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date: 23 January 2020

(p. 521) Index

(p. 521) Index

366-degree performance review systems 96
absenteeism 236, 237
academic literature on conflict management 1–2
Acas 1
advisory role 139, 144
Australian system 443
Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures 184, 245–246, 334, 488
Code of Practice on Disciplinary Practice and Procedures in Employment 481
conciliation 349, 481, 484–485
establishment 481
helpline 236, 484
judicial mediation in employment tribunals 334, 338, 339, 340, 343, 345, 348
managers 240, 245–246
mediation 193, 488
mediation and conciliation, difference between 339
outcomes 145
accessibility of ombudsperson procedures 215
accountability
bargaining relationship 143
conflict management systems 255
unions 73
United States Postal Service 287–289
ACFTU 503–505, 508, 509, 510, 517
adjudication 96
Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (1990, USA) 263
Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service see Acas
affinity groups 68
AFL-CIO 298, 299, 302
Age Discrimination Act (2004, Australia) 438
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967, USA) 280, 415
age factors
grievance procedures 118
UK conflict resolution 479
agencies, conflict resolution 1
Alcoa 410
Alexander v. Gardner Denver 280, 283
Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) 373–374
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 4, 106
advantages 218
antecedents of conflict management systems 261, 262, 263
Australia 431, 433, 434
conflict management systems 4, 253, 255, 256
design 282
developments 2
employer willingness to implement 86–87
Germany 364
growing demand for 1, 2, 111, 139
human resources management 80–97, 112
innovations 1, 183
Japan 385, 397, 398, 400
judicial mediation in employment tribunals, implications 348–349
and mediation 199
as new orthodoxy 268
ombudsperson procedures 218–219, 220, 221, 228
outcomes 265
pluralist frame of reference 27
practices 3, 4
prevalence 263–264
as privatizing dispute resolution 344
training 1
(p. 522) trends 3, 4, 111, 112
UK 245, 334, 484
union grievance procedures compared with 129–130, 131
United States Postal Service 283, 287
see also specific forms of ADR
Alternative Dispute Resolution Act (1998, USA) 282
Alternative Dispute Resolution Assistance Scheme (ADRAS) 431
Alternative Dispute Resolution Pledge 194
American Arbitration Association (AAA) 120, 122
American Bar Association (ABA), Labor and Employment Section 122
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) 298, 299, 302
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees 298
American Federation of Teachers 298
Americans With Disabilities Act 280
anonymity
ombudsperson procedures 215
of voice 96
appeal procedures
China 512
management appeals boards 171–172
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 170, 171, 179, 180
pluralist frame of reference 26
USA 413
appreciative inquiry (AI) 151, 162
arb+med 146, 315–316, 330
arbitration 81, 85, 144, 146–145, 313–314
advisory 146
alternative dispute resolution 130, 131
and mediation, differences between 121–122
as conventional approach 3, 4
as mechanism of conflict resolution and catalyst of conflict 55
Australia 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433–434
consensus 316–317
co-regulatory regime 70, 71, 72
employment rights 58, 59
expedited 121
final offer (pendulum/flip-flop/forced choice) 144, 314, 319, 322, 323, 330
grievance procedures 130, 131
grievance rates 180
mandatory see mandatory arbitration
in non-union firms 172, 173, 174, 176–177, 179, 180, 185
Japan 390, 401
law 67
New Zealand 318, 449, 454–455, 456, 457
percentage of grievance cases reaching 118, 120
pluralist frame of reference 23, 25–26, 27
process 119–120, 130
repeat player effect 63, 71
see also arb+med; med+arb
Asia, growing interest in conflict management 2
assisted negotiations 4, 257
assumptions of conflict management 12, 17–28, 29, 34
attitudinal structuring 141–142
Australia 425–448
changing patterns of workplace conflict 436–440
Constitution 427, 430
dispute-prone industries and occupations 436
divergences from other countries 351–352
Fair Work Ombudsman 435–436
growing interest in conflict management 2
industrial relations context 426–435
mediation 194, 195
police strikes 311
third party involvement 144
unions 136, 426, 429, 430, 432, 434, 440–441, 442
Australian Building and Construction Commission (ABCC) 436
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 437
(p. 523) Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission 428
Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) 438
Australian Industrial Relations Commission (AIRC) 428–429, 430, 431
Australian Workplace Agreements (AWAs) 430, 432
Austria 368
authority of managers 239–240
autonomy
v. surveillance 244–245
and trust 243–244
balloon theory of conflict 36–37, 40, 45
bargaining relationship 143, 145
Bell Labs 217
best practices 271
Board of Inquiry (USA) 123
books on conflict management 1–2
brainstorming 155–156, 183
Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) 41
bullying
Australia 440
by managers 235, 236
New Zealand 466–467, 468
bureaus of human resources and social security, China 500, 511, 515, 516
Burlington Industries v. Ellerth 61, 69
Bush, J. Baruch 285, 286
Business Council of Australia (BCA) 429
California Nurses Association (CNA) 309
Canada
conflict management systems 266–267
growing interest in conflict management 2
history of conflict management 41, 43–44
interest-based bargaining 159
judicial mediation 337
mediation-supported arbitration 316
micro conflict management systems 47
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 183
ombudsperson procedures 209, 212, 219, 220–221
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 262, 264–265, 267–268, 311
strikes 42
third party involvement 139, 144
unions 136, 183
capitalism
China 498
critical frame of reference 18, 20, 21
employment relationship 27
endemic nature of conflict 29
history of conflict 40, 41, 44
institutional conflict approach 40
Marxian perspective on conflict 35–36, 37–38, 39
perspectives on conflict 31, 32, 33, 34
strikes and lockouts, trends in 116
systemic sources of conflict 30
unitarist frame of reference 18
case assessment, early 408, 412
Central Labour Relations Commission (Japan) 390, 393
change, organizational 227
Change to Win 298
China 494–519
collectivism 411–412
Constitution 509
divergences from other countries 353–354
external labor dispute resolution 510–516
globalization 137, 385, 396
growing interest in conflict management 2
increase in labor disputes 494–498
internal labor dispute resolution 499–510
judicial mediation 337
varieties of labor dispute resolution 498–499
Circuit City Stores, Inc. v. Adams 62, 177
civil code, Germany 374
Civil Rights Act (1964, USA) 54, 56–57, 415
see also Title VII
Clinton, Bill 263
Coalition of Kaiser Permanente Unions 157, 159, 161, 297–310
Coca-Cola 263, 410
co-determination rights, Germany 370
collective bargaining 80–1, 105, 116–134, 312–317
Australia 425, 426, 432
changes 2
conflict management systems 256–257, 263–264
contracting coverage and scope 2
critical frame of reference 21
decline in 26
and employment rights 54, 55–9, 73
Germany 365, 366, 368, 375–376
globalization 137
governance 67
history 41
interest-based see interest-based bargaining
and litigation, parallels between 54, 55–9
Japan 387, 388, 389–390, 395, 396, 397, 400
Kaiser Permanente 299, 301, 302–303, 305–306, 309
Marxian perspective on conflict 38
New Zealand 318, 454, 455, 456, 458, 460, 461, 466, 468, 469
pluralist frame of reference 23, 25
power relationships 125, 140–141
process 140–144
third party involvement 144, 144, 145–6
tradition 139
unions’ less confrontational postures 112
USA 411, 412, 420, 421
Collective Bargaining Act (Germany) 366, 367
collective consultation see joint consultation
collective individualism, Japan 397–399, 400
collective labor law, Germany 365
collective-owned enterprises (COEs), China 496, 497, 500, 501, 502, 504, 507, 516
collectivism
Australia 428, 441
New Zealand 458
commitment, organizational 236, 266
Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission (Australia) 427–428
Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration (Australia) 427
Commonwealth Industrial Court (Australia) 427–428
Communist Party, China 495, 498, 499, 503, 504, 516
community unionism, Japan 397–398
company unions 39
competition
globalization 137, 385, 488
growing intensity 2
history of conflict management 41
international 112
USA 415
voluntary procedures in dispute resolution 138
compulsory arbitration see mandatory arbitration
conciliation see mediation
Conciliation and Arbitration Act (C&A Act, 1904, Australia) 427, 428
Confederation of Germany Employers (BDA) 366
confidentiality
mediation 193, 202, 468
ombudsperson procedures 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 221, 224, 228, 436
United States Postal Service 281
USA 418
conflict management systems (CMS) 4–5, 199, 250–272
antecedents and prevalence 261–265
broad perspective 46–7
complementarities 259–261, 266, 267, 268
components 210
definition 406–407
entry points 252, 254, 255
features 250–256
goals 15
historical perspective 42
individual grievances, group conflicts, and collective bargaining 256–257
interest-based bargaining 151, 161
limitations 30
managers 245, 257–259
ombudsperson procedures 208–17, 223, 224–5
outcomes 265–269
perspectives on conflict 34, 42, 46–7
(p. 525) as proactive posture 112
research priorities 268–269
systems effects 259–261, 266, 267
conflict resolution agencies 1
consensus arbitration 316–317
consultation rights, Germany 370
Control Data Corporation 217
Coolidge, Calvin 312
coordinated market economies 426
co-regulation, employment rights 65–73
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 262, 508
corporatism
Canada 43
history 43, 44
UK 43
court system
Australia 427–428, 430, 434
China 499, 509, 510, 515–516
Germany 365, 380
Japan 390, 394–395, 398
New Zealand 455
see also law; litigation
critical frame of reference
conflict 20–21, 24
employment relationship 18, 21
cultural factors in conflict resolution 411
culture, organizational
Australia 440
mediation 190, 198–200
deCicco, Peter 299, 300
decision science 161
delegation
conflict management systems 256
by managers 243–244
democracy
collective bargaining and union representation 58
governance 67–8, 69
grievance procedures 117
ombudsperson procedures 218
Denmark 139
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS, UK) 334
Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA, UK) 334
Department of Labour (DOL, New Zealand) 318, 467, 468
Mediation Service 196, 465, 469
deregulation, regulated self-regulation as form of 64
directive mediation see evaluative mediation
Disability Discrimination Act (1992, Australia) 438
discipline, and grievance procedures 118
disciplined worker hypothesis 244–245
discrimination
arbitration 85
Australia 439–440
employment rights 61–2
German anti-discrimination law 373–374, 380
grievance procedures 118
judicial mediation in employment tribunals 340
mediation 201
United States Postal Service 279, 280, 281, 282–283, 285, 289
Dispute Adjustment System (Japan) 390
Dispute Resolution Commitment 194
distributive bargaining 141, 368
distributive justice
as goal of conflict management 15
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 181
unitarist frame of reference 22, 23
United States Postal Service 290, 291, 292, 293
dual system of interest representation, Germany 364, 365–369, 375–376, 379, 380
due process 218
conflict management systems 255–256
co-regulation 67
grievance procedures 118
importance 25
managers 245, 247
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 170, 176, 179, 180–181
systemic litigation avoidance 61
UK 486
(p. 526) early case assessment 408, 412
Early Conciliation (EC, UK) 485
early neutral evaluation 408, 412
Eaton 410
economic policies 38
economic shocks, Germany 376–380
educational factors, judicial mediation in employment tribunals 346, 347
efficiency
benefits of alternative dispute resolution 418, 419
critical frame of reference 21
as goal of conflict management 13–14, 15–17, 27
neoliberal egoist frame of reference 19, 20
pluralist frame of reference 23, 24–27
unitarist frame of reference 22
Elcano, Mary 281
elections
co-regulatory regime 73
works councils 73
employee lockouts 116
employee representation see representation of employees
employee turnover 236
see also quit rates
employers’ associations
Germany 363, 366, 368, 375
New Zealand 455, 467
Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT, UK) 333
employment at will
alternative dispute resolution 86–7
employment rights 61, 72
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 175, 176
USA 174, 175
Employment Contracts Act (ECA, 1991, New Zealand) 451, 456–458, 461, 468
Employment Court (New Zealand) 458, 463, 464, 465
employment laws and policies
Marxian perspective on conflict 38
pluralist frame of reference 27
Employment Relations Act (ERA, 2000, New Zealand) 195, 452–453, 458–460, 461, 462, 463, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469
amendments 459–460
Employment Relations Amendment Act (2004, New Zealand) 459–460
Employment Relations Amendment Act (2010, New Zealand) 460, 462, 468
Employment Relations Authority (New Zealand) 318, 458, 462, 463, 464–465, 469
Employment Relations Mediation Service (New Zealand) 467, 468
employment relationship
Australia 425, 429
frames of reference 17–19, 21, 22
grievance procedures 117, 126
Marxian perspective 17, 20–21, 35–6
mediation 190, 195, 196, 200
New Zealand 449, 458, 463–465, 468–469, 470
UK 483, 485, 487, 489
employment rights
conflict management systems 261
expansion 112
governance perspective 53–78
increasingly extensive 2, 59–63
Employment Tribunal (New Zealand) 318, 322, 457, 458, 459
employment tribunals (ETs) see tribunals
Employment Tribunal Service (ETS, UK) 334, 340, 348
engagement, job 244
Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Bill (UK) 339
enterprise boards, Germany 365
enterprise labor dispute mediation committees (ELDMCs, China) 500–503, 504, 510, 511, 517
Enterprise Labor Dispute Negotiation and Mediation Regulations (ELDNMR, 2011, China) 499, 500, 501, 502
enterprise unions
China 500, 501, 503–507, 517
equal consultation and collective contract system, China 505
equal employment opportunity (EEO)
Australia 433
mediation 202
(p. 527) reforms resulting from 57
United States Postal Service 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289–27S
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC, USA) 196, 280, 281
Equal Opportunities Commission (USA) 263
equity
critical frame of reference 21
as goal of conflict management 13, 14, 15–17, 27
neoliberal egoist frame of reference 19, 20
pluralist frame of reference 23, 24–27
unitarist frame of reference 22
ethnicity factors
grievance procedures 118
judicial mediation in employment tribunals 346, 347
UK conflict resolution 479
Europe
growing interest in conflict management 2
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 182
ombudsperson procedures 220–1
European Commission 138
European Directives 373, 374, 380
European Union (EU)
mediation 195
third party involvement 138
European Works Councils 365
evaluative mediation 192, 285
United States Postal Service 292
evolutionary perspective on conflict 32
exit mediation 465–466
exit-voice theory 178, 181
facilitative mediation 192, 285, 338
New Zealand 465, 466
procedural justice 288
UK 338, 343
fact finding 4, 254, 257
fairness
Australian labor market regulation 428
China 502, 515
conflict management systems 255
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 179, 181
ombudsperson procedures 209, 226
third party involvement 140
United States Postal Service 284, 290, 291
see also justice
Fair Work Act (2009, Australia) 431–433, 434, 435, 437, 442
Fair Work Australia (FWA) 431
Fair Work Building and Construction (Australia) 436
Fair Work Commission (FWC, Australia) 431–432, 433–435, 439–440, 442, 444 n. 1
Future Directions strategy 434–435, 442–443
Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO, Australia) 435–436, 441
Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act (ROA, 2009, Australia) 441
Faragher v. City of Boca Raton 61, 69
Federal Arbitration Act (USA) 177
Federal Court (Australia) 428
Federal Labor Relations Authority (USA) 280
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS, Canada) 139
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FCMS, USA) 1, 122
advisory role 139
interest-based bargaining 159, 161
Kaiser Permanente 299
New Zealand’s Industrial Mediation Service 456
United States Postal Service 282
Federal Transport Security Administration (TSA, USA) 267
fee-for-service approach, Japanese unionism 398
Fernandez, Gary 300
final offer arbitration (FOA) 144, 314
New Zealand Police 319, 322, 323, 330
financial markets, deregulation and globalization 44
Finland 139
Folger, Joseph P. 285, 286
forcing strategy 153, 158
foreign direct investment 137
Fortune 1000 corporations 406–410, 412–414, 416, 418, 420–421
(p. 528) fostering strategy 153, 158
Foxconn 508
framing
of attitudes 141–142
of issues 155–156
France
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 182
third party involvement 138, 139
union density 136
gender factors
grievance procedures 118
judicial mediation in employment tribunals 343, 345–346, 347
UK conflict resolution 479
General Electric (GE) 84, 172, 263, 299, 410
General Equal Treatment Act (AGG, Germany) 373–374
geometry of dispute resolution 16, 26, 27
German Trade Union Confederation (DGB) 366, 369
Germany 363–384
anti-discrimination law 373–374
arbitration panels 370–371
court system 365
divergences from other countries 350
“dual system” of interest representation 365–369
evolution of established practices 375–380
grievance right 369
history of conflict management 40, 42–3, 44
mediation law 374
neo-corporatism 38
non-statutory representation bodies 371–373
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 182
strikes 42–3, 44, 368
union density 136
Gibbons Review (UK) 334, 482, 484, 487
Gilmer v. Interstate/Johnson Lane Corp. 62, 177
globalization 137
competition 137, 385, 488
Japan 385, 396
goals of conflict management 12–16, 27–28
critical frame of reference 21
neoliberal egoist frame of reference 19–20
pluralist frame of reference 23, 24–27
unitarist frame of reference 22
Gore, Al 263
governance 53–78
grievance procedures 3, 105–6, 116–134
collective bargaining 80–1, 125
conflict management systems 4–5, 256–257
dynamics 119–120
innovations 2, 4
issues 118, 124–125
Japan 388, 393–395
managerial reactions to employee use of voice 92–3
non-union firms 168–189
ombudspeople 213
outcomes 125–129
as reactive 117–118
systemic litigation avoidance strategies 60–1, 62
union v. non-union 129–130
grievance right, Germany 369
group conflicts 256–257
guanxi 500
Hallberlin, Cynthia 281, 285, 286
harassment
employment rights 61, 62
by managers 236
New Zealand 466–467, 468
sexual 60, 118
Harman International 410
Health and Safety in Employment Act (1992, New Zealand) 466
Higgins, Henry Bournes 427
high-involvement work systems (HIWS) 126, 128, 180–181, 183
high-performance work systems (HPWS) 87, 417
historical perspective on conflict 40–5
Hobbit/Actors Equity dispute 463, 464
Holland see Netherlands
Honda 509
HR Nicholls Society 429
(p. 529) Human Resource Institute New Zealand 467
human resources (HR)/human resources management (HRM) 79–104
alternative dispute resolution 112
Australia 433
avoidance of litigation and unionization 55, 58
conflict management systems 262, 410
Germany 364
grievance procedures 106, 131
innovations 2
Marxian perspective on conflict 38, 39
New Zealand Police 325, 326
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 176, 177, 178, 180
USA 415, 417
Human Rights Act (1993, New Zealand) 461, 466, 467
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC, Australia) 438
Human Rights Commission (New Zealand) 467
IBM 170, 411
identification, organizational
conflict management systems 266
voice, employee willingness to use 88, 89, 96–7
IG Metall 375, 376
illness, and workplace conflict 440
income distribution, Japan 391
incomes policies 41
India 137, 225
Indiana University (IU) 279, 283, 286, 287–288, 291
Individual Flexibility Agreements (IFAs), Australia 432
individualism
Australia 441
New Zealand 458
individual labor law, Germany 365
Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act (IC&A Act, 1894, New Zealand) 450, 454, 455, 456
Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Amendment Act (1970, New Zealand) 450, 460
Industrial Mediation Service (New Zealand) 456
industrial pluralist perspective on conflict 32–3
industrial relations
collective bargaining 105
grievance procedures 117, 119, 126, 128
interest-based bargaining 151
Industrial Relations Act (1973, New Zealand) 451, 455–456, 457, 460–461
Industrial Relations Act (IR Act, 1988, Australia) 428
Industrial Relations Reform Act (1993, Australia) 429
inflation, UK 476
informational justice 291, 292
information rights, Germany 370
Institute for Public Affairs (Australia) 429
institutional conflict approach 34, 40, 44–5
integrated conflict management systems see conflict management systems
integrative bargaining see interest-based bargaining
interactional justice 243
interest-based bargaining (IBB) 4, 141, 150–167
arbitration 85
Australia 433
China 509, 510, 512, 517
conflict management systems 4–5, 251–252, 253, 254, 256–257, 259, 260, 266
developments associated with 112
future opportunities and challenges 163–164
Germany 368
human resources management 81, 82, 83
Kaiser Permanente 297–310
mediation 84
New Zealand 455–456, 464, 465, 466
New Zealand Police 325
ombudsperson procedures 84, 211
phase I: preparing 153–154
phase II: bargaining over how to bargain 154–155
phase III: opening and exploring 155–156
phase IV: focusing and agreeing 1554–5
phase V: implementing and sustaining 157–158
pluralist frame of reference 23
practical skills 151–158
prevalence 263, 264
underlying theory 160–163
USA 406, 416
International Brotherhood of Teamsters 298
International Conference of Labour Statisticians 437
International Federation of Professional and Technical Employees 298
International Labour Organization (ILO) 312
International Longshore and Warehouse Union 298
International Ombudsman Association (IOA) 221
International Ombudsman Organization 209
international trade, trends 137
International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) 154–155, 159–160
interpersonal justice 181, 291, 292
intra-organizational bargaining 141, 142
Intrater, Karen 281
invisible hand
conflict 19, 20, 27
employment relationship 17
Ireland, Republic of
alternative dispute resolution 263–264
conflict management systems 262, 266
managers 240
non-judicial conflict resolution 139
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 183
third party involvement 139
unions 440–441
issue-by-issue final offer arbitration 314
New Zealand Police 330
Italy 136
Jackson, Peter 464
Japan 385–404
changing nature of dispute resolution 395–397
community unionism 397–398
convergences with other countries 355
divergences from other countries 350–1
enterprise unions 386–387
experimentation in dispute resolution 397–399
external dispute resolution mechanisms 389–390
fragmentation of dispute resolution mechanisms 392–395
growing interest in conflict management 2
individual labor disputes 393–395
joint action by individual workers 398–399
ombudsperson procedures 225
terms and conditions of employment 393
“traditional” system of industrial relations and dispute resolution 386–390
unfair labor practices 392–393
union density 136
wage bargaining and dispute settling procedures 387–389
Japan Productivity Centre 396
job satisfaction
conflict management systems 266
Kaiser Permanente 309
voice, employee willingness to use 88–9
John Lewis 221
joint action by individual workers, Japan 398–399
joint consultation
China 499, 500, 501, 505–507
committees (JCCs), Japan 388, 390, 391, 392, 396
Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Services (JAMS) 120, 122
judicial mediation in employment tribunals 333–352
analysis 342–348
benefits 335–339
data, method, and pilot design 340–342
juridification
Germany 364–365, 366
(p. 531) just cause protection 72
justice
as goal of conflict management 15
informational 291, 292
interactional 243
interpersonal 181, 291, 292
managers 243
marginal productivity 19
mediation 200–201, 203
natural 140
ombudsperson procedures 228
organizational justice theory 177, 181
restorative 83, 126, 290
retributive 291
substantive 290
transitional 290
United States Postal Service 288, 290–292, 293
Justice Center of Atlanta (JCA) 283, 284, 285
Kaiser Permanente (KP) 297–310
interest-based bargaining 157, 159, 161
Keeler Brass Automotive Group (1995) 84
Keynesianism 41, 44
Kolstad v. American Dental Association 69
Korea 15–16, 385
labor bureaus, China 500, 511, 515, 516
Labor Contract Law (2008, China) 495
labor courts 81
labor dispute arbitration committees (LDACs), China 495–497, 500, 501, 510, 512–513, 514, 515–516, 517
Labor Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law (LDMAL, 2008, China) 495, 499, 501, 502, 510, 512–513
labor inspection agencies, China 516
Labor Law (1994, China) 499
labor law monitoring committees (LLMCs), China 504, 505
labor–management partnership (LMP), Kaiser Permanente 297–310
background 298
early years 300–301
interest-based bargaining 301, 302–303
origins 299–300
labor protection monitoring and inspection committees (LPMICs), China 504, 505
labor relations commissions
Ireland 139
Japan 389–390, 394, 395, 398
Labour Adjustment Law (1946, Japan) 388
Labour Relations Agency (Northern Ireland) 139
Labour Relations Commission (South Korea) 15–16
law 218
Australia 428, 433, 441, 442
Canada 183
China 497, 498, 499, 500, 502, 513, 516
co-regulation 66–7
critical frame of reference 21
employee rights 53–4, 56–7, 59
employment rights 63, 66–7, 68–9, 72, 73, 74
Germany 365, 366, 369, 373–374
Japan 396, 400
managers 239
New Zealand 449, 450–453, 461–462, 467
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 175–177, 183, 184
pluralist frame of reference 27
regulated self-regulation 60, 63, 66
United States Postal Service 280–281, 286
see also court system; litigation; specific laws
Law for Promoting the Resolution of Individual Labor Disputes (2001, Japan) 393–394
Lawrence, David 300
leadership–membership exchange 239, 242–243
learning, organizational
ombudsperson procedures 212, 228
voice, employee willingness to use 91
legal benefits of alternative dispute resolution 418, 419
(p. 532) legal system/legislation see court system; law; litigation
Letters and Visits Offices, China 498, 499, 516
liberal market economies (LMEs) 426
Australia 426
endemic nature of conflict 46
history 44, 45
micro conflict management systems 47
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 182–183
line managers see managers and supervisors
literature on conflict management 1–2
litigation
Australia 433, 443
China 499, 513–516
and collective bargaining, parallels between 54, 55–9
contractual avoidance strategies 62–3
employers’ perceived risks of 86–7
employment rights 54, 55–60, 61–3, 69, 72
goals of conflict management 16
governance 67
Japan 394–395
mediation 192
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 168, 169, 175–176, 183
performance appraisal data 128
rising costs 2
systemic avoidance strategies 60–2
trends 112
UK 475, 477, 479, 483, 485, 489
see also court system; law
local labor bureaus, China 500, 511, 515, 516
lockouts 116
loopbacks, conflict management systems 252, 253, 254
loyalty, organizational 236
ombudspeople 209
voice, employee willingness to use 88, 89, 96–7
Macy’s 263, 410
Magna Carta 25
management appeals boards 171–172
management by exception 245
managerial perspective on conflict 31–2, 34
history of strike activity 42
limitations 37
managers and supervisors 233–249
alternative dispute resolution 4
China 495, 498, 502, 504
conflict management systems 211, 257–259
conflict reduction and management, capacity for 242–246
distribution of conflict 237–238
extent of conflict involving 234–236
grievance procedures 119, 126–127, 131
Japan 388, 389, 396–397, 400
Kaiser Permanente 297–310
mediation 202, 203
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 170–171, 186
ombudsperson procedures 212, 213, 214, 216, 219, 224, 225–6
open door policies 170–171
“problem” of 238–242
United States Postal Service 283–284, 291, 292
USA 418, 419
voice, reactions to employee use 91–4, 95–6
mandatory arbitration 85
adoption 86
Australia 433–434
employment rights 59, 62–3, 70
regulated self-regulation 62–3
USA 120
manufacturing sector
Japan 391, 392, 396
UK 480
Maori people 463–464, 465, 466, 470 n. 1
marginal productivity justice 19
Maritime Union New Zealand (MUNZ) 464, 465
Marx, Karl/Marxism
conflict 35–40
employment relationship 17, 20–21, 35–6
Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination (MCAD) 196
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 217
med+arb 4, 146, 314–317
(p. 533) conflict management systems 256–257, 265
limitations 330–331
New Zealand 456, 457, 459, 461, 463
New Zealand Police 256–257, 265, 311–312, 317–331
strengths 328–330
media coverage of mediation 145
mediation 84, 144–146, 190–209, 252
and arbitration, differences between 121–122
Australia 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435–436
benefits 335–339
conflict management systems 257, 260
contract (interest) 122–124
definitions 191, 338–339
effectiveness factors 197–198
efficiency 195–196, 200–201
employee willingness to use 89
evaluative 192, 285, 292
Germany 368, 374
grievance (rights) 121–123
incidence trends 194–195
Japan 390, 393, 394, 395, 399, 401
justice 200–201
managerial reactions to employee use of voice 96
narrative 192, 465, 466
non-union firms 173, 185
ombudsperson procedures 224
outcomes 268
peer 173
pluralist frame of reference 26, 27
power 200–201
principles and practice 192–193
as proactive posture 112
problem-solving approach 192
settlement 465–466
shadow 317
styles 191–192
success measurement 196–197
tradition-based 465, 466
United States Postal Service (REDRESS© program) 192, 193, 196, 198, 199, 202, 279–296
Mediation Law (Germany) 374
Mediation Service (New Zealand) 458, 459, 463
Mediationsgesetz 374
mediation-supported arbitration 316, 331
mediation window 317, 329
Mediterranean countries, non-judicial conflict resolution 139
Merit Systems Protection Board (USA) 281
minimum wage, New Zealand 454–455
mining sector, Australia 437
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MHRSS), China 495, 497, 510, 512, 513, 516
monitoring 244–245
Moore, Des 429
moral hazard 31
mutual gains bargaining see interest-based bargaining
narrative mediation 465, 466
National Academy of Arbitrators (NAA, USA) 120, 122
national emergency dispute provisions, USA 123
National Enterprise Labour Relations Law (Japan) 388
National Health Insurance Law (2010, USA) 307–308
National Labor Relations Act (NLRA, 1935, USA)
employment rights 53, 56, 57, 58, 68–9
Kaiser Permanente 305
mediation 123
peer review 84, 175
Taft-Hartley amendments (1947) 56
union organizing activity 175
(p. 534) National Labor Relations Board (USA)
peer review panels 84
United States Postal Service 280, 281
National Mediation Board (USA) 123
National Union of Health Care Workers (NUHW) 304, 305, 306, 309
natural justice 140
negotiated processes 260
negotiation
assisted 4, 257
post-arbitration 316
principled 251
theory 151, 161, 210
neo-corporatist perspective on conflict 33, 39, 46, 47
Germany 38
history 43, 44, 45
neoliberal perspective
Australia 425, 428
Canada 43
conflict 19–20, 24, 31
conflict management systems 262
employment relationship 17, 18
New Zealand 460
UK 481
Netherlands
history of conflict management 42–3, 44
non-judicial conflict resolution 139
strikes 42–3, 44, 138, 368
third party involvement 139
union density 136
voluntarism 138
neutral evaluation, early 408, 412
new institutional economics 42
new public management (NPM) 2
New Zealand 449–474
bullying and harassment 466–467
collective bargaining 312, 317
conflict management systems 262–263
divergences from other countries 352–3
Employment Contracts Act (1991) 456–458
Employment Relations Act (2000) 458–460
employment relationship 463–465, 468–469
goals of conflict management 16
growing interest in conflict management 2
historical context 454–456
mediation 195, 196, 465–466
personal grievances and individual disputes, rise of 460–463
third party involvement 139
New Zealand Fire Service 468
New Zealand Police 468
conflict management system 256–257, 262–263, 265
strikes 311
New Zealand Police Association (NZPA) 318–319, 323–327, 329
non-union employee representation (NER) see alternative dispute resolution
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 168–189
adoption of procedures 174–178
alternative dispute resolution 4
assumptions of conflict management 23–24
China 501
cross-national variation 182–184
Germany 371–373
goals of conflict management 16
impacts on employees and the workplace 181–182
Japan 388, 394, 396, 399
pluralist frame of reference 26, 27
typology of procedures 169–173
UK 482
unitarist frame of reference 21–22, 23
usage of procedures 178–181
Northrop 172, 174
no strike procedures 144
Obama, Barack 307
occupational health and safety
Australia 433
China 504
departments, growth of 59
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA, 1970, USA) 59, 415
Office and Professional Employees International Union 298
oil shock (1973) 387
ombudsperson procedures 84, 173, 208–30
(p. 535) as antecedent to conflict management systems 261
Australia 435–436, 441
challenges and dilemmas 225–7
competencies and functions 222–5
conflict management systems 208–17, 254
credibility 215, 216, 225
employee willingness to use 89
impartiality 211, 226, 228
managerial reactions to employee use of voice 96
neutrality 209, 211, 214, 216, 226–7, 228
outcomes 214–17, 267, 268
pluralist frame of reference 26
as proactive posture 112
role genesis and development 217–23
structural rationale 212–15
open door policies 83, 169, 170
assumptions of conflict management 23
critical frame of reference 24
pluralist frame of reference 26
unitarist frame of reference 21
opening clauses in collective agreements (Germany) 375–376
Oregon Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals (OFNHP) 298
organizational change 227
organizational culture see culture, organizational
organizational justice see justice
organizational learning see learning, organizational
organizational ombudsman (OO) see ombudsperson procedures
organizational size see size, organizational
outsourcing, collective bargaining strategies 137
package final offer arbitration 314
New Zealand Police 322, 323, 330
Pacts for Employment and Competitiveness (Germany) 376
parallel dispute resolution systems 260
part-time work, Japan 391, 394
path dependence, managers 242
pay see wages
PECO Energy 410
peer mediation 173
peer review 84, 169, 172, 185
adoption of 175
avoidance of unionization 86
conflict management systems 254
employment rights 68
grievance rates 180
outcomes 268
pluralist frame of reference 26
quit rates 178, 181
pension schemes, Japan 391, 396
People’s Mediation Committees (PMCs, China) 510, 511
performance appraisals
due process 245
grievance procedures 118, 128
of managers 258
perspectives on conflict 30–4
Marxian 35–40
petitioning, China 516
pluralist frame of reference
conflict 20, 21, 22–23, 24–27
employment relationship 18–19
Poland 53, 368
police
arbitration 313
developments in conflict management 2
New Zealand see New Zealand Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 262, 264–265, 267–268, 311
strikes 311–312
Police Negotiation Framework (PNF, New Zealand) 318–321, 324, 330–331
Policing Act (2008, New Zealand) 318, 322
Ports of Auckland/Stevedores dispute 463, 464–465
Portugal 139
positive psychology 162
Postal Reorganization Act (1970, USA) 280
post-arbitration negotiation 316
power-based practices
conflict management systems 251–252, 259
human resources management 81
(p. 536) power relationships
mediation 200–201, 202
ombudsperson procedures 211, 227
pre-claim conciliation (PCC), UK 484–485
principled negotiation 251
Privacy Act (1992, New Zealand) 461
private sector
Australia 441
China 498, 501, 504
Germany 366
interest-based bargaining 153, 161
managers 235
mediation 488
New Zealand 317–318
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 174
strikes 136
UK 477, 480, 488
unions 136, 137
privatization
alternative dispute resolution as 344
Australia 430
mediation 201, 202
procedural justice
alternative dispute resolution 87
conflict management systems 266
as goal of conflict management 15
managers 243
mediation 203
New Zealand 462–463
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 177, 181
ombudsperson procedures 220
unitarist frame of reference 22, 23
United States Postal Service 284, 288, 290, 291, 292, 293
productivity, and conflict management systems 266
Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) strike 43
professional associations
mediation 193
ombudsperson procedures 220
promotion, as grievance issue 118
Prudential 263, 410
public sector
Australia 441
changing environment 136
China 496, 497, 498, 500, 501, 502, 504, 505, 507, 516
conflict management systems 264
developments in conflict management 2
final offer arbitration 144
Germany 368
interest-based bargaining 151, 161
managers 235
mediation 194, 488
privatization trends 137
strikes 136
UK 476, 477, 480, 488, 489
union membership 137
Qantas 434
quality circles, Japan 388, 389, 390, 392
quit rates 178, 181
Racial Discrimination Act (1975, Australia) 438
radical perspective on conflict 33–4, 37
Railway Labor Act (RLA, 1926, USA) 123
Reaganism 43, 44
recessions 236
recorded settlements, New Zealand 466
REDRESS© program see United States Postal Service
regulated self-regulation 67, 73, 74
improvement through worker representation 63–6
rise of 59–63
Regulations for the Handling of Enterprise Labor Disputes (1993, China) 499
Regulations on Enterprise Democratic Management (REDM), China 507
Regulations on Enterprise Labor Dispute Negotiation and Mediation (ELDNMR, 2011, China) 499, 500, 501, 502
Rengo Fukuoka Union 398
Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Australian Industrial Relations Law and Systems 428
representation of employees
importance 246
(p. 537) non-union firms, conflict resolution in 185–186
regulated self-regulation 63–6, 67–73
restorative justice 83, 126, 290
Restructuring Associates, Inc. (RAI) 300
retaliation
grievance procedures 127, 128, 131
law 68, 72
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 169, 170, 173, 179, 181–182, 185
and open door policies 170
UK 479
and unions 72
whistleblowing 90
retributive justice 291
rights-based practices
arbitration 85
Australia 443
China 509, 516
conflict management systems 4–5, 251–252, 253, 254, 259, 260, 266
human resources management 81, 83
managers 246
New Zealand 455–456
ombudsperson procedures 211
outcomes 267
prevalence 263, 264
USA 409, 416
Ross, Iain 434
Rosselli, Sal 304–305
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) 262, 264–265, 267–268, 311
Rugby World Cup (2011) 469
Ruide Electronics 508
R v. Kirby 427
San Juan Unified School District 163–164
savings levels, Japan 391
Scandinavia 136, 221
Schneider, Tom 300
self-governance 65–6
self-regulation, regulated see regulated self-regulation
Service Employees International Union (SEIU) 298, 299, 302, 304–305, 309
service sector
Japan 391
UK 480
settlement mediation, New Zealand 465–466
Sex Discrimination Act (1984, Australia) 438
sexual harassment 60, 118
shadow mediation 317
Shared Neutrals program 284
showcasing employee use of voice 97
shuttle diplomacy in judicial mediation 339
single-text strategy, third party involvement 146
size, organizational
distribution of workplace conflict 237
Germany 371
Japan 387, 388, 390, 391, 394, 396, 398, 399, 400
judicial mediation in employment tribunals 346–348
mediation 488
New Zealand 467
UK, 479, 488
skill level factors, UK conflict resolution 479
Smith, Adam 17
social constructionism 162–163
social contract, Japan 390, 396, 400
social dialog 139
social partnership, Germany 363, 380
South Korea 15–16, 385
Soviet Union, former 137
Spain 138
Sparks Nugget, Inc. (1980) 84
Spring Wage Offensive (shunto), Japan 387, 388, 391
staff and workers representative congresses (SWRCs), China 499, 500, 501, 504, 507, 517
state-owned enterprises (SOEs), China 496, 497, 498, 500, 501, 502, 504, 505, 507, 516
Stepp, John 300
Stern, Andrew 304–305
strategic human resource management (SHRM)
alternative dispute resolution 87
grievance procedures 127–128, 131
stress levels
of employees 235, 236, 238
of managers 241, 246
(p. 538) strikes
Australia 426, 439–440, 441, 442
balloon theory of conflict 37
China 497, 504, 508, 509, 517
collective bargaining 140–141
costs 116
country comparison 368
employment rights 58
Germany 366, 368
industrial pluralist perspective 33
Japan 388
managerial perspective 32
modern history 40–5, 46
national reactions to 135
neoliberal perspective 31
New Zealand 454
no strike procedures 144
by police 311–312
power relationships 140–141
radical perspective 33
trends 55, 116, 135–136, 137
USA 123
subsidiarity principle, conflict management systems 258
substantive justice 290
suggestion schemes
Japan 388, 389, 390, 392
voice, employee willingness to use 88, 90, 91
suicide by employees, China 499, 508
supervision as grievance issue 118
supervisors see managers and supervisors
supposals 156
surveillance 244–245
Sweden
history of conflict management 40, 42–3, 44
ombudsperson procedures 217
Saltsjöbaden agreement 40
strikes 42–3, 44, 368
third party involvement 139
Sweeney, John 299
Switzerland 368
systems theory 227, 251
Talley AFFCO/Meat workers dispute 463–464, 465
team meetings, Japan 388–389, 390, 392
team working 256, 257
temporary work, Japan 391
tenure, and judicial mediation in employment tribunals 346, 347
terms and conditions of employment, Japan 393
textbooks on conflict management 1–2
Thatcherism 43, 44
third party involvement 1, 135–147
advisory role 139
China 500
conflict management systems 257
human resources management 81–2, 89
institutional changes 138–140
methods 144–145
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 179
Title VII, Civil Rights Act (1964, USA)
employment rights 57, 59, 61, 68
United States Postal Service 280
Trades Union Congress (TUC) 141
trades unions see unions
Trade Union Confederation (DGB, Germany) 366, 369
Trade Union Law (2001, China) 504
Trade Union Law (Japan) 389
tradition-based mediation 465, 466
training 1
conflict management systems 255, 258–259
as grievance issue 118
of judicial mediators 338
of managers and supervisors 4, 240, 241, 244, 245, 258–259, 486
of mediators 84, 173, 198–199, 286–287
of non-union representatives 71
transformational mediation 192
culture change 199
interest-based bargaining 151, 161–162
New Zealand 465, 466
success measurement 197
United States Postal Service 285–287, 288, 291, 292, 293
Transforming Public Services: Complaints, Redress and Tribunals White Paper (UK) 334
transitional justice 290
(p. 539) Transport Security Administration (TSA, USA) 267
tribunals 81
Australia 425, 428, 429, 433, 441, 442, 443, 444 n. 1
Japan (labor relations commissions) 389–390, 394, 395, 398
managers 236, 240
Marxian perspective on conflict 38
New Zealand 457, 458, 459
tripartite arbitration panels 315
see also arb+med; med+arb
trust
bargaining relationship 143
China 502
Kaiser Permanente 301
manager–employee relationship 233–234, 242–244, 245, 246–247
mediation 199
ombudsperson procedures 215, 226, 228
United States Postal Service 287
turnover 236
see also quit rates
unemployment
Japan 391, 396
UK 476, 489
unfair labor practices, Japan 392–393
union-on-demand approach, Japan 398, 400
unions 80–1
alternative dispute resolution 183
Australia 426, 429, 430, 432, 434, 440–441, 442
avoidance of unionization 55, 86, 174–175, 219, 406, 412, 415
bargaining power 55
bargaining process 142
changing environment 140
conflict management systems 211, 251, 256, 262
declining density and coverage 2, 26, 55, 112, 116, 136–137, 415, 441, 443, 477
and employment rights 54, 58, 70–2, 73
globalized economy 137
goals of conflict management 16
grievance procedures 117–131
history of conflict management 41–2, 43
Ireland 440–441
mediation 193, 201–202
New Zealand 454–455, 456, 457, 458, 461, 464, 467
ombudsperson procedures 215, 219
pluralist frame of reference 25, 26, 27
police 311
power 55, 56
regulated self-regulation 65–6
rights-based practices 246
social dialog 139
strategies 137
third party involvement 144, 144
union shock theory 129
United States Postal Service 281, 282–283, 290
voice, employee willingness to use 89
see also collective bargaining; specific unions
unitarist frame of reference
Australia 440
conflict 20, 21–22, 23, 24
employment relationship 18
mediation 200, 201
United Autoworkers Union 41
United Food and Commercial Workers 298
United Healthcare Workers—West (UHW) 305
United Kingdom 475–493
changing patterns of workplace conflict 438–439
collective bargaining 137, 141
conflict management systems 257
devolution of conflict management 485–486
divergences from other countries 353
(p. 540) future prospects and considerations 488–490
history of conflict management 41, 42, 43, 44
individual conflicts 477–480, 481–482
legal framework of conflict resolution 480–482
mediation 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 201, 484–485, 486–487
micro conflict management systems 47
non-judicial conflict resolution 139
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 183–184
pattern of workplace conflict 476–480
police strikes 311
strikes 42, 43, 44, 136, 138, 476–477
Thatcherism 43, 44
third party involvement 138, 144, 146, 145
tribunals 333–352, 483–484
voluntarism 138, 454, 480
workplace partnership agreements 141
United Nations 264, 267
United Nurses Association of California (UNAC) 298
United States of America 405–424
alternative dispute resolution 4, 264, 406–414
changing patterns of workplace conflict 439–440
coal mining industry 251, 254, 261, 265
collective bargaining 80–1, 105, 116–134, 141
conflict management systems 251, 261, 263, 264, 268, 293
Constitution 25
divergences from other countries 351
employment rights and workplace conflict 53–74
final offer arbitration 314
grievance procedures 116–134
growing interest in conflict management 2
history of conflict management 40, 41, 42, 43
interest-based bargaining 151, 153, 154–157, 159–160, 160–161, 163–164
judicial mediation 337
litigation 53–4, 61–2, 69, 175, 183, 261, 406, 409, 410, 414–415, 418
Marxian perspective on conflict 38–9
mediation 194, 196, 199, 201, 202
micro conflict management systems 47
New Deal 40, 56, 60, 73, 420
non-union firms, conflict resolution in 168–182, 183, 184–185
occupation of Japan 388
ombudsperson procedures 209, 217, 219, 220, 221
peer review 84
pluralist frame of reference 26
police 311, 312, 313
reactive to strategic conflict management 414–417
Reaganism 43, 44
strategic choice and conflict management 417–419
strikes 42, 43, 58, 136
third party involvement 139, 144, 146
Treaty of Detroit 41
unions 43, 54, 136, 153, 411–414, 421
United States Postal Service (USPS) mediation (REDRESS© program) 192, 193, 196, 198, 199, 202, 279–296, 410
designs, structure, and resources 282–287
goals 281
lessons from 290–292
stakeholders and context 280–281
success and accountability 287–289
systemic impact 289–290
United Steel Workers 298
Veterans Affairs (VA) 284
violence
managers 235
United States Postal Service 281
voice
China 507–508, 517
critical frame of reference 21
employee willingness to use 87–91, 96–7
exit-voice theory 178, 181
(p. 541) as goal of conflict management 13, 14–17, 27
grievance procedures 117
human resources management 79–104
managerial reactions to employee use of 91–4, 95–6
neoliberal perspective 19, 20, 31
pluralist frame of reference 23, 24–27
unitarist frame of reference 22
voluntarism
New Zealand 454
third party involvement 138
UK 43, 454, 480
wages 118
China 509
Japan 391, 396
minimum wage 454–455
Warner Brothers 464
Watson, Tom 170
welfare state policies 46
Wells, John Calhoun 300
Werner Enterprises 410
whistleblowers
co-regulatory regime 72
regulated self-regulation 64–5, 68
risk, perceived 90
Winklemann, Justice 467
win rates 179, 180
work assignments/workload
employees 234, 235, 238
as grievance issue 118
managers 241, 246
work groups 2
worker representation see representation of employees
working conditions as grievance issue 118
workplace determination (Australia) 433–434
workplace partnership agreements 141
Workplace Relations Act (WRA, 1996, Australia) 430, 431, 433, 441, 442
Workplace Relations Amendment Act (WorkChoices, 2005, Australia) 430–431, 432, 433, 435, 442
Works Constitution Act (WCA, Germany) 366, 367, 369, 374
anti-discrimination law 374
arbitration panels 370, 371, 373
works councils
elections 73
regulation 69
World Bank 264, 268
world trade, growth of 44