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date: 28 March 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Along with Reformation changes in authorized religious belief came the urgent revision and refinement of ecclesiastical ceremony—the liturgy. Both before and after the Evangelical movement, every act and decorative object within the churches symbolized a point of theological affirmation. Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli led the way in directing a new program, which constituted an aural and visual means of instructing the laity. The transubstantiating priest gave way to the preacher of Scripture, and the sermon now became the centerpiece of organized worship. The Holy Spirit inspired the clergyman in his pulpit. The Lord’s Supper remained a liturgical and theological focal point even though it was not as prominently placed in services as preaching. Across Protestant Europe, new forms of observance inculcated doctrine upon parishioners. Social rituals—marriage, baptism, and penance—were made congregational and not just familial or personal concerns.

Keywords: Liturgy, ceremony, Mass, Communion, baptism, sermon, discipline, images, symbolism, ritual

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