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date: 14 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the displacement of refugees, exiles, and internally displaced persons in Central America and the Caribbean due to forced migration. It first discusses the causes and consequences of displacement before turning to cooperation as a response to forced migration in the two regions, highlighting the work of the International Conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA). It then explores the role of legal frameworks, regional organizations and initiatives, solidarity movements, and grassroots mobilization in addressing forced migration from and within the regions. It also looks at emerging challenges that are likely to shape the future regional dynamics of forced migration, from displacement caused by natural disasters to the implications of undocumented migration for the sustainable resolution of displacement. Furthermore, it illustrates multi-level cooperation dynamics by analysing efforts to resolve displacement emerging from Central America’s civil wars.

Keywords: refugees, Central America, Caribbean, forced migration, displacement, cooperation, International Conference on Central American Refugees, grassroots mobilization, natural disasters, civil wars

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