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date: 11 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the history, evolution, and impacts of South America’s unique protection regime for refugees, focusing on the distinction between refuge on the one hand and territorial and diplomatic asylum on the other. It outlines the regional legal framework and organizations designed to protect forced migrants in South America and considers the region’s main forced migration trends. It also discusses forced migration in South America in relation to the other sub-regions of the American continent, particularly Latin America and the Americas. In addition, it looks at the Organization of American States’ organs and human rights machinery for the protection of forced migrants in South America and assesses the impact of the 1984 Cartagena Declaration on the refugee acts and laws enacted in South American countries. Finally, it analyses durable solutions spelled out in the Mexico Plan of Action, which includes the Solidarity Resettlement Programme that has been implemented to address internal displacement in Colombia, and lays out considerations on the efforts to address statelessness in South America.

Keywords: protection, refugees, asylum, South America, forced migration, 1984 Cartagena Declaration, Mexico Plan of Action, Solidarity Resettlement Programme, internal displacement, statelessness

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