
semi-presidential systems 200–1
veto players theorem 201
women leaders 696–8
(p. 753) experimental analysis of leadership 267–8, 277–8
advantages of experiments 268
aggression levels 270
biological and physiological approaches 276–7
counter-terrorism scenario 271
definitional and methodological problems 272–4
different forms of leadership 273
domain specific nature of leadership 273–4
evolutionary models 276, 277
facial expressions 271, 274–5
followership 270–1
future research 276–7
historical case-studies 268–9
historical overview of 268–72
impact of leadership style 270
key concerns of 272–4
leader-follower relationship 272
leadership training 270–1
legislative leadership 269–70
limitations of 275–6
need for accurate sample 271
perceptions of leaders 271
poliheuristic theory 271–2
recent developments in 274–5
small group research 269
State Department officials 269
use of eye-tracking technology 274
expressive voting 172
facial expressions, and perceptions of leaders 271, 274–5
facilitating leadership, in networks 406
factional politics, and Chinese political leadership 622–3
falsification thesis 247
federalism:
regional political leadership 570–1
women leaders 698, 701
feminalism 692
femininity:
social construction of 74
under-representation in political leadership 73
feminism:
agency/structure interdependence 80–1
biographical analysis 321–2
dynamic/strong objectivity 80
gendered concept of leadership 73, 82–3
gendered expectations of leaders and leadership 75–9
gender theories of leadership 78–9
meaning of feminist perspective 74–5
power 81–2
psychodynamic theories of leadership 78
rational-actor theories of leadership 77–8
scholarship of political leadership 72, 75
searching for silences 80
situational theories of leadership 78
trait-based theories of leadership 77
(un)representativeness of leaders 79–80
see also gender; women
Finland 72, 473, 496
representation of women 692
Fixed-Term Parliaments Act (2011, UK) 513
flexians 188
followers 6
civic leadership 356–8
experimental research 270–1, 272
leader-follower relationship 151–3, 357, 710–12
leader-followers interaction 118
leaders’ associates 95
recognition of leaders 583
For Thais Party (PTP) 381
Forza Italia 381
foundational texts, interpretation of 157
France:
mayors 557–8
populism 380
semi-presidentialism 472, 473, 476
Frankfurt School 399
Freedom House 645, 647
free spaces 357–8
gender 690, 701
academic neglect of female leaders 691
agency/structure interdependence 80–1
challenges in studying women leaders 690–1
Confucianism 60–1
distinction from sex 73–4
(p. 754) dynamic/strong objectivity 80
expectations of leaders and leadership 75–9, 691–2, 700
feminalism 692
femininities 74
feminist perspective 74–5
future research 699–701
gendered concept of leadership 73, 82–3, 94
gender expectations of men and women 74, 691–2
gender hierarchies 74
gender stereotypes 694–5
gender theories of leadership 78–9
historical and political time 700
masculine style of women leaders 696–7
masculinism 691–2
masculinities 74
populism 385, 386–7
post-communist leadership 651
power 81–2
privileging of male characteristics in leadership 73
psychodynamic theories of leadership 78
rational-actor theories of leadership 77–8
searching for silences 80
selection and election of women leaders 692–4
situational theories of leadership 78
social construction of 74
trait-based theories of leadership 77
under-theorization in leadership studies 72
(un)representativeness of leaders 79–80, 692
see also feminism; women
gender identity 701
general will, and populism 379
generational experiences 124
Georgia 643, 651, 652
Germany 49, 536, 553
populism 385
regional politics 566
unification of 210–11
Ghana 661
glasnost 656
global financial crisis, and storytelling 247–8
globalization 706, 712, 715, 716
governance systems and processes:
political leadership styles 2–3
tensions with representative democracy 409–10
‘great-man’ theory of leadership 12, 47–8, 76–7, 102, 149, 178
Carlyle 88–9
disillusion with 149
focus on individuals 150
international organization (IO) leadership 595–6
Greenpeace 349
group decision-making 231–2
group identity:
interpretation of 157
narrative construction 243
groupthink 231, 596
prime ministerial power (UK) 509–10
Grünen (German social movement) 47
Guatemala 632
Guinea 668
Guinea-Bissau 668
Guomindang (GMD) 613
habitus 176
Haiti 627, 628
hierarchical leadership:
coordination problems 169–70
identity interpretation 157
rational choice theory 168–70
historical institutionalism 197, 198
Honduras 638–9
Hungary 649
hybrid democracy, leadership in 51–2
Iceland 72, 473, 477, 695
idea-based leadership 585
identity entrepreneurs 154–5
illness, and leadership 92
image:
construction of leader’s image 154–5
in drama democracy 412
impeachment 439n1
impossibility theorem 163
indirect democracy 44
(p. 755) inequity:
leader-follower relationship 151–2
post-communist states 655
initiatives:
Switzerland 46
United States 46
inspirational leadership, Confucianism 62–4
institutional analysis of political leadership 195–6
authoritarian regimes 205
choice of subjects 205
complexity of political regimes 201
contextual analysis 214–16
core executive concept 205
discursive institutionalism 204
evolution of 196–9
executive leadership 199–201
future research 205
historical institutionalism 197, 198
informal institutions 205
institutions as constraints 198
interpretative institutional analysis 204–5
legislative leadership 202–3
new institutionalism 197–8, 215–16
old and new democracies 201
old institutionalism 196–7, 198, 214
parliamentary systems 199–200, 202–3
party leadership 203
practical relevance of 206
presidential systems 199–200, 202
rational choice institutionalism 197, 198
semi-presidential systems 200–1
social movements 204
sociological institutionalism 197, 198
veto players theorem 201
institutional design, and political leadership styles 2–3
institutional integrity 104
institutional leadership, and public administration 103–4
institutions:
anthropological studies of 188
Confucian attitudes towards 59–60, 69–70
context for leadership 396
defining 195–6
impact on political leadership 6
instrumental leadership 585–6
public administration 102–3
integrative (non-majoritarian) democracy 44
integrative complexity 298–9, 303–4
intelligence 139–40, 154
intention and leadership 353–4
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 596
intergovernmental theory, and regional political leadership 571–2
international cooperation:
agenda negotiation 581
classic works on leadership 587–8
collective entities as leaders 582
complexity of issues 581
difficulty in establishing 580–1
directional leadership 585
fixed preferences of bargaining states 581
formal role of leaders 583
future research on international leadership 591–2
idea-based leadership 585
impact of leadership 590–1
importance of leadership 580, 581
instrumental leadership 585–6
key components of leadership 581–4
modes of leadership 583, 584–6
objectives of leaders 584
obstacles to 581
perceptions of leaders 589–90
personal qualities of leaders 582
recognition of leaders 583
requirements for effective leadership 586–7
research on leadership 588–9
structural leadership 585
International Crisis Behavior (ICB) 235
International Labour Organization (ILO) 598
international law 97
International Monetary Fund 694, 716
international organization (IO) leadership:
acquiring independence from states 599
agency of international organizations 596–7
agenda-setting 597, 606
(p. 756) approaches to analysis of in political science 595–7
assets of secretary-general 600
coalition building 607
crisis leadership 606
entrepreneurial leaders 601
epistemic communities 601
European Union 602–4
factors affecting 596
failed leadership 604–5
hero-in-history approach 595–6
impartiality and neutrality 597
implementation leadership 606–7
leadership style 602, 605
leader-versus-clerk approach 598
limited research on 595, 596
nature of 715
norm entrepreneurs 601
organizational theory approach 598–9, 605
principal-agent models 596–7
problem-solving 605–6
regime theory 600–1
relationship with states 596–7, 599
requirements for success 600
role of secretary-general 598, 599, 600, 605–6
typology of 601
United Nations 601–2
women leaders 698–9
international relations:
macro-conceptions of context 216
realist paradigm 595
Internet, and presidential communication 457, 466
Inter-Parliamentary Union 682
interpretative institutional analysis 204–5
interpretive contextual analysis 219–20
IO BIO Project 600
Iran, impact of leadership style 122
Iraq 72
Iraq War 97, 247
Ireland 473, 474, 476, 694–5
Irish Citizens Army 304
Irish Volunteers 304
Italy 536
Mafia 188
Justicialist Party (PJ, Argentina) 381
kaleidoscopic leadership 52
Katrina, Hurricane 424, 425
Kazakhstan 644, 654
kibbutz 47
Kosovo 304–5, 655
Kyrgyzstan 651, 652
Labor Party (Australia) 538
Labour Party (New Zealand) 693
Labour Party (UK) 494, 538, 693, 697
language:
culture 399
performative nature of 242
politics of 246
social constructionism 241–2
structuralism 398
Latin America 627
bureaucratic authoritarianism 630–1
caudillismo 381, 384–5
classification of countries 634
clientelism 384
coalition governments 632–3
colonial period 628
delegative democracy 627, 635–9
impact of American military intervention 630
legislative leadership 634–5
military-civilian coalitions 634
military constraints on leaders 627
military officers elected as presidents 629–30
military personalism 629
military rule during Cold War 630–1
non-autocratic government 631–3
one-party rule 631
populism in 378, 381, 384–5
post-independence autocracy 628–31
presidents’ extensive authority 634, 635–9
studies of leadership in 639–40
third wave of democratization 627, 633–5
tradition of strong leaders 627
women leaders 693
leader democracy 383, 648–9, 656
leader-follower relationship 151–3, 710–11
charisma 711
(p. 757) future research 711–12
identity interpretation 157
patron-client relationships 183–4
reciprocity 178
social identity models 153–7
transactional models 151–2
transformational models 152–3
as zero-sum game 153
leader-member-exchange (LMX) theory 152
leadership:
as action 348
centrality to social activity 25
constituted/non-constituted 348, 355–6
cultural context of 396–7
definition of 178, 363, 582
directional leadership 585
distinction from authority 348
first appearance of term in dictionaries 25
idea-based leadership 585
institutional context of 396
instrumental leadership 102–3, 585–6
key components of 581–4
modes of 584–6
objectives of 584
as relational concept 583, 691
requirements for effective leadership 586–7
structural leadership 585
leadership capital 187
leadership education 15–16
leadership studies:
agency/structure dualism 11–12
assessing success or failure 13–14
context of leadership 11
democracy 7–8
development in 20th and early 21st centuries 707–11
development of 3
follower perspective 6
leader-centred approaches 3–6
leaders’ associates 95
leadership as a cause 8–10
leadership as a consequence 10–11
leadership as art 14–15
leadership as profession 15–16
luck 12
multi-disciplinary nature of 90, 690–1
process-based approaches 6–7
science of leadership 15
statistical approaches 93
leadership style 121–2, 707
African political leadership 663–4
challenging or respecting constraints 122
decision-making 230
experimental research on impact of 270
institutional design 2–3
in international organizations 602, 605
longevity in office 127
regional political leadership 569
unconscious motivation 140–1
women leaders 696
Leadership Trait Analysis (LTA) 299, 304
leadership types 144
League of Nations 443, 598
Covenant of 596
learning, and crisis leadership 423, 428
least-preferred co-worker (LPC) theory 151
legislative leadership:
impact of leaders’ motivations 122–3
institutional analysis of 202–3
parliamentary systems 202–3
presidential systems 202
women leaders 694–5
Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) 538
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) 383
liberalism, and leadership 256–8
life history, and public administration 108–9
linguistic ritual 186
Lisbon Treaty (2009) 603, 604
local political leadership 549–50
access to central government 552
capabilities of leaders 552
centre-local context 553
communication skills 556
constitutional context 553, 559
contextual factors 551–4
contradictory skills required by 556
decision-making 289–90
degree of change in 552
(de)politicization 552–3
developing community networks 556
developments in study of 550–1
difficulties with cross-national comparative studies 558–9
domestic comparative studies 560
effective leadership 559
future research 560
hierarchical leadership 551–2
ideological leaders 556
influences on behaviour 554
mutuality of leadership 551
Netherlands 557
personal factors 555–8, 559–60
reasons for studying 558
relationship with local managerial elite 555
task achievement 554–5
Lois (First Nation tribal elder) 355
Lomé Declaration 668
longevity of leaders:
leadership style 215
party selection and removal regime 215
luck 12, 29, 30
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 603
Mafia 188
Malawi 664
Mali 668
management studies, and observational analysis 284
manipulation, and leadership 94
Maori leadership 184
Marxism 89, 399
masculinity:
gendered expectations of leaders and leadership 75–6, 691–2
masculinism 691–2
relationship with leadership 181
social construction of 74
trait-based theories of leadership 76–7
see also gender
Mauritania 668
mayors:
Dutch mayors 52, 557
elected mayors 51, 558
French mayors 557–8
political leadership 48–9
meaning-making, and crisis leadership 422, 426–7, 429
median voter theorem 162n5
mediatization 261, 262, 369
attention to complex decision-making in networks 411
authority-disorder bias in news 410
conflict framing 413
drama democracy 404, 411–12
dramatization of news 410
fragmentation of new 410
informational biases in news provision 410–11
personalization of news 410
political leadership 411–12
profile of leader 413
short-termism 413
tensions with leader’s role in networks 412–14
Melanesia, Big Men in 180–1
Melbourne Psychosocial Group 144
Merina (Madagascar) 186
Mexico 627
military personalism 629
non-autocratic government 631
one-party rule 631
Micronesia 72
ministers:
advisers 541
appointment and removal of 508–9, 537–8
autonomy of 537
characteristics of 533–4
collective decision-making as restraint on 539
constraints on autonomy of 538–40, 542
departmental capture 540–1
departmental role 534
different meanings of term 533
difficulties in studying 532–3
disinterest in departmental management 534
doubts over leadership role 533
non-party technocrats 535, 536
outsiders 535
paucity of studies of role of 532–3
political role 534–5
as powerful leaders 6
recruitment pool 536
relations with civil servants 540–1
(p. 759) requirement of being a member of parliament 535
roles of 534–5
selection of 494–5
specialized expertise 536, 541
women as 697, 698
missionary politics 383
mobilization 155
Moldova 643
Mombasa Declaration (2004) 177
Mongolia 478
monitory democracy 43, 50–1
motivation of leaders 122–3, 584
at-a-distance analysis 299–300
doing a good job 137
mismatch with leadership position 123
reasons for seeking power 135–7
unconscious motivation 140–3
Movimiento a Socialismo (MAS, Bolivia) 637
Mozambique 474, 476
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 153
multilateral cooperation, see international cooperation
multiple-advocacy model of decision-making 232
multi-state organizations, and political leadership in 715–16
myths 243
narcissistic personality 333–6
Saddam Hussein 336–7
Narodniki 380
narratives 242–3
political leadership 243
as sense-making devices 243
National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 618
National Communication Association 398
National Front (NF, France) 381, 383
nationalism 187
National People’s Congress (NPC, China) 618
Nauru 72
neo-managerialism 105
Netherlands 49, 50, 494, 495, 496, 499, 536
mayors 52, 557
Zuidplas Polder development 403–4
network governance 404
complex decision-making processes 406
definition of 406
effective political leadership 404
empirical evidence of networked leadership 407
facilitating leadership 406
interdependencies 405–6
leadership strategies 406–7
long-termism 413
network management 406–7
policymaking 404, 405
political leadership in 408–9
public administration 109
tensions with leader’s role in mediatized world 412–14
tensions with representative democracy 409–10
trust 407–8, 409, 413
New Labour (UK), and populist style 378
new media:
political polarization 466
presidential communication 457, 466
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 665
new public management 518, 540, 552
news:
content of presidential news 463
informational biases in provision of 410–11
presidential news management 461–2
prime ministerial news management 497
tone of presidential news 464–5
see also mediatization
New Social and Political Movements 47
New Zealand 494, 509, 538
representation of women 692, 693
Nicaragua 72
democratization 633
impact of American military intervention 630
Nice Treaty (1999) 603
Niger 668
Nigeria 666
9/11, different interpretations of 126
non-governmental organizations:
civic leadership 348
as political leaders 3–4
see also civil society
(p. 760) norm entrepreneurs 601
Northern League 376
Norway 72, 692
nudging 232n3
observational analysis of political leaders 281–2, 292–3
access difficulties 282, 285–6
administrative leadership 284
aims of 282–3
anthropological studies 283–4
collaborative approach 287–8
creativity of political leaders 291–2
credibility of account 288
decision-making in local government 289–90
field notes 287
informal rules and conventions 290–1
key works and recent literature 283–5
maintaining objectivity 287
making sense of observations 287–8
methodological considerations 285–9, 292
naturalistic research approach 282
observer participation 286
organizational studies and management 284
organization of political life 291
participant observation 286
political science studies 284–5
rarity of 281, 282
relevance of insights 288–9
rewards of 282–3
sociological studies 284
status of observer 286
subjectivity of observer 287–8
obsessive-compulsive personality 337–9
Menachem Begin 339–40
Occupy Wall Street 376, 385, 386
oligarchy 47, 550
factors encouraging 33–4
party organization 364
One Nation (Australia) 381
operational code of leaders 121
at-a-distance analysis 300, 304–5
decision-making 230, 235
oratory 186
see also rhetoric
organizational culture 6
organizational process model of decision-making 228
organizational psychology, and training and development of leadership 674
organizational studies, and observational analysis 284
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 661
organization theory 212
international organization (IO) leadership 598–9, 605
Pahktuns 182–3
Palau 72
Panama 627, 633
Papua New Guinea, Big Men in 180–1
Paraguay 629, 633
paranoid personality 340–2
Joseph Stalin 342–3
Paris commune 47
parliamentary systems:
collective responsibility 496
democratization 645, 647–8, 656
executive leadership in 199–200
legislative leadership 202–3
oppositional leadership 203
presidentialization 369
principal-agent models 492
question times 496–7
participant observation 286
participatory democracy 44
leadership in 47–8
populism 384
participatory planning and budgeting 47
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Mexico) 631
Party for Freedom (PVV, Netherlands) 381
party leadership 362–3
impact on democratic process 372
impact on electoral behaviour 362, 365, 366–9, 371, 372
importance for party organization 362, 364, 370
institutional analysis of 203
longevity in office 127, 215
(p. 761) media exposure 368
neglect of 362–3
permanent campaigning 366
personalization 368, 369–70, 372
presidentialization 369, 370–1, 372
selection of 6–7, 214–15, 366, 370, 494
women leaders 694–5
party organization 364
as agents of the state 366
cartel party 365–6
changes in 365, 371–2
hollowing out of 366
impact of electoral systems 203
importance of party leadership 362, 364, 370
oligarchy 364
personalization 369–70
presidentialization 370–1, 372
selection of leaders 366, 370
stratarchical 365, 372
path-goal theory 213
patron-client relationships 183–4
pendulum democracy 44
leadership in 48–9
United States 46
People’s Advocate (California) 46
People’s Party (USA) 380
People’s Republic of China (PRC) 613, 614
perceptions of leaders 150
experimental research 271
facial expressions 271
international cooperation 589–90
perforated sovereignty 571
performance:
authority 261–2
cultural context of 396–7
deliberative dramaturgy 261
discursive rhetoric 262–3
drama 396–7
drama democracy 411–12
first-wave deliberative democracy 260–1
institutional context of 396
leader/audience relationship 389, 391, 393–4
performative analysis 253
performative power of rhetoric 254
political leadership as 186, 242
vision 394–5
personality and leadership 92, 150, 676
attitudes towards leadership position 94–5
decision-making 230
low self-esteem 117, 135–6
presidential leadership 442–6
personality profiling analysis 328, 333–6
conceptual framework and organization design 329–30
formative years of subject 331–3
Joseph Stalin 342–3
life transitions 332
Menachem Begin 339–40
narcissistic personality 333–6
obsessive-compulsive personality 337–9
paranoid personality 340–2
parts of 331
personality assessment 331
psychobiography 331–3
reasons for development of 331
Saddam Hussein 336–7
personalization 368, 369–70, 372, 410
prime ministers 506
persuasion, and leadership 95, 197, 441–2
Peru:
military rule 631
populism 381
role of armed forces 633
plebiscitary democracy 256–7
pluralism 379–80
plurinational democracy 571
Poland 478, 643, 649
polarization:
impact of new media 466
presidential leadership 465–6
policymaking, in network society 404, 405
poliheuristic theory:
decision-making 229, 235
experimental research 271–2
polis 35, 45
political advisers 229, 400, 495, 519, 521, 522, 526, 528, 541
political capital 10
(p. 762) political culture:
leadership behaviour 554
post-communist states 655
political entrepreneurship 164–5
populism 378
political leaders:
characteristics of 5
diversity of 3–4
interactive-leaders/power wielders distinction 7
luck 12
personal qualities 12
personal style 5
psychological study of 4–5, 91–2
self-defeating behaviour 4
political leadership:
area-based attitudes towards 706–8, 712–13
as art 14–15
assessing success or failure 13–14
attitudes towards 706–8, 712–13
authority 25
as category of behaviour 178
as cause 8–10
changing character of 706
compromise 715
as consequence 10–11
contemporary patterns of 706–8
as contested concept 705
decision-making 9
in democracies 7–8, 706
developments in study of (20th and early 21st centuries) 707–11
different types of 267
divided views on 1–2
follower perspective 6, 710–12
future research 711–12
globalization 706, 712, 715, 716
impact of 705
influences on behaviour 554
institutional design 2–3
instruments of 713–15
leader-centred approaches 3–6, 347–8
multi-state organizations 715–16
need for comparative research on 713
as office-holding 178
as poorly understood concept 176
power 25
process-based approaches 6–7
as profession 15–16
puzzling nature of 1
renewed interest in 17, 267
smart power 714
soft power 706, 713–14
storytelling 13
subjective nature of 710
tensions between leader’s role in networked/mediatized world 412–14
in Third World 707–8, 712
in United States 706–7, 712
in Western Europe 707, 712
political psychology 117, 128
backgrounds of leaders 124–5
beliefs of leaders 120–1
compensation for low self-esteem 117, 135–6
contingency theory of leadership 118–20, 151
contraction of authority during crises 126–7
decision-making in crises 126–7
experience of leaders 124, 127–8
factors influencing who becomes a leader 117–20
generational experiences 124
impact of characteristics on behaviour 125–8
impact of first political position 125–8
interaction of leader and context 118
leader-followers interaction 118
leadership style 121–2
motivation of leaders 122–3
operational code of leaders 121
peace/crisis context 119–20
personal characteristics of leaders 120–5
problem interpretation 126
reactions to stress 123–4
requirements for leadership role 119
selection of leaders in different political systems 118–19
selection process 119
training in 134
political science and political leadership 87, 98
(p. 763) Aristotle 88
Carlyle’s ‘great man’ thesis 88–9
charisma 89
contemporary research 90–1
ethics 96–7
gender 94
leaders’ associates 95
Machiavelli 88
manipulation 94
model-building 97–8
observational analysis 284–5
Plato 88
presidential leadership 95–6
psychological approaches 91–2
rational-actor theories of leadership 94
rhetoric 92–3
situational nature of leadership 95–6
statistical approaches to 93
transactional leadership 91, 102–3
transformational leadership 91, 102–3
Weber 89
political systems, and selection of leaders 118–19
political thought, see Western political thought
Polynesia, chiefs in 180–1
polythink, and decision-making 232
popular sovereignty 41, 42
Rousseau 32–3
populism:
Africa 381
American populism 380, 385
Asia 381
caudillismo 381, 384–5
charismatic leadership 382–3, 386
charismatic parties 383
as contested concept 376
core concepts of 379
definition of 377–80, 386
demand for 379
as a discourse 377–8
elitism and pluralism as opposites of 379–80
European populism 380, 381–2, 385–6
future research 387
gender 385, 386–7
general will 379
Latin America 381, 384–5
leaderless populism 385–6
as Manichean world view or ideology 377, 379, 386
minimal concept of 379
missionary politics 383
participatory democracy 384
as a pathology 378
political parties 381–2
as political strategy 378
as political style 378
populist democracy 383
pure people/corrupt elite distinction 377–8, 379, 384, 386
realignment of party system 382
relationship with leadership 376–7, 378–9, 381–2, 386, 387
reliance on leaders 376
Russian Narodniki 380
as thine-centered ideology 379
populist leadership 89
portfolio allocation theory 537
Portugal 473
post-communist leadership 642–3
citizen preferences for effective leadership 654
economic performance 654–5
future research 656
gender of leaders 651
historical context 655–6
impact of external conditionality 652
inequality 655
key debates on 643–52
leader democracy 648–9, 656
leadership arrangements and democracy level 645, 646–7, 648
lessons learned from 653–4
multiple objectives of 643
nature of political system 644
optimal leadership model for democratization 644–9
optimal leadership model in post-communist states 654
optimal time for producing new constitution 649, 650–1
(p. 764) political culture 655
presidential 644
president-parliamentarism 644
second-stage revolutions 651–2
semi-parliamentary 644
semi-presidentialism 644
significant literature on 652–3
type of leader and impact of 649–51
power:
civic leadership 354, 356
feminist perspective on 81–2
leader-follower relationship 152
non-coercive forms 354, 356
political leadership 25
soft power 706, 713–14
power-wielders 7
presidential approval:
impact of foreign and domestic travel 459
impact of speeches 459
presidential communication 455
altering public’s policy preferences 460
comparative approach to 466–7
content of presidential news 463
decline in impact of speeches 459–60
defensive nature of 466
focus of research 455
goal conflict with news media 461
growth of 456– 7
image goals 456
impact of political polarization 458, 460, 465–6
impact on approval ratings 459
influencing the public’s agenda 458–9
Internet and social media 457, 466
limitations of research on 465–6
local-based strategy 465
news management strategies 461–2
objectives of 456
policy achievement 456
press conferences 457
quantity of news coverage 462–3
tone of presidential news 464–5
Washington’s influence of 455–6
presidentialization 369, 370–1, 372
prime ministers 506
presidential leadership:
appeals for public support 450
assessment of research on 450–1
attitudes towards leadership position 94–5
Barber’s Presidential Character 443–4
bargaining and persuasion 95, 197, 441–2
comparison with prime ministers 490–1
constraints on 49, 440, 449
contextual constraints 444
difficulties with quantitative approaches 440–1
emotional intelligence (EQ) 150, 320, 445
foreign policy 449–50
future research 452
Georges’ analysis of Woodrow Wilson 443
Greenstein’s writings on 444–5
historical/structural approaches 446–8
impact of political polarization 465–6
increased status of office 449
limitations of command power 442
modern presidency 448–9
Neustadt’s Presidential Power 441–2
personality approaches to 442–6
postmodern presidency 449–50
pre-modern presidency 448
psychobiography 445–6
qualitative studies of 441
relationship with prevailing orthodoxy 216–17, 446–7
rhetorical presidencies 258–60
situational nature of 95–6
Skowronek’s The Politics President’s Make 216–17, 446–8
Two Presidencies thesis 449
unitary nature of presidential power 439–40
presidential systems:
democratization 645, 648
executive leadership in 199–200
executive-legislative relations 202
legislative leadership 202
prestige of leaders 149
prime ministerial advisory systems 517–18
advisory structures 518–20
challenges in studying 525–6
changes in advisory structure 519
comparative studies 519, 525
(p. 765) constitutional role of civil servants 520–1
contestable advice 522
core executive approach 521–2
cross-national convergence 524, 526, 527
demarcating political and non-political advice 528
diversity of advisory structures 519
forward-mapping approach 523
functions of advisory structures 520
future research 528–9
government traditions 526
growth in advisory capacity 523–4, 527
hybridization of advice 528
individual country case studies 518–19
institutionalization of advice 527–8
major scholarly contributions on 524–5
path dependency 526
politicization of advice 528
prime ministerial agency 526–7
principal-agent models 522
public service bargain 523
rational choice approach 522–3
research findings 526–7
reverse-mapping approach 523–4
sources of advice 519
studies of dominant leaders 525
trends in 524
Westminster model 520–1
prime ministerial power (UK):
administrative support for 512
agency theory 509
appointment and removal of ministers 508–9, 537–8
assessing exercise of 512
biographical analysis 513–14
Cabinet Manual 503
in coalition government 512–13
contingencies 504–6, 507, 509
conventions 503
core executive approach 506–7, 511
debates over 491–3
development of study of 504–6
errors in literature on 510–11
fluctuation of 507
future research 512–14
group biography approach 509
groupthink 509–10
growth of 505
historical/political science analysis of 513–14
limitations on 503–4
outcomes as measure of 511–12
personal authority 504
personalization 506
presidentialization 506
prime ministerial dominance 506
prime ministerial predominance 507
public leadership 504
relation between style and outcomes 510
statecraft model 508
prime ministers:
characteristics of 489–90
civil-service support for 495–6
in coalition governments 495
collective responsibility 496
comparison with presidents 490–1
constraints on 6–7, 49, 495
core executive approach 507–8
crisis leadership 498
debates over powers of 491–3
electoral systems’ impact on power of 490
future research 499–500
as head of collective governments 490
impact of changes in communications technology 497
institutional framework 499
international summits 490, 498–9
minister selection 494–5
news management 497
opportunities for leadership 489
in parliament 496–7
as party leaders 489, 494–5
party selection and removal systems 494
personal advisers 495–6
prerogatives of 493, 495
priorities of 493, 498
public expectations of 499
as public figures 490, 496–9
rational choice institutionalism 492
relationship with cabinet 496
reliance on parliamentary support 489–90
(p. 766) principal-agent theory 164, 173
agency slack 597
agent autonomy 597
asymmetric information 597
incentives 170
international organizations 596–7
parliamentary systems 492
power of appointment 509
prime ministerial advisory systems 522
principled agents 171
selection of agents 170–1
shirking 597
slippage 597
transaction cost argument for delegation 166
Privy Council Office (Canada) 493
problem-solving:
adaptive leadership 213–14
contextual analysis 213
international organizations 605–6
interpretation of problems 126
in network society 405
tensions between leader’s role in networked/mediatized world 412–14
wicked problems 405
product substitution theory 465
professionalization of leadership 15–16
Progressive Conservative Party (Canada) 695
prosopography 316
prospect theory, and decision-making 229
prototypical group members 154
psychoanalysis 132, 145–6, 707
adulthood of political leaders 137–9
ambition 135
basic tenets of 134–5
character 135
compensation for low self-esteem 135–6
controversy over application to political leadership 132
core insights of 145
development of psychological patterns 135
diversity of psychoanalytic theory 133
eight stages of man 138
embedded patterns 139–40
impact of globalization 143–4
layered patterns 139
Little’s theory of leadership 144–5
motivations for seeking power 135–7
myths and misconceptions 134
role in understanding political leaders 132–3, 145–6
training in 133–4
unconscious motivation 140–3
validation of self-esteem 136
psychobiography 297–8, 317–18, 320–1, 445–6
life transitions 332
personality profiling analysis 331–3
psychodynamic theories of leadership 78
psychopathology 707
psychopathy, and great leaders 149
public administration and administrative leadership 101–2, 112–13
bad leadership 110–11
collaborative leadership 109
constitutional and political role 112–13
context of fiscal retrenchment 110
crisis leadership 420
discretion 107–8
ethnographic studies of bureaucrats 106–8
future research 109–10
institutional leadership 103–4
instrumental leadership 102–3
interpretive approaches to 111–12
leadership theory 104–5
life history 108–9
network governance 109
observational analysis 284
rules 107–8
street-level bureaucrats 107
study of bureaucratic elites 106
traditions in 102–4
women leaders 697–8
public choice theory, and regional political leadership 572–3
public entrepreneurs 105
public leadership 101
public officials, as political leaders 3
public opinion, and presidential approval 459
public service bargain (PSB), and prime ministerial advisory systems 523
Qatar 72
quantitative approaches to leadership 93
Chinese political leadership 619, 621–2
quasi-presidential leadership 50
Quebec 566, 698
rational choice institutionalism 161, 197, 198
prime ministerial advisory systems 522–3
prime ministers 492
rational choice theory 94, 161–2, 172–3
agenda-setting 163–4
decision-making 226–7, 233, 234
epistemic division of labour argument for delegation 167
expressive voting 172
gender 77–8
hierarchical leadership 168–70
lack of attention to leadership 161–2
median voter theorem 162n5
negative views of leadership 162, 163–5, 173
non-dictatorship 163
political entrepreneurship 164–5
principal-agent approach to leadership 163
principal-agent models 164, 173
rejection of benevolent despot model 162–3
selection of agents 170–1
strategic argument for delegation 167–8
transaction cost argument for delegation 166
voter behaviour 171–2
vulnerability argument for delegation 166
rational ignorance 167, 172, 173
reciprocity, and leader-follower relationship 178
referendums, in Switzerland 46
reflexivity 261
regime theory 600–1
regionalist political economy (RPE), and regional political leadership 572
regionally-based multi-state organizations 715–16
regional political leadership:
actor-centred approaches 567–70
apprenticeship for national leadership 568–9
approaches to studying 567
assessment of research on 574–5
authority of 566
biographical analysis 567–9
centre-regional tensions 565–6
classification of leaders 569
comparative studies 574
competitive regionalism 573
constraints on 566
context of 566
devolution 572
federalism 570–1
future research 575–6
intergovernmental theory 571–2
leadership style 569
meso-level ‘elusive space’ 564–5
methodologies 573–4
new regionalism 571
public choice theory 572–3
purpose of 566
regional identity 565
regionalism 565
regionalist political economy 572
relationships with other actors 569–70
relations with national politics 566–7
scholarly neglect of 574
single case studies 573–4
territorial differentiation 570–3
representative democracy 43
epistemic division of labour argument for 167
hierarchical leadership 168–70
leadership in 48–50
selection of leaders 171
strategic argument for 167–8
tensions with network governance 409–10
transaction cost argument for 166
vulnerability argument for 166
resource-dependency, and executive power 521–2
retrenchment, and public administration 110
(p. 768) rhetoric, and leadership 92–3, 254
American rhetorical studies 398–9
Aristotle’s Rhetoric 253, 254–5
audience reactive nature of 255
charisma 392–3
communicative power 254
component parts of 254–5
crisis rhetoric 260
decline in study of 397–8
deliberative dramaturgy 261
demagogues 256, 257
discourse analysis 253
discourse studies 399
discursive rhetoric 262–3
emotional character of 393–4
ethos 390–1
evaluating competing rhetoric 254
first-wave deliberative democracy 260–1
Gladstone 257–8
intention of speaker 391
leader as interpreter 259
leader/audience relationship 389, 391, 393–4
logos 390
misleading conduct 256
modes of 255
Obama 259–60, 263
pandering to audience 256
pathos 390
as performance 389
performative authority 261–2
performative power of 254
persona of the speaker 391
as persuasive performance 253
persuasive power of 255
plebiscitary democracy 256–7
Reagan 259
renaissance in study of 399–400
renewed interest in 263
rhetorical analysis 253
rhetorical presidencies 258–60
Roosevelt 259
use of pronouns 395
vision 394–5
Woodrow Wilson 258–9
see also performance
Rhetoric Society of America 398
rituals 185, 186, 187
rules, and public administration 107–8
Russia 477, 643, 644, 648
Narodniki 380
Rwanda 72, 667
Saudi Arabia 72
segregation 354
selection of leaders 118
Confucianism 67–9
demographic factors 119
party leaders 6–7, 366, 370, 494
party rules 214–15
peace/crisis context 119–20
rational choice theory 170–1
requirements for role 119
selection process 119
type of political system 118–19
women 692–4
self-categorization theory (SCT) 153–4
prototypical group members 154
self-defeating behaviour 4
self-esteem 117
motivations for seeking power 135–6
validation of 136
self-stereotyping 154
semi-presidential systems 200–1, 472
classification of types of 474–5
cohabitation 477–8, 480
definition of 473–4
democratization 478–9, 648
development of study of 472–3
divided executive 477
divided minority government 477
empirical work on 475
future research 481–3
government formation 479–80
government stability/termination 480–1
heterogeneity of 474
identifying 474
intra-executive conflict 480
need for broader and deeper research on 482–3
need for comparative research on 481–2
need for further research on 481
post-communist leadership 644
premier-presidentialism 475, 477–8, 479
(p. 769) president-legislature relations 477
president-parliamentarism 475, 477, 479, 644
variations in presidential power 476–8
variety of executive politics under 472, 477–8, 481
sense-making, and crisis leadership 423–4
Serbia 566, 643
sex scandals 276
Seychelles 72
shadow elite 187–8
Single European Act (1985) 603
situational theories of leadership 78, 95–6, 102
contextual analysis 212
crisis leadership 420
Sjem (Polish body of nobles) 50
Slavic Review 653
Slovakia 651, 652
Slovenia 476, 478–9, 643
small group behaviour 269
smart power 714
social capital 351
social constructionism 240–1
approach of 241, 249–50
binary divisions in political views 246
charisma 244–6
contested nature of truth 245, 247
Egyptian revolution 248–9
elements of 240
future research 249
global financial crisis 247–8
language 241–2
leadership as social construction 240
narratives 242–3
political leadership as performance 242
process questions 241
roots of 240
storytelling 243, 247–8
symbolism 245–6, 248
weapons of mass destruction 247
social identity models of leadership 153–6
construction of leader’s image 154–5
identity entrepreneurs 154–5
leader-follower relationship 153–7
mobilization 155
prototypical group members 154
self-categorization theory (SCT) 153–4
social media, and presidential communication 457, 466
social movements:
civil society 351–2
institutional analysis of 204
leadership of 351
social psychology of leadership 156–8
construction of leader’s image 154–5
democratic leadership 156, 157
identity entrepreneurs 154–5
leader-follower relationship 151–3, 156–7
mobilization 155
self-categorization theory (SCT) 153–4
social identity models 153–6
starting point of 151
transactional models 151–2
transformational models 152–3
sociological institutionalism 197, 198
sociology, and observational analysis 284
sociopaths 335
soft power 706, 713–14
Solidarity Movement 357
Solomon Islands 72
Big Men in 180–1
South Africa 72
South Sudan 72
Soviet Union 353
collapse of 642
Spain 492, 495, 566
speechwriting, political 400
spin 497
Sri Lanka 566
statecraft, and prime ministerial power (UK) 508
storytelling 13, 111–12, 243
global financial crisis 247–8
political leadership 250
strategic role of leaders, and Confucianism 65–7
street-level bureaucrats 107, 284
stress, leaders’ reaction to 123–4
impact on decision-making 123–4
internalization of 124
structuralism, and language 398
structural leadership 585
(p. 770) subsidiarity 572
Swat society 182–3
Sweden 72, 492, 494–6, 498, 499, 526, 536, 553
representation of women 692
Swiss People’s Party (SVP) 382
Switzerland 50
as consensus democracy 44, 46, 49
direct democracy 45–6
leadership roles 46
President of the Swiss Confederation 49
referendums and initiatives 46
regional politics 566
symbolic capital 181
symbolism 93, 185
social constructionism 245–6, 248
Taiwan 479, 613–14
Tajikistan 654
Taliban 183
Tamils 566
Tammany Hall 553n2
Tea Party 248, 376, 385, 386
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 104
territorial differentiation, and regional political leadership 570–3
terrorism, and language used in describing 242
Thais Loves Thais (TRT) 381
third sector:
conflation with civil society 348– 9
distinctions within 350
political differences within 349
see also civil society
Third World, attitudes towards political leadership 707–8, 712
threat-rigidity thesis, and crisis leadership 424
time, gendered nature of 700
torture, and language 242
toxic leadership 95, 110, 322, 323, 363
traditions 11–12
training and development of leadership 673
academic neglect of 675
acquisition of leadership qualities 675–6
analytical framework for leadership development 682– 3
arguments against 674
benefits of 675
capability and knowledge requirements 677–8
career politicians 674, 676
coaching 682
curriculum 681
demand for professional development 674
developmental trajectories over life span 676
development interventions 679–80
distinction between leader/leadership development 679
distinction between training and development 678–9
effectiveness of 686
emergent development 679–80
future research 685–6
historical context of 673–4
identifying leadership needs 677
induction programmes 681–2
learning cycles 680
levels of leader development 683– 4
Machiavelli 673–4
multi-rater feedback 682
organizational psychology 674
planned development 679
Plato 673
practical wisdom 678
reflection 680, 682
renewed interest in 674
role of experience 676
schools for 674, 681
state of academic knowledge on 684–5
studies of 680–3
variety of approaches 680
wicked problems 677, 681
trait-based theories of leadership 76–7, 117–18, 178, 707, 708
binary psychology 139
intelligence 139–40, 154
lack of evidence for 150
Leadership Trait Analysis (LTA) 299
transactional leadership 91, 102, 137, 709
anthropological studies 182–3, 184
leader-follower relationship 151–2
problems with approach 152
transformational leadership 91, 102–3, 709, 712
African political leadership 664, 665
(p. 771) leader-follower relationship 151–2
responding to circumstances 137
transition states 643
transnational advocacy networks 601
triangulation 136
Truman Doctrine 449
trust, and network governance 407–8, 409, 413
Tunisia 353
Turkmenistan 643, 654
Ukraine 643, 644, 651, 652
unconscious motivation 140–3
inapplicability of 142–3
need for cautious approach to 141–2
United Kingdom:
elected mayors 558
representation of women 692, 693
United Kingdom Speechwriters’ Guild 400
United Nations:
climate summits 590, 591
leadership in 601–2, 715
United Nations Declaration of Human Rights 351
United Nations General Assembly 699
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 699
United Nations Security Council 596
United States:
attitudes towards political leadership 706–7, 712
bureaucrats 106
initiatives 46
local political leadership 550, 552–3
military intervention in Latin America 630
New England Town Meetings 46
as pendulum democracy 46
populism 380, 385
regional politics 566
representation of women 692, 693, 698
women leaders 694, 695
United States Constitution 26
Uruguay 627
military rule 631
non-autocratic government 632
Venezuela 627
delegative democracy 636
legislative leadership 635
military personalism 629
non-autocratic government 631
verbal behaviour, analysis of 298
computer-based coding systems 300–1
concerns over 301–2
integrative complexity 298–9, 303–4
Leadership Trait Analysis (LTA) 299, 304
motive analysis 299–300
operational code analysis 300, 304–5
veto players theorem 201
violence and political leadership 27, 37
vision:
African political leadership 664
leader/audience relationship 394–5
voluntary organizations 348
voter behaviour:
expressive voting 172
funnel of causality 365
impact of party leadership 365, 366–9, 371, 372
macro-contexts 369
media exposure 368
micro-contexts 368
party leadership 362
personalization 368, 369–70
presidentialization 369, 371
rational choice theory 171–2
rational ignorance 167, 172, 173
voter democracy 44
leadership in 45–6
Walloon region 566
waterboarding 242
weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 247
Weimar Germany 473
Western Europe, attitudes towards political leadership 707, 712
Western political thought, and political leadership in 25–6, 38–9
Arendt 34–5
Aristotle 28–9, 88, 677–8
Cicero 29–30
(p. 772) democratic government 38–9
Lenin 36
Machiavelli 30–1, 88, 673–4
Michels 33–4
Montesquieu 31–2
Plato 26–8, 88, 673
Rousseau 32–3
support or constraint of strong leaders 26
tension between possibilities and dangers of 26, 38
themes in 38
Weber 36–7
White Marches (Belgium) 385
wicked problems 405, 677, 681
winner-takes-all model, and Chinese political leadership 617–18, 622
women:
academic neglect of women leaders 691
African political leadership 667, 694
challenges in studying women leaders 690–1
in civil service 697–8
cross-national comparative research 699–700
executive leadership 696–8
in federal systems 698, 701
feminalism 692
future research 699–701
gender expectations of 74, 691–2, 700
gender stereotypes 694–5
historical and political time as influence on leadership 700
impact of electoral systems on representation 692–3
impact of left/right parties on representation 693
institutional context of leaders 699–700
international leadership 698–9
‘Iron Ladies’ 697
leadership style 696
legislative leadership 694–5
marriage as path to power 693
masculine style of leaders 696–7
as ministers 697, 698
party leadership 694–5
personality traits of leaders 696
prejudices against women leaders 697
public expectations of 694, 695
quotas 693, 695
role of family ties in gaining power 693
scarcity of women candidates 693
selection and election of women leaders 692–4
substantive representation 695
under-representation in political leadership 72–3, 651, 692
see also feminism; women
World Bank 716
World Health Organization 699
World Trade Organization (WTO) 590, 620, 716
Yugoslavia 565, 566, 642, 652
Zuidplas Polder 403–4