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date: 14 November 2019

(p. 705) Subject Index

(p. 705) Subject Index

Note: all law cases are indexed together under ‘legal cases’. Bold entries refer to tables.

Abidjan 167
abolitionist movement 244
see also slave trade
aborigines and First Nation Peoples, displacement of:
Australia 639
Central America and the Caribbean 664, 665, 666
Colombia 659, 660
colonialism 77, 333, 337–8, 556, 568
development-induced displacement 619, 623
New Zealand 639
North America 256, 677
South Asia 619, 623
Southern Africa 556, 568
Addis Ababa Peace Agreement (1972) 576
Afghanistan 599
Afghanistan Comprehensive Solution Unit (UNHCR) 604, 610
asylum seekers 281, 642, 691, 694
civilian protection 308
classified as safe to return 647
in colonial period 600
diaspora formation 179
durable solutions, rethinking of 604–5
emergence as nation state 601
human development level 610
internally displaced persons 167
refugees from 4, 12, 484, 600, 609–10
in Iran 153, 157, 600, 602–3
number of 601
in Pakistan 153, 157, 484, 600, 601–2, 617
self-definitions of 602
repatriation of refugees 501, 601, 603–4, 617
continued mobility 604
self-settlement of refugees 132
Soviet invasion 600, 601
state-building 600
transnational networks 604
African Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (2009) 12, 14, 163, 166, 171, 337, 547, 567, 571, 588
development-induced displacement 337
age, intergenerational support 412–13
Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming (AGD) 402
agency:
of individuals and groups 88
of refugees 2, 6, 10, 158–9, 188, 193, 194–5, 441, 496, 610
Agenda for Peace (1992) 529
Agenda for Protection (UNHCR) 218, 284
Algeria 12, 384, 403, 585, 587, 588
see also Sahrawi
Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (ADFL) 575
(p. 706) American Anthropological Association 76
American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 655–6, 669
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948) 655, 669
American Psychiatric Association 386
Amnesty International 519
Amsterdam, Treaty of (1999) 692
Andrew, Hurricane 462
Anglo-Boer War (1900-2) 134
Angola 554, 559, 560, 567
civil war 558
independence wars 557
internally displaced persons 555
Law on Refugee Status (1990) 567
refugee flows from 557
anthropology 2, 5, 7, 74–5
core concepts in forced migration studies 80–3
ethnic minorities 82–3
ethnicity 82
imagined homelands 81
social constructivism 80–2
space and place 80–2
spatial meanings 80–1
territorialization 81
development of discipline 75, 76
development of interest in migration 75
differences between voluntary/involuntary migrants 78
ethical aspects of studying forced migration 77–8
fundamental concepts 76
growth in research on forced migration 75–6
institutions concerning forced migration 78–9
methodological approach 322
'othering' of refugees 441
participant observation 75
pre-1980s studies of forced migration 74, 76–7
role in study of forced migration 74, 83
tensions with other approaches to forced migration 79–80
'view from below' 74
Anti-Slavery Society 361
Anyanya 576
Arab League 588
Arab Spring 106, 460, 464, 519, 586, 587, 592, 596, 691
Aral Sea 609, 610
Argentina 658–9, 660
anti-trafficking 356
Arusha Agreement (1993) 574
Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network 628
Asian African Legal Consultative Committee 628
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 335
Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR) programmes 506–7, 682
Association of Refugees with Disabilities 429
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 12
Declaration Against Trafficking in Persons 358
forced migration policy 628
Indochinese refugee crisis 631
Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) 628
Myanmar 634
asylum:
anti-asylum sentiment 261
application and adjudication process 260
(bogus) asylum seekers 194–5
children 387
culture of disbelief 373–6
deportation 54–5, 254, 259, 260
disabled migrants 426–7
post-asylum support 427–8
distributing state responsibilities to refugees 51–2
duty to offer 49
forcible return of failed asylum seekers 507
gender 208, 379n4, 395, 399, 400, 405, 406
'good refugee/bad asylum seeker' syndrome 517–18
government attempts to limit asylum seekers 258
harm as basis for 45, 52, 204, 205, 211, 684, 685
(p. 707) health of refugees 438–9
barriers to accessing health services 439–40
health conditions 438–9
healthy migrant effect 438
initial health status 438
social and cultural influences 440–1
implementation gaps 281
increase in asylum seekers 2
increased restrictiveness of 154, 219–20, 258
international cooperation 66–7
international law of refugee protection 42
limits of state responsibilities to refugees 52–3
national borders, significance of 260
number granted refugee status 260
outward expansion of borders 259, 260
politicization of 261
protection gaps 281–2
Refugee Convention (1951) 257
as reparation for injustice 52
repressive asylum systems 195
sexual identity 400
state responsibilities 259–60
trafficking 364
West Africa 548
Australia 12, 639
asylum seekers:
crisis in approach to 646–7
criticisms of approach to 647
detainees' protests 647
deterrence 642
offshore processing 642–3
Pacific Solution 642–3
policy towards 642
political context of policy 645–6
public anxiety over 644, 645
scapegoating of 645
bilateral initiatives 644
as destination state 640
detention 210, 642, 643, 644, 646–7
guest workers 648
historical background to forced migration 639–41
immigration policy, racist nature of 640
legal and policy framework 642–4
media representation of forced migration 464
rank as refugee hosting country 641–2
refugee status determination system 647
regional initiatives 643–4
resettlement programme 512, 513, 518, 641
disabled refugees 425
quota 641
Refugee and Humanitarian Programme 516
selective nature of 640
source countries 641
Tampa affair 642, 645
trafficking 643
Vietnamese boat people 641
West Papuan refugees 640–1
Austria 281
Bahrain 585, 595
Bali Process on People Smuggling 14, 627, 643, 644
Bangkok Principles on the Status and Treatment of Refugees (1966) 628
Bangladesh 107, 613
impact of Libya crisis 530
impact of power structures on mobility 345
across social groups 349
refugees from 614–15
Rohingya refugees 104–5, 107, 617–18
Banyamulenge 271–2
Barbados Declaration (1971) 78
BBC 463
Bedouins 586, 595
see also nomads
Benin 541
child trafficking 546
Bhutan 613
Citizenship Act (1958) 617
Citizenship Act (1985) 617
refugees from 519–20, 616–17
Biafra 248
Biafran War 544
(p. 708) Bidoon (Kuwait) 290
boat people 410, 513, 631, 641
Mediterranean boat migrants 269–71
Tampa affair 642, 645
Bolivia 658, 660
borders, see national borders
Bosnia 157, 195, 241, 249, 266, 414, 435, 441–2, 502, 507, 691
Botswana 554, 556, 564, 567
Brahimi Report (2000) 309
Brasília Declaration on the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons in the America (2010) 661
Brazil 658, 659, 660–1
Brunei Darussalam 626, 628
Buddhism 453–4
Buduburam refugee camp 129
burden sharing 11, 492, 535–6
Cartesian perspective on 527, 528, 529–30, 533–4
changes in debate on 535
developing countries' use of term 525
evolution of states' definition of 525–6
expanded definition/scope of 528, 529
forms of 525
international cooperation 66–7
origin of concept 525
realist perspective on 530–1
regional and global costs 530
responsibility for 531–3
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 531–2
systems theory perspective on 527–8, 530, 534
Burkina Faso 541, 545
child trafficking 546
Burma, see Myanmar
Burundi 266, 403, 491, 571, 574
local integration of Burundian refugees in Tanzania 494–6
Cambodia 501, 626, 627, 628
Indochinese refugee crisis 631
camps, see encampment
Canada 12, 113
anti-trafficking policies 684–5
Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programme 682
asylum policy 680–3
agreement with United States 681
approval rates 681
asylum process 681–2
number of applicants 680
quality of decisions 683
securitization of 683
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 679
Cold War influences on policy 678
detention 113, 681
media representation of forced migration 464
protracted refugee situations 158
refugees' access to health services 439–40
resettlement programme 512, 513, 516, 678–80
eligibility 679–80
numbers resettled 678–9, 680
responsibility for 679
support 680
statelessness 685–6
temporary protection 684
Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) 682
Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board 399
Cape Verde 541, 547
CARE International 244
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA) 670
Cartagena Declaration (1984) 12, 14, 41, 45, 258, 283, 658, 669
Cartesian paradigm 527
approach to complex phenomena 533
realist theories 530–1
view of refugee movements 527, 528, 529–30, 533–4
Casablanca Protocol (Protocol for the Treatment of Palestinians in Arab States, 1965) 238, 588
Casamance independence movement 544
Catholic Relief Services 243, 244, 455, 456
Central America and the Caribbean 12, 664–5, 674
Cartagena Declaration (1984) 12, 669
(p. 709) causes and consequences of displacement 665–8
civil wars 666
cooperation over 670
in colonial period 665
Cuban Revolution 665
deportation 668
grassroots campaigns and cooperation 671–3
independence struggles 665
International Conference on Central American Refugees 12, 284, 492, 500, 670, 671
legal framework 669
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 669
natural disasters 667
post-colonial dictatorships 665
protracted refugee situations 2
regional initiatives 669–70
disaster risk management 670
remittances 673, 674
statelessness 667–8
undocumented migration 673
voluntary migration 667
see also Latin America
Central America's Coordination Center for Natural Disaster Prevention (CEPREDENAC) 670
Central Asia 331, 609–10
in colonial period 600
conflict-induced displacement 606–8
countries comprising 599
development-induced displacement 609
environmental and ecological disasters 608–9, 610
historical population mobility 599, 600
migration of Russian population 605–6
migration of Volga Germans 606
nationalism 606, 610
post-Cold War upheaval 599, 600
post-Soviet ethnicization 605
in Soviet period 600
state-building 610
statelessness 12, 608
trafficking 608
see also Afghanistan
Central Emergency Relief Fund (CERF) 304, 308
Chakmas 622
Charter of Fundamental Rights (2000, EU) 42, 692
asylum 42
Chhitmahals 622
child labour 361
see also children
Childhood War Traumas Questionnaire 386
see also methodologies
children and forced migration 10, 391
ambiguous legal position of 384
born in protracted refugee situations 15, 384
child military recruitment 167, 388–9, 546
conflict-induced displacement 388–9
disabled children 423
education 384
effects of displacement 384, 385
health risks 385, 387, 435, 621
human rights 203
in imagery of humanitarian assistance 383
Impact of Armed Conflict on Children 388
internal displacement 167
nationality laws 294, 296–7, 299n13, 616, 627, 660, 685–6
number of displaced children 383–5
older refugees' dependence on 413
Palestinian refugees 384
political mobilization of 390
refugee status determination 375–6
resilience of 386–7
risks faced in camps 155
statelessness 294, 296–7, 586, 627, 660–1
trafficking 550, 578–9, 594
child labour 361
West Africa 546–7
trauma 386
trends in study of 385
ethnographic approach 389–90
impact of 391
legal approach 387–9
mental health approach 385–7
social work approach 387
urban refugees 143
Chile 658, 659
China 626
development-induced displacement 331–2, 333
reception of refugees 629
repatriation of Kachin refugees 629
resettlement of Vietnamese refugees 629
Resettlement with Development 331–2
treatment of North Korean refugees 629
see also Tibet
Christianity 451
citizen journalists 465–7, 468
citizenship 9, 11, 91
local integration 488–90, 493, 494–5, 497
nation state 253
national borders and 255, 262
protracted refugee situations 160
re-establishment of 506
regional initiatives 481, 483
(re)integration 90–1
statelessness 54
value of 53–4
civil society 182
development-induced displacement 10, 330, 335, 337, 338, 620
exclusion processes 106–7, 109
land acquisition 333–4
public health 433
South East and East Asia 628, 630, 636
transnational 69
civil war:
as cause of displacement 319, 320
refugees and diffusion of 321
regional clusters of 321
civilians, protection of 308
class, and forced migration 92
climate change and migration 10, 15, 116, 117, 283, 342–4
Asia and the Pacific 648
future research 352
internally displaced persons 164
maximalist approaches 343
minimalist approaches 343
power structures' impact on (im)mobility 344–9, 352
across social groups 349–50
Bangladesh 345, 349
broad conception of power 344
contestation of 351–2
Ethiopia 346–7
Kenya 347–50
legitimization of 350
maintenance of 350–1
structural factors affecting migration 344
climate refugees 343
cluster approach to humanitarian assistance 172, 304–5
civilian protection 308
engagement with national and local actors 308–9
enhanced role of UNHCR 306
evaluation of 305–6
health emergencies 437
integrated UN missions and military actors 309–10
natural disasters 304
cluster leadership 310
refugees 310–11
relevance of IDP category 308
role of the protection cluster 307–8
CNN 261
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) 360
Cold War:
influence on policy 17n1, 667–8
refugee system in 62, 193, 258, 531
resettlement 513, 516
collectivization 331
Colombia 4, 658, 660
internally displaced persons 167, 659–60
complementary protection 204–5
relationship with refugee law 206–7
(p. 711) standards of treatment 207–9
Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indochinese Refugees (CPA) 14, 284, 492, 632
Comprehensive Plans of Action (CPAs), protracted refugee situations 156
concentration camps 134
conflict:
attempts to escape from 317
as cause of displacement 9–10, 317–18
Central American civil wars 666
Central Asia 606–8
child recruitment 388–9
child refugees 546
diaspora engagement 181
economic and livelihood support 183–4
household and family sphere 181–2
imagined community 182–3
known community sphere 182
diaspora formation 178–80
Afghanistan 179
Somalis 180
Tamils from Sri Lanka 179–80
gender and conflict-induced displacement 400–2
gender-based violence 401–2
gendered nature of 400–1
Great Lakes region of Africa 573–5
Horn of Africa 575–8
internally displaced persons 164
meaning of 317
methodologies for studying conflict-induced displacement 318, 322
qualitative 322–3
quantitative 323–5
people's response to 317
practical approaches to conflict-induced displacement 325–6
refugees as catalyst for 64–5, 321
sexual violence 401–2
South Asia 621–2
theories of conflict-induced displacement 318, 319–21
diffusion of civil war 321
political violence as cause of 319
power and resource allocation 320
proximate causes 319
regional factors 321
root causes 319
strategic use of 320
types of political violence 320
why people stay 320–1
West Africa 544–5
Contras 666
Convention against Torture (CAT) 204
Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (2000) 356
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children
(2000) 356
Smuggling of Migrants Protocol (2000) 356
Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of
Others (1949) 356
Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (OAU, 1969) 14, 41, 42, 43, 45, 258, 283, 547, 564, 571, 588
asylum 42
voluntary repatriation 43
Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (2008) (CoE Convention) 358, 698
Convention on Asylum (1928) 653
Convention on Diplomatic Asylum (1954) 653
Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Populations (ILO, 1957) 330, 334
Convention on Political Asylum (1933) 653
Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution 358
Convention on Territorial Asylum (1954) 653
Convention on the Avoidance of Statelessness in Relation to State Succession (2006) 699
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981) 614, 626
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969) 613–14
(p. 712) Convention on the Nationality of Married Women (1957) 293
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961) 290, 293–4, 660
level of ratification 294–5
regulation of nationality 293–4
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) 44, 420
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 44, 206, 384, 388, 614, 626
Convention Plus Initiative 135, 284, 492, 526
Convention Relating to the International Status of Refugees (1931) 39
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, see Refugee Convention (1951)
Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (1954) 238, 296, 660
adoption of 290
definition of statelessness 291–2
differences from Refugee Convention 292
ECOWAS signatories 547
enforcement machinery 294
exclusions 292
level of ratification 294
limited European commitment to 698
origins of 291
provisions of 293–4
rights and entitlements of stateless persons 292
South American signatories 660
South East and East Asian signatories 626
status as stateless person 292
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 294
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 69
corruption 109n2
Côte d'Ivoire 490, 541, 543, 546
civil war 544–5
Council of Europe (CoE) 12, 690, 696–7
anti-trafficking initiatives 358, 698
foundation of 691
influence of/on European Union 692
statelessness 698–9
Courts of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) 692, 700
criminality:
association of migration with 144, 188, 461
criminalization of migrants 6, 191, 271, 582
organized crime 45, 665, 674, 683
transnational criminal organizations 668
see also trafficking
Critical Security Theory 272–3
critical theory 319
Cuba 667
Cuban Revolution 665
Cultural Survival 78, 79
Czechoslovakia 256
Dadaab refugee camp 129, 153, 534, 583
Daily Mail 261
dam construction, and displacement:
China 331–2
India 619, 620
Dana Declaration on Mobile Peoples and Conservation 79
Dar es Salaam 490
Darfur 302
displacement as war aim 320
Defence for Children International 388
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 558, 571, 574–5
internally displaced persons 575
refugee population 560
securitization of forced migration 271–2
Denmark 512, 516
deportation 1, 507
borders 258, 260–1, 262
Central America and the Caribbean 668
expanded use of 259, 260
legitimate powers of 54–5
limited use of 254, 260
morality 55–6
Southern Africa 563–4, 569
United Kingdom 259, 260
United States 259, 261, 668
Derg 577–8
see also Ethiopia
detention 106, 210, 281–2
Australia 210, 642, 643, 644, 646–7
Canada 113, 681
disabled migrants 426–7
securitization of forced migration 269
(p. 713) South East and East Asia 629, 630
United States 668
development 15
local integration 481
migration 15
mobility and migration 480–2
repatriation 481
role of diasporas 177, 178
Development Assistance to Refugees (DAR) 492
development-induced displacement and resettlement (DIDR) 10, 15, 55–6, 330
Central Asia 609
China 331–2, 333
governance of 333–6
African Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (2009) 337
Asian Development Bank 335
development of resettlement expertise 335
eminent domain laws 333–4, 337–8
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 335–7, 339
land acquisition 333–4
land tenure systems 337
power of states 339
private sector 335
weak protection of affected populations 337, 338
World Bank 334–5
impact on women, India 620–1
impoverishing effects of 338–9
impoverishment risks 91
India 333
infrastructure financing 333
internally displaced persons 164–5
Latin America 333
number of people affected 333
political and economic modernization 331–2
South Asia 618–20
impact on women 620–1
resistance to 621
Soviet Union 331
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 339–40
Development Program for Displaced Persons, Refugees and Returnees in Central America (PRODERE) 671
Development Studies, feminist and gendered paradigms 396–8
Gender and Development 397
Women and Development 396–7
Women in Development 396
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 386
Dialogues on Protection Challenges 157, 284
diasporas 1, 5, 8
conflict and formation of 178–80
Afghans 179
Somalis 180
Tamils from Sri Lanka 179–80
developmental role 177, 178
diversity of 185–6
emergence of concept 177–8
engagement in conflict settings 181
economic and livelihood support 183–4
household and family sphere 181–2
imagined community 182–3
known community sphere 182
factors shaping character of 180
features of 176
formation of refugee diasporas 178–80
international impact of 70
meaning of 176
near diasporas 178–9
policy/governmental understanding of 177
political significance of 177
refugee diasporas and transnational engagement 180–1
remittances 70, 159, 181, 182
refugee narratives and diasporic identities 376–7
social science understanding of 176–7
vernacular understanding of 177
wider diasporas 179
Diola 543
disability and forced migration 10, 420–1, 429–30
asylum procedures 426–7
conceptual models of disability 421
(p. 714) durable solutions 424
local integration 424–5
resettlement 425–6, 641
voluntary repatriation 424
engagement of grassroots actors 430
experiences in displacement settings 421–4
access to humanitarian programmes 422
camp layouts 422
education and training 423
food distribution 422
healthcare 422–3
livelihood opportunities 423
protection concerns 423–4
urban settings 422–3
future research 430
growth in attention to 420
information gap about 430
monitoring and evaluation 430
neglect of 420
number of disabled forced migrants 420
post-asylum/settlement support 427–8
recent developments 429
twin-tracking approach to 429–30
Disabled Refugees' Project 429
disaster funds, impact of video footage 464
discrimination:
disabled people 421, 423, 424, 425, 427
ECOWAS states 549
health outcomes for refugees 440, 442
internally displaced persons 166–8, 169
marginalization of displaced 585–6
Muslim women 406
nationality laws 297
progress on 298–9
Palestinian refugees 235
prohibitions against 39, 44, 203, 207, 209, 280, 614
against refugees 100, 106, 155
South East and East Asia 623, 627, 633
stateless people 623, 627
displaced livelihoods:
accessing assets in host area 103
civil society exclusion processes 106–7
difficulties faced by refugees 99–100
economic losses 102–3
impoverishment 103
personal losses 103
trauma 103
host-government exclusion policies 104
encampment 104–5
legal status and documentation 105–6
institutional exclusion 107
lack of access to financial services 107
lack of access to services 107
livelihood programmes 99
inclusive approach 108–9
problems with 108
displacement-affected communities 168
Djibouti 571
Doctors Without Borders 243
Dominican Republic 290, 665, 667–8
donor states, reduced support for long-term assistance 154
doxa 379
dual citizenship 255
dual imperative of researchers 3
durable solutions 184, 475–6, 500
as core function of UNHCR 151, 215
disabled migrants 424–6
failure of conventional solutions, 476–7
gendered features of 404–6
internally displaced persons 169, 477
mobility and migration 475, 479–80
Afghan refugees 483–4
development-centred solutions 480–2
Liberian refugees 483
limitations as solution 484–5
Sierra Leonean refugees 483
obstacles to 477
older refugees 417
Palestinian refugees 235, 236
protracted refugee situations 479
rethinking framework 11, 475, 477–9
Afghanistan 604–5
physical dislocation 478
political inclusion 478
reframing 478–9
rethinking 'refugee problem' 478
Return and Reintegration Policy (UNHCR) 479
(p. 715) transnationalism 185–6
West Africa 549
East African Community (EAC) 481
East Timor 647, 648
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 11–12, 481, 483, 496, 541
Mechanism for Conflict Prevention and Peace-Keeping 549
Protocol on the Free Movement of People 491, 549
role of 549–50, 551–2
Ecuador 106, 658, 660, 661
education:
child refugees 384
disabled migrants 423
Egypt 107, 519, 585, 588
sit-in by Sudanese refugees (Cairo, 2005) 372–3
work permits 106
El Salvador 666, 668, 672, 673–4
Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) (UN):
cluster approach to humanitarian assistance 304
internally displaced persons 302, 303
Transformative Agenda 311
eminent domain laws 333–4, 337–8
Emirates Red Crescent 309
empatriation 57
emplacement 82, 119, 506
encampment 8
abuse of rights 134
agricultural settlements 130
aid politics 134–5
alternatives to 129
assumptions underpinning 491
as common response to refugee influx 128–9
control of refugees' economic opportunities 130
definition of 129
dependency 133
difficulties in obtaining livelihood 104–5
disabled migrants 422
gender 402–3
impacts of gender equality and empowerment policies 403–4
gender-based violence 436
governance of camps 130
Great Lakes region of Africa 579–80
health challenges 436
Horn of Africa 579–80
Japanese-American internment camps 2
maintenance of nation-state's primacy 135
Middle East and North Africa 587, 589–90
origins of refugee camps 134
precarious position of refugees 133
prevalence in Africa and Asia 129
protracted refugee situations 135
provision of basic rights and services 129
rationale for 130, 134
relationship with self-settlement 136
scale of 131–2
shelter and housing 129
South East and East Asia 629
undesirability of 127
variety of camps 127, 130
West Africa 548
environmental politics 273
environmental refugees 15, 117, 118, 283, 343
Central Asia 608–9
impact on forced migration 116–18
Middle East and North Africa 593–4
Eritrea 571, 576–7
Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) 577
Eritrean Liberation Front 576
Esquipulas II agreement (1987) 671
ethics and forced migration 7, 48, 57, 78, 146
concerns with data sources 115
definition of refugee 49–50
development-induced displacement 56, 334
distributing state responsibilities to refugees 51–2
forced migration as evaluative term 48
humanitarianism 243
increased attention to 48–9
(p. 716) justifiable forced migration 55–6
legitimate deportation power 54–5
limits of state responsibilities to refugees 52–3
non-citizen incorporation 55
repatriation of refugees 56–7, 503
statelessness 53–4
Ethiopia 571, 577–8
impact of power structures on mobility 346–7
repatriation of refugees 501
return of Tigrayan refugees 503
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 577
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP) 577
ethnic cleansing 169, 244, 256, 266, 319, 633
ethnic communities, social support for refugees 416
ethnic minorities 82–3
ethnicity 82, 92–3
Europe and forced migration:
historical background 690–1
increase in asylum seekers 2
legal and policy framework 691–2
mixed record of 699–700
number of asylum seekers arriving 691
European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees 697
European Agreement on Transfer of Responsibility for Refugees 697
European Asylum Support Office (EASO) 700
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 41, 45, 206, 210, 691, 697
Pancenko 208
European Convention on Nationality (1997) 699
European Council on Refugees and Exiles 3
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 208, 210–11, 692, 697
non-refoulement 205, 206, 697
Soering v United Kingdom (1986) 41, 205
European Court of Justice 233
European Union 11–12, 41–2, 690
anti-trafficking initiatives 698
asylum policies 259–60, 283, 692
challenges facing 700
Dublin II Regulations 693, 694
external dimension of 696
institutional setting 692–3
limited impulses for harmonization 694–5
protection rates 694
state of harmonization 693–4
Asylum Procedures Directive 693
border control 695
Common European Asylum System 281, 426, 692, 694, 699
Directive on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings 698
Directive on Temporary Protection (2001) 41–2, 693
extra-territorial processing of asylum seekers 113
Frontex 222–3, 692, 695
influence of/on Council of Europe (CoE) 692
'Linking-In EU' resettlement initiative 520–1
Qualification Directive (2004) 42, 209, 693–4
evaluation of 281
sexual orientation and gender identity 400
Reception Conditions Directive 693
Regional Protection Programmes 696
resettlement 696
statelessness 698–9
Stockholm Programme 695
European Women's Lobby 360
Executive Committee of the Program of the UNHCR 221
extortion, of refugees 104–5, 106
family, and forced migration 91, 92, 412
in camps 104, 129, 153, 159
decision-making processes in 318, 325, 326, 347
(p. 717) diaspora engagement 181–2
diaspora formation 179, 181, 185
intergenerational support 412–13
maintenance of relationships 461
older refugees 412–13
reunification 170, 180, 206, 506, 683
separation or loss of 99, 103, 136, 167, 508
feminism 92
analyses of forced migration 397–8
criticism of Refugee Convention (1951) 398–9
gender and conflict-induced displacement 400–1
Gender and Development 397
geography of forced migration 113
idealized family 92
patriarchy 404
prostitution 359–60
trafficking 355, 360–2
Women and Development 396–7
Women in Development 396
see also gender; women
Fergana Valley 606, 607
Fiji 642, 647
Finland 512, 516
First World War 24, 27, 63, 241, 242, 245, 250, 691
forced labour, trafficking 360–2
forced migration:
causes of 188, 282
definitional problems 48
depoliticization of 195
distinction from illegal migration 188
as evaluative term 48
global salience of 2
justifiable forced migration 55–6
relevance of study of 3
scope of 5
as strategic tool 320
Forced Migration Review 79, 92
Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) 272
Ford Foundation 2, 69
foreign policy, forced migration as instrument of 65
Fox News 261
fragile states, stabilization approaches to 309
France 113
Free the Slaves 361
French Revolution 28
Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (FRELIMO) 557, 558
Frente Farabuno Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) 672
Frente Sandinista de Liberación 666
Frontex (EU border agency) 222–3, 692, 695
Gambia 483, 541
Gender and Development (GAD) 397
gender and forced migration 10, 92, 395, 406
asylum 208, 379n4, 395, 399, 400, 405, 406
bias in refugee status determination 398–400
conflict-induced displacement 400–2
criticism of Refugee Convention (1951) 398–9
Development Studies 396–8
Gender and Development 397
Women and Development 396–7
Women in Development 396
discrimination in nationality laws 297
durable solutions 404–6
encampment 402–3
impacts of gender equality and empowerment policies 403–4
gender-based violence 167, 172, 282, 307, 401–2, 406, 423–4
public health perspective 436
Rohingya refugees 618
gendered analyses of 397–8
Gender and Forced Migration 397
Women in Forced Migration 397–8
Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women 397, 399
international protection system 115
media representation of forced migration 464
Position Paper on Gender-Related Persecution (UNHCR) 397
repatriation and return 405, 502
resettlement 405
(p. 718) sexual orientation and gender identity 400
sexual violence 401–2
Gender and Forced Migration (GAFM) 397
gender-based violence 167, 172, 282, 307, 401–2, 406, 423–4
public health perspective 436
Rohingya refugees 618
see also rape
Geneva conference (1951) 37
non-refoulement 40
Geneva Conventions 614
establishment of 242
genocide 23, 244, 273, 319, 320, 323, 324
Central Africa 178
Guatemala 666
human security 318
Nazi Germany 134, 415
South West Africa 77
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 7, 112, 113, 115
Geographical Positioning Systems (GPS) 113, 115
geography and forced migration 2, 7–8, 112–14, 120–1
characteristics of geographical discipline 112
data on 114–16
Geographical Information Systems 115
motives for collecting 115
paucity of 114–15
remote sensing 115–16
human geography 112, 113
location and spatial theory 113, 118–20
national borders 118–19
scale 119
spatial analysis 120
physical geography 112
Germany:
reduction of asylum applications 261
statelessness 699
Volga Germans 606
Ghana 541, 548
child trafficking 546
expulsion of Nigerians 545
Liberian refugees 501
power structures 350
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW) 360
Global Consultations on International Protection 218, 284, 526, 534
global governance:
changing nature of 68–9
non-state actors 69
Global Humanitarian Platform Principles of Partnership 304
Global Protection Cluster Working Group 307
Global Resettlement Solidarity Initiative 512
globalization, and forced migration 61, 62, 87, 95, 645
‘good offices’ concept 247
Google Earth 116
Great Lakes IDP Protocol 163, 171
Great Lakes region of Africa 12, 274, 558, 560, 571
colonialism 573
composition of 571
conflict-induced displacement 573–5
human trafficking 578–9
maintenance of separate refugee identity 580–1
number of refugees 572
phasing out of self-sufficiency programmes 579–80
post-colonial nation building 573
pressure on refugees to return 582–3
refugee camps 579–80
refugee legislation 571–3
securitization of forced migration 271, 581–2
self-settlement 579
Greece 694, 695
Mediterranean boat migrants 269
(p. 719) refugee recognition 281
Guatemala 665, 666, 668, 669
guest workers 54, 190, 193, 194, 648
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 145, 163–4, 166, 318
development-induced displacement 335–7, 339
international law 170
legal character of 170
origins of 168
provisions of 169
Guinea 541, 546, 548
civil war 544
Guinea-Bissau 541, 544, 549
Gulf states 585
statelessness 595
Gulu Disabled Person's Union (GDPU) 429
Gumti Hydel Dam Project 620
Hague Convention on Certain Questions Relating the Conflict of Nationality Laws (1930) 293
Hague Process on Refugees and Migration 463
Haiti 665, 666, 667
Hajong 623
harassment of refugees 106
harm, as basis for asylum 45, 52, 204, 205, 211, 684, 685
Harvard Project on International Mental and Behavioural Health 441
Harvard Trauma Questionnaire 386
health and forced migration 10–11, 442–3
access to health services 434
access to services 208, 602, 685
in countries of asylum and resettlement 438–9
barriers to accessing health services 439–40
health conditions of refugees 438–9
healthy migrant effect 438
initial health status 438
social and cultural influences on health 440–1
definition of health 434
definition of health emergency 435
disabled migrants, access to services 422–3, 426–7
exclusion from health services 107
internally displaced persons 167
loss of health 99, 103, 615, 621
mental health of refugees 441–2
children 385–7
needs of refugees 441–2
older refugees 414–15
needs and provision in humanitarian emergencies 435–7
cluster approach 437
lack of engagement with government providers 437
priority health issues 435–7
response strategies 437
older refugees 414–15, 435
perceived preferential access to services 155
pre-displacement decline in 436
protracted refugee situations 443
public health 433
repatriation and return 504, 508
resettlement 513
significance of 434
social determinants of 440–1
state and civic commitment to health 433–4
duty owed to migrants 436
trafficking survivors 443
urban refugees 443
Heightened Risk Identification Tool (HRIT) 405
High Commissioner for Refugees (League of Nations) 37, 246
Hinduism 453
history, and Refugee and Forced Migration Studies 7, 15, 23–4, 32
absence of the refugee from studies 30
ahistorical reputation of 7, 23, 26, 30
Australia, New Zealand and Pacific 639–42
Central America and the Caribbean 665–6
Central Asia 600
(p. 720) continuity and change 26–8
distinctiveness of post-war period 27–8
causes of displacement 28
public responses to 27–8
diversification of research 25
Europe 691
Great Lakes region of Africa 573–5
Horn of Africa 573, 576–8
Middle East and North Africa 585
modern nature of refugee issue 26–7
North America 677–8
overview of historical studies of refugees and forced migrants 24–6
putting refugees at centre of inquiry 30–1
difficulties with 31
oral history 31
redressing Eurocentric bias in studies 25–6
refugee issue in early modern period 27
Southern Africa 555–9
terms and categories used 28–30
West Africa 542–3
Hmong 630
Honduras 666, 668
Salvadoran refugees in 672
Hong Kong 626
Horn of Africa 12, 571, 575–6
colonialism 573
conflict-induced displacement 575–8
human trafficking 578–9
maintenance of separate refugee identity 580–1
number of refugees 572
phasing out of self-sufficiency programmes 579–80
post-colonial nation building 573
pressure on refugees to return 582–3
protracted refugee situations 2
refugee camps 579–80
refugee legislation 571–3
securitization of 581–2
self-settlement 579
trafficking 578–9
Huguenots 27, 63
human rights 6, 8, 14, 60
asylum policies 217, 697, 698
complementary protection 204–5
relationship with refugee law 206–7
detention 210
development-induced displacement 335
differential treatment 203
disabled migrants 420, 427
domestic implementation 210–11
encampment 134
evolving nature of law 204, 211
internally displaced persons 163–4, 166, 168–72, 336–7, 477
law as basis for protection 204
legal status of forced migrants 204
non-discrimination principle 203
non-refoulement 40, 204–6
expanded principle of 204–5
Palestinian refugees 229, 235, 238
protection gaps 283
protracted refugee situations 154, 155
qualified rights 205
refugee protection 36–7, 43–4
securitization of forced migration 270
standards of treatment 207–9
statelessness 290, 298
universal nature of 203
violation of 203
Human Rights Watch 243, 388
human security 65, 318
securitization of forced migration 273–4, 275
Human Security Report Project 318
humanitarian assistance:
cluster approach 172, 304–5
civilian protection 308
engagement with national and local actors 308–9
enhanced role of UNHCR 306
evaluation of 305–6
integrated UN missions and military actors 309–10
refugees 310–11
relevance of IDP category 308
role of the protection cluster 307–8
disabled person's access to 422
faith-based agencies 447–8
accountability 455
expenditure by 448
motivations of 455
personalized care 455
risks of political involvement 456
health needs of displaced:
cluster approach 437
lack of engagement with government providers 437
priority health issues 435–7
response strategies 437
Humanitarian Coordinator system 304
institutional competition 311–12
internally displaced persons 172
livelihood programmes 99
inclusive approach 108–9
problems with 108
portrayal of refugees 371–2
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 216
humanitarian crises 3
humanitarian evacuation programme (HEP) 519
Humanitarian Reform 9
cluster approach 304–5
civilian protection 308
engagement with national and local actors 308–9
enhanced role of UNHCR 306
evaluation of 305–6
integrated UN missions and military actors 309–10
natural disasters 304, 310
refugees 310–11
relevance of IDP category 308
role of the protection cluster 307–8
institutional competition 311–12
Humanitarian Response Review 302, 303, 309
humanitarianism 9
alchemical humanitarianism 241, 243–4
broader ambition of 244
political aspects 244
refugees 242
relationship with refugees 244
critiques of 16, 52–3, 79, 142
defining principles of 243
emergency humanitarianism 241, 243
refugees 242
relationship with refugees 244
expansion of scope of 241
faith-based humanitarianism 447–8
accountability of agencies 455
expenditure of religious organizations 448
motivations of 455
personalized care 455
risks of political involvement 456
humanitarian marketplace 219, 223
international humanitarian order 242–3
non-state actors 69
post-Cold War new humanitarianism 195, 532
relationship with refugees 250–1
alchemical humanitarianism 244
co-dependency 246
Cold War period 247–50
emergency humanitarianism 244
post-Cold War period 250, 251
post-First World War 242, 245–6
post-Second World War 246–7
pre-First World War 242, 245
Second World War 246
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 242, 247–50
'good offices' concept 247
Hungary 694
Hutus 271, 272, 274, 325, 573–4, 575
Iceland 693
IKEA Foundation 69
illegal migrants 8, 188, 190, 485
campaigns against 261
criminalization of migrants 191
deportation 259
diagnosing the labelling of 192–6
distinction from forced migrants 188
European Union 694, 695
figures of migration 189, 191
(p. 722) inventing and unmaking 196–7
forcible return of 507
literature engaging with 190
artificiality of forced/voluntary distinction 190–1
production of illegality 191
local integration 489
politics of mobility 189, 192, 196
(bogus) asylum seekers 194–5
guest workers 193
migration management 192–3
post-war period 193
securitization of migration 194
readings of 188–9, 191–2
problematization of forced migrants 192, 194
production of illegal migrants 192, 195–6
targeting migrants 192, 195
South East and East Asia 629, 630, 634
United States 668, 673–4, 682
West African migrants 541, 546, 548, 550
imagined community 253, 268
diaspora engagement in conflict settings 182–3
immigration controls:
forced labour 363
moral justification 49
immobility, forced 5, 7, 15, 91
impoverishment risks 91, 102
development-induced displacement 338–9
India 256, 613
Bangladeshi refugees in 614–15
Bhutanese refugees in 616–17
Burmese refugees in 616
conflict-induced displacement 621–2
development-induced displacement 333, 619–20
Foreigners Act (1946) 614
Passport Act (1955) 614
Sri Lankan refugees in 615–16
Tibetan refugees in 614
Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 465
Indian subcontinent, partition of 5, 12, 26, 31, 613
violence of 257
Indo Bhutan Friendship Treaty (1949) 617
Indochinese refugee crisis 12, 629, 631–2
Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indochinese Refugees 284, 492, 632
impact on refugee policy 632
resettlement 631, 632
United Nations conference 631–2
Indonesia 626, 627, 628, 630, 631, 644, 648
Informal Sector Service Sector (INSEC) 622
Information Centre about Asylum and Refugees 463
Initiative on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (LEAP) 337
Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) 460, 463
Institute of International Law 652
Inter-Agency Displacement Division (UN) 302
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 655, 669
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 655–7, 669
Inter-American System of Human Rights 653
Interahamwe 575
see also Rwanda
intergenerational support 412–13
Intergovernmental Ministerial Event (2011) 660
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 343
Intergovernmental Panel on Refugees 25
internally displaced persons (IDPs) 1, 5, 8, 9
addressing UN responses to 302–3
Afghanistan 167
African Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa
(2009) 12, 14, 163, 166, 171, 337, 547, 567, 571, 588
development-induced displacement 337
Angola 555
(p. 723) assigning UN responsibility for 303
causes of displacement:
armed conflict 164
climate change 164
development-induced displacement 165
natural disasters 164
cluster approach to humanitarian assistance 304–5
engagement with national and local actors 308–9
enhanced role of UNHCR 306
evaluation of 305–6
integrated UN missions and military actors 309–10
relevance of IDP category 308
role of the protection cluster 307–8
Collaborative Approach to 303
Colombia 167, 659–60
definition of 163–4
Democratic Republic of Congo 575
displacement-affected communities 168
distinction from refugees 165–6
durable solutions 169, 477
Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) 302, 303
Great Lakes IDP Protocol 163, 171
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 145, 163–4, 166, 318
development-induced 335–7, 339
legal character of 170
origins of 168
provisions of 169
humanitarian assistance 172
Humanitarian Response Review 302, 303
increased attention to 13
international law 168, 169, 170
living arrangements 165
Middle East and North Africa 588
Mozambique 555, 559
national-level laws and policies 171–2
numbers of 165
Pakistan 617
protection gaps 303
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons 168, 302
rights and entitlements of 163–4, 166
risks faced by 167
Somalia 578
South Asia 617, 618
development-induced displacement 618–20
South East and East Asia 627
Southern Africa 554–5, 567
as specific category of concern 166–7
specific needs of 166–7
Sri Lanka 622
Sudan 576
UN Human Rights Commission 168
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 249, 303
enhanced role of 306
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) 302, 303
International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM) 3, 13
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 243, 251, 437, 447
establishment of 242
internally displaced persons 166, 308
remains outside cluster system 304
International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa (ICARA) 135, 492, 500
International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA) 12, 14, 284, 492, 500, 670, 671
International Conference on the Great Lakes 163, 171
International Court of Justice 653
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 44, 169, 204, 210
standards of treatment 207
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 208
International Criminal Court 401
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 401
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 401
International Disaster Database 593
International Finance Corporation (IFC) 335
international financial institutions (IFIs) 333
(p. 724) International Governmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees 643
International Labour Organization (ILO) 330, 334, 358, 616
Global Report on Forced Labour (2005) 361
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) 361
see also trafficking
international law:
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 170
internally displaced persons 168, 169, 170
international law of refugee protection 7, 36–7
asylum 42
complementary protection 204–5
relationship between 206–7
standards of treatment 207–9
composition of 36
distributing state responsibilities 51
evolution of 37–8
human rights 37, 43–4
non-refoulement 39–40, 51, 204–6
protection gaps:
application gaps 279
implementation gaps 279–82
normative gaps 282–4
regional arrangements 41–2, 45
standards of treatment 40–1, 207–9
International News Safety Institute 466, 467
International Organization for Migration 223, 358, 560, 644, 682
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) 361
International Refugee Organization (IRO) 37, 658
international refugee regime 25, 28
challenges facing 62, 63
composition of 45, 243
emergence of 62, 128
functions of 36
global governance 68, 69
non-state actors 69
objective of 37, 475
origins of 63
refugee regime complex 68, 222–3
relationship with state system 60, 63, 254
tensions within 160
weaknesses of 158, 161
International Relations (IR), and forced migration 7, 70–1
growth of scholarship on 61
international political history 61–3
relevance for 61, 70
theorizing refugees and international relations 64
international cooperation 65–7
international security 64–5
traditional neglect of 61
transnational turn 67–8
global governance 68–9
non-state actors 69
transnational political mobilization 70
International Research and Advisory Panel on Refugees and Other Displaced Persons (IRAP) 3
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) 78, 79
Internet, impact on the media 461
Internews 469
intersectionality 395, 397, 404, 406, 407n5
Iran, Afghan refugees in 2, 153, 157, 484, 600, 602–3, 610
number of 603
repatriation 603–4
Iraq, refugees from 100, 585, 592, 696
Iraq War (1990-91) 249, 265–6
Iraq War (2003) 141
Islam 452–3
Islamic Committees for the International Crescent 588
Islamic Relief 455
Israel 106–7, 585
expulsion of Palestinian Arabs 255–6
Italy 691
Mediterranean boat migrants 269
Japan 626, 627, 629
Japan Association for Refugees 628
Jews, expulsion from Spain 27
(p. 725) Jordan 585, 588
Iraqi refugees in 12, 592
Syrian refugees in 592–3
see also Arab Spring
Journal of International Refugee Law 3
Journal of Refugee Studies 3, 13, 29, 79, 93
Judaism 450
Kabul 139
Kachin Independence Army 629
Kaman 633
Kantarawaddy Times 468–9
Karen 384
Karen Handicapped Welfare Association 429
Karen National Union 633
Karen Refugee Committee 635
Karenni Connection BlogSpot 468
Karenni refugees in Texas 468–9
see also Myanmar
Kazakhstan 599, 605, 608, 609
Kenya 107, 534, 571
cluster approach in 308–9
encampment policy 583
impact of power structures on mobility 347–9
across social groups 349–50
pressure on refugees to return 583
Refugee Act (2006) 583
Kenya Red Cross 309
Khartoum 139
Khmer Krom 630
Kirghizia 331
Kiribati 648
Kivu, North and South 575
securitization of forced migration 271–2
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of 626, 627
refugees from 629
Korea, Republic of 626
Kosovo 266, 691
humanitarian evacuation programme 519
Kurds 586, 589
Kuwait 585, 586, 588, 595
Kyrgyzstan 599, 600, 605, 606, 607–8
La Maison des Journalistes 467
labelling 89–90, 95, 189, 415, 427, 541, 551
forced migrants as illegal migrants 192–6
historians and 28–30
Lampedusa 269–70
see also Arab Spring; Italy
Lao People's Democratic Republic 626, 627, 628
Indochinese refugee crisis 631
Latin America 12
development-induced displacement 333
internal displacement 659–60
protection regime 651
Lawyers Committee for Human Rights 3
League of Nations:
international law of refugee protection 37
limited resources 28
Lebanon 585, 588
Palestinian refugees in 12, 590–1
legal status 591
tawteen 591
statelessness 586
legal cases:
A v Minister for Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (1997) 280, 286n16
AC (Syria) (2011) 280, 286n17
Adam v Secretary of State (2002) 375
Attorney-General of Canada and Ward (1993) 399
BB v France (1998) 208
Bensaid v United Kingdom (2001) 206
Bolbol v Bevandorlasi es Allampolgarsagi Hivatal (BAH) (2010) 233
Case of Castillo-Paéz v Peru (1998) 656
Case of Dogan and Others v Turkey (2004) 173n9
Case of the Ituango Massacre v Colombia (2006) 656
Case of the 'Mapiripán Massacre' v Colombia (2005) 173n9, 656
(p. 726) Chahal v United Kingdom (1996) 46n13
El-Ali v The Secretary of State for the Home Department (2002) 232–3
El Kott v BAH (2012) 233
Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy (2012) 280, 286n12
Hirst v Italy (2012) 46n1, 46n14
HLR v France (1998) 208
Islam v Secretary of State for the Home Department (1999) 207, 399
Jabari v Turkey (2000) 210
Juridical Condition and Rights of the Undocumented Migrants (2003) 656–7
Kasinga, 211 and N. Dec 357 (1996) 399
MSS v Belgium and Greece (2011) 208, 701n3
Nasri v France (1995) 208
Othman (Abu Qatada) v UK (2012) 206
Pancenko v Latvia (1999) 208
R (European Roma Rights Centre and others) v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and another (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees intervening) (2005) 46n1
(R) Razgar v Secretary of State for the Home Department (2004) 206
R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Adam (UK, 2005) 208, 280, 286n14
R v Special Adjudicator, ex parte Ullah (2004) 206
Refugee Appeal No 74665 (2005) 286n17
Saadi v Italy (2008) 701n6
Said v Secretary of State for the Home Department (2012) 233
Salah Sheek v The Netherlands (2007) 700n1
Sepet (FC) and Another (FC) (Appellants) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent) (2003) 280, 286n13
Sisojeva v Latvia (2005) 208
Soering v United Kingdom (1986) 41, 205
Suresh v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (2002) 280, 286n15
Tomic v UK (2003) 206
Wan v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (2001) 206
Z and T v UK (2006) 206
ZH (Tanzania) (FC) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (2011) 206
legal status 26, 209
access to services 107
human rights 204
impact on pursuing livelihood 105–6
Latin America 652–5
limited practical impact of 143, 145
Palestinian refugees 591
social exclusion 105–6
urban refugees 143–4, 145
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transexual and intersex (LGBTI)
asylum seekers 399, 400
encampment 404
resettlement 405, 406
Lesotho 556, 567
Lhotshampas 616–17, 623
liberation theology 671
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 615
Liberia 266, 541, 546
civil war 544
protracted refugee situations 158
return of emancipated slaves 542
Libya 585, 588
Liechtenstein 693
life expectancy, improvements in 433
Lisbon, Treaty of (2009) 693
livelihoods 5, 7, 14, 94
definition of 100
disabled migrants 423
disempowerment of refugees 101
forced migrants pursuit of 99
forced migration 100–1
lack of data on refugee livelihoods 101–2
livelihood assets 100, 101
livelihood programmes 99
inclusive approach 108–9
problems with 108
(p. 727) mobile livelihoods 94
protracted refugee situations 104–5, 157, 159
refugees' inability to access assets 100–1
self-settlement 132
social exclusion of refugees 101
sustainable livelihoods 100
local integration 11, 14, 43, 90–1, 158, 475, 476, 477
Burundian refugees in Tanzania 494–6
Central America 671, 673
citizenship 488, 489, 493, 497
de facto integration 159, 489, 490, 493, 497
de jure integration 489, 490–1, 493, 497
as development issue 481
different meanings of 488–9
disabled migrants 424–5
as formal process 489
gendered dimensions of 404
historical context 491–2
illegal migrants 489
as informal process 489
internally displaced persons 167
invisible integration 493–4
literature on 490–1
Middle East and North Africa 587, 591
obstacles to 481, 492–3
official neglect of 488
older refugees 416
possibilities of 496
problems with 476
protracted refugee situations 158
relationship with host population 489
reluctance to accept 481
requirements for 493
self-settlement 490, 493
viability of 488
West Africa 549, 550
local settlement 580
maintenance of separate refugee identity 580–1
Maastricht, Treaty of 692
Macau 626
Macedonia 129
Madagascar 564
Malawi 490, 554, 559, 567
Malaysia 626, 627, 628, 648
management of undocumented migrants 630
punishment for immigration offences 629
refugees from Myanmar 634
Maldives 613
Mali 541, 545
child trafficking 546
Malinke 543
Malta 695
MapAction 116
Marshall Islands 648
Mauritania 541
forced expulsions 545–6
natural disasters 593
Mauritius 564
Médecins Sans Frontières 243, 310, 435, 437
remains outside cluster system 304
media representation of forced migration 11, 165, 192, 194, 370, 371, 460–1, 470, 644
anti-asylum sentiment 261
campaigns to change 463
changed nature of the media 461–2
changing context of 460
citizen journalists 465–7, 468
gendered features of 464
grievances about 460–1
home/foreign divide in news 463
impact of donations to disaster funds 464
impact of new technologies 461–2
Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 465
institutional discourses of television 463
journalist casualties 467
journalists as refugees 467
Karenni in Texas 468–9
negative newspaper reporting 464
negative television coverage 464
newsworthiness of stories 464
participatory journalism 466
refugees as journalists 468–9
refugees as passive victims 463
training of journalists for hostile environments 467
User Generated Content 466–7
video footage 464
visual imagery of refugees 462
(p. 728) Mediterranean boat migrants, securitization of migration 269–71
Meheba refugee settlement 129
Melanesians 640
memory 376–7
nation-building 377
men, and masculinities
authority in camps 403, 404
erosion of traditional roles 92, 350
loss of masculinity in camps 403
loss of self-esteem 436
male asylum seekers portrayed as threat 464
refugees imagined as 193, 399
as source of information about women 396
trafficking by 359
trafficking of 578–9
as victims of sexual violence 401, 402, 436
see also gender
mental health:
displaced children 385–7
mental health needs of refugees 441–2
older refugees 414–15
Mercosul Declaration of Principles on the International Protection of Refugees (2012) 661
Meskhetian Turks 606
methodologies:
anthropology 322
case studies 322–3
conflict-induced displacement 318, 322
qualitative 322–3
quantitative 323–5
debates over 28
diversification of regional perspectives 13
diversity of 4
dual imperative of researchers 3
elite interviews 322–3
ethnographic approach 390
geography 112, 114
historical accounts 31, 32
interpretive frameworks 4
mixed-method approaches 14–15
more rigorous approach to 16
narrative analysis 322
oral history 31
participant observation 75, 322, 389
qualitative 14, 15, 322–3
quantitative 14–15, 323–5
sociology 93–4
theoretical/policy-relevant approaches to research 4, 16–17
Mexico 2, 666
Guatemalan refugees in 672
Mexico Plan of Action (MPA) 658
Solidarity Resettlement Programme 658–9
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) 12, 585–6, 595–6
Arab Spring 592
causes of displacement 585
countries 585
encampment 587
environmental refugees 593– 4
humanitarian crises 3
internally displaced persons 588
Iraqi refugees 100, 585, 592, 696
local integration 587
marginalization of displaced 585–6
natural disasters 593
impact of 594
nomads 585, 586
number of forced migrants 588
by country of asylum 589
by country of origin 590
number of refugees 585
political and legal frameworks 586–8
African Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (2009) 588
African Union Convention 588
Arab League 588
Organization of the Islamic Conference 588
for Palestinian refugees 586–7
protracted refugee situations 12, 589–92, 596
influence of international actors 591–2
Palestinian refugees 590–1
Sahrawi refugees 384, 403–4, 587, 589, 591
refugee camps 587, 589–90
Refugee Convention (1951) 587
sedentarization of mobile populations 585
statelessness 586, 595
(p. 729) Syrian refugees 592–3
trafficking 594–5
urban refugees 587, 592, 593
migrant workers 178, 283, 363, 364, 530, 549, 630, 634, 648
health problems 414
migration:
as adaptive strategy 117
artificiality of forced/voluntary distinction 190–1
association with criminality 188
categorization of people on the move 189
as constant in history 80
criminalization of migrants 191
development 15
development of academic interest in 75
as durable solution 475, 479–80
Afghan refugees 483–4
development-centred solutions 480–2
limitations of 159, 484–5
Sierra Leonean refugees 483
environmental change 112, 114, 116, 117, 343
feminization of 356
figures of migration 189, 191
inventing and unmaking 196–7
increasing costs of 92
migration-asylum nexus 190
migration industry 69, 95
politics of 14
politics of mobility 189, 320
production of illegality 191, 195–6
research focus on 4
role in development 481
securitization of 89, 265–6, 268, 269, 270
Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA) 569
migration management 68, 192–3, 196, 275, 506, 550
Migration Studies 337
transnational turn 67, 90
mixed migration 90, 190, 218, 223, 270, 479
Middle East and North Africa 592
South East and East Asia 626, 627
Southern Africa 560–1
West Africa 543, 546, 550–1, 552
mobile livelihoods 94
mobile peoples, protection of 79
Mobilities (journal) 119
mobility 119
as durable solution 11, 479–80
Afghan refugees 483–4
development-centred solutions 480–2
Liberian refugees 483
limitations of 484–5
Sierra Leonean refugees 483
politics of 189, 192–6, 320
modernization, and development-induced displacement 331–2
Montevideo Treaty (1889) 653
Moors, expulsion from Spain (post-1609) 27
Morocco 585, 588
mortality rates, and health emergencies 435
Mossi 543
Mozambican Resistance Movement (RENAMO) 558
Mozambique 554, 559, 567
civil war 558–9
floods 464
flows of refugees and internally displaced people 559
independence wars 557
internally displaced persons 555
Refugee Act (1991) 567
repatriation of refugees 501
Multilateral Framework of Understandings on Resettlement (1984) 284
Myanmar 626, 627, 628, 648
cluster approach in 309
refugees from 12, 616, 617–18, 633–5
Namibia 554, 556, 557, 559, 564, 567
Nansen Initiative 343
Nansen passports 480, 691
Nantes, Revocation of the Edict of (1685) 27
Nargis, Cyclone 309, 627, 628, 634
nation state 9, 254
attempts to limit asylum seekers 258
citizenship 253
contribution to refugee protection 66–7
(p. 730) defined by borders 253
distribution of responsibilities to refugees 51–2
ethnic cleansing 256–7
as imagined community 253
limits of responsibilities to refugees 52–3
nation-building and refugee production 255–7
obligations to refugees 7
relationship with refugees 253
contemporary refugee movements 257–8
historical context 255–7
National Aluminium Company (India) 621
national borders 5, 9, 118–19
citizenship 255, 262
closures of 258
as constraint on state capacity 254
control of 51, 191, 192, 242, 281, 357, 363, 645
Australia 643–4, 645–6
Bangladesh 618
China 629
European Union 222–3, 692, 695
Iran 603
Malaysia 630
Southern Africa 563
Thailand 630
tightening of 269
definition of nation state 253
definition of refugee 118–19, 257–8
deportation 258, 260–1, 262
ethnic cleansing 256–7
nation-building and refugee production 255–7
outward expansion of 259, 260
porosity of (MIddle East) 585
reassertion of government control of 258
relationship with refugees 253
contemporary refugee movements 257–8
historical context 255–7
right to cross 49
significance for asylum system 260
spatial theory 118–19
National Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA) 558
National Union of Sahrawi Women (NUSW) 403
nationalism 83
Central Asia 606, 610
decoupling from territory 82
ethnicity 82
ethno-nationalism 26, 181
nation/state building 268
rise of 245
Sri Lanka 454, 615
territorialization 81
nationality laws:
Bahrain 595
Bhutan 617
children 294, 296–7, 299n13, 616, 627, 660, 685–6
discrimination in 297
progress on 298–9
Dominican Republic 668
flaws in 297–8
Lebanon 586
Myanmar 627
North America 685
Oman 595
regulation of nationality 293–4
South America 660–1
Sri Lanka 615, 616
Tanzania 494–5
see also statelessness
Native Americans 76, 77, 256
natural disasters:
Asia and the Pacific 648
Central America and the Caribbean 667
cluster approach to humanitarian assistance 304
cluster leadership 310
internally displaced persons 164
Middle East and North Africa 593
impact of 594
refugee protection 283
South Asia 622
Nauru 642, 643, 648
Nazi Germany 134
Nepal 307, 384, 519–20, 613
(p. 731) Bhutanese refugees in 616–17
conflict-induced displacement 622
see also Lhotshampas
Netherlands 512, 516–17
refugee recognition 281
New Zealand 12, 428, 513, 639–44, 646, 648
New Zealand First 646
Nicaragua 666
Niger 541, 547
Nigeria 483, 541
Biafra War 544
child trafficking 546
expulsion of Ghanaians 545
nomads 543, 546, 585, 600
non-citizen incorporation 55
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 25, 69, 92, 108, 114, 116, 156, 157, 218, 273, 304, 337
concern over militarization of assistance 437
development-induced displacement 339
engagement with cluster approach 305, 309, 437
expanded role of 535
expenditure of 448
faith-based agencies 447–8, 455, 456
expenditure by 448
internally displaced persons 308
as norm entrepreneurs 217
outsourcing to 532
resettlement 335, 515, 517
role in food security 348
trafficking 361
UN humanitarian reform process 305
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 217
see also civil society; individual organizations
non-refoulement 697
American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 655–6
avoidance through extra-territorial processing zones 113
climate refugees 283
consolidation of principle of 45
as cornerstone of refugee protection 51, 165
difficulties in legal enforcement of 504
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 205, 206, 210, 697
exceptions 40
human rights 40, 204–6
expanded principle of 204–5
as limitation on state sovereignty 42, 43, 254
Refugee Convention (1951) 39–40, 44, 51, 104, 128, 142, 211, 257, 279
United States Supreme Court 682–3
violations of 564, 607, 629, 630, 631
non-state actors:
governance of forced migration 69
role in forced migration 94
normative theory and forced migration 57
central aim of 48
citizenship 54, 91
Critical Security Theory 272–3
definition of refugee 49–50
development-induced displacement 56
distributing state responsibilities to refugees 51–2
forced migration 48–9
justifiable forced migration 55–6
legitimate deportation power 54–5
limits of state responsibilities to refugees 52–3
non-citizen incorporation 55
normative religious traditions 447, 449–54
politics of asylum scholarship 66
protection gaps 282–4, 285
repatriation of refugees 56–7
spatial theory 116
statelessness 53–4
UNHCR's normative agenda 215, 216, 217, 225
visibilization 147
North America 12, 677–8
increase in asylum seekers 2
Norway 512, 516, 693
nuclear weapon testing 609
(p. 732) offshore processing centres, Australia 518, 642–3
Ogaden 577, 578
Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) 577
older refugees 10, 409–10, 417
dependence on children 413
durable solutions 417
family life 412–13
care 413
intergenerational support 412–13
loss of role 413
feelings of loss 410, 411
gender equality policies in camps 404–5
growing old as refugees 409
health of 414–15, 435
identification with country of origin 411–12
life course perspective 410–12
number of 409
old at time of displacement 409
return to country of origin 417
problems with 411–12
social support from ethnic community 416
status assigned to 413
Oman 585, 595
oral history 31
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) 358
Organization of African Unity (OAU), see African Union
Organization of American States (OAS) 12, 655, 669
Organization of International Migration 243
Organization of the Islamic Conference 452, 588
Orissa disaster 464
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) 577
Ouagadougou Action Plan (2006) 550
Overseas Development Institute 166
Oxfam 244, 460
Pacific Immigration Directors' Conference 643
Pacific Island states 12, 639, 647
climate-induced displacement 644, 648
historical background to forced migration 639–40
legal and policy framework 642
regional initiatives 643–4
trafficking 643
Pact on Stability, Security and Development (2006) 571
Pagladiya Dam Project 620
Pakistan 256, 613
Afghan refugees 153, 157, 484, 600, 601–2, 609, 617
Afghan Refugee Villages 601–2
closure of camps 602
repatriation 603–4, 617
self-definitions of refugees in 602
conflict-induced displacement 621–2
internally displaced persons 617
protracted refugee situations 2
Palestinian refugees 4, 9, 12, 151, 153, 227, 585, 586, 589
Casablanca Protocol (Protocol for the Treatment of Palestinians in Arab States, 1965) 238, 588
children 384
definitions of 231–4
implications for durable solution 235
inconsistencies 235–6
legal interpretations 232–3
Refugee Convention (1951) 232
United Nations Conciliation Commission on Palestine 231–2
United Nations Relief and Works Agency 229, 232
durable solution, access to 236
exclusion from Refugee Convention 227–8
Article 1D 230–1
expulsion from Israel 255–6
in Lebanon 590–1
legal status 591
tawteen 591
numbers of 228
origins of problem 227
protection gap 237–8
role of United Nations, origins of 227–8
(p. 733) United Nations Conciliation Commission on Palestine (UNCCP) 227, 228, 236, 586–7
refugee definition 231–2
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 230–1
United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 151, 153, 228–30, 586, 587
durable solution 235
establishment of 227, 228
expanded activities of 229–30
geographical scope of 230
human rights 229
legal authority 229
Medium Term Strategy 229
protection role 236–7
refugee definition 229, 232
services provided by 229
weakness of mandate 237
Panama Congress (1826) 653
Papua New Guinea (PNG) 640, 642, 643, 644, 647, 648
paradigms 526–7
Cartesian paradigm 527, 529–30, 533–4
realist theories 530–1
paradigm shifts 527
systems thinking 527, 530, 534
Paraguay 658, 659
participant observation 75, 322, 389
participatory journalism 466
peace-building, refugees as 'spoilers' of 65
Permanent Commissions of Guatemala Refugees (CCPP) 672
persecution:
children 375
definition of refugees 38–9
disabled people 427
displacement due to 26
economic repression 270
evolving meaning of 207
fear of 37, 38, 45, 190, 254, 257, 375, 634
flight from 48
in Former Yugoslavia 691
gender-based 44, 280, 395, 398–400, 401, 405
human rights abuses 204
impact on health 414
impact on older refugees 411, 414
invention of stories of 194
Kivu, North and South 271
narratives of 376
Palestinian refugees 230, 231, 232, 235–6
protracted refugee situations 154
Refugee Convention (1951) 50, 254, 257, 283, 375, 500
right to seek asylum from 1, 42
Rohingya refugees 618, 627, 634
Tibetan refugees 614
Ugandan Asians 641
victims' difficulties in relating experiences 374
in Zimbabwe 561
Peru 658
Philippines 626, 627, 628, 631, 648
Poland 256
Polisario Front 592
see also Sahrawi
political violence, as cause of displacement 319
see also conflict
politicide:
as cause of displacement 319, 324
definition of 327n4
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 558
Portugal 193, 425, 557
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 386
power structures, and impact on mobility 94, 101, 344–9, 352
across social groups 349–50
Bangladesh 345, 349
broad conception of power 344
contestation of 351–2
encampment 135–6, 402, 436
Ethiopia 346–7
gender 397, 402, 404, 406, 502
Kenya 347–50
legitimization of 350
maintenance of 350–1
refugee voice 369, 371, 378–9
securitization 267, 273, 275
visibilization 141
(p. 734) press, anti-asylum sentiment in 261
private sector:
governance of forced migration 69
role in forced migration 94
see also livelihoods
prostitution:
feminist views of 360
trafficking 359–60
Protection Challenges 218
protection gaps 9, 278–9
application gaps 279
future of 285
implementation gaps 279–82
asylum 281–2
asylum lottery 281
refugee recognition 281
restrictive definitions of refugees 280
internally displaced persons 303
meaning of 278
normative gaps 282–4
Palestinian refugees 237–8
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 284
Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons, see Great Lakes IDP Protocol
Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (1967) 38, 281
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children (2000) 356–7, 359, 546, 550, 594
definition of trafficking 357
international support for 358
protracted refugee situations 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, 160
causes of 153–5
Central America and the Caribbean 2
challenges associated with 151
characteristics of successful approaches to 156
children born in 15, 384
consequences of 155–6
global refugee regime 155–6
human rights 155
security concerns 155
definition of 151, 152
difficulties in resolving 153
durable solutions 479
encampment 135
future research on 160–1
Great Lakes region of Africa 571
health of refugees 443
Horn of Africa 2, 571
increased duration of 153
livelihoods 104–5, 157, 159
Middle East and North Africa 12, 589–92, 596
numbers in 151
responses to 156–9
Canada 158
lessons from 157
local integration 158
North/South tensions 158
by refugees 158–9
successful resolutions of 156
UNHCR 156–7
United States 158
rise in 152–3
South Asia 616–18
South East and East Asia 2, 626, 631–5
Southern Africa 2
West Africa 549
public health:
improvements in health status 433
needs and provision in humanitarian emergencies 435–7
priority health issues 435–7
response strategies 437
state and civic commitment to 433–4
duty owed to migrants 436
see also health
Qala en Nahal settlement 130
Qatar 585, 595
Qualified Expatriate Somali Technical Support - Migration for Development in Africa (QUEST-MIDA) 506
rape 257, 401, 436
realist theories 530–1
burden sharing 531
(p. 735) Refugee Convention (1951) 37, 188, 232–4, 236, 257, 281, 389, 488, 691
Australia, New Zealand and Pacific 642, 647
burden sharing 525, 528, 530
Central America 669
continued importance of 45
definition of refugee 8, 38
exclusions 39
gendered criticisms of 398–9
restrictive interpretation 280
distinction between political and economic migrants 190
end of refugee status 39
establishment of 246
evolving interpretation of 280
feminist criticism of 398–9
framing of refugee problem 525–6
gaps in 283–4
human rights 43–4
inadequate for contemporary conditions 44–5
Iran 602
livelihoods 104
Middle Eastern states 587
non-refoulement 39–40
exceptions 40
North African states 587
obstacles to obtaining protection under 283
Pakistan 601
Palestinian refugees 230–1, 232
parties to 279
persecution and reasons for persecution 38–9
Preamble 525
protection gaps:
application gaps 279
implementation gaps 279–82
normative gaps 283–4
Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (1967) 38
purpose of 280
right to ask for asylum 257
South America 651, 652
South Asian states reluctance to accept 613, 614
South East and East Asia 626, 627, 628, 635
Southern Africa 559
standards of treatment 40–1
state-centric nature of 44
Travel Document system 480
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 215–16
United States 679, 681
Refugee Policy Group (Washington DC) 3
refugee protection:
Cartesian perspective on 527, 528, 529–30, 533–4
as international public good 530
issue linkage 66–7
location of protection 128
requirements for 278
state contributions to 66–7
systems theory perspective on 527–8, 530, 534
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 234–5, 278
Refugee Resettlement Act (USA) 438
refugee status determination (RSD) 373
Australia 647
children 375–6
credibility and coherence 374–5
culture of disbelief 373–6
emergence of unheard voices 375
gender bias 398–400
institutional violence 406
refugee voice 373–4
South America 661
Southern Africa 567
standardization of refugee experience 375
West Africa 548
Refugee Studies Programme (Oxford University) 3, 78–9
refugee voice 10, 11, 369, 378–9
expressing political subjectivity 371
nation-building 377–8
power relations 371
refugee narratives and diasporic identities 376–7
refugee status determination 373–4
children 375–6
credibility and coherence 374–5
(p. 736) culture of disbelief 373–6
emergence of unheard voices 375
standardization of refugee experience 375
representation of refugees by humanitarian organizations 371–2
sit-in by Sudanese refugees (Cairo, 2005) 372–3
situating narratives 369–71
refugees:
centrality in world politics 61–2
cluster approach 310–11
definition of:
expansive concept 49–50
national borders 257–8
normative perspective 49–50
definition of (Refugee Convention, 1951) 8, 38
end of refugee status 39
exclusions 39
gendered criticisms of 398–9
non-refoulement 39–40, 51
persecution and reasons for persecution 38–9
restrictive interpretation 280
depoliticization of 247, 372
distinction from internally displaced persons 165–6
distinction from migrants 4–5
distribution of state responsibilities towards 51–2
history of research into 2–3
impact on host society 128
international security 64–5, 128, 248–9
length of time in exile 3–4
limits of state responsibilities to 52–3
provision of basic needs 128
relationship with state system 60, 63
representation by humanitarian organizations 371–2
security concerns 128
transnational political mobilization 70
Regional Cooperation Framework (2011) 14, 644
regional governance and initiatives 13–14
anti-trafficking legislation 358
citizenship 481, 483
international law of refugee protection 41–2, 45
Regional Inter-Agency Coordination Task Force for Risk, Emergency and Disasters (REDLAC) 670
reintegration of returnees 90–1, 169, 215, 307, 336, 364, 477, 479, 499, 504, 505, 509, 671
religion and forced migration 11, 447, 456–7
as cause of displacement 28
central role in founding narratives 449
continued public influence of religion 448–9
faith-based humanitarianism 447–8
accountability of agencies 455
expenditure of religious organizations 448
motivations of 455
personalized care 455
risks of political involvement 456
fear of persecution 37, 38, 39, 232, 254
negative effects of religion 449
non-discrimination 203
normative stances 449
Buddhism 453–4
Christianity 451
Hinduism 453
Islam 452–3
Judaism 450
role in coping with suffering 454–5
remembrance 377
see also diasporas; memory
remittance sending 70, 604, 673, 674
diasporas 70, 159, 181, 182
value of 532
see also livelihoods
remote sensing 115–16
reparation 52, 57
(p. 737) repatriation and return 11, 476, 499, 507–8
Afghanistan 501, 601, 603–4
Assisted Voluntary Return programmes 506–7
benchmarks for successful 499
challenges of 499
decade of repatriation 501
decision to return 501–2
decision-maker 502
economic sacrifices 502
factors affecting 501–2
gender factors 502
lack of options 502
deportation 507
as development challenge 481
disabled migrants 424
emplacement 506
failed asylum seekers 507
gendered features of 405
Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities (UNHCR) 505
historical context 500–1
illegal immigrants 507
negotiating political identity 506
normative perspective on 56–7
nostalgic notions of 505–6
obstacles to 481
as preferred solution 476, 508
problems with 476
reintegration 505, 509
return process 504–5
right to return 42–3, 507
Southern Africa 559–60
statebuilding 503
transnational mobility as alternative to 507–8
unassisted return 503–4
forced 504
voluntary 503
UNHCR-assisted repatriation 248, 502–3
West Africa 549
resettlement 11, 43, 481, 512
Australia 512, 513, 518, 640, 641
disabled refugees 425
Refugee and Humanitarian Programme 516
Bhutanese refugees 519–20, 617
Canada 512, 513, 516, 678–80
eligibility 679–80
numbers resettled 678–9, 680
responsibility for 679
support 680
countries offering opportunities for 512, 513
disabled migrants 425–6, 641
post-settlement support 427–8
eligibility and selection criteria 514–15
Australia 516
Canada 516
Europe 516–17
United States 515
Europe 512, 516–17
integration 520–1
renewed interest by 517
European Union 696
features of resettlement programmes 515
focus of research on 513–14, 522
gap between supply and demand for places 513
gender bias in 405
goals and purposes of 518–19
'good refugee/bad asylum seeker' syndrome 517–18
health of refugees 438–9
barriers to accessing health services 439–40
health conditions 438–9
healthy migrant effect 438
initial health status 438
social and cultural influences 440–1
historical context 513
humanitarian evacuation programme 519
Indochinese refugee crisis 631, 632
integration of resettled refugees 520–1
limited use of 476
Mexico Plan of Action 658–9
neglect of refugees' perspective 522
New Zealand 513, 641
permanent status offered by 517
potential consequences of expansion of 518
refugee attitudes towards 518
relationship with asylum seeking 518
Resettlement Handbook (UNHCR) 425
South America 658–9
strategic use of 513
(p. 738) support for resettled refugees 521
United States 512, 513, 678–80
disabled refugees 426
eligibility 679–80
health of refugees 438
integration 521
numbers resettled 678–9, 680
Refugee Admissions Program 515
responsibility for 679
support 680
resilience:
definition of 532
of displaced children 386–7
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 531–2
Rio de Janeiro Declaration on the Protection of Refugees 661
Rohingya refugees 104–5, 107, 504, 617–18, 630, 633
forced repatriation of 634
statelessness 290, 627
Rwanda 266, 271, 272, 274, 401, 491, 571, 573–4
composition of refugee flows from 324–5
Comprehensive Strategy for the Rwandan Refugee Situation (UNHCR) 493
genocide 219, 456, 575, 579, 581
nation-building 377
refugees from 493, 560
return of refugees 503
Rwandan Patriotic Front 574
Sahrawi 12, 384, 403–4, 587, 589, 591
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 585, 588, 597n3
Samaritan's Purse 455
Samoa 642, 648
Sandy, Hurricane 667
Sardar Sarovar Dam Project 619
Sarvodaya Shramadana 454
Saudi Arabia 585, 588, 595
Save the Children 388
Second World War 76, 134, 215, 241, 246, 256, 293, 415, 480, 605, 606, 690, 691
secularization 448
securitization of forced migration 6, 9, 65, 89, 194, 259, 265, 274–5, 645
anxiety over immigration and asylum 268–9
broadening of concept of security 266
Canada 683
constructivist approaches to security 266–7
criminalization of migrants 271
Critical Security Theory 272–3
dehumanization of migrants 270
desecuritization of forced migration 274
development of securitization theory 267–8
economic fears 269
environmental politics 273
Great Lakes region of Africa 271, 581–2
Horn of Africa 581–2
human security 273–4, 275, 318
humanitarian intervention 265–6
identity security 268, 275
Kivus (Democratic Republic of Congo) 271–2
Mediterranean boat migrants 269–71
mixed flows 270
post-9/11 period 269
securitization approach to security 266
inclusive security approach 266–7, 272–4
sociological approach 266, 267–8
speech act approach 266, 267–8
terrorism fears 269
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 273–4
United States 683
Western fears of mass migration 265
security, international:
human security 65
implications of displacement 318
protracted refugee situations 155
refugees 64–5, 128, 248–9
sedentarist approaches 81
sedentarization, forced 5, 7, 585
Self-Reliance Strategy (SRS) 492
self-settlement 8, 127, 131
de facto integration 490, 493
in Europe and North America 129
Great Lakes region of Africa 579
Horn of Africa 579
negotiation of 133
(p. 739) precarious legal position of refugees 132
reasons for preference for 132
access to livelihoods 132
aspirations to return 132
autonomy 132–3
relationship with encampment 136
scale of 131–2
state resistance to 129
support from local population 133
Semipalatinsk nuclear test site 609
Senegal 541, 544, 548, 549
forced expulsions 545
settlements, see self-settlement
sex work, feminist views of 359–60
sexual identity, asylum applications 400
Shadow Journal 468
Sierra Leone 266, 541, 546
civil war 544
protracted refugee situations 158
return of emancipated slaves 542
Singapore 626, 628, 631
slave trade:
Southern Africa 556
West Africa 542
see also trafficking
Smuggling of Migrants Protocol (2000) 356, 357
international support for 358
social capital 100
social constructivism:
anthropology 80–2
theories and concepts, transnationalism 87–8
social exclusion, and forced migrants 101
civil society exclusion processes 106–7
encampment 104–5
institutional exclusion 107
legal status and documentation 105–6
social work, and displaced children 387
sociology and forced migration 5, 7, 86–7, 94–5
class 92
ethnicity 92–3
family 92
gender 92
methodologies 93–4
themes and issues 89
citizenship 91
labels and categorization 89–90
(re)integration 90–1
theories and concepts 87–9
conflict 88
fragile states 88–9
globalization 87
role of the state 88
sovereignty 89
Solomon Islands 642, 647, 648
Somali National Movement (SNM) 578
Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) 578
Somalia 4, 534, 571, 578
diaspora formation 180
internally displaced persons 578
natural disasters 593
South Africa 106–7, 554, 557, 567
amnesty programmes 559–60, 561
attitudes on refugee rights 564
deportations 563–4
end of apartheid 559
forced migrants' access to health services 434
mixed migration 561
Refugee Act (1998) 567
Truth and Reconciliation Commission 377
Zimbabwean asylum seekers 561, 562–3
South America 651, 661–2
Cartagena Declaration (1984) 658
internal displacement in Colombia 659–60
legal framework for protection of forced migrants 652
American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 655–6
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948) 655
asylee status 653
comparing refugee and asylee status 654–5
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 655–7
legal basis for asylee status 653–4
refugee status 652–3
Mexico Plan of Action (MPA), Solidarity Resettlement Programme 658–9
(p. 740) number of refugees 661
protection regime 651
refugee status determination 661
role of exile 651
statelessness 660–1
see also Latin America
South American Congress on Private International Law 653
South Asia 12, 613
ad hoc nature of refugee protection 618
conflict-induced displacement 621–2
countries comprising 613
development-induced displacement 618–20
impact on women 620–1
resistance to 621
disaster-induced displacement 622
future challenges 623–4
internally displaced persons 617, 618
development-induced displacement 618–20
legal framework 613–14
non-signatories of Refugee Convention 614
partition of Indian subcontinent 5, 12, 26, 31, 613
violence of 257
refugee populations in:
Afghan refugees 617
Bangladeshi refugees 614–15
Bhutanese refugees 616–17
Burmese refugees 616
Rohingya refugees 617–18
Sri Lankan refugees 615–16
Tibetan refugees 614
refugee populations in India 614–16
statelessness 12, 622–3
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 358
South East and East Asia 12, 635–6
Asian approach to 627
causes of displacement 627
civil society's role 628
countries comprising 626
detention 629, 630
forced repatriation of refugees 629–30
Indochinese refugee crisis 631–2
Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indochinese Refugees 284, 492, 632
impact on refugee policy 632
United Nations conference 631–2
internally displaced persons 627
legal framework:
human rights 626
limited formal legal protection 626–7, 635
regional initiatives 627–8
mixed migration 627
Myanmar's refugees 633–5
numbers of displaced people 627
protracted refugee situations 2
reception of refugees 629–30
refugee camps 629
refugee-generating countries 627
refugee-hosting nations 627
regional initiatives 627–8
ASEAN 628
regional overview 626–8
statelessness 627
trafficking 627
treatment of displaced as illegal immigrants 629–30
South Sudan 571, 576
South-West People's Organization (SWAPO) 557
Southern Africa 12, 554–5, 567–9
border control 563
causes of 568
civil wars 558–9
colonial period 556, 568
deportations 563–4, 569
as destination of African asylum seekers 560, 561, 568–9
economic migration 563
end of apartheid 559–60
internally displaced persons 554–5, 567
intra-regional nature of 567–8
mistreatment and abuse of forced migrants 564
mixed migration 560–1
number of refugees 554, 555
policy challenges 568–9
pre-colonial period 555–6, 568
(p. 741) protracted refugee situations 2
refugee legislation 564, 565–6, 567
control orientation 564–7
protection orientation 567
refugee status determination 567
repatriation and return 559–60
slave trade 556
wars of liberation 556–7
Zimbabwean asylum seekers 561, 562–3
Southern African Development Community 554, 563
sovereignty 89
asylum seekers as assault on 645
as conditional right 248
contingent nature of 89
control over entry of non-citizens 36
exceptions 36
control over nationality 293
forced migration 60, 70
impact of diasporas 70
inhumane consequences of 241
internally displaced persons 165, 303, 335
national borders 253, 254
networked sovereignty 70
non-refoulement as limitation on 254
protracted refugee situations 155, 158
redefinition of 531
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 531–2
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees:
changing attitudes towards 248
limiting factor on 247–8
Soviet Union 5
break-up of 265
in Central Asia 600
development-induced displacement 331
forced displacements 605
Spain 27
spatial theory 113, 118–20
national borders 118–19
scale 119
spatial analysis 120
Sphere Project 429, 435, 505
'spoilers', refugees as 65
Sri Lanka 454
classified as safe to return 647
internally displaced persons 622
refugees from 615–16
Sri Lankan Freedom Party (SLFP) 615
St Louis 677
stabilization approaches to fragile states 309
State of the Humanitarian System (SOHS) 306, 307–8
state system:
asylum system as challenge to 254
characteristics of states 253
relationship with forced migration 60, 63, 88
relationship with international refugee system 253–4
statelessness 5, 9, 53–4
Canada 685–6
Central America and the Caribbean 667–8
Central Asia 12, 608
cessation of refugee status 503
children 294, 296–7, 586, 627, 660–1
citizenship 54
contemporary examples of 290
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961) 290, 293–4
level of ratification 294–5
regulation of nationality 293–4
definition of 291–2
de facto v de jure debate 295–6
UNHCR guidelines 298
discrimination in nationality laws 297
progress on 298–9
European Union 698–9
flaws in nationality laws 297–8
human rights law 298
impact on people's lives 290
lack of procedures for determination of 296–7
lack of research on 296
Middle East and North Africa 586, 595
neglect of 290, 295
refugees 38
South America 660–1
(p. 742) South Asia 12, 622–3
South East and East Asia 627
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 296
United States 685–6
stayees 15, 320–1, 412, 506
Sudan 571, 576, 588
agricultural settlements 130
Comprehensive Peace Agreement 372
economic integration of refugees 14
internally displaced persons 576
natural disasters 593
refugee camps 580
repatriation of Eritrean refugees 501
rural wage-earning settlements 130
sit-in by Sudanese refugees (Cairo, 2005) 372–3
suburban refugee settlements 130
Sudanese People's Liberation Movement 372
Sumatra-Andaman earthquake 465
sustainable livelihoods 100
Swaziland 554, 556, 567
Sweden 512, 516
refugee recognition 281
Switzerland 693
Syria 585, 588
humanitarian crisis in 3
Iraqi refugees 592
natural disasters 593
refugees from 592–3, 691
systems thinking 527
view of refugee movements 527–8, 530
tabula rasa 77
Tajikistan 599, 600, 605, 606
civil war 606–7
Tamils:
diaspora formation 179–80
refugees in India 615–16
statelessness 623
Tampa affair 642, 645
Tanzania 403, 491–2, 554, 567, 571
agricultural settlements 130
local integration of Burundian refugees 494–6
pressure on refugees to return 582
protracted refugee situations 158
Refugee Act (1998) 567
Refugee Control Act (1966) 564
refugee population 560
Tata Institute for Social Sciences 619
terra nullius 77
territorialization 74, 81
terrorism, securitization of forced migration 269
Thai Committee for Refugees 628
Thailand 384, 626, 627, 628, 631, 648
deportation of Rohingya 504
forced repatriation of refugees 630
management of undocumented migrants 630
refugees from Myanmar 634
Three Gorges Project (China) 331–2
Tibet, refugees from 614
Tigray 577
Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) 577
Timor-Leste 626, 636n3
Togo 541
child trafficking 546
Tonga 648
trafficking 1, 10, 355
anti-trafficking legislation 356
international support for 358
national legislation 358
Canada 684–5
Central Asia 608
children
child labour 361
West Africa 546–7
criminal nature of 355
definition of 357
difficulty in distinguishing from smuggling 359
European Union 697–8
exploitation 362
forced labour 360–2
immigration controls 363
'modern slavery' 362
geographical scope of 355
Great Lakes region of Africa 578–9
(p. 743) growth of state concerns with 356
health needs of trafficked 443
Horn of Africa 578–9
Middle East and North Africa 594–5
migrants 362
asylum 364
as workers 363
politics of 364–5
prostitution 359–60
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children
(2000) 356
definition of trafficking 357
focus of 359
Smuggling of Migrants Protocol (2000) 357
South East and East Asia 627
uncertainty over numbers involved 358–9
United States 684–5
Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report (USA) 358
Trafficking Protocol, see Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially
Women and Children (2000)
translation services, provision of 440
transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) 668
transnationalism 5, 8, 67–8
alternative to return 507–8
as durable solution 185–6
emergence of concept 177
forced migration studies 87–8
refugee diasporas and transnational engagement 180–1
economic and livelihood support 183–4
household and family sphere 181–2
imagined community 182–3
known community sphere 182
remittances 181, 182
transnational political mobilization 70
see also diasporas
trauma 103
children 386
see also mental health
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa) 377
Tuareg 545
Tuareg Mouvement National de Libération de l'Azawad 545
Tunisia 519, 585, 588
Turkey 256
Turkish Red Crescent 309
Turkmenistan 599, 600
Tutsi 271, 272, 325, 573–4, 575
Tuvalu 642, 648
Tzu Chi 453
Uganda 571, 641
agricultural settlements 130
cluster approach in 306
pressure on refugees to return 582–3
Rwandan refugees 493
Self-Reliance Strategy (SRS) 492
Umoja (disabled association) 429
United Arab Emirates (UAE) 585
trafficking 594–5
United Kingdom 512
deportation 259, 260
reduction of asylum applications 261
refugees' access to health services 439, 440
resettlement programme 516
disabled refugees 425
statelessness 699
United Nations, addressing responses to internal displacement 302–3
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 388, 437
United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child 205
United Nations Conciliation Commission on Palestine (UNCCP) 227, 228, 236, 586–7
definition of Palestinian refugees 231–2
United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001) 439
United Nations Declaration on Territorial Asylum (1967) 42
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 337
United Nations Development Programme 223
Initiative on Legal Empowerment of the Poor 337
(p. 744) United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 291
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women 397, 660
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 334
United Nations Framework on Durable Solutions 169
United Nations General Assembly:
Declaration on Territorial Asylum (1967) 529
non-refoulement 39–40
United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN GIFT) 358
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) 358
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 7, 8–9
Afghanistan Comprehensive Solution Unit 604, 610
Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming 402
Agenda for Protection 218, 284
budget 221
children 383
cluster approach 304
evaluation of 305
Comprehensive Strategy for the Rwandan Refugee Situation 493
constraints on 218–20
earmarking of funds 221–2
funding 218–19, 221
global political context 219
state interests 219
states' attitudes towards asylum 219–20
Convention Plus initiative 135, 284
decline in authority of 217–18
depoliticization of refugees 247
desecuritization of forced migration 274
development-induced displacement 339–40
development of 216
Dialogues on Protection Challenges 157, 284
Director of International Protection 307
disabled refugees 425, 429
durable solutions 151, 184, 215, 247, 476
resettlement 425
duration of refugee situations 151
establishment of 37, 215
Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit 156
Executive Committee of the Program of the UNHCR 221
expanded role of 216, 224, 247, 251
future role of 224–5
gender equality policy 403
Global Consultations on International Protection 218, 284
global refugee regime 215–18
‘good offices’ concept 247
Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 400
Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women 397, 399
Heightened Risk Identification Tool 405
histories of 24, 25, 63
humanitarian assistance 216
humanitarianism 242
relationship with 247–50
impact of refugee regime complex 222–3
increasing involvement in states' internal affairs 248–50
Indochinese refugee crisis 632
internally displaced persons 249, 303
enhanced role in 306
limited resources 28
livelihood programmes 99, 108
mandate of 37, 215, 247
continued relevance of 224
mixed flows 270
monitoring and supervisory role 217
Multilateral Framework of Understandings on Resettlement (1984) 284
natural disasters 310
non-governmental organizations 217
Palestinian refugees 230–1
Position Paper on Gender-Related Persecution 397
power and influence of 216–17
private sector links 69
Protection Challenges 218
protection gaps 278–9, 284
(p. 745) application gaps 279
future of 285
implementation gaps 279–82
normative gaps 282–4
protection of refugees 234–5
protracted refugee situations 151
causes of 153
definition of 152
Dialogue on Protection Challenges (2008) 157
durable solutions 479
ExCom Conclusion on Protracted Refugee Situations (2009) 157
Initiative on Protracted Refugee Situations (2008) 156–7
perpetuation of 154
responses to 156–7
rise in 153
Refugee Convention (1951) 215–16
refugee protection 234–5, 278
Refugee Women and Gender Equality Unit 403
relationship with UN system 220–1
reliance on donor states 220, 221
damaging effects of 222
earmarking of funds 221–2
repatriation of refugees 248, 502–3, 505
resettlement 512–13
Resettlement Handbook 425
Return and Reintegration Policy 479
Rwanda 274
securitization of forced migration 273–4
socialization of new states 218
solutions to refugee problem
local integration 43
voluntary repatriation 42–3
Stateless Convention (1954) 294
statelessness 296, 298
Statute of 215, 230, 281
supervisory responsibility 281
as surrogate state 218
trends in forced migration 223–4
UNHCR Innovation 69
urban refugees 141–2
Working Group on International Protection 250
United Nations Human Rights Commission 168
United Nations Human Rights Committee 205–6
United Nations Inter-Agency Standing Committee 223
cluster approach to humanitarian assistance 304
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) 116, 251, 302
internally displaced persons 303
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 358
United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 9, 151, 153, 228–30, 255, 384, 586, 587
durable solution 235
establishment of 227, 228
expanded activities of 229–30
geographical scope of 230
health service provision 443
human rights 229
legal authority 229
Medium Term Strategy 229
protection role 236–7
refugee definition 229, 232
services provided by 229
weakness of mandate 237
United Nations Relief for Palestine Refugees (UNRPR) 232
United Nations Secretary General, Renewing the United Nations (1997) 309
United Nations Security Council 266
Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security 401
United States 12
Afghanistan 601
anti-trafficking 356, 358
anti-trafficking policies 684–5
asylum policy 680–3
agreement with Canada 681
approval rates 681
asylum process 682
interdiction at sea 682
number of applicants 680
quality of decisions 683
securitization of 683
time limit on applications 682–3
(p. 746) Central American refugees 666–7, 668, 673–4
Cold War influences on policy 678
deportation 259, 260, 668
detention 668
ethnic cleansing 256
protracted refugee situations 158
Refugee Act (1980) 678, 680
resettlement programme 512, 513, 678–80
disabled refugees 426
eligibility 679–80
health of refugees 438
Indochinese refugee crisis 631
integration 521
numbers resettled 678–9, 680
Refugee Admissions Program 515
responsibility for 679
support 680
statelessness 685–6
temporary protection status 683–4
United States-Canada Safe Third Country Agreement (2004) 681
United States Committee for Refugees 3
United States Immigration and Naturalization Service 399
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 39, 42, 293
asylum 42
urban refugees 8
assistance ensures continued segregation 144
challenges for humanitarian assistance 144
characteristics of 139–40
direct assistance to 143
disabled migrants 422
access to healthcare 422–3
focus on legal status and documentation in assistance to 143–4
counter-productive 145
gaps in knowledge about 140
health risks 443
increased attention to 13, 139, 141
limitations of scholarship on 144–5
local government 146
modalities of assistance 143
new approaches to 146–7, 148
numbers of 139
reconsideration of policies 145–6
refugee-oriented analysis of 142–3
as scapegoats 144
successes among 147
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 141–2
urbanization 139
visibilization 144
within humanitarian field 140, 141
urbanization, and urban refugees 139
Uruguay 658, 659, 660
User Generated Content (USG), and media representation of forced migration 466–7
Uzbekistan 599, 600, 606, 607, 608
vacuum domicilium 77
Vanuatu 647, 648
Venezuela 658, 661
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (VTVPA, USA) 358, 359, 685
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) 44, 47n23, 280
Vietnam 626, 627, 628
Indochinese refugee crisis 631
refugees from 629
Vietnamese boat people 410, 513, 631, 641
visibilization:
power relations 141
reliance on categorization and verification 144
urban refugees 140, 141
vocational training, and disabled migrants 423
voice, see refugee voice
Volga Germans 606
voluntary repatriation 42–3
West Africa 11–12, 541–2
anti-trafficking initiatives 550
asylum practices 548
child trafficking 546–7
child/youth migration 546–7
colonial period 542–3
conflict-induced displacement 544–5
durable solutions 549
(p. 747) ECOWAS framework 549–50, 551–2
forced expulsions 545–6
impact of European policies 546, 550
jatigui 543, 546, 547, 548
legal framework for refugee protection 547
local integration 549
mixed migration 546, 550–1
pre-colonial period 542
refugee camps 548
refugee status determination 548
repatriation 549
restrictive refugee policies 548
slave trade 542
trends in 551–2
Westphalia, Peace of (1648) 62, 63
women:
discrimination in nationality laws 297
health risks 435
impact of development-induced displacement, India 620–1
Women and Development (WAD)