Abstract and Keywords
As the Reformation matured in its second and third generation, it faced new challenges both from within its ranks and from without. In the wake of the conclusion of the Council of Trent, the renewal of spirit within the Catholic Church challenged Protestant churches throughout Northern Europe, while internally Protestantism came to be riven by doctrinal fault lines between Calvinists, Lutherans, and Anglicans. In response to growing competition between religions, many states moved to enforce doctrinal uniformity, even as a wave of moral disciplining became evident in places throughout Northern Europe. At the same time the increasingly heterodox religious scene helped to produce distinct doctrinal, liturgical, and devotional differences among the various post-Reformation religions, producing confessional identities that were to shape Europe into modern times.
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