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date: 25 June 2022

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter outlines five phases of displacement in the ‘fifty years war’ of Southern Africa, from the wars of independence of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s to the mass exodus of people from Zimbabwe and mass deportations of migrants, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons, and refugees to other states. It first provides an overview of pre-colonial and colonial forced migration and periodizes the five-decade war from 1960 to the present. It then highlights the advantages and limitations of national refugee legislation as well as regional initiatives like the Organization of African Unity Refugee Convention and the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa. It also compares control-oriented and protection-oriented approaches that have been adopted to address the plight of forced migrants.

Keywords: displacement, Southern Africa, wars, Zimbabwe, mass deportations, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons, refugees, forced migration, legislation

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