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date: 24 January 2020

(p. 737) Subject Index

(p. 737) Subject Index

Note: bold entries refer to figures or tables.

accountability, and electoral systems 232, 234
agenda-setting 18, 455–6
agenda control 456
alternative sets 456
bicameralism 466
committees 464–5
final stage decision-making 456
framing 455
gatekeeping 466–7
institutional aspects of 456, 461–2, 471–2
distribution of agenda powers 472
legislative parties 386
parliamentary systems 403–6
United States Congress 403
under majority rule 456–61
cycling majorities 456–7
setter model 45960
veto-player theory 460–1
mass media 455
negative agenda power 465
parliamentary government 468–71
parliamentary rules and procedures 319–20
policy agenda dynamics 455–6
presidential systems 469
proposal and amendment rights 463–5
research gaps 473
Romer-Rosenthal model 36
sequencing and ordering 467–8
timetable control 462–3
veto power 465–6
Albania 648, 651, 669n
Alceste 160
Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) 596, 597
ambition:
formation of 293–4
legislative careers 290, 292, 302
Latin America 630
American Political Science Association 2, 194
political parties 400
antagonistic cooperation 57, 58, 69, 75
institutional socialization 59–61
appropriateness, logic of 10, 270
arena legislatures 88, 89, 286
Argentina:
committee assignments 362
chairs 631–2
gatekeeping by committees 632
gender quotas 251
legislative careers 299–300
voting behavior of legislators 633
Austria 316, 321
authoritarian legislatures 21–2, 692
challenges in studying 677–8
changed nature of authoritarian regimes 679
classic works on authoritarian institutions 678–80
focus on totalitarian regimes 679
Cold War-era views of 678–80
constraining function of 676, 682–5
delegate selection 690–1
distribution among regime type 677, 685, 686
effects of 688–9
economic growth 688–9
regime longevity 688, 689
focus of research on 676–7
functions of 690
future research 692
non-constraining roles of 678–9
number of parties allowed 686
party-assembly interactions 691
(p. 738) prevalence of 677, 686
reasons for establishing 680
cooptation of opposition 682–3
cooptation theory 684, 685
dividing the opposition 682
elite investment 684
information provision 681–2
legitimization of regime 680–1
limitations on empirical study of 687
natural resource endowments 686–7
power-sharing 683–4, 685
regime type 685
rent-distribution 682–3
risks faced by members of 690
risks in establishing/liberalizing 689–90
as rubber stamps 681
autocracies, party switching 429–30
Bank of England 698
behaviorism 9
Belarus 668n
bicameralism 16–17, 332–4, 345–6
agenda-setting 466
chamber symmetry 333
compositional congruence 333
definition of 334
difficulty in measuring effects of 332–3, 336
effects of 338
federalism 339–40, 345
formal authority of chambers 333
government formation strategies 337
government problems with 337
institutionalist approach to 333
interchamber competition 336
interchamber conflict 337
legislative process 336–8, 339
measurement of 340–1, 344–5
international comparisons 342–4
paradoxical position of 332–3
party organization 337
policy effects 335–6
protecting minority interests 335
reduction of corruption 336
representation 335
research approaches 338
spending policy 336
territorial representation 339–40
typology of 333
bicameral-rivalry theory, and Congressional committees 358–60
competition for policy influence 359
maximizing payments from lobbyists 359
Bill of Rights (1689, England) 697, 700
Bosnia and Herzegovina 668n, 669n
Brazil 299, 633, 690, 691
Brazilian Workers Party (PT) 241
budgetary reversions 22
definition of 696
English Parliament's power of the purse 698
executive control of 701
executive-favoring reversions (EFRs) 701, 702–6, 707
executive dominance 706
exploitation of 711
increased adoption of 710
lowered life expectancy of democracy 709
reducing damaging effects of 711
undermining control of decree power 709
undermining of electoral democracy 7089
undermining of vote of confidence 706–8
executive's complementary powers 697, 703
as executive's proposal 702
Burkina Faso (1970 constitution) 703–4
Chile (1925 constitution) 702–3
future research 710–11
as last year's budget 704
Pakistan (1962 constitution) 705–6
Spain (1931 constitution) 704–5
Spain (1966) 705
legislatures weak power over the budget 701
measurement of legislative power 710–11
permanent reversions 703
provisional reversions 704
re-engineering of 696, 697
reversionary trigger 696–7, 706
Burkina Faso (1970 constitution) 703–4
Chile (1925 constitution) 702–3
Pakistan (1962 constitution) 705–6
(p. 739) Spain (1931 constitution) 704
Spain (1966) 705
statutory provisions 711
Bulgaria 647, 651, 668n
Bundestag 156, 337, 375, 390, 463
staff resources 375
bureaucracy, control of 567, 569
agency loss 567, 568
methods for mitigating 568–9, 577
bureaucratic drift 576–7
delegation over time 579–80
institutional constraints 574
multiple principals 568, 572–3
spatial models for 575–6
perspectives on:
bureaucratic autonomy 570
Civic Republicans 571
democratic theory 570
Neodemocrats 571
Neoprogressives 571
Pluralist School 570–1
Progressives 570
Public Choice School 571
preferences of bureaucrats 576–8
temporal instability of principals 568, 579
United States:
Congressional abdication 572
Congressional dominance 572
ex ante controls 574, 579
fire alarms 573
incentives for 573
legislative coalition 573–4
multiple principals 572–3
police patrols 573
presidential control 572, 573, 574–5
Burkina Faso 703–4
cabinets:
cabinet stability 42, 44
delegation of policy-making 440
ministerial drift in coalition government 440–1
policing coalition bargain 441–2
portfolio allocation 42, 384
California state assembly, institutional socialization 60
Canada 70, 225
candidate selection:
authoritarian legislatures 690–1
consequences of 215, 216
criteria for classifying methods of 215
as defining function of political parties 214
democratization of 216
impact on competition 218
impact on representation 217–18
impact on responsiveness 218–19
impact on legislative behavior 213, 214, 218–19, 220, 226, 241, 391
party cohesion/discipline 221
impact on party unity 218–20
cartel party 223–4
disjointed party 222–3
stratarchical party 224–5
incumbency advantage 218
Latin America 630, 631
legal regulation of 214
party cohesion/discipline 408–10, 411–12
passage rates of executive legislation 498–9, 505–6
primary elections 218, 219, 221, 222–3, 391, 393n
relevance for legislative studies 214–15
reselection as primary political goal 213
screening of candidates 408–9
selectorates 215
inclusive vs exclusive 215–16
careers, see legislative careers
Central and Eastern Europe 21, 647–8, 661
cabinet instability 662–3
classification of governmental systems 651–6
constitutional powers of legislatures 652–5, 660
inconsistencies in 650–1
legislative power 656–7
committees:
membership 665
party-committee relationship 664–5
constitutional design 648–50
continued amendment of 650
European Union influence 649
(non)-strategic calculation 648–9
(p. 740) European Union accession 663
executive dominance 663
executive turnover 662–3
executive weakness 662
institutionalization of legislatures 664–6
committee membership 665
party-committee relationship 664–5
professionalization 665
legislative careers 300
legislative control over composition of executive 659
legislative control over composition of legislature 658
legislative control over policy-making 657–8, 665–6
legislative strength 656–7, 659–61
factors affecting 647, 657
impact of party system 661–4
impact on democratization 647, 667–8
index of constitutional powers 652–5, 660
parliamentary dissolution 658
party system and legislative strength 661–4
high party fragmentation 662
low party institutionalization 662
public finance and legislatures 657–8, 665–6
sub-national legislatures 612–13
Centrum voor Parlementaire Geschiedenis (Netherlands) 7
Chile:
budgetary reversions (1925 constitution) 702–3
candidate selection 408
public finance and legislatures 639
Civic Republicans, and bureaucratic control 571
coalition government 18
cabinet stability 42, 44
committees 363–4
experimental research on coalition formation 201–5
context of experiments 204
demand bargaining 203–4
trust 204
formal models of legislatures 41–5
efficient bargaining model 43–4
game theory 41
government formation 41–4
multi-stage game 44
sequential bargaining models 42–3
joint policy-making and separate accountability 436–7, 447
Latin American legislatures 641–2
legislative debate 148
minority governments 41–2
opportunistic behavior by partners 437
passage rates of executive legislation 491–2
policing the coalition bargain 440
cabinet-level 441–2
coalition committees 442
committee chair assignments 445
future research 447–8
inside parliament 443–6
junior ministers 442–3, 446, 448
legislative committees 443–5
legislative policing strength 445–6
ministerial drift 440–1
ministers' informational advantage 440, 441
outside parliament 441–3, 447–8
party summits 442
policy-making challenges 437
portfolio assignment 42
position-taking by partners 438
future research 447
legislation 439–40
legislative amendments 440
parliamentary speech 438–9, 447
prevalence of 436
sub-national legislatures 619–20
surplus coalitions 42
tensions arising from need to compromise 436
tensions between party elite and supporters 437
voter perceptions of party policy positions 438
Cobden Club 515–16
collective representation 70–1
Colombia 408, 629
(p. 741) Comité d’Histoire Parlementaire et Politique (France) 7
committees 17
agenda-setting 464–5
assignment to 361–2
Central and Eastern Europe 664–5
coalition government 363–4
comparative research on 360–1, 363–5
definition of 352
distributive approach to 40
empirical testing of theories of 365–6
formal models of legislatures 40–1
United States Congress 40
future research 366
impact of term limits 298
informational theory of 40
Latin American legislatures 631–2
legislative efficiency 352
measures of strength of 361
monitoring functions 363–4
paucity of comparative research 352–3, 360, 365
personal vote-seeking 364–5
policing coalition bargain 443–5
committee chair assignments 445
in proportional representation systems 364
rules and procedures 323
sub-national legislatures 618
women's assignments 254, 260n
Commons, House of (UK):
control of royal decrees 699–700
emergence of vote of confidence 699
guillotine 463
institutional socialization 60
power of the purse 697–8
Public Accounts Committee 518–19, 522
rules and procedures, failures of 317
Temporary Standing Orders 312
vote-buying in eighteenth century 495–7
Comparative Manifestos Project (CMP) 128, 131
competition:
candidate selection 218
democracy 217
electoral systems 232, 234–5
alternative operationalizations of 235–7
inter/intra-party defeat 235
inter-party competition 235–6
intra-party competition 236
conditional party government 374
Conference of Parliamentary Committees for Union Affairs of Parliaments of the European Union
(COSAC) 554, 560n
confidence procedures 318–19, 468–9
emergence in English Parliament 699
executive-favoring reversions (EFRs) 706–8
party cohesion 403–5
Congressional Budget Office (USA) 518
Congressional committees 345, 358–60
assignment to:
distributional theory 354–5
informational theory 356–7
party cartel theory 358
bicameral-rivalry theory 358–60
competition for policy influence 359
maximizing payments from lobbyists 359
distributional theory of 40, 353–5
committee characteristics 355
overcoming decision instability 354–5
unrepresentativeness of members 355
formal models 35, 40
future research 365
gatekeeping powers 355
golden age of research on 352, 353, 365
informational theory of 40, 356–7
organizational efficiency 356
representativeness of members 356–7
specialization by members 356
party cartel theory of 357–8
committee assignments 358
self-selection of members 355
as solution to legislative problem 401
(un)representativeness of members 357
distributional theory 355
informational theory 356–7
as veto players 355
women's committee assignments 254
see also committees
(p. 742) congressional systems:
individual autonomy 94–5
institutional autonomy 934
partisan autonomy 94
consequentiality, logic of 270
Conservative Party (UK), 1922 Committee 374
constituency service:
content analysis 134–5, 136, 138
Costa Rica 242, 629
electoral institutions 242
European Parliament 239–40
Latin American legislatures 629
personal vote-seeking 239–40, 243
role behavior 271
sub-national legislatures 616–17
women legislators 252, 253
constitutionalism, rise of 6
content analysis 13, 126–7, 141
accounting for what is not said 140–1
applications of 129–30
computer-based analysis 127–8
Alceste 160
Wordfish 132
Wordscores 131–2
constituency service by legislators 134–5
debate and deliberation in legislatures 135, 147, 160
definition of 127
goal of 127
latent variables 135, 139–40
legislative oversight 134
levels of analysis 139
media bias 135
origins and evolution of 127
party manifestos and ideology:
agenda effects 132–3
Comparative Manifestos Project 128–31
Wordfish 132
Wordscores 131–2
policy agenda 133
topic models 133–4
recent trends in 138
research design issues 135–6
human vs machine coding 137
inter-coder reliability 137
reliability 137
strategic nature of texts 136–7
use of comparable texts 137–8
validity 136
selection effects 140
strategic data-generating process 138–9
uncertainty 140
conventions, parliamentary 311
cooptation theory, and authoritarian legislatures 682–3, 684, 685
Costa Rica 299
committee assignments 362
constituency service 242, 629
Croatia 648, 650, 651, 656, 669n
Cuban Missile Crisis 547
Cyprus 4
Czech Republic 647, 650, 651, 656, 668n, 669n
debate and deliberation in legislatures 145–6, 162–3
content analysis 135, 147, 160
conventional view of 145, 161
deliberative approach to 145, 149–58
constraints on deliberation 150
criticism of 150
cross-national comparison of deliberative action 151–3, 154–6
deliberation in US Congress 156–8
extent of deliberative action 152
factors affecting quality of deliberation 152–6
goals of deliberation 149
government/opposition parties 155
institutional factors 150–1, 161–2
interaction with public sphere 158
learning 151
legislative outcomes 156
quality of deliberation 151–2, 156–8
discourse approach to 145–6, 159–61
future research 162
information revelation 146
position-taking by coalition parties 438–9
rational choice approach to 146–9
role of 13, 162
strategic/partisan-rhetoric approach to 145, 146–9
coalition parties 148
electoral system effects 148–9
(p. 743) intraparty politics 148–9
limited impact on policy-making 147
reasons for speaking 147
women's participation in 254
decision-making:
agenda-setting 456
under majority rule 456–61
cycling majorities 456–7
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) 514
decree power:
control undermined by executive-favoring reversions 709
English Parliament's control of royal decrees 699–700
presidential systems 640–1, 656, 658
democracy:
elements of 216–17
political parties 372
democratization and legislative strength, Central and Eastern Europe 647, 667–8
Denmark 362, 530
discourse analysis, and debate and deliberation in legislatures 159–61
Discourse Quality Index (DQI) 151–2
distributional theory:
Congressional committees 40, 353–5
committee characteristics 355
as solution to decision instability 354–5
unrepresentativeness of members 355
European Parliament committees 362, 598
Eastern Europe, see Central and Eastern Europe
economic growth, and authoritarian legislatures 688–9
e-government, and sub-national legislatures 621
elections:
interest group influence 537
second-order elections 616
sub-national legislatures 614, 615–16
electoral competition:
sociology of legislatures and legislators 57, 58, 75
voters' control of legislators 69
electoral systems:
accountability 232, 234
budgetary politics 517, 520
collective action problems 238
competition 232, 234–5
alternative operationalizations of 235–7
inter/intra-party defeat 235
inter-party competition 235–6
intra-party competition 236
congruence between legislators and voters 71
election of women 251–2
as embedded systems 244
endogeneity problem 244
European Parliament 593
legislative behavior 15, 231–2, 233, 243–4
legislative careers 287
legislative speech 148–9
mechanical effects of 232
monitoring and sanctioning:
political parties 240–2
voters 242–3
personal vote-seeking 231, 232–3, 234–5, 410–11
constituencies appealed to 237–8
constituency service 239–40, 243
diffuse constituencies 240
electoral benefit of 243
impact of candidate selection methods 241
incentives for 237
methods 237
pork-barrel politics 238–9
responsiveness to local interests 238
psychological effects of 232, 237–40
elite studies, interviews 171
El Salvador 547
English Parliament 696, 697, 700, 712
control of royal decrees 699–700
power of the purse 697–8
vote of confidence, emergence of 699
Estonia 647, 651, 656, 668n
(p. 744) European Affairs Committee (EAC) 554, 555, 556
European Candidate Survey 167
European Central Bank 4
European Commission, and interest groups 531
European Consortium for Political Research 2
European Court of Justice 596–7
European integration, and national legislatures 3, 553
academic interest in 554
constraint on national democracy 553
deparliamentization 553–4
European Affairs Committee 554, 555, 556
Europeanization of national parliaments 557
Eurosceptic parties 556
future research 558, 559–60
institutional adaptation 556
institutional convergence 555
interconnection of European and domestic agendas 557–8
intergovernmental policy coordination 561n
inter-parliamentary networking 554–5
mandating ministers 556
opposition parties 555–6
participation rights in EU governance 554
plenary debates 555–6
scrutiny of EU matters:
factors influencing 556, 557
increase in 554–5, 558
variations in 556
European Parliament (EP) 1, 20
career backgrounds of candidates 593
committees:
appointment of rapporteurs 599, 600
assignment to 362, 599
distributional theory 598
formation of 598–600
impact on legislative behavior 603–4
influence of political groups 599
influence of rapporteurs 603
informational theory 598–9
legislative outputs 603
partisan perspective on 599
research gaps 600, 603–4
seniority 599, 600
constituency service 239–40
diversity of electoral systems 592, 593
influence on behavior 593
future research 605
growth of academic interest in 591–2, 604
influence of national parties on MEPs 594–5
institutional socialization 60
interest groups 527, 531, 599
legislative careers 300, 593, 595
policy preferences of MEPs 594, 595
political groups in 594
allocation of positions in 598
coalition formation 602
congruence with national parties 597
formation of 596–8
ideological nature of 596–7
impact on legislative behavior 600–2
influence on committees 599
research gaps 602
roll call requests 602
similarity to factions 597
switching between 598
voting cohesion 600–2
quality of MEPs 595
rapporteurs in 592, 599, 600
influence of 603
research gaps 595
similarities with US Congress 591
trustee/delegate roles 276
turnover of MEPs 595
types of MEPs 593, 595
views of MEPs on European integration 593–4
weak MEP/voter connection 592–3, 595
European Parliament Research Group 177
European People's Party (EPP) 596, 597
European Science Foundation 188
European Social Survey 188
European Union (EU) 548
divergent preferences of voters and legislators 73
economic bailout of Cyprus 4
interest groups 527, 531
sub-national legislatures 613
(p. 745) executive agencies, and decline of legislatures 3
experimental research 14, 194
average treatment effect 196
causal inference 195, 196
causal questions 194–5
coalition formation 201–5
Baron-Ferejohn model 202–3
context of experiments 204
demand bargaining 203–4
trust 204
control groups 195
experimental design:
between-subjects design 196, 197
context 197
external validity 198
induced value 197, 207
influence of research traditions 197
internal validity 197
random assignment and sampling 196
use of student subjects 206–7
within-subjects design 196–7
experimental inference 207
future research 207
legislator-voter relations 205–6
mundane realism 206
random assignment 195, 196
responsiveness 205–6
roles of experiments 196
voter participation in deliberations 206
voting in legislatures 198–201
backward/forward agendas 199–200
institutional effects 200–1
majority rule (in)stability 198–200
expert surveys 186–8
factional affiliation, Japan 299
factor analysis 104
federalism:
bicameralism 339–40, 345
sub-national legislatures 611, 613
Fianna Fáil 224, 597
filibuster 5, 463, 474n
Fine Gael 597
Finland 72, 214, 557
Food and Drug Act (1906, USA) 567
foreign policy, and legislatures 19–20, 552–3
constraints on involvement in 552
delegation of policy-making to government 543–4
executive domination of foreign policy 543–4
foreign economic relations 549–51
future research 559–60
increasing involvement of 551–2
electoral considerations 551
global interdependence 551
influence of 544
information asymmetry 552
United States Congress 545–6
foreign economic relations 550, 551
increased assertiveness of 551–2
security policy 546–7
War Powers Resolution (1973) 547
war on terror 552
war powers and security policy 546–9
constraining influence of legislatures 548
ex-ante approval 549
joint military missions 548
parliamentary veto power 547–8
participation in Iraq War 549
reasons for limited involvement in 549
War Powers Resolution (1973) 547
formal models of legislatures 11–12, 29–31
coalition government 41–5
cabinet stability 42, 44
efficient bargaining model 43–4
game theory 41
government formation 41–4
minority governments 41–2
multi-stage game 44
portfolio assignment 42
sequential bargaining models 42–3
committees 40–1
distributive approach to 40
informational theory of 40
United States Congress 40
comparative perspective 45–9
institutional equilibria 47–9
veto players approach 46–7
criteria for 30, 38
(p. 746) empirical content 30
equilibrium institutions 30
universality 30
game theory 35–9
Baron-Ferejohn model 37, 202–3
coalition government 41
efficient bargaining model 43–4
empirical content 38–9
equilibrium institutions 39
Gilligan-Krehbiel model 38
lack of explanatory power 38
multi-stage game 44
problems with 49
Romer-Rosenthal model 36–7
universality 38
general theory of legislatures 49–50
institutional analysis 32–4
mathematical representation 29
nature of formal modeling 30
purposes of 29
rational choice theory 29
social choice theory 31–2
aggregation function 31
Structure-Induced Equilibrium 34–5, 355
coalition government 41
framing, and agenda-setting 455
France:
dual mandates 615
legislative parties 375
staff resources 376
presidency 466
sub-national legislature research 612
French Constitution:
guillotine 470
package vote 470
Frontex 568
game theory 12
coalition government 41
efficient bargaining model 43–4
multi-stage game 44
sequential bargaining models 42–3
formal models of legislatures 35–9
Baron-Ferejohn model 37, 202–3
empirical content 38–9
equilibrium institutions 39
Gilligan-Krehbiel model 38
institutional equilibria 47–9
lack of explanatory power 38
problems with 49
Romer-Rosenthal model 36–7
universality 38
veto players approach 46–7
Gamson's law 203
gatekeeping:
agenda-setting 466–7
Congressional committees 355
Latin American legislatures 632
gender:
candidate selection 218
gendered nature of legislatures 254
gender quotas 251, 252, 255, 260n
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 551
German Conference Committee 156
Germany:
candidate selection 214
legislative deliberation 151–3, 154–6
legislative parties:
conditional leadership dominance 376
policy committees 376
staff resources 375
legislator-voter relations 74
parliamentary involvement in military affairs 547
role of legislature in government formation 4
sub-national legislatures 617
globalization, and decline of legislatures 3
Glorious Revolution (1688) 546, 697
gridlock:
bicameralism 333, 335, 339
consensus decision-making 580
executive/legislator interaction 485
Latin American legislatures 637, 638
rules and procedures 16, 317, 321
guillotine 444, 463, 470
head of state, role in constitutional systems 651
Hicks paradox 488
History of Parliament Trust (UK) 7
(p. 747) home style 9, 239, 240, 629, 631
Honduras 629
Hungary 321, 647, 649, 650, 651, 668n
hybrid regimes 676
Iceland 222–3
ideology:
content analysis of party manifestos:
agenda effects 132–3
Comparative Manifestos Project 128–31
Wordfish 132
Wordscores 131–2
legislator-voter relations 71–2
impeachment 699
incumbency advantage 48
candidate selection 218
induced value theory, and experimental research 197, 207
influence, use in eighteenth-century England 495–7
informational theory:
Congressional committees 40, 356–7
organizational efficiency 356
representativeness of members 356–7
specialization by members 356
European Parliament committees 362, 598–9
institutional change:
critical junctures 57–8
path dependency 58
path inefficiency 58
institutional equilibria, and formal models of legislatures 47–9
institutionalism 12
evolution of legislative studies 7–11
formal models of legislatures 32–4
Structure-Induced Equilibrium 34–5, 355
historical institutionalism 10–11
as methodology 33
new institutionalism 9–10, 33, 75
old institutionalism 7–8
party switching 419
rational choice theory 10
sociological institutionalism 10, 11
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI, Mexico) 430
institutions:
impact on political behavior 150–1
political institutions 57
establishment of 57–8
social institutions 57
Interamerican Development Bank, Structural Policy Index 639
interest groups 19, 526
accessing legislators 532
resource exchange 532–3, 534
benefits of 526
detrimental effects of 526
development of research on 528–9
diversity of 533
electoral influence 537
European Commission 531
European Parliament 527, 531, 599
European Union 527, 531
evolution of 526–7
future research:
influence of 536–7
legislator-interest group linkages 537
legislator-interest group relations 535–6
goals of 526, 536–7
influence of 530, 536–7
integration into public policy-making 527
decline in 530
legislative tactics and strategy 530–2
legislator-interest group relations 535–6
parliaments 527, 530–1, 534
patterns of legislator-interest group contacts 533–4
focus on sympathetic legislators 534
political role of 529
relationship with political parties 527, 534, 537
renewed interest in 529
variation in activity across issues 531–2
International Commission for the History of Representative and Parliamentary Institutions 7
International Monetary Fund 4, 550
International Political Science Association 2
Internet, sub-national legislatures' use of 621
Inter-Parliamentary Union 489–90, 516
intersectionality, and women in legislatures 255–6
(p. 748) Interuniversity Consortium for Political Research 289
interviews 14, 167
advantages of 168
behaviour during 173–4
constructivist theories of 173
contacting subjects 172–3
disadvantages of 167
elite studies 171
focus of representation 274
interviewer/interviewee relations 171–2
judging quality of 176–7, 188
qualitative analysis 167
questions 174–6
closed questions 174–5
formatting 175–6
open questions 174
order of 175
sensitive 175
wording 175
recording of 176
response rates 185–6
sampling 172
selection bias 186
as social exchange 172
use in exploratory research 169
use in legislative studies 169–70
parliamentary norms 169
roles 169
value of 167
Iraq War 549
Ireland 362, 364
Israel 223, 224, 241
Italy 87, 95
coalition committees 442
parliamentary voting methods 322
regional councils 611–12, 618
Item Response Theory 104
Japan 299, 376, 547
junior ministers, policing coalition bargain, 442–3, 446, 448
Kommission für Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien (Germany) 7
Korean War 547
Kosovo 547, 668n, 669n
Kuomintang party 223
Labour Party (UK) 375
Latin American legislatures 21
ambition 630
candidate selection 630, 631
coalition politics 641–2
committees 631–2
chair assignments 631–2
electoral connection 629–30
bill initiation 629–30
constituency service 629
constituent-representative relations 631
future research 643–4
growth of research on 628
home style 629, 631
legislative careers 299–300, 630
legislative-executive relations 642–3
gridlock 638
literature on 637–8
policy outcomes 637, 639
presidents' agenda implementation 639–41
legislative recruitment 630
presidents' agenda implementation 639–41
agenda-setting 639
bill approval rates 639–40
determinants of 640
presidential decrees 640–1
uncertainty over legislators' preferences 640
representation of women 630
research gaps 636–7
voting behavior of legislators 632–4
abstentions 635
alternative to roll-call analysis 635–6
cartel thesis 632, 633
competing principals approach 632–4
co-sponsorship of bills 635–6
electoral rules 634
gubernatorial pressure 634
party cohesion/unity 632, 635
Latvia 647, 651, 668n
lawmaking 18–19, 495–7
defeat of government bills 482, 486, 488, 506n
dominant role of government 482
executive/legislator interaction 482
(p. 749) influence of party systems 485
passage rates of executive legislation:
bill initiation and statutory achievements 4945
box scores 490–1
influence of partisan support 485–6
lack of comparative research 489–90
Latin American legislatures 639–40
measures of legislative success 490
multivariate analysis 492, 493
national constituencies 492–4
parliamentary systems 491–2, 494, 499
party control over ballot access 498–9, 505–6
by political system/government status 491–2
presidential systems 491–2, 494, 499
use of partisan resources 498–9
process in democratic countries 483–4
initiators of bills 484
Turkish parliament 481–2
uncertainty 482
United States Congress, fast-track bill 481
unpredictability of legislators' voting 482, 486
cross-pressures on 486, 488–9
vote-buying 482–3, 486–7, 495
eighteenth-century England 495–7
winning voting coalitions 486, 487
leader democracy 58
legislative behavior:
antagonistic cooperation 57, 58
institutional socialization 59–61
electoral systems 15, 231–2, 233, 243–4
constituency service 239–40
monitoring and sanctioning by parties 240–2
personal vote-seeking 232–5, 237–40
pork-barrel bills 238–9
European Parliament:
impact of committees 603–4
impact of political groups 600–2
impact of candidate selection methods 213, 214, 218–19, 220, 226, 241, 391
cartel party 223–4
disjointed party 222–3
party cohesion/discipline 221
stratarchical party 224–5
institutional approach to 221
preferences of legislators 373
pre-parliamentary socialization 60
significant party behavior 406
sociological approach to 221
sub-national legislatures 616–17
constituency service 616, 617
role perceptions 616–17
voting behavior 617
term limits 296–8
legislative careers 16, 286–7, 300–2
ambition 290, 292, 302
formation of 293–4
candidate emergence 290, 293
comparative studies 298–300
definitional difficulties 287–8
electoral systems 287
European Parliament 300, 593, 595
European Parliament MEPs 593
event history models 292–3, 300
Latin America 299–300, 630
macro-level studies 290–1
measurement difficulties 288–9
methodology for studying 300–1
micro-level choice studies 291, 300
political institutions 289–90, 301
professional politicians 288, 292
research challenges 301–2
lack of data 301–2
methods of study 301
significance of 302
strategic interaction of incumbents and challengers 293
strategic retirement 293
studies of US Congress 291–2
sub-national legislatures 615
term limits 294–5
effects of 297–8
impact on legislators' origins 296
impact on turnover 295, 296
post-legislative careers 295–6
transformative legislatures 286
transitions 292
value of holding office 294
(p. 750) legislative committees, see committees; Congressional committees
legislative parties 372–4
agenda-setting 386, 403–6
analytical models 372
catch-all parties 379–80
caucus 374
complexity of 372–3
definition of 371, 393n
elite parties 378
entrepreneurial party 380
extra-parliamentary party organization 372
catch-all parties 379–80
dominance over 376
elite parties 378
mass parties 378–9
factors affecting legislative impact of
access to office 390
candidate selection 391
costs of exit 390–1
partyness of government 387–8
party size 389
party unity 388–9
stability of 389–90
functions of 372, 418
future research 392–3
hierarchical structure 374–6
conditional party government 374
leadership 375
middle management 375
staff resources 375–6
idiographic literature on 387
independence of 379–80
internal specialization 376–7
policy committees 376–7
mass parties 378–9
principal-agent framework 373, 377–8
catch-all parties 379–80
elite parties 378
entrepreneurial party 380
leader-caucus relations 375
mass parties 378–9
as procedural cartels 386, 403
reasons for existence of 380–1
allocation of cabinet portfolios 384
collective action problems in legislature 382–3
functionalist perspective 381
legislators' perspective 382–6
normative accounts 381–2
policy impact 385–6
social choice problems 383
voter mobilization 383–4
responsible party government 372
significant party behavior 406
as solution to legislative problem 401
state legislatures (USA) 617
veto-player theory 387
legislative recruitment 14–15, 61–8
assets for legislative recruitment and careers 63
barriers and obstacles 66
challenge-response model 66–7
impact of end of Cold War 67–8
legitimacy challenge 68
competition for political leadership 61–2
contenders 62
contenders' resources 63, 64
contradiction in 65
electorates 62
elite restrictions on access 62
inequality 61
insider-outsider differential 66, 68
Latin America 630
party selectorates 62
political professionalization 64, 65
public and media scrutiny 63
from public sector 66
selectorates 62
double task of 64
external focus of 63
internal focus of 63–4
sub-national legislatures 614–15
from teaching profession 68
turnover rates 68
legislative strength:
Central and Eastern Europe 656–7, 659–61
factors affecting 647, 657
impact of party system 661–4
(p. 751) impact on democratization 647, 667–8
index of constitutional powers 652–5, 660
democracy 647
legislative studies:
evolution of 5–11
behaviorism 9
dominance of American scholars 11
functionalist approaches 8
historical institutionalism 10–11
historical research 7
legal-constitutional scholarship 6–7
new institutionalism 9–10
old institutionalism 7–8
philosophical roots of 6
rational choice theory 10
sociological institutionalism 10, 11
systems theory 8
growth of 2
influence of micro-level approach 91, 96
information availability 2–3
journals 2
supply-and-demand model 62–3
theoretical approaches in 11–12
Legislative Studies Quarterly (LSQ) 169–70
legislative viscosity 88
legislative voting:
amendment procedure 467–8
experimental research 198–201
backward/forward agendas 199–200
institutional effects 200–1
majority rule (in)stability 198–200
parliamentary rules and procedures 320–2
sequencing and ordering 467–8
spatial models of 105–13
DW-NOMINATE 107–11
Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods 111–13
successive procedure 467–8
unpredictability of 482, 486
cross-pressures on legislators 486, 488–9
vote-buying 486–7, 495
eighteenth-century England 495–7
legislator-voter relations 69, 75
asymmetric nature of 69, 70–1
collective congruence 71
collective representation 70–1
congruence between 70
congruence concerning politics 72
content analysis of constituency service 134–5
control through electoral competition 69
convergent preferences 70
divergent preferences 70, 73
electoral systems 71
experimental research 205–6
ideological congruence 71–2
as principal-agent relationship 69, 74
process preferences 72–3
reciprocal nature of 71
responsible-party model 71
legislatures:
decline of 3–4
definition of 1
different names for 1
elective function 1–2, 4
etymological roots of term 1
general theory of 49–50
organizational variety 40
policy influence of 4–5
significance of 4–5
Libya 547
Lisbon Treaty 554
Lithuania 647, 651, 656, 668n
Macedonia 648, 650, 651, 656, 668n
Magna Carta (1215) 514
majority rule, agenda-setting under 456–61
setter model 45960
veto-player theory 460–1
manifestos, content analysis of:
agenda effects 132–3
Comparative Manifestos Project 128–31
Wordfish 132
Wordscores 131–2
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation 105, 111–13
mass media, and agenda-setting 455
(p. 752) media bias, and content analysis 135
median voter theorem 104
methodology 12–14
see also content analysis; debate and deliberation in legislatures; experimental research; formal models
of legislatures; interviews; scaling methods; surveys
Mexico 87, 95, 223, 634
ministerial drift in coalition government 440–1
minority interests, and bicameralism 335
minority representation, and sub-national legislatures 615
mixed systems 651
Moldova 647, 650, 651, 668n, 669n
Montenegro 669n
motivations of legislators 226, 244n
multidimensional scaling (MDS) 104
multilevel governance:
exclusion of legislatures 559
sub-national legislatures 613
Mutiny Act (1689, England) 700
Myanmar 676, 680
National Action Party (PAN, Mexico) 430
National Audit Office (UK) 522
National Labour Review Board 573
neo-corporatism, and decline of legislatures 3
Neodemocrats, and bureaucratic control 571
neo-institutionalism, and role analysis 268–9
Neoprogressives, and bureaucratic control 571
Netherlands 73, 223, 311, 377
new media, sub-national legislatures use of 621
New Zealand 214
NOMINATE model 105
North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) 551
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 548
Northern Ireland 612
Norway 214, 530
observational research 195
Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (1988, USA) 551
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 666
oversight 20
content analysis 134
functions of legislatures 86
policing coalition bargain 440–1
cabinet-level 441–2
coalition committees 442
committee chair assignments 445
future research 447–8
inside parliament 443–6
junior ministers 442–3, 446, 448
legislative committees 443–5
legislative policing strength 445–6
outside parliament 441–3, 447–8
party summits 442
Pakistan 705–6
Paraguay 679
Parliament, Houses of (UK):
financial scrutiny of government 518, 522
role in budgetary decisions 519
Parliamentary Elites of Latin America project 636
parliamentary questions 126
bureaucratic delegation 569
content analysis 134–5, 138, 139
functions of 138
opposition use of 439
European Parliament 448n
parliamentary control of government 322–3
parliamentary systems:
agenda-setting 468–71
coalition politics 641–2
confidence convention 403–5
definition of 508n, 651
as fused power systems 84
individual autonomy 94–5
institutional autonomy 934
legislatures' elective function 1–2, 4, 41
legislatures in 84
partisan autonomy 94–5
party cohesion 403–6
passage rates of executive legislation 491–2, 494, 499
parliaments, origins of term 1
(p. 753) Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (USA, 2003) 160
Parti-Rep (Participation and Representation) project 223
party cohesion 220–1, 388, 412
agenda-setting:
parliamentary systems 403–6
United States Congress 403
centrist parties 409
Congressional parties 400–2
constitutional context 400
definition of 399
impact of candidate selection methods 408–10, 411–12
Krehbiel's model of 402
leader-induced equilibrium 412
multiparty settings 409–10
parliamentary systems 403–6
political accountability 400
selective incentives 410–12
candidate selection 411–12
electoral system 410–11
legislative organization 411
significant party behavior 406–7
party competition, salience theory of 128
party discipline 220–1, 388, 412
Congressional parties 400–2
Krehbiel's model of party cohesion 402
definition of 399
impact of candidate selection methods 408–10, 411–12
multiparty settings 409–10
parties-or-preference debate 399, 407
party leadership 412
party switching 421
selective incentives 410–12
candidate selection 411–12
electoral system 410–11
legislative organization 411
as theoretical construct 399
Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD, Mexico) 430
party organization, legislative independence 89
party switching 18, 418–19
approaches to studying 419–20
institutional 419
strategic 419
autocracies 429–30
contextual conditions of 422–4
coordination of 429
definition of 430n
diversity in research on 427, 428
electoral costs of 421
electoral deterrents 425
electoral systems 424, 425
evolution of research on 420–4
questions and findings 422–3
frontier of research 424–8
future research 428–30
impact of candidate selection methods 424–5
impact on democratic representation 419
incumbents/candidates 429
leadership strategy 425–6
office rewards of 421–2
party discipline 421
party government status 421
party size 421
policy influences 421
puzzling nature of 418
reasons for 420–1
seniority 421
systemic effects of 426–8
party unity:
agenda-setting:
parliamentary systems 403–6
United States Congress 403
impact of candidate selection methods 218–20, 221, 408–10, 411–12
cartel party 223–4
disjointed party 222–3
stratarchical party 224–5
impact on legislative output 388
institutional approach to 221
leader's role 388–9
party cohesion/party discipline distinction 220–1, 388, 399, 412
primary elections 219, 221, 222–3
selective incentives 410–12
candidate selection 411–12
electoral system 410–11
legislative organization 411
significant party behavior 406–7
sociological approach to 221
(p. 754) Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010, USA) 4–5
personal vote-seeking 231, 232–3
committees 364–5
electoral benefit of 243
electoral systems 234–5, 237, 410–11
constituencies appealed to 237–8
constituency service 239–40, 243
diffuse constituencies 240
pork-barrel politics 238–9
responsiveness to local interests 238
impact of candidate selection methods 241
methods used in 237
Peru 680
philosophy, study of legislatures 6
Pluralist School, and bureaucratic control 570–1
Poland 647, 649, 651, 668n, 669n, 681
policy agenda:
agenda-setting 455–6
content analysis 133
topic models 133–4
policy-making:
bicameralism 335–6
function of legislature 87
see also agenda-setting; foreign policy, and legislatures; interest groups; public finance and
legislatures; statutory policy-making
Polish Sejm, rules and procedures 315–16
Polish United Workers' Party 689
political opportunity structure, and women in legislatures 257–9
electoral systems 257–8
government spending levels 258
party ideology 258
policy priorities 258–9
political parties 17–18
catch-all parties 379
Congressional committees 357–8
committee assignments 358
constitutional context 400
definition of 214, 371
democracy 372
elite parties 378
entrepreneurial party 380
as franchise systems 225
goal of 371
impact of democratization 217
manifestos, content analysis of
agenda effects 132–3
Comparative Manifestos Project 128–31
Wordfish 132
Wordscores 131–2
mass parties 378–9
monitoring and sanctioning abilities 240–2
party cohesion/party discipline distinction 220–1
reasons for existence of:
functionalist perspective 381
legislators' perspective 382–6
normative accounts 381–2
relationship with interest groups 527, 534, 537
responsible-party model 71
political professionalization 64, 65, 288, 292
Political Studies Association (UK) 2
pork-barrel politics 238–9
Congressional committees 353, 354
power-sharing:
authoritarian legislatures 685
authoritarian regimes 683–4
premier-presidential systems 651
presidential systems:
agenda-setting 469
coalition politics 641–2
definition of 508n, 651
gridlock 485
legislatures in 2, 84–5
passage rates of executive legislation 491–2, 494, 499
policy influence of legislatures 4–5
presidential decrees 640–1, 656, 658
separation of powers 84–5
president-parliamentary systems 651, 656
pressure groups, see interest groups
primary elections 393n
candidate selection 391
(p. 755) impact on candidate competition 218
party unity 219, 221, 222–3
principal-agent relations 58
legislative parties 373, 377–8
agency problems 377–8
catch-all parties 379–80
elite parties 378
entrepreneurial party 380
mass parties 378–9
sociology of legislatures and legislators 75
Principle Component Analysis 104
process preferences, and legislator-voter relations 72–3
Progressives, and bureaucratic control 570
proportional representation systems:
candidate selection 214
committee strength 364
election of women 251–2, 257–8
European Parliament 593
party switching 424
Public Accounts Committees 518–19, 522
Public Choice School, and bureaucratic control 571
public finance and legislatures 19, 514–15, 523
case studies 516
Central and Eastern Europe 657–8, 665–6
changes in legislative-executive relations 522–3
Chile 639
Cobden Club study 515–16
common pool resource problem 516, 517
effects of involvement in financial decisions 522
English Parliament's control of:
censure procedures 699
control of royal decrees 699–700
difficulty in transplanting elsewhere 700–1
power of the purse 697–8
ex ante budget approval 515, 521–2
ex post budget scrutiny 515, 518, 522
Public Accounts Committees 518–19, 522
future research 521–3
impact on fiscal outcomes 516, 520
impact on public finances 519
legislative power 710–11
legislative strengthening programs 521
political economy literature 516
reforms to strengthen fiscal discipline 520
role in budgetary decisions 516–17
budgetary authority 517
impact on development outcomes 520, 521
influence of electoral system 517, 520
majority/minority governments 520
organizational capacity 517
variations in 519
variations in financial scrutiny of government 517–18, 519
United Kingdom 518, 522
United States 517–18, 521–2
public sector, legislative recruitment from 66
question time, see parliamentary questions
rational choice theory 12
debate and deliberation in legislatures 146–9
formal models of legislatures 29
legislative studies 10
party switching 419
Reasoned Action, Theory of 270
Reform Act (1867, UK) 378
Regional and Federal Studies 300
regional assemblies, Europe 611–12
reluctant democrats:
re-engineering of budgetary reversions 697
subversion of legislatures 696
representation:
bicameralism 335
candidate selection 217–18
content analysis of constituency service 134–5
delegate conception of 64, 267, 274–5
democracy 217
focus of 274
function of legislature 86
style of 274
trustee conception of 64, 267, 274–5
(p. 756) Republican Party (USA), and women representatives 258
resource exchange, and legislator-interest group relations 532–3, 534
responsiveness:
candidate selection 218–19
democracy 217
experimental research 205–6
roles, legislative 15–16
Burke's influence on 267–8
congruence between typologies of 279
Eulau-Wahlke typology 272–3, 274, 278–9
behavioral consequences 275–6
critiques of 274–6
focus of representation 274
role switching 280
trustee/delegate 274–5
meaning of roles 268–9
motivational approach to 271–2
position/preference roles 272, 277
prospects for study of 281–2
role-behavior relationship 269
role-position relationship 268–9, 270
roles as perceived expectations 270
roles as strategies 270–1
role switching 280
Searing's typology 277–8, 279–81, 288–9
sub-national legislatures 616–17
theoretical weakness 272
roll-call analysis:
evolution of scaling techniques and spatial analysis 104–5
NOMINATE model 105
problems and issues with scaling techniques 115–17
spatial models of voting 105–13
abstentions 115
comparability between different chambers 114–15
compatibility across time 114
DW-NOMINATE 107–11
Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods 111–13
Romania 647, 649, 651, 668n, 669n
rules and procedures 16, 311–13, 326–7
access to the plenary 324–5
agenda-setting 319–20
proposal and amendment rights 463–5
timetable control 462–3
areas covered by 312
cabinet inauguration/removal 318–19
confidence procedures 318–19, 403–5, 468–9
in constitutions 311–12
conventions 311
criteria for good rules 315
definition of 311
diversity of 315
effectiveness of parliament 314–15
electoral rules in parliament 317–19
emergence of 313–14
evolution of 6–7
failures of 315–17
Habsburg Austria 316
House of Commons 317
obstruction 316–17
Polish Sejm 315–16
post-Soviet Russia 316
formal rules 311
importance of 34
institutional stability 312–13, 326
parliamentary control of government 322–4
budget rules 323–4
parliamentary committees 323
parliamentary questions 322–3
reaching out to the public 324–5
reporting of parliament 325
research gaps 327
rule change 326
sources of 311–12
standing orders 311, 312
United States Senate 5
voting rules 320–2
Russia 647, 651, 666, 668n, 669n
institutionalization of legislature 664
presidential dominance 656, 658
presidential/semi-presidential system 650
public finance and legislatures 666
regional assemblies 612
(p. 757) rules and procedures 316
Rwanda 251, 254, 260n
safe seats 214
salience theory of party competition 128
scaling methods 13
applications in legislative studies 113–14
evolution of 104–5
problems and issues with 115–17
spatial models of voting 105–13
abstentions 115
comparability between different chambers 114–15
compatibility across time 114
DW-NOMINATE 107–11
Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods 111–13
Schelling Conjecture 550
Schengen Agreement 567–8
Schröder, Gerhard 4
Scottish parliament 60, 158, 612
securitization 552
selectorates:
candidate selection 215
inclusive vs exclusive 215–16
impact of democratizing candidate selection:
cartel party 223–4
competition 218
disjointed party 222–3
legislative behavior 217–20
party cohesion/discipline 221
party unity 218–20
representation 217–18
responsiveness 218–19
stratarchical party 224–5
legislative recruitment 62
double task of 64
external focus 63
internal focus 63–4
seniority systems 48, 599, 600
separation of powers, and presidential systems 84
Serbia 648, 651, 669n
Slovakia 647, 650, 651, 668n
Slovenia 648, 650, 651, 668n, 669n
social choice theory 12, 31–2
aggregation function 31
Congressional committees 354, 355
legislative parties 383
socialization, institutional 59–61
sociology of legislatures and legislators 12, 57–9, 74–6
antagonistic cooperation 57, 58, 69, 75
institutional socialization 59–61
electoral competition 57, 58, 75
insider-insider relations 57
insider-outsider relations 57
institutional formation and change 57–8
principal-agent relations 75
Soviet Union 678, 679–80, 689–90
Spain 704–5
spatial models 103
abstentions 115
applications of scaling methods 113–14
comparability between different chambers 114–15
compatibility across time 114
evolution of scaling techniques and spatial analysis 104–5
problems and issues with scaling techniques 115–17
spatial models of voting 105–13
DW-NOMINATE 107–11
Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods 111–13
state legislatures (USA) 611
committees 618
e-government 621
elections 614
inter-parliamentary activism 621
legislative behavior 617
legislative careers 615
minority representation 615
professionalization of 292
research on 611
turnover and career changes 295, 296
women's committee assignments 254
(p. 758) statutory policy-making:
defeat of government bills 486, 488, 506n
passage rates of executive legislation:
bill initiation and statutory achievements 4945
box scores 490–1
influence of partisan support 485–6
lack of comparative research 489–90
Latin American legislatures 639–40
measures of legislative success 490
multivariate analysis 492, 493
national constituencies 492–4
parliamentary systems 491–2, 494, 499
party control over ballot access 498–9, 505–6
by political system/government status 491–2
presidential systems 491–2, 494, 499
use of partisan resources 498–9
unpredictability of legislators' voting 486
cross-pressures on 486, 488–9
vote-buying 486–7, 495
eighteenth-century England 495–7
winning voting coalitions 486, 487
Stolper-Samuelson theory 550
structural functionalism 8
Structure-Induced Equilibrium (SIE) 34–5, 41, 355
sub-national legislatures 20–1
America-Europe divide in research on 610–11
American state legislatures 611
coalition politics 619–20
development of research on 614
e-government 621
elections 614, 615–16
entrepreneurial activities of 620
European research on 611–12
in European Union 613
federalism 611, 613
future research 622
implications for democratic theory 610
institutional design 617–19
committees 618
executive/legislature relations 618–19
size 618
international activities of 620–1
legislative behavior 616–17
constituency service 616, 617
role perceptions 616–17
voting behavior 617
legislative careers 615
legislative recruitment 614–15
links with national politics 615
minority representation 615
multilevel governance 613
new media 621
post-communist countries 612–13
reasons for growth of 609–10
regional assemblies 611–12
significance of 609
United Kingdom 612
voter behavior 615–16
women's representation 615
super-majorities 5, 48, 154, 196, 316, 321, 359, 392, 484, 658
supreme audit institutions 519, 522
surveys 14, 167
advantages of 168, 177
coordination amongst researchers 188–9
disadvantages of 168
expert surveys 186–8
legislative surveys 177–85
on-line surveys 177
overview of parliamentary surveys 178–84
quantitative analysis 168
response rates 185–6
selection bias 185, 186
self-administered 168
structured nature of 168–9
telephone surveys 177–85
use in legislative studies 169–70
parliamentary norms 169
roles 169
value of 167
Sweden 520
Switzerland, legislative deliberation 151–3, 154–6
systems theory 8
Taiwan 223
teaching profession, legislative recruitment from 68
(p. 759) term limits 294–5
effects of 297–8
impact on legislative behavior 295, 296–8
impact on legislators' origins 296
impact on turnover 295, 296
legislative capacity 297–8
post-legislative careers 295–6
territorial representation, and bicameralism 339–40
Thailand 507n
timetable control, and agenda-setting 462–3
totalitarianism, decline in 679
Trade Act (1974, USA) 551
trade issues, parliamentary involvement in 549–51
transformative legislatures 88, 89
transnational legislatures 1
Turkey 362, 481–2, 548
turnover rates:
impact of term limits 295, 296
legislative recruitment 68
typologies and classifications of legislatures 12, 82–3
arena/transformative legislatures 88–9, 91, 286
Blondel's typology 88
comparative legislative autonomy 92–6
explanation of policy power 95
individual autonomy 93, 94–5
institutional autonomy 93–4
integration of micro and macro approaches 95
level of exogenous control 92–3
partisan autonomy 93, 94–5
temporal change 95–6
comparing legislatures across political systems 87
definitional clarification 83–5
functions of legislatures 85
control 86
linkage of citizens and government 85–6
oversight of executive 86
policy-making 87
relative balance between 87
representation 86
hierarchy of institutions 83, 84
historical evolution of 85–92
impact of party organization 89
influence of micro-level approach 91
limited explanatory power of 82
Mezey's typology 89–90, 91
negative powers/legislative viscosity 88
parliamentary systems 84
as fused power systems 84
policy-making power 90
Polsby's typology 88–9, 91
popular support 89–91
presidential systems 84
separation of powers 84–5
static nature of 82–3
variations in approach to 82
Ukraine 647, 650–1, 656, 665, 666, 668n
presidential powers 651–6
public finance and legislatures 666
unfolding analysis 104
United Kingdom:
ministerial tenure 299
sub-national legislatures 612
United Nations 548
United States Congress:
Biographical Directory of the US Congress 289
bureaucratic oversight/control:
bureaucratic preferences 576–8
Congressional abdication 572
Congressional dominance 572
ex ante controls 574, 579
fire alarms 573
incentives for 573
legislative coalition 573–4
mitigating agency loss 568–9, 577
multiple principals 572–3
police patrols 573
presidential control 572, 573, 574–5
spatial model for multiple principals 575–6
collective challenges facing members 401
fast-track bill 481
financial scrutiny of government 517–18, 521–2
(p. 760) foreign policy 545–6
foreign economic relations 550, 551
increased assertiveness in 551–2
security policy 546–7
War Powers Resolution (1973) 547
incumbency advantage 218
institutional socialization 59–60
legislative careers 291–2
legislative deliberation 151–3, 154–6
quality of 156–8
legislative parties:
agenda-setting 386, 403
committee assignments 358
impact of 401–2
Krehbiel's model of party cohesion 402
party discipline/cohesion 400–2
policy committees 376
policy impact 385–6
as procedural cartels 386, 403
role of 357–8
as solution to legislative problem 401
staff resources 375–6
weakness of 400
legislative problem 401
party unity 219
roles of 685
Roster of 289
rules and procedures 7
transformative capacity 286
United States Constitution 514, 580
United States House of Representatives:
institutional socialization 59–60
length of legislative careers 289
Rules Committee 315, 464
United States Presidency:
control of bureaucracy 572, 573, 574–5
veto power 465–6
United States Senate:
filibusters 5, 463, 474n
foreign policy 545
Parliamentarian of 5
passage of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 4–5
rules and procedures 5, 7
United States Supreme Court, and rule of four 465
United States Trade Representative 551
validity:
content analysis 136
experimental design 197–8
Venezuela 299, 362
veto players:
agenda-setting 465–6
agenda-setting under majority rule 460–1
Congressional committees 355
formal models of legislatures 46–7
legislative parties 387
Vietnamese Communist Party 682
Vietnamese National Assembly 690–1
Vietnam War 545, 547
vote-buying, and lawmaking 486–7, 495
eighteenth-century England 495–7
voter behavior:
impact of electoral systems 231
accountability of legislators 234
monitoring and sanctioning abilities 242–3
rational ignorance 242
sub-national legislatures 615–16
voter mobilization, and political parties 383–4
Voteworld 186
Wales 612
war powers and security policy 546–9
constraining influence of legislatures 548
ex-ante parliamentary approval 549
joint military missions 548
parliamentary veto power 547–8
participation in Iraq War 549
reasons for limited legislative involvement 549
War Powers Resolution (1973) 547
War Powers Resolution (1973, USA) 547
welfare states, and decline of legislatures 3
women in legislatures:
activities of:
bill initiation 253–4, 259n
committee assignments 254, 260n
debate participation 254
(p. 761) attitudes towards role of 252–3
descriptive representation 251, 255
elite women 256
evolution of research field 250–1
factors affecting election of 259n
district magnitude 252
proportional representation systems 251–2
gendered nature of legislatures 254
gender quotas 251, 252, 255, 260n
intersectionality 255–6
Latin America 630
from minority groups 256
multiparty group 256
party affiliation 256
political opportunity structure 257–9
electoral systems 257–8
government spending levels 258
party ideology 258
policy priorities 258–9
sub-national legislatures 615
substantive representation 251, 255
under-representation of 15, 250, 255–6
women's interests 256–7
Wordfish 132
Wordscores 131–2