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date: 16 February 2020

(p. 787) Index

(p. 787) Index

à Lasco, John 228
correspondence with Bucer 444
Aachen 114
Abelard, Peter 26
Aberdeen University 490
Act for the Suppression of Innovations 615
Actes and Monuments (Foxe) 79, 280, 287, 773
Acts of the Apostles 204
Adam and Eve 23, 24f, 25, 26
as model of matrimony 669, 672
Adami, Tobias 314, 318
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (Luther) 153, 383
Adelung, Johann Christoph 303
‘Adiaphoristic Controversy’ 157
African slave trade 720
‘Against the Heavenly Prophets’ (Luther) 393
Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants (Luther) 529
Agricola, Johannes 137, 487
Agricola, Michael 160, 162
Ahmad Ibn Qäsim al-Hajari 288, 189
Akbar, Mughal Emperor 748
Albrecht III, Duke of Bavaria 257
Albrecht of Brandenburg, Cardinal 149, 607
alchemy 311–12, 315–17
and gender 11
influence on Reformation 468
medical system 735
and sexual difference 674, 675–7, 682–3
Alciati, Andrea 216
al-Fishtali, Abd al-Aziz 288
Alsted of Herborn, Johann Heinrich 78, 307, 309–10, 311, 312, 314, 316, 318, 468, 654
altars, “idolatrous” 393
Altensetter, David 405
Althamer, Andreas 697
Althusius, Johannes 308
Alva, Duke of 557
Amar Das 751
Amboina island 354, 758
Ambrose, St 623
Ames, William 656
Ammann, Jakob 208
Amsdorf, Nikolaus von 151, 157, 158, 161
Amsterdam, Portuguese Jewish settlements 284
Amyrault, Moyse 50
Amyraut, Moïse 469
Anabaptists and Anabaptism 14–15, 31, 54, 108, 110, 138, 171, 172, 173, 175, 178, 196, 198, 199, 200, 316, 409, 419, 464
Calvin and 214–15
communities 173, 208–9
community of goods 713
Dreamers 670
Eucharist 415
letters 448
and music 631–2
public penance 423–4
and secular society 201
soul sleep 70
Swiss 197
Anatomy of Melancholy (Burton) 652
Andreae, Jakob 159, 314
Andreae, Johann Valentin 314–15, 316, 318
Andrewes, Lancelot 615
Andros, Edward 362
Angenendt, Arnold 410
Anglican Church see Church of England
Anglican Society for the Promoting of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) 760
Anglican Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 363, 720, 760
(p. 788) Anglophone resistance theory 93
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660) 285
Anhalt 610
Anhalt, Adolf von 152
Anna, Electress of Saxony 730, 734
Anselm of Canterbury 26
Anslo, Cornelius 643–5, 644f, 653, 659
Antichrist 72–3, 74
anticlericalism 587
Antinomian Controversy 9, 158
anti-Trinitarianism 110, 319, 739
churches, Hungary 289
Transylvanian principality 109
Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre 224
Antwerp:
civic religions 557
iconoclasm 604
poetry competition 549
apocalypse and apocalypticism 72–7, 283–4, 310
and astrology 78
lore and imagery 76
Appenzell canton 181
Aquinas, Thomas 27, 28, 30, 689
archidiaconal courts 508–9
Aristotelian philosophy 463–4, 465, 466, 470, 472
centrality in teaching 493–4
psychology 26, 302
and Ramism 466–8
Aristotelo-Galenic theory 645, 647–51, 659
Aristotle 32, 486, 689, 675, 729–31
Arjan Dev 751
Armada, Spanish 288
Arminianism 228–9, 357
Arminius, Jacob 50–1, 229, 469
Armitage, David 351–2
Arndt, Johannes (Johann) 12, 206, 265, 311, 314, 332, 611
Arnold, Gottfried 190, 334, 336
Arnošt of Pardubice 128, 129–31
‘art confessional images’ 13
Aschermann, Gabriel 196
Askia Muhammad Turé (“Askia the Great”) 755
Assad, Talal 689
Asseburg, Rosamunde Juliane von der 335
Aston, Margaret 603
astrology 66–7
apocalyptic 78
‘great conjunctions’ theory 310–11
predictions 1520s 73
at Wittenberg 736–8
Augsburg 34, 286, 718
civic religious pluralism 559
Diet of (1530) 155–6
expulsion of Jews 278
Lutheran chorales 268
municipal brothels 259
as printing centre 379
Augsburg, Peace of (1555) 76, 106, 112, 158, 160, 173, 184, 227, 253, 268, 445, 446, 554, 559, 568, 711
and the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren 306
and sovereignty 509
Augsburg Confession (1530) 32, 140, 159, 309
Augsburg Interim (1548) 33, 157, 218, 711
August, Elector of Saxony 445–6, 730, 734
Augustine, St. 72–3, 87, 623, 726
anti-Pelagian doctrine of grace 38
attitude to the Donatist heretics 240
‘city of God’/’city of this world’ distinction 71, 302
memory 770–1
predestination doctrine 221
theology 151
Aureol, Pierre 27, 28
Aurifaber, Johann 438
Austerlitz 196
Austrian nobility, and the Reformation 569
Austrian Protestant migrants in America 11
authors’ relations with printers 374, 375
Backus, Irena 221
Bacon, Francis 9, 79–80, 288, 304, 309, 313, 316, 318, 738
Baden, Diet of 169
Baden disputation (1526) 175
Bader, Augustin 75
Bahia 719
Bale, John 79, 287
Bämiyān Buddhas, Afghanistan 604
baptism 54, 419–20 (p. 789)
in the colonies 758
infant 192, 193, 195, 203
sacrament 26, 27
baptismal fonts 420
Baptists, Massachusetts Bay 360
Barbados 356, 362
Barbados Act for the Better Ordering and Governing of Negroes (1661) 720
Barker, Peter 728, 738
Barrera-Osorio, Antonio 730
Bartholin, Caspar 674
Basel 215–16
accepting reforms 174, 175
granting divorces 507
iconoclasm 604, 605
as printing centre 379
Basel Compacts (Compactata) 132, 133
Basel Formula of Consensus 181
Basel University 490
Batavia 354, 757
Baudouin, François 438
Bauhin, Caspar 674, 675
Baur von Eiseneck, Maria Juliana 330–1
Bavarian counter-reforming program 257
Baxter, Richard 238, 239, 244, 716
Bay Psalm Book (1640) 636
Bayly, Lewis 51, 246, 332, 359, 654
Béarn Reformed Churches 106
Beck, Johann 721
Becon, Thomas 635
Beeckman, Isaac 655
Beguines 135
Belgic Confession of Faith 419
Bell, Catherine 412
Bellarmine, Robert 88, 89, 661
Bellay, Jean de 446
bells, church 636–7
Bender, Harold 199, 200
Benedict, Philip 221, 223, 441
Bengel, Johann Albrecht 334
Bentham, Joseph 246
Bermuda 356
Bern 178
Zwinglian reforms 174, 175
Bernadino of Siena 126
Bertram, Bonaventure Cornelius 282
Besold, Christoph 314
Betbuchlein (Luther) 381
Beukelsz, Jan 207
Beverwijk, Johan van 651, 653
Beyer, Jürgen 694
Beza, Theodore 88, 89, 215, 223, 228, 229, 267, 275, 283, 632, 633
psalm singing 634
Bèze, Théodore de 438–9, 465
Baxter, Richard 332
bhakti devotional movement 750
bibles, vernacular 129–30, 162
Dresden 130
Eck (1537) 398f
English 397
Geneva 281
German language 396
Kralice 139, 141
Nuremberg (1483) 396
Strasbourg 396
Velislav 129
Wittenberg (1534) 3, 154, 163, 381, 396–7, 606
Biblia Deudsch (Luther) (1534) 396–7
Bibliander, Theodor 437–8
Biel, Gabriel 30, 146, 151, 622
Bilson, Thomas 90, 94
Bishofszell, Thurgau 180
bishop’s courts 508–9
Black, Robert 485
Black Death 129
and Jewish populations 278
Blahoslav, Jan 139
Blarer, Ambrose 439
blasphemy accusations 183
Blaufelden commune 529
Blickle, Peter 590
Bodenstein, Adam von 315
Bodin, Jean 506
body, the 643–61
affective rhetoric 636–5
Aristotelo-Galenic theory 645, 647–51
artes concionandi 654–5
Christ’s physical suffering 660
and common sense 651
continuities and resemblances 659–61
embodied hearts 651–3
embodied souls 645–51 (p. 790)
embodied rhetoric 655–7
five outer/inner senses 650–1
foreheads 647, 647f
Galenic humors 652–3
mind’s eye (occulus imaginationis) 645–51, 646f
rhetoric and enargeia 657–9
sense of touch 660–1
‘situated cognition’ 652
theatricality and passion 655–7
vividness 658–9
writing sermons 657
Boettcher, Susan 775
Bohemia:
relationship with England 131
Bohemian Brethren 108, 110, 303, 304–6, 335, 494, 631
Bohemian Confession (1575) 110
Bohemian Diet and the nobility 568–9, 576
Bohemian Reformations 7, 124–41
confessional identity problems 136–7
confessional landscape complexity 126–7
geographical representation 107
Hussite movement emergence 130–2
Luther’s teachings 137–9
multi-confessionalism 136
power of the estates 137–40
preaching 130
radical religion in fifteenth-century 134–5
reform and revolution 127–30
relics in Prague 129
seventeenth-century 140–1
sixteenth century 136–40
social history studies 127
the century after Hus 132–5
Utraquism enters the mainstream 133–4
vernacular translation of Scripture 129–30
women’s participation 135
Bohemian Revolt (1620) 303
Böhme, Jakob 31, 205–6, 265, 311, 320, 332, 754
Boje, Nicolaus 534
Bologna 548
Bolsec, Jerome 50, 221, 222, 228
Bolton, Robert 237
Bondage of the Will, The (Luther) 29–30
Book of Common Prayer 242, 261, 636, 670
Book of Concord 159
Book of Martyrs (Foxe) 13, 359, 614, 694
Book of Nature idea 471, 472, 679, 738, 740
Book to Burn, A (Li Zhi) 755
Bora, Katharina von 489, 609
Bossy, John 218, 261
Bourbon, Antoinette de 572
Bourdieu, Pierre 412
Bourgeois, Louis 633
Bourignon, Antoinette 311, 388
Bouwsma, William 64
Boyle, Robert 739
Bracht, Thielmann van 448
Brady, Thomas A. Jr. 3, 587, 590
Brahmins 291
compared to Levites 290
Brandenburg 227
church orders 487
expulsion of Jews 278
Brandenburg, Albrecht von 152
Braudel, Fernand 546
Braunschweig church orders 487
Brazil, north-eastern 354–5
Bredekamp, Horts 604, 605
Breitinger, Johann Jacob 555
Brenz, Johannes (Johann) 33, 189, 628
educational reforms 487
Brès, Guy de 208
Bretzel, Jeorius 532
Briçonnet, Guillaume 216
Brietz Monta, Susannah 770
Brightman, Thomas 79, 284
Broke, Thomas 56
Brooke, John Hedley 728
brothels 673
municipal 259
Brötli, Johannes 195
Braunschweig 404
Bruen, John 245
Bruce, Robert 51–2, 242
Brugghen, Hendrick ter 645, 649f
Brunner, Fridolin 536
Bruno, Giordano 309, 311, 318
Brussels, civic religions 558
Bucer, Martin 35, 91, 153–4, 156, 175, 215, 216, 217, 221, 438
correspondence with à Lasco 444 (p. 791)
correspondence with Bullinger 444
educational reforms 487
influence on Calvin 217, 218
letters 439
Mosaic laws 282
music as divine gift 630–1
Buchanan, George 93, 94
Buchelius, Arnold 772
Bugenhagen, Johannes 156, 161, 269, 415, 607, 608, 629
educational reforms 487
Bullinger, Heinrich 78, 117, 157, 178, 180, 215, 228, 282, 437–8, 440, 466, 625, 635, 669–70
condemnation of the veneration of saints 555
Consensus of Zurich 110
correspondence with Bucer 444
letters 456
Bundschuh movement (1493–1517) 206
Bunny, Edmund 243, 246
Buraeus, Johannes 311
Burghartz, Susanna 182, 513, 516
Burke, Peter 691
Burton, Robert 652
Burton, Thomas 47
Burtt, E. A. 727
Busche, Hermann von dem 434
Butterfield, Herbert 727
Cajakob, Georg ‘Blaurock’ 170, 172
Calendarium Historicum (Eber) 67–8
calendars, astrological 66–8
Calov, Abraham 465
Calvin, John (Jean) 31, 32, 35, 73, 154, 157, 178, 214–30, 383, 404, 491
Anabaptists 214–15
apocalyptic speculation 78
as author 384–5
biblical commentaries 218, 221–2
Consensus of Zurich 110
court discipline 512
dancing 634
death and burial 423
early education 488
Ecclesiastical Ordinances 217, 219
educational reforms 490
Eucharist celebrations 419
Geneva visits (1536–1538/1541) 216–21
God and material objects 710
hand-held watches 69
heretic persecution 87
in history and memory 777–80
and Humanism 462
humanist education 216–17
images of God the Father 613
and Islam 286
on Judaism 280, 283
lectio continua device 417
letters 438–9, 441–2, 455
managing scattered congregations by letter 442–3
Melanchthon correspondence 444
messenger services 435
missions in France 223–4
music and singing in services 12, 632–5, 266, 267
The Old Testament 282
policing of morals and discipline 218
possessions and property 712
preaching and sermons 219–20, 657
predestination doctrine 50, 50–4, 221–3
psalm singing 266–7
saints as Christian names 421–2
scholasticism 464
scripture and empirical experience 58
Servetus execution 222
soul sleep 71
Strasbourg (1538–1541) 217–18
the state 86
support from aristocrats and princes 444–5
see also individual works
Calvinism:
and children 55
iconoclasm 609
iconophobia 110–11
impact of Humanism 462–3
linguistic boundaries 116
millenarianism and historical progress 79–80
Montpellier 68
preaching 264
sacred spaces 695 (p. 792)
‘theory of resistance’ 90, 91–2, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98
Scottish Reformations; Strasbourg; Swiss Reformations; Zurich
Cambers, Andrew 243
Camerarius, Ludiwg 506
Cameron, Euan 598–8, 589
Cameron, John 469
Campanella, Thomas (Tommaso) 314, 318
Campeggio, Lorenzo 138
Candidius, Georgius 290, 757
cannibalism, Native American 351
canon law 506
cantata performances 267
Cape Colony, South Africa 720, 757
Capito, Wolfgang Fabritius 149, 175, 437, 456, 491
Capuchin order 255, 536
Caribbean Protestant colonists 362
Carion, Johann 77
caritas 27
Carl von Oettingen, Count 677
Carolina 362
Carranza, Bartolome 37–8
Carrera, Elena 651, 652, 653
Carroll, Stuart 224
Cartesian philosophy 469, 471, 652
Carthusians music 623
Cartwright, Thomas 243, 283
Casaubon, Isaac 290
Castelli, Elizabeth 772–3
Castellio, Sebastian 50, 87–8, 222
Catalogi Haereticorum (Schlüsselberg ) 198
Catherine of Siena 128
Catholic renewal and Protestantism 7, 253–69
church/secular state competition 254
concubinage 256
confessionalization or a complex dialogue 268–9
inquisitions 256
moral disciplining 258–60
multiple benefices prohibition 256
overview 253–4
sermons and preaching 263–4
tridentine challenge 254–8
‘Wandering out’ (Auswanderung) 257–8
war against disorder 260
Catholics and Catholicism:
baptism 758
and the Bohemian Reformation 149–1
canon law 506
celibacy 258, 669
Christianizing non-European peoples 351, 352
church and state boundaries 218
in Dutch colonies 758
exorcism 420
Formula Concordiae (FC) 160
healing water interpretations 697, 698, 699–70
Ireland 240
justification doctrine rejection 258
‘Lutheran songs’ 155
and the Lutheran theology of evil and grace 34–8
mapping minorities 107–8
marriages between Protestants and Catholics 514, 515
Maryland, English Catholics 362
Mass 414
medieval lexicon 32–3
moral disarray and corruption 585
musical tradition 268–9
in the Netherlands 226
passive justification interpretations 37–8
and the ‘Peasants War’ (1525) 206
Prohibited Books, Index of 258, 260
reforms in 224
reimposition on Bohemia and Moravia (1627–1628) 303
schools 495–6
as stagnating force 727
supernatural beliefs and practices 691–2
theologians and the doubting Thomas story 402
Catleberger, Andreas 170
Cedar of Lebanon prophecy 76
celibacy, priestly 256, 669
censorship of the book trade, Protestant 260
(p. 793) Centuriators of Magdeburg 336–7
Ceylon 227, 354
Chablais, Duchy of 113–14
charity 717–18
Charles I of England 97, 357, 511, 576
Charles II of England 362
Charles III, Duke of Savoy 113, 217
Charles IV of Bohemia 127, 128–30, 131
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 69, 90, 157, 218, 225, 386
Charles IX of France 572
Charles Louis, Elector Palatine 112–13
Charles the Bold 168
Charles the Elder, Žerotín 140
Chasidism 330
Chelčický, Peter 135
Chemnitz, Martin 33, 159
children’s religious experience 54–5
chiliasm 309
chorales in Lutheran services 267
Christian, David 748
Christian, William 691
Christian Humanism 170, 173
parallels with Confucian reformers 754–5
Christian Marriage (Bullinger) 669–70
Christian mortalism 70
Christian Teachings on the Last Affairs of the World (Faber) 71
Christianopolis (Andreae) 314
Christman, Robert 403
Chronica Carionis (Carion/Melanchthon) 77–8
Chur, Bishop of 537
‘church historians’ perspectives (1970s) 587
Church of England (Anglican Church):
acceptance of chattel slavery 720
clandestine de praesenti vows 507
geographical representation 106
in New England 356
‘Church of the Holy Spirit’, Silesia 316
Chytraeus, David 462
Cicero 92
circumcision 279
Cistercian music 623
Città del Sole, La (Campanella) 318
civic religions 546–59
anticlericalism 547, 552
Antwerp 557
Augsburg 559
Bologna 548
Brussels 558
burgher committees 552
cities and the Reformed tradition 554–8
cities in the vanguard of religious change 550–4
civic processions 547, 548–9
civic theatre companies 549
cult of saints development 548
Erfurt city council 553
France 556
Hanseatic league cities, and reform 551–2
late middle ages 546–50
Leipzig city authorities 551
Netherlands 556–8
Nuremberg City Council disputation (1525) 553, 554
parish churches 546
passion/mystery plays 549
priests and clergy 547
religious brotherhoods/confraternities 546–7
‘Scripture mandates’/’preaching mandates’ 552–3
Utrecht 558
Wittenberg 550–1
Zurich 555
Zwickau town council 551
Clairé, Sieur de 220
Clark, Stuart 605
Clasen, Claus-Peter 199, 200
Classen, Constance 660
Clement VIII, Pope 514
clocks and clockmaking 68–9
Clough, Richard 604
Cochlaeus, Johannes 137, 146
Codrington, Charles 720
Coligny, Gaspard de 351
college of prince electors 566
Collegium pietatis (Spener) 331
Collinson, Patrick 235, 613
Colloquy of Poissy 632
Cologne Dominicans, and the Talmud 276, 277
Columbus, Christopher 679–80
(p. 794) Comenius, John (Jan) Amos 9, 124, 141, 468
and Andreae 314
Heidelberg studies 306
irenicism 306
millenarianism 309–11
pansophia 306–9, 313
relations with Lutherans 305
and seventeenth-century education 494–5
and the universal reformation 301–4, 318, 319–20
Commentarius de Anima (Melanchthon) 652, 731, 733
commerce and consumption 708–22
adiaphora 711
charity 717–18
churches 710–11
commerce 714–16
community of goods 204, 207, 713
debts and credit 715
Dutch Reformed Church guidance on manumission 720
forestallers, regraters and vagabonds 718–19
goods and revenues confiscated from the Catholic Church 711
idleness 714
images and artefacts 710
material culture importance 712
material goods 709–12
mendicant orders 709–10, 714
merchants 719
ministerial education 714
overseas colonization and trade 719
printed word 710
profits 715–16
property 712–13
Protestant work ethic narrative 713–14
relics 710
state as economic regulator and enabler 718–20
sumptuary legislation 712
treasure (in Heaven) 720–1
usury 716–17
vestments and precious vessels 711
Weber thesis 708–9
work 713–14
commonplace books 265
communal capitalism, Massachusetts Puritans 359
community of goods 204, 207, 713
comparisons and consequences in global perspective (1500–1750) 747–60
baptism 758
comparative religious studies 749
Confucian reformers parallel with Christian humanists 754–5
consistories 757
Dutch colonies 756–9
intermarriage 757–8
Moravian missionaries 759–60
religious reforms and innovations 749–56
rituals celebrating sexual maturity 759
separation of sacraments 758
Sikhism and Protestantism parallels and comparisons 752–3
spread of Protestant ideology and institutions 756–60
Complaints against the Eaters of the Dead (pamphlet) 710
Concordial Lutheranism 314
Confessio Augustana (CA) (Melanchthon) 158–9
Confessio Bohemica 306
Confessio fraternitas (1615) 312, 313
Confessio Taboritarum, Czech Reformation 134
confessional paintings (Bekenntnisgemälde) 162–3
Confessions (Augustine) 265
Confucianism 753–5
congregational hymn singing 3, 13, 628–9, 631, 633
Connecticut 358
Connerton, Paul 769
Consensus of Sandomierz (1570) 139–40
and Poland 306
Consensus of Zurich (1549) 110
consortia plebis, Lombardy 528
Constance, Council of (1415) 528
consubstantial doctrine 56
Contarini, Gasparo 35, 36
conventicles, Pietism 330–1, 332, 334, 448
Coornhert, Dirck 88
Cop, Nicolas 217
(p. 795) Copernicus 726, 728, 736
Copernican system 736–8, 740
Copp, Johann 734
Coppe, Abiezer 97
Cordus, Euricus 730
Corpus Christi feast (1247), Liège 410
Corvinus, Johann Friedrich 190
Cosmographies (Münster) 678–80, 682
Coster, Samuel 658
Cotton, John 357–8
Courts of High Commission, Elizabethan England 510
Coverdale, Miles 447, 635
Cowper, William 53
Cracow 118–19
Cranach the Elder, Lucas 390, 417, 606, 607–9, 609–10, 616
Cranach the Younger, Lucas 2f, 380, 390, 607, 608
Cranmer, Thomas 36, 261, 421, 510, 636
liturgy 241, 242
Crashaw, William 243
Creilshelm well 699
Crespin, Jean 447, 448
Cressy, David 68, 773–4
Cromwell, Oliver 285, 362
Cromwell, Thomas 596
Crooke, Helkiah 674
Crouzer, Denis 572
Cruciger, Elizabeth 626
Cruciger, Kaspar 438
Csombor, Márton Szepsi 117–19
Cyprian, Ernst Salomon 190
Czech Confession (1575) 139–40
Damplip, Adam 595–6
dance and dancing 630, 637
Daneau, Lambert 465, 466, 468
Daniel, Book of 77
Daughter, The (Dcerka, Hus) 135
Davenport, John 358
Dávid, Ferenc 283
Davidic dynasty 281
Davis, Natalie Zemon 47, 592
Dawson, Jane 244
De Bry family volumes 681–2
De capitivitate Babylonica (Luther) 153, 154
De civilitate morum puerilium (On good manners for boys, Erasmus) 492
De Jure Regni apud Scotus (Buchanan) 93
De Marees, Peter 681–2
De pueris instituendis (On the early education of children, Erasmus) 492
De ratione studii (On methods of study, Erasmus) 492
De Regno Christi (On the Kingdom of Christ, Calvin) 218
De Ries, Hans 653–4, 657, 658
de Vio Cajetan, Tommaso 35
Delaware River, and Scandinavian Lutherans 355
Della Valle, Pietro 290
Denck, Hans 75, 194
Denmark and the Reformation 162
church architecture 263
Lutheranism 269
rural Reformation 533
sermons at healing wells 14
Dent, Arthur 359–60
Depermann, Klaus 200
Descartes, René 471, 740
deutsche Messe, Die (Luther) 414
DeVun, Leah 676
diaries and spiritual autobiographies 265
Dickens, A. G. 234, 235
Didactics (Comenius) 495
Diderot, Denis 291
Diefendorf, Barbara 556
Diet of Worms 57, 154
Dietenberger, Johann 397
Dietrich, Veit 394, 401
Diggers 97
Dijkhuizen, Jan Frans van 660
Dimmock, Matthew 285
Dioscorides 733
Dippel, Johann Konrad 335
Discourse on Western Planting (Hayluyt) 719
Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum (Luther) 151
dissenters, outsiders and competing visions 301–20
alchemy and Paracelianism 315–17
irenicism 304–6
the long reformation 319–20 (p. 796)
millenarianism 309–11
pansophia 306–9, 313
reformatio mundi 317–19
societies and utopias 313–15
universal and general reformation 312–13
universal reformation 301–4, 318, 319–20
Dithmarschen 534, 540
divine agency, scholastic background 28–9
divorce 10
and re-marriage 507
Dixon, C. Scott 586
Dobbs, Betty Jo Teeter 728
Dobricius, Johannes 310–11
Dominican missionaries 351
Doneau, Hugues 506
Donne, John 283, 658
Döring, Christian 607
double justice of Gropius-Pighius doctrine 35–8
Dove, John 237
Dowsing, William 615
Drabik, Mikuláš 311
Draper, J. W. 726
Dresden Bible 130
Dresden hymnals 267
Dryden, Erasmus 245–6
Duffy, Eamon 235, 239, 240, 243, 526
Durand de Villegagnon, Nicolas 351
Dürer, Albrecht 645, 648f, 609
Durkheim, Emile 440
Dürr, Renate 695–6
Dutch Mennonites 209
Dutch Reformed Church 225–7
clandestine literature 385
differences with Calvin’s Geneva 226–7
Geneva Psalter 634
guidance on manumission 720
iconoclasm 604
missionaries and missions in the colonies 11, 353–5
predestination 228–9
views on Islam 287, 288
visual and material culture after iconoclasm 612–15
Dutch Republic:
Calvinists and the Jews 284
civic religions 556–8
Collegiant movement 355
irenicism 305
‘Israel’ thesis 51
mapping the Reformed churches 107
material consumption 12
overseas empire and Protestantism 353–5
and the print market 385–6
Dutch Revolt 92, 226, 573–4, 557–8
Dyke, Daniel 332
East India Company, British 719, 748, 760
East India Company (VOC), Dutch 227, 719, 756–7
and marriage 10–11
Ebeling, Gerhard 147
Eber, Paul 67–8
Eck, Johannes 175
Bible (1537) 398f
ecumenism 88, 127, 305, 335, 364, 768, 769
Edict of Nantes (1598) 114, 173, 184, 214, 225
Revocation (1685) 114, 363
Edict of Worms 154, 383–4
education 483–97
Aristotle’s centrality in teaching 493–4
Catholic schools 495–6
church orders 487–8
church schools 484
Comenius and seventeenth-century 494–5
curricula and pedagogy 491–4
funding schools 488–9
‘independent’ schools 484
and the Jesuits 495–6
Klosterschulen 489
late middle ages 484–6
Latin schools 488
Latin/German schools distinction 484, 485, 488
literacy rates 485
monasteries and convents 488–9
municipal schools 484
‘parish schools’ 484
picture books for children 495 (p. 797)
Protestant reforms 486–91
Schulordnungen 487
Stift scholarship system 489
Swiss Confederacy reforms 489–90
Ursulines 495–6
Edward VI 226, 261, 385, 635, 637
Edwards, Jonathan 364
Edwards, Thomas 208
Eglinus, Raphael 312, 318
Ehem, Christoph 506
Ein feste Burg (Luther) 267, 626
Eisleben, teaching curriculm 487
Elert, Werner 147
Elijah 76
Eliot, John 361
Elisabeth, Countess of Palatinate-Lautern 735
Elisabeth, Duchess of Rochlitz, 734
Elisabeth of Rochlitz 735
Elizabeth I of England 235, 261, 385, 439, 575
Book of Common Prayer 421
moderate iconoclasm 613–14
pro-Turkish policy 288
and the Puritans 356
Emden Dutch reformed churches 116, 226
Emser, Hieronymus 397, 603
Emser, Jerome 379
encyclopedism 306, 307, 309, 313, 468–9
England 10
Arminians 51
bell ringing 637
Catholicism equated with Judaism 280, 281
chantries 528
church courts 510–11
colonists, and anti-Spanish, anti-Catholic sentiments 352
gender difference 10–11
geographical representation of Anglicanism 106
and the Gregorian calendar 68
Islam, views on 287, 288
liturgical reformation 420–1
music 635–7
New World colonization 351–2
nobility and the Reformation 574–5, 576
Protestant millenarianism 78–9, 284
Protestant texts 385
readmission of the Jews 285
relationship with Bohemia 131
rural Reformation 538–9
school reforms 490
visual and material culture after iconoclasm 612–15
English Bible 397
English Civil War (1642–51) 96–8, 576
and church courts 511
Israel and the covenants 281
prophets and visions 694
English Reformations 233–47
being Protestant 240–5
catechizing 243
changing interpretations 234–6
conversion narratives and the emotions 238–40
conversions 236–40
doctrines of justification and predestination 235
‘fast-slow’ Reformation controversy 234, 235
and Hobbes 89
liturgy 241–2
preaching and sermons 242–3
Puritans inclusion and national Churches 245–7
Scripture reading 243–4
special public prayers and fasting 241
Erasmus, Desiderius 29, 34, 170, 217, 221, 378, 383, 491, 754
bible’s universal appeal 395–6
English liturgical music 635
Foreword to the New Testament (1516) 593–4
Free Will 461
Humanism 73
instrumental music 623, 624
on learning and education 491–3
letter writing 432–3, 437
and Letters of Obscure Men 434
and the ‘Synergistic Controversy’ 158
Erastus, Thomas 316
Erfurt city council 553
‘Erhalt uns, Herr, bei Deinem Wort’ (1541 hymn) 286
Erpenius, Thomas 289–90
Erthal, Christoph Heinrich von 536
(p. 798) Esslingen 484
Estate of Marriage, The (Luther) 669, 671–2, 673, 674
Estienne, Charles 436
Eucharist 3, 50, 177, 412, 414–16
controversy 56–7, 400
and grace 27
and Luther 154–5, 156
theology 154
Euclid 732
European nobilities and the Reformation 565–77
Adlige Damenstifte 568
Austria 569
Bohemian Diet 568–9, 576
Calvinist religious rigorism 574
early Reformation 565–7
elites in north-western Europe 573–5
England 574–5, 576
France 571–3, 575
German secular principalities and Hapsburg monarchy 568–70
Holy Roman Empire 570–1
monasteries, dissolution of 574
‘Obrigkeit’ role 569–70
outlook 575–7
Scotland 574
Stiftsdamen 568
as a threat to the church as ‘the nobility’s almshouse’ 567–98
evangelical wonder books 77
Evangelische Kirche Deutschland (EKD) 767
evil and grace theology 23–39
Catholic condemnation 34–8
divine agency 28–9
Gropius-Pighius doctrine of double justice 35–8
medieval Catholic lexicon 32–3
scholastic background 25–8
explaining change 585–97
‘all-purpose models’ 589
appeal of the message 586–9
crisis and struggle over authority 596
from cultural history to a cultural narrative 591–7
decadence theory 585–6
flattery of the laity argument 588
German city states’ role 590–1
Holy Roman Empire institutional politics 589–91
Humanism role 591
idols and idolatry 594
image and text relationship 593–4
necessary conditions 589–91
political-material explanations 587
as system of inter-defined concepts 593
Exsurge Domine Bull 34, 383
Faber, Basilius 71
Fall, the 302–3
Fama fraternitas (1614) 312, 313
Farel, Guillaume 216, 217, 218
Farnese, Alexander 557
Faustus Socinus 25
Febvre, Lucien 586
Felix and Regula legend 555
Fenner, William 655, 656
Ferdinand I, Archduke, King of Bohemia and Hungary 138, 139, 140, 423
Ferdinand II, Emperor 112
Ficino, Marsilio 623
Fifth Monarchy Men 79
Figulus, Bendictus 312
Fincel, Job 77
First Great Awakening, America 364
First Helvetic Confession (1536) 418–19
Fischer, Christoph 402
Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester 34
Fitch, Ralph 290
Flacian controversy 9
Flacius, Matthias 157, 158, 162, 336, 337, 438
Florence, schools 495–6
Florida, Spanish 351
Fludd, Robert 645, 646f
Fontaine, Nicolas de la 222
Ford, Alan 233
Formosa (Taiwan) 290, 354
Formula Concordiae (FC) 159, 160, 162–3, 609, 738
Formula Missae et communionis pro Ecclesia Wittembergensi (Luther) 414
Fornerod, Nicolas 223
Forty-Two Articles of Religion (1552) 309
Four Articles of Prague 132
(p. 799) Fourth Lateran Council (1215) 410
Foxe, John 13, 79, 280, 281, 283, 287
martyr letters and book 447–8 see also Acts
France:
civic religions 556
clandestine literature 385
counter-reforming program 257
mapping the spread of Calvinism 107
nobilities and the Reformation 571–3, 575
Protestant ‘self-fashioning’ 11
psalter 632
Reformed Protestantism 115–16, 223–5
reforms in the Catholic Church 224
religious wars 224, 225, 556, 571
secular and religious courts 509
Francis I of France 216
Francis of Assisi, St. 1
Franciscan missionaries 351
Franck, Sebastian 75, 205, 315, 632
Francke, August Hermann 54, 209, 331, 332, 333, 339, 363, 716, 759
Frankenhausen, Battle of (1525) 193
Frankfurt book fairs 384
Frankfurt-am-Main, Pietism 330
Franklin, Benjamin, material consumption 12
Frederick II of the Palatinate 112, 136
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony 486
disturbances in Wittenberg (1521–1522) 550, 551
Frederick III ‘the Wise’, Elector of Saxony 227, 377, 380, 396, 413, 444, 594
Frederick IV, Elector Palatine 112, 305
Frederick V of the Palatinate and Bohemia 111, 112
Frederick William I of Prussia 140
Fredriksen, Paula 770
free imperial cities 550
and Jews 279
Free Will 463
conflict between Erasmus and Luther 492–3
and divine Predestination 470
Erasmus and 461
Freedberg, David 604
Frelinghuysen, Theodorus Jacobus 364
French Huguenots 92, 93, 108, 214, 224, 538, 711
colonization 351
and metrical psalm singing 634
minority rights in Paris 114
Psalter 634
public penance 423–4
settling in New York 363
Frick, Wilhelm 779
Friedlānder, Max J. 609
Friedmann, Robert 448
Friedrichs, Christopher 558
Fritsch, Thomas 190
Froben, Johannes 150, 378
Froschauer, Christoph 171
Fuggers of Augsburg 567
Fulke, William 286
funeral and burial rites 423
sermons 264
Fust, Johann 373, 374
Gaetano dei Conti di Tience (Saint Cajetan) 255
Gaisberg, Franz von 176
Galen 732, 733
Galileo 740
Gallus, Nikolaus 157
Games, Alison 287, 291
Garden of Eden 23, 24f, 25, 26, 27, 679
Gascoigne, John 738
Gaspard the Coligny 571
Gassendi, Pierre 740
Gasser, Achilles Pirmin 67
Gaukroger, Stephen 729
Geer, Louis de 718
gender relations:
Anabaptist and Spiritualist 201
and church/civil courts 514–15, 516, 517
experience of life 54–5
Germany 11
in New England colonies 358
and Pietism 337–9
and predestination 53–4
Regensburg schools 485
school provision for girls 491
Gendlein, Jacob 528
genealogy and Pietism 337
General Court of Freeman, Massachusetts 358, 359
Genesis 1:14 67
(p. 800) Geneva 113–14, 115–16, 403
Academy (founded 1559) 223, 490
Bible 281
and Calvin (1536–38) 216–18
clandestine printing 384–5
consistory 504
excommunication practices 10, 219
General Council accepts Calvin’s Ordinances (1541) 217, 219
General Council adopts Reformation (1536) 216
illegitimate births 219
music in the Reformed church 632–5
population growth 219
Psalter 633–4, 636, 638
Reformation Wall 778
schools Reformed (1559) 490
secular and religious courts 509
Small Council 219
Gengenbach, Pamphilus 594
genre painting, growth 602
Gentilcore, David 691
geographies of the Protestant Reformation 5, 105–19
changing picture 108–9
mapping Protestant divisions 109–11
mapping the Reformation 105–8
mental geography 117–19
population density ties 115
state borders and religious frontiers 111–15
towns and language 115–17
George, Duke of Saxony 381–2, 551, 596
Gerhard, Johann 160, 332, 465
Gersau rural republic 528, 537
Gersdorf, Henriette Katharina von 338
Gerson, Jean 126
Ghoostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes (Coverdale) 635
Gilford, Reverend E. 752
Gillespie, Raymond 233, 246
Gilly, Carlos 312, 316
Glareanus, Heinrich 623
Glarus 176, 181, 536
reform movements 174
Glasgow University 490
global Protestantism 14
‘Gnesio-Lutherans’ 31
Gobind Rai 752
‘Godly republicanism’, Massachusetts Bay 358–9
Goertz, Hans-Jürgen 199–200, 202–3, 592
Gold Coast of Africa 681–2
Goldener Bund (1586) 180
Goldhahn, Matthew 396
Goldstein, Bernard 738
Goldwell, Thomas 607
Gonzaga, Giulia 34
Goodman, Christopher 92
Gordon, Bruce 14, 424, 694
Goschsheim 534–6, 535f
Goudimel, Claude 633
Gouge, William 656
Gowing, Laura 516
grace and nature controversies 31
Gratius, Ortwinus 434
Great Migration, Massachusetts Bay 357
Grebel, Conrad 169, 171, 172, 195, 201
Greek Catholic Church, Transylvanian principality 109
Green, Jonathan 73
Greenham, Richard 656
Gregorian calendar reform 68, 559, 740
Gregory I (the Great) Pope 622, 410, 603
Gregory of Rimini 28, 30
Grendler, P. F. 484
Greyerz, Kaspar von 690
Gries, South Tyrol 528
Grindal, Edmund 439, 656
Grisons, Swiss Confederation 179, 180, 181, 537
riots (1613–1616) 182
Gropper, Johannes 35–6
Grosse, Christian 411, 418
Grote, Gerard 128
Grynaeus, Simon 437
educational reforms 487
Guibbory, Achsah 281
Gunpowder Plot (1605) 88
Güntzer, Augustin 404–5
gurus 751
Gustavus I, King of Sweden 533
Gutenberg, Johannes 153, 373, 374
gymnasia 307
(p. 801) Habernfeld, Andreas Haberweschel von 311
habitus doctrine 151
Hacke, Daniela 183
Haidt, Johann Valentin 6f
Haigh, Christopher 240
Hakluyt the Younger, Richard 352, 719
Halbwachs, Maurice 772, 774
Hall, John 15f
Hall, Joseph 332, 652, 660
Hall, Karl 147
Halle Pietism 333–4, 335, 340
Hamburg church orders 487
Hamling, Tara 236, 614
Hanseatic League cities, and reform 551–2
Hargobind 751
Hariot, Thomas 352
Harnack, Adolf von 778
Harrison, Peter 493, 728–9, 731
Harrison, William 241
Hartlib, Samuel 304, 313
Hartlib circle 468
Hartmann, Andreas 776
Hartmann, Johann 312
Harvard University 358, 363, 714
Harvey, William 740
Haugk, Jorg 59
Hausmann, Nicolaus 414
Hausväterbücher (books of fatherly advice) 265
Heal, Bridget 695, 711
‘heathen’ peoples and the gospels 351
hedge preachers 196, 226, 557, 604, 711
Heidelberg Catechism (1563) 112, 227, 305, 417, 465
Heidelberg disputation (1518) 153
Heidelberg University 227, 307, 732
Heil, Johannes 278
Heinrichs, Erik 734, 735
Helding, Michael 402
heliocentrism 737
Hellinga, Lotte 376
Hendrix, Scott 58, 765
Henlein, Peter 69
Henry, Matthew 721
Henry IV of France and Navarre 571, 573, 575
Henry VIII of England 237, 383, 420, 510
Herbert, George 53
Herborn academy 307–8, 309–10
and Ramism 467
Hergot, Hans 59, 96
Hermann of Wied 35–6
Hermeticism 468
Herrnhut community 335
Hess, Tobias 314, 316
Hesse church orders 487
Heylyn, Peter 283
Hildegard of Bingen 76
Hill, Adam 721
Hill, Kat 775
Hinde, William 240
Hindenburg, Paul von 779
Hindus 750
Hippocrates 673, 674
history and memory 765–80
commemorating the Reformation 775–7
culture of heritage 767
exemplarity 775
forgetting 771
and the Last Supper of Christ 769–70
martyrologies 770
memory and religion 772–5
the printing press and memory 771, 773
Reformation as historical memory 769–72
Reformation recovery of the past 768–9
relationship between 770
ritual repetition 774
the sights of memory 767
History of Heretics (Arnold) 190–1, 199, 207
Hobbes, Thomas 89–90
Hoby, Lady Margaret 245
Hoffman, Melchior 75, 194, 206
Hofmeister, Sebastian 170
Hohenzollern, Albrecht von 566
Hohenzollern, Johann Sigismund 111
Holl, Karl 586, 778–9
Holy Communion 416
in England 420–1
Holy Roman Empire 91
institutional politics 589–91
and the reformatio mundi 317–19
secular courts 505
status of Judaism in 276, 277, 278, 279
Holy Spirit and grace 27
(p. 802) homosexuality, and the Islamic world 287
Hondius, Hendrik 613
Hoogstraaten, Johannes von 277
Hoogstraten, Samuel 658
Hooker, Richard 33, 208, 242
Hooker, Thomas 358
Hoornbeeck, Johannes 656, 657
Hopkins, John 635, 636
Horace 656
Hornhausen miracle well 696, 698
horoscopes 67
Hotman, François 573
Hotson, Howard 14, 467, 494
Hottinger, Klaus 171
Hoyer, Anna 755
Huber, Konrad 559
Huberinus, Caspar 402
Hubert, Conrad 439
Hubmaier, Balthasar 169, 170, 194, 196
Huguenots see French Huguenots
Huizinga, Johan 527
humanism and Humanists 153, 461–3, 491
Christian 395–6
critiques of music 623, 635
Hebrew and Greek originals of holy Scriptures 276
impact on Calvinism 462–3
importance placed on history and historical understanding 463
and Luther 149, 151
role in the Reformation 591
Hummel, Katharina 695–6
‘Hundred Guilder Print’ (Rembrandt) 613
Hungarian kingdom 108
Calvinism 228
Protestant populations under Muslim rule 289
and the Reformation 117
Hunnius, Aegidius 465
Hunt, Arnold 240, 654, 656
Hus, Jan 124, 125, 126, 163, 528, 626
century after 132–5
cult 137
as preacher 131–2
sermons 127
Hussite movement 130–2, 528, 590
Hussite rebellion 568–9
Hut, Hans 59, 75, 194, 196
Hutchinson, Anne 360
Hutten, Ulrich von 153, 434, 566
Hutter, Jacob 196–7, 204
Hutterites of Moravia 200, 204
community of goods 200, 713
and marriage 670–1
martyr letters 448
missionaries 201
see also Anabaptists
hymn singing see congregational hymn singing
Hyperius, Andreas 467, 654
Iconius, Raphael Eglinus 311
idols and idolatry 594
Ignatius of Loyola 660
Illyricus, Matthias Flacius 50, 336, 462
Index of Prohibited Books, Catholic 256, 260
India, early Protestant accounts of 290
indulgence controversy 3, 148, 149, 151–2
Ingram, Martin 510
Inquisitions 37–8, 423
Institutes of the Christian Religion (Calvin) 91, 96, 217, 218, 221, 223, 281, 287, 464, 669
‘Interimistic Controversy’ 157
Ireland and the Irish Reformations 233–47
catechizing 243
Catholicism 240
changing interpretations 234–6
conversion narratives and the emotions 236–40
doctrines of justification and predestination 235
edification 244
‘fast-slow’ Reformation controversy 234, 235
geographical representations 106–7
household worship 245–6
liturgy 241–2
‘popish’ symbolism 242
preaching and sermons 242–3
Puritans inclusion and national Churches 245–7
Scripture reading 243–4
special observations 241
Irenicum (Pareus) 306
Iserloh, Erwin 146, 780
Isham, Elizabeth 53–4
Islam 755–6
and scripture 289
Islam and Protestantism 285–90, 291
conversion to Islam 289
diplomatic discourse 288
Protests in Hungary under Muslim rule 289
sexual behaviour 286, 287
‘Israel’ and the covenants 281
Ittingen monastery 172
Jablonski, Daniel Ernst 141
Jacob, Johann 330–1
Jakoubek of Stříbro 132
Jamaica 362
James I of England (VI of Scotland) 88–9, 281, 352, 614, 694
Puritans 356
Jamestown settlement 356
Jamnitzer, Wenzel 609
Jansenists 266, 330
Jansz, Claes 613
Jean IV, Count of Luxembourg 224
Jeanne d’Albrecht, Queen of Navarre 572–3
Jedin, Hubert 146
Jena University 732
Jenitz, Hans 445–6
jeremiad sermons, Metacom 361 360–1
Jerome, St. 645
Jerome of Prague 134
Jerome’s Latin Bible 397
Jesuits (Society of Jesus) 255, 576
in Cologne 405
‘Letter from the Far East’ 255
missionaries 351
preaching 655
schools 495–6
study of nature 740
Jewel, John 283
Jews 284–5, 404
Ashkenazi 284
legal protection of the Holy Roman Empire 275
moneylenders 716
new kingdom in Israel 274
refugees into Saxony 278
scholarship 485
Jihlava, Moravia 137
Jiří (George) of Poděbrady 133, 134, 135
Jiří Melantrich of Aventino 139
Joachim III, Elector of Brandenburg 607
Joachim of Fiore 73, 311
Joachimsthal 138
Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg 308, 310
Johann VII of Nassau-Siegen 312
Johann Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg 607
Johansen, Jens 700
John Casimir of the Palatinate 112
John Frederick the Magnanimous, Duke of Saxony 139, 390
John of Bohemia 129
John of Leiden 75, 215
John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg 227
John the Baptist 54
Johnson, Carina 594
Johnson, Mark 644
Jonas, Justus 156
Jones, Norman 716–17
Jonson, Ben 246
Jonvillier, Charles de 438–9
Josquin des Pres 627
Josselin, Ralph 244–5
Joyce, George 710
Judaism and Protestantism 276–85, 291
anti-Judaism in the absence of Jews 278–81
apocalypse 283–4
covenants 281–2
expulsion and conversion 276, 277, 278
Judaizing 282–3
real Jews 284–5
and Spanish Portuguese Catholicism 280
see also Jews
Julian calendar 65, 68
Julius of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Duke 677
Jung, Ambrosius 734
Junius, Franciscus 283–4, 658–9
(p. 804) justification doctrine 151, 154, 237, 591
in the British Reformations 235
Catholic rejection of 256
Kagan, Jerome 47
Kaplan, Benjamin 13–14, 226
Kápolna 539
Kappel, Battle of (1531) 173, 177, 537
Kappel, First Peace of (1529) 537
Karant-Nunn, Susan 48, 491, 654, 657, 711
Karlstadt, Andreas Bodenstein von 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 192, 193–4, 195, 203, 315–16, 412–13, 414, 551, 593
church music 624
first public evangelical Mask 602, 603
idolatry and iconoclasm 603, 601, 605, 606
vernacular singing 625
Karsthans dialogue 530f
Kassel, second reformation 315, 316
Kaufmann, Thomas 14, 278, 279, 590, 767
Kearney, John 243
Keckermann, Bartholomäus 465, 467, 468, 470, 654, 656, 658
Keil, Heinz 694
Keith, George 363
Kepler, Johannes 9, 310, 313, 314, 737–8
Khalsa military brotherhood 752
King Philip’s War (1675–1676) 360, 361
King, John 657
Kingdon, Robert 182, 511, 512
Kircher, Athanasius 309
Kismet-Bell, James 733
Kißner, Anna Eilisabeth 331
Kißner, Johann 331
Klug, Joseph 381
Knox, John 92, 280, 403, 694
Mosaic laws 282
Koberger, Anton 396
Koerner, Joseph Leo 392–3, 608–9
Kokoschka, Oskar 124, 125f
Kolb, Robert 775–6
Königsberg University 732
Korean Christians 4
Koslofsky, Craig 69
Kotter, Christoph 311
Koyré, Alexandré 727
Kralice Bible 139, 141
Krieg, Blesy 531
Kusukawa, Sachiko 728, 729, 731–2, 733, 737
Kutná Hora, and Europe’s first bi-confessional settlement 127, 134
Kutná Hora, Peace of (1485) 137
Kuyper, Abraham 778
Lakoff, George 644
Landes, David 69
Landgrave of Hesse 511
Edict ‘On Schools’ (1537) 488
Landis, Dennis C. 350–1
Landry, Stan M. 776, 777
Landsgemeinde assembly, Switzerland 536
Languet, Hubert 93
Large Catechism (Luther) 381, 394
Las Casas, Bartolomé de 352
Last Judgement 70, 71–2, 72–3, 78
Lateran IV council 527
Latimer, Hugh 238, 656
Latin (Vulgate) Bible 276
Laud, Archbishop William 263, 289, 357, 421, 615
Laudian movement 241
Laudonnièrer, René de 351
Lausanne, Treaty of (1567) 113
Lavater, Ludwig 694
Lavinheta, Bernard de 309
law 505–8
lay officials 528
Lay, Benjamin 11
Lead, Jane 341
Lefèvre d’Étaples, Jacques 216, 217, 221
legal codes, and judicial systems, and the Pentateuch 282
legal courts 504–17
archidiaconal courts 508–9
bishop’s courts 508–12
canon law 506
Catholic canon law 506
clandestine de praesenti vows 507
clerical celibacy 507
contumacy 510
Diocesan courts 510
disputed marriage vows 415
divorce and remarriage 507, 514 (p. 805)
Dutch Reformed Church 510
English church courts 510–11
excommunication 510, 512
fornication and adultery 515
France 509
Geneva 509, 511, 512, 515, 516
of High Commission, Elizabethan England 510
‘the holy household’ 513–15
illegitimacy rates 515
impact on individuals and communities 512–16
impediments and dispensations system 507
kirk session, Scotland 511
law 505–8
lay judges 511
local customary law 508
Lutheran church ordinances 508, 511
marriage law reforms 507
mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics 514, 515
law emergence 506
parental responsibilities 515
parish presbytery 511
penance for moral offenses 509, 510
Protestant church courts 509
public morality 509, 510–11
punishments 512–13, 515
rural consistories and village courts 516
Scotland 509
secular and ecclesiastical courts relationship 505, 509–10
Sweden 515
women and marital stability 514–15, 516
Zurich 511
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 28–9, 309
Leinster 106
Leipzig:
city authorities 551
print industry 381–2
riots (1689/90) 331
Leisnig schools 486–7
Lent 65
Lentes, Thomas 593
Leo X, Pope 153
Leoniceno, Niccolò 730
Léonor d’Orléans, Duke of Longuville 224
Léry, Jean de 351
Leslie, Henry 240
letters, role and significance of 431–48
art of letter writing 432–4
between leading Protestant theologians 443–4
correspondence in the processes of Protestant Reformation 436–45
couriers, itineraries, intermediaries and diffusion 435–6
geographical and linguistic spread 441–2
information centres 435
institutionalization of preaching and teaching ministries 442–3
letters of recommendation 445
martyr letters 447–8
political complexities and public policy 444–5
and the politics of reformation 445–6
printed religious polemics as catalyst 441
secretaries 445–6
Letters of Famous Men (Reuchlin) 433–4
Letters of Obscure Men (Rubianus) 434
Levellers 97
Leviathan (Hobbes) 89–90
Leyden congregation, and New World migration 356
Li Zhi 754–5, 756
Lichtenberger, Johannes 73
Lieberman, Victor 592, 596, 755
limpieza de sangre statutes, Castile 280
Linaker, Robert 52
Linck, Wenceslaus 714
Lipany, Battle of (1434) 132, 133
literacy, rise of 261–2, 395
Lithuania:
tolerance 269
Tridentine decrees 257
Littell, Franklin H. 199
Little, Leonard 709
liturgy, reformation of 409–24
auricular confessions 416
baptism, the other sacrament 419–20
Catholic setting 410–11
early reformers 411–13
ecclesiastical rituals 412
Eucharist 414–16
funeral and burial rites 423
Holy Communion 416
iconoclasm 412–13
marriage rites, vows and sermons 422
pews 417
public penance 422–3
pulpits 417
purification of women (‘churching’) after childbirth 422
reformed liturgies 418–19
sermon as liturgical form 416–18
sermons 412
social liturgies 421–3
Llull, Raymond 309
Lobwasser psalter 634
Loetz, Francisca 183
Lollard movement 400, 528, 635
Lombard, Peter 27, 32, 486
London, and Dutch reformed churches 226
Lopez, Duarte 681
Lortz, Josef 146, 780
Lotter, Melchior 379–80, 381
Lotzer, Sebastian 531
Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé 224
Louis VI of France 112
Louis XI of France 436
Louis XIV of France 363
Loyola, Ignatius 255
Lübeck church orders 487
Lucerne 176
Ludwig VI, Elector 227
Lufft, Hans 381
Luis of Granada 660
Luke of Prague 137, 138–9
Lull, Raymon 468
Lüneberg hymnals 267
Lupfen 531
Luther 2f, 14, 146–64, 319, 459, 530f, 532, 748
Anabaptists 203, 214
apocalypticism 74–5, 310
appointment of preachers 442
and Aristotle 493–4, 729, 731
astrology 67
Augustinian ‘city of God’ 71
Bible, ‘Wittenberg’ (1534) 3, 154, 163, 381, 396–7, 606
Catholic and civil law 506
Christ’s perpetual passion 661
‘Christian freedom’ 95
circumcision 279
confessional controversy 156–61
Copernican system 736–7
cult of the saints 65
dancing 630
depiction as a prophet 693, 694
Diet of Worms 57
early writings 149–50
education, importance of 483–4, 486–7, 491
Eucharistic theology 154–5, 156, 414
existing ‘in Christ’ 32
faith as gift from God 30, 37, 54
habitus doctrine 151
in history and memory 765–6, 767, 768, 776–7, 778–80
and the Holy Roman Empire 317–18
household rules (Haustafeln) 155
Humanism 461, 462
iconoclasm and radicalism 603, 605–6
Immaculate Conception sermon 29
indulgence controversy 29, 30, 38, 148, 149, 151–2
Jews and Judaism 275, 276, 277–8, 279–80, 404
justification doctrine 151, 154, 193, 336
knowledge through experience 731
Last Day 74
letters 437, 438, 440–1, 454
‘Mahomedan faith’ and ‘the Turk’ 74, 275, 285–6
marriage 507
Mass translation into German (1526) 261
medicine 732–3, 734
merchants and trade 715
messenger services 436
music and hymn singing 155, 266–8, 621,