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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 623) Index

(p. 623) Index

Aberbach, Joel 439–40
Keeping a Watchful Eye 443–4, 454–5
accountability
and issue networks 377
and NPM 55–12
and street-level bureaucracy 390–2, 397–9
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 518–19
Achen, C.H. 142
actor-centred institutionalism perspective 59
Administrative Science Quarterly 114, 300
adversarial politics
and political parties 406, 407, 408, 409
adversarial regulatory enforcement 520
advocacy coalition framework (ACF) 59, 324, 448–95
belief systems 485–6, 488, 489
coalition opportunity structures 487, 490
and complex policy-making systems 484–5
expansion and revision 485, 489–90
and external events 487, 488–9, 491
flow diagram 487
and implementation research 352
influences on thinking and research 491–4
and policy subsystems 485, 486, 487
and public policy 494–5
and science 489, 492–4
and the stages heuristic 487, 493
Africa 11
African-Americans
and interest groups 27
agenda-setting
and agenda-building 426
and diffusion 246, 247
and instability in American politics 577–86
in Kingdon’s Agendas 418–19, 423, 426, 428
in Lasswell’s Decision Process 61, 62, 63
local 104–5
and punctuated equilibrium theory 86, 577
and Putnam’s Bowling Alone 599–600
Schattschneider on American democracy 123–31
agricultural policy
and US interest group liberalism 223–4
Albert, M. 606
Alkin, Marvin 328
Allison, Graham T.
background 273–4
and the interdisciplinary approach 283
The Essence of Decision 272–84
Almond, Gabriel 54
alternative specification
in Kingdon’s Agendas 418–19, 426, 428
Amable, Bruno 613
American Political Science Review 235, 241
Ames, R.E. 207
anarchistic fallacy
and interest groups 28
anthropology see cultural anthropology
antitrust policy
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 359, 361–2, 365–6, 366–7
Apple 247
Appleby, Paul
Big Democracy 36
Policy and Administration 36
application in policy-making 57
appraisal in policy-making 57, 58
Arendt, Hannah 256
Aron, Raymond 69, 73
artificial intelligence
and Simon’s Administrative Behavior 13, 19
attention, politics of 18
Aucoin, P. 542
(p. 624) audience sensitivity
and the issue-attention cycle 321
authority
bureaucracy and the problemization of 42–3, 47–9
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 364–5, 365
autopilot, administrative procedures as 471, 480
Avery, Robert W. 113–14
Axelrod, R. 188
Ayres, Ian
Responsive Regulation (Ayres and Braithwaite) 559–72
backward mapping 351, 399
Bafumi, J. 144
Bailey, J.J. 90
Balla, S. 445, 455, 461, 462, 477, 478
Baltzell, E.D. 74
Bardach, Eugene 120, 349, 353
Barnard, Chester 13, 35, 42–3, 44, 48, 49, 118, 367
Functions of the Executive 36
Barrett, S.M. 391
Bartels, L. 144
Bauer, R.A.
American Business and Public Policy 183–93
Baumgartner, F.R. 18, 87
Agendas and Instability (Baumgartner and Jones) 5, 8, 126–7, 128, 322, 425, 446, 577–86
and diffusion 247
and Olson’s Logic of Collective Action 205, 214, 216
The Politics of Attention (Baumgartner and Jones) 425
Bawn, K. 475, 477
Becker, G.S. 213
behavioral approaches 54
and bureaucracy 159, 167
and choice architecture 19
and classic works 10
and interest groups 24
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 117, 118
organizational theory and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 312
to regulatory enforcement 560, 569, 570
Bell, Daniel 73–4
Bendix, Rheinhard 35
Bendor, j. 92, 278–9
Bentley, Arthur F.
The Process of Government 56
Berkman, M. 145
Bernstein, Marver 291
Berry, F.S. 245–6
Berry, J. 229
Berry, W.D. 199, 245–6
Beto, George 516
Bevan, C. 570
“big data” influence of classic works 10
“black boxes”, firms as 361, 451
Blair, Tony 414
Blau, P.M. 154
Exchange and Power in Social Life 160
The Dynamics of Bureaucracy 157, 160
Blom-Hansen, J. 502
Boaden, Noel 103
Bogdanor, V. 409
Böhlmark, A. 265
bosses
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 519–20
bounded rationality 12, 13–15, 17, 19, 20, 81
and the advocacy coalition framework 495
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 276
Baumgartner and Jones on 578
and budgetary incrementalism 196–7
and diffusion of innovations 239
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 303, 305, 306
and policy-making 59
and regulatory enforcement 562, 569
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 363
Bourdieu, Pierre 172
Boushey, G. 247
Bozeman, B. 120, 198
Braithwaite, John 47
Responsive Regulation (Ayres and Braithwaite) 559–72
Braybrooke, D. 91
Brazil 11, 569
Brehm, John
Teaching, Tasks and Trust (Brehm and Gates) 522, 525
(p. 625) Working, Shrinking and Sabotage (Brehm and Gates) 167, 522, 524
Breton, André 256
Breunig, C. 201
Brewer, G.A. 394
Brodkin, E. 171, 396, 399
Bruff, Harold 439
Brunsson, Nils 309
budgeting
budgetary incrementalism 84–6, 90, 195–202
revenue 199
zero-based 198–9
Bullis, Connie E. 115
bureaucracy
bottom-up approach to studying 522–3
bureaucratic change 173–4
bureaucratic control 112–13
classical studies of 156–6
Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomenon 5, 118, 154–75
delegation in US government 221, 222–4, 226–8
and economic regulation 293
empirical theory of 49–50
and fire-alarm theory 436, 438, 440–2, 444, 445, 447
formality and informality in 41–2, 45–6
fragmentation and integration in 110
and incrementalism 84
inflexibility of 110–11, 112
influence of political principals on 452, 453–61
and issue networks 375
Merton’s Reader 35–50
microeconomic theory of 201
and Mills’s power elite 70–1, 76, 77
and new economics of organization 451–62
New Welfare bureaucrats 157
political control of 7
political science and public administration 10
and the problemization of authority 42–3, 47–9
procedures for implementing public policy (McNollgast) 465–80
social stratification and 39–41
sociological approach to 37, 43–9, 50
street-level 118–19
subdisciplines in the study of 36
typology of research in (culture and power) 166
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 365
Wilson on government agencies and 514–26
bureaucratic imperialism 515
bureaucratic politics
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 276–7, 279–80, 281–2, 283
Wilson on 514–26
Burin, Frederic 35, 39
Burnham, J.D. 71
Managerial Revolution 40
Burstein, P. 143
Burton, Jason 120
Bush, George W. 231, 599
business elites 72–3
business interests
and American democracy 124, 130
and collective action 210–12, 213, 215–17
Truman on 28–30
businesses
economic regulation of 288–9, 291–4
Butler, D. 96, 143
Cairney, P. 492
Campbell, Angus 138, 140
Campbell, Donald 327
capture theory 516–17
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 516–17, 526
Caro, Francis 330
Carpenter, Daniel 120, 523
The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy 525–6
Carpenter, D.P. 479
Carr, Edward H. 273
centifrugal forces
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 117
Chagall, Marc 256
Chapman, J. 399
Chen, Huey 336
China 10, 438, 569
choice architecture 19
choice opportunities
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making (GCM) 302
citizen agents 387–8, 393, 399
citizen compliance 524
civic engagement
and social capital 590, 591, 595, 596, 597, 599
civic republican regulation 565, 572
civil service systems
agendas and policy-making 428
and new economics of organization 452
and NPM 548, 552
class
and political participation in the United States 127
and UK political parties 407
classic works 1–11
citation counts 2–3, 4–8, 35, 186–9, 187
contributions to public policy and administration 8–11
and Lowi’s “American Business” 182–3
reputational selection of 3–4, 9
standards for identifying 1–3
Clawson, Marion 114
clearing points
and implementation failure 348, 355
Clegg, S.A. 37
client relationships
and street-level bureaucracy 394–6, 398–9
clietele politics 517
climate change 8
and business interests 29
club effects
and the EVL framework 266–7
CME (Coordinated Market Economy) model of capitalism 605, 612–13, 617
and comparative advantage 608
and corporate governance 609
employee relations 611–12
and the financial system 610
co-operative administration 353
Coase, R. 361, 362, 363, 370
Cobb, R.W. 426
cognitive biases
and collective action 211
cognitive psychology
and Simon’s Administrative Behavior 13, 19
Cohen, Michael D.
Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations (Cohen and March) 301
“garbage can” model of decision-making 59, 90, 300–13
Coleman, James 595
collaboration
and implementation research 353–4, 356
collective action 205–17
and economic regulation 289
energy-stability-area (ESA) model of 212
and the EVL framework 260, 261, 265
and individual mobilization 206–10
and the joint decision trap 499–500
and mobilizing institutions 210–12
and public policy 213–16
collective choice rules 531
Collingridge, D. 90–1
committee hearings
and fire-alarm oversight 439–50
common resource management 529–38
dilemmas of 530–1
failures of Common Pool Resources 532–3
natural resources 534
Ostrom’s design principles of 530, 532, 533–4, 538
self-governance 530, 531, 532, 536, 537–8
and supra-local dynamics 534–5, 535–6
sustainable 529–30
Commons, J.B. 361, 362–3, 370
communication
in Simon’s Administrative Behavior 16
Communism, fall of 606
comparative advantage
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 608
Comparative Agendas Project 584, 585
(p. 627) competitive equilibrium
and the EVL framework 265
competitive pluralism
and US interest groups 228–9
complex systems models
and Kingdon’s Agendas 425
complexity of joint action
and implementation failure 347–9, 355
computer science
and Simon’s Administrative Behavior 13
conflict
and budgetary incrementalism 197
and common resource management 531, 534, 535, 536
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 161, 162
and fire-alarm oversight 446
and Key on public opinion 139
and policy implementation 353
Schattschneider on the “conflict of conflicts” 123–4, 125, 127, 128–31
Congress (US)
and bureaucratic procedures for policy implementation 465, 466–74, 476–7, 478
influence over the bureaucracy 452, 453–7, 461–2
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 519
Congressional Information Service 455
Congressional oversight see fire-alarm oversight
consensual regulatory enforcement 520
consilience criteria of validity
and diffusion of innovations 244
constitutional rules 531
Converse, Philip E. 139
coordination
and implementation research 352–3, 354
coping agencies 519, 525, 525–6
core beliefs
and the advocacy coalition framework 486, 489
corporate governance
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 609–10
cost-benefit typology
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 524–5
coupling
and policy-making 422–3
covert integration
and the joint decision trap 499, 503–4
craft agencies 518, 519
Craine, Lyle 113, 114, 118
Cronbach, Lee 327
Crozier, M.
and Friedberg, Erhard, Actors and Systems 157, 161, 164, 165
intellectual background 158–60
The Bureaucratic Phenomenon 5, 118, 154–75
Cuban missile crisis
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 272, 274–7, 279, 280, 281–2, 283, 284
cultural anthropology
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 160, 164
and implementation research 355
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 117
cultural perspective on bureaucracy 172–3
Cyert, R.
A Behavioral Theory of the Firm (Cyert and March) 273, 303
Dahl, Robert 74, 75, 91, 97, 125, 138
American Government: Power and Purchase (Dahl and Stinebrickner) 189
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 158, 160, 190, 191
and Lowi’s “American Business” 183, 184, 189
and pluralism 225
Politics, Economics and Welfare (Dahl and Lindblom) 80, 84
Who Governs? 5, 22, 342
Dalton, R.D. 145
data problems
and policy-making 426
Davies, Bleddyn 103
Davis, O.A. 85
Dearlove, J. 106
decision-making
agendas and instability in 577–86
Allison’s The Essence of Decision-Making 272–84
diffusion of innovations 235–51
“garbage can” model of 59, 90, 300–13
(p. 628) and implementation 346
incrementalism in 6–7, 17–18, 80–92
joint decision trap (JDT) 498–510
rational 14, 15, 16–17
stage model of policy-making 55–65
street-level bureaucracy 156, 171, 384–400
deck stacking
Congress and bureaucratic agencies 470, 480
and fire-alarm oversight 441, 442
and new economics of organization 454
deepening integration
and the joint decision trap 503, 504–8, 509
Deering, C. 445, 455, 461, 462
delegation
and budgeting 201, 202
and bureaucracy 48, 49
the delegation doctrine 469
and fire-alarm oversight 437, 438, 440–2
and new economics of organization 453–4, 456
and street-level bureaucracy 394
in US government 221, 222–4, 226–8
democracy
and interest groups 25
juridical 232
and NPM 549
and partisan theories of political parties 412–13
public opinion and American democracy 137–48
Schattschneider on American democracy 123–31
Dempster, M.A.H. 90, 199
Denzau, A.T. 213
deregulation
and the politics of ideas 360
and regulatory enforcement 561, 571
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 616
Derthick, Martha 346
Deutsch, K.W. 138
Devereux, P.J. 266
diffusion effect 250
diffusion of innovations 235–71
and the consilience criteria of validity 244
Gray–Walker debate on 241–4
literature on 235–6
as a research paradigm 249–50
top-down 241
in the United States 237–40
Walker and diffusion research 245–9
direct government
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 109
discretion
and regulatory enforcement 520
and street-level bureaucracy (SLB) 386–96
discretionary regulation 563
disjointed incrementalism 81, 83
distributive policies
in Lowi’s “American Business” 185
diversity
and classic works 10
Dobbin, F.
Forging Industrial Policy 173
Dodd, L.C. 434
Congress and the Adminstrative State (Dodd and Schott) 440
domestic policies
applying the stage model of decision-making 60–2
Domhoff, G.W. 74–5, 76, 77, 226
Dore, R. 605
Dostler, Anton 256
Dowding, K. 261, 262–4, 266
Downs, A. 129, 579
“Up and Down with Ecology” 316–24
Duchamp, Marcel 256
Durose, C. 387
dyadic representation
and public opinion 142, 143
Dye, T.R. 74, 189
Politics, Economics and the Public 6, 96–106
Easton, David 56, 98, 103, 106, 118, 138
ECB (European Central Bank) 506–7
economic development
Dye’s measurement of politics and 96–106
economic policies
and political parties 407–8, 411
economic regulation 287–97
Stigler’s theory of 5, 7, 9, 287–97, 360
(p. 629) economics
and classic works 9
economic rationalism and NPM 542
and interest groups 31
new economics of organization 451–62
and Simon’s Administrative Behavior 13
education policy
Dye on US politics and 99–100
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 519, 522–3, 525, 526
educational performance
and social capital in America 602
Edwards, G. 145
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 69, 198
Elder, C.D. 426
elections
and adversarial politics 406
and Congressional oversight 435, 436
and public opinion 140–1, 146–7
elites
Baumgartner and Jones and elite theories 578–9
business elites 72–3
Italian school of 71
Meisel’s 3 Cs 69
Mills’s power elite 69–77, 138
and pluralism 226
and the political stream 426–7
and the politics of ideas 360
power structure approach to 74–5
and public opinion 140, 145–6
Ellis, K. 387, 388–9, 392
employee relations
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 611–12
enforcement see regulatory enforcement
entrepreneurial politics 517, 524
environmental issues
and the advocacy coalition framework 491
and American democracy 131
and fire-alarm theory 439
and the issue-attention cycle 318–19
and the McNollgast argument 471–2
and new economics of organization 455–6
Epstein, D. 475
Erbring, L. 321
Ernst, Max 256
Esping-Anderson, G. 413
Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism 606, 609, 612, 615
ethnic minorities
and the EDA Oakland project 345–6
Etzoni, Amitai 59
Europe
classic works from 4
interest groups 27–8
NPM in 548
political science and public administration 9–10
power elites in 76
European Central Bank (ECB) 506–7
European Defence Agency 507–8
European Parliament 509
European Union
and the advocacy coalition framework 491
agenda-setting and conflict 127, 128, 130
Common European Sales Law (CESL) 508
and experimentalist governance 64
joint decision trap (JDT) 498, 500–10
and Kingdon’s Agendas 424
and neopluralism 128
and political parties 413, 414
and regulatory enforcement 570, 571
evaluation research 326–38
assessing program effectiveness 329–33
and improved public policy-making 333–5
and the policy process 61–2, 63
and program implementation failure 336
and research methods 327–9
and social programming 337–8
use of program evaluation studies 335
Evans, T. 47, 393
evidence-based policy 333
EVL (exit, voice and loyalty) 256–67
applications of 259
critique and extensions of 260–1
evidence for EVL relationships 263–4
interplay of exit, voice and loyalty 257–9
mechanisms 264–7
and social investment 261–3
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 367
EVLN (exit, voice, loyalty and neglect) 260
ex ante controls
and fire-alarm oversight 440–2
(p. 630) ex post controls
Congress and bureaucratic agency 469, 471, 476–7, 480
experimental research
and evaluation research 327–8
experimentalist governance 64
expertise
Simon and the development of 19–20
experts
and the identification of classic works 3
Eymeri, Jean-Michel 172
Falkner, G. 503, 509
federalist states
and political parties 412
Ferreira, F. 104
Fesler, J.W.
Area and Administration 36
financial crisis 8
and interest groups 30
and Lowi’s “American Business” 192
and regulatory enforcement 569, 572
and US legislative oversight 438
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 615, 616
financial institutions
and delegation of authority 227–8
and Lowi’s “American Business” 192
Finer, S.E. 406
Finlay, S. 398–9
Fiorina, M. 474, 506
fire-alarm oversight 433–47
and ex ante controls 440–2
issues not addressed by 445–7
and new economics of organization 454–5
and police-patrol oversight 434–7, 439–40
proactive versus reactive strategies 443–4
Foot, Michael 413
Foucault, M. 172
and bureaucratic power 167–8
France
bureaucracy in 40, 43
Crozier’s study of bureaucracy in 154, 157, 158, 160–3, 172–3
economic policy changes 86–7
power elites in 77
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 613
Friedberg, Erhard 157–8, 161, 163–4
Friedrich, Carl 35, 38, 50
functionalism
Lasswell’s stages of functional analysis 55–65
and the policy process 63
Gailmard, S. 456, 462, 475, 476, 480
Galli, E. 104
“garbage can” model of decision-making (GCM) 59, 90, 300–13
ambiguity and choice 303–4
applications 300–1
and choice opportunities 302
development of 312–13
formal model 306–7, 312
and institutional theory 310–12
and organization theory 305–6
and organized anarchies 302, 304, 307, 311
and policy-making 307–8, 420, 422, 424
and public administration 309–10
wording of the model 303–4
Gates, Scott 167, 522
Geer, J.G. 143
Gellhorn, Ernest 439
generational change
and social capital 590
Gerber, E.R. 214
Germany
implementation studies 350
issue networks 378
political parties 410, 411, 412
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 609, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614
Gerth, Hans 35
Gerth and Mills
“Marx for the Managers” 40
Gilardi, F. 245
Gilens, M. 143, 144
Gingerich, D.W. 613
Glaser, B.E. 393
global governance
and the policy process 63–4
and regulatory enforcement 570–1
global research agenda 10–11
globalization
and classic works 10
(p. 631) and common resource management 536
and interest groups 30
and the policy process 62–3
and political parties 413
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 615
Gormley, William 120
Goss, K.
Disarmed 524–5
Gouldner, A.W.
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 154, 157, 158, 159, 162, 170, 171
in Merton’s Reader in Bureaucracy 35, 36, 38, 39, 40–1, 47, 50
Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy 157, 159
governance
and implementation studies 355–6
soft measures and the joint decision trap 507
government
“tools” approach to 47–8
government agencies
and policy implementation 350–1, 352
Wilson on bureaucracy and 514–26
government attention cycle 317, 319, 322
government policy
and classic works 9
governmental politics
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 276–7, 279–80
Graham, E. 245, 246
Granovetter, M.S. 595, 607
Gray, V. 4
on collective action 212
“Innovation in the States: A Diffusion Study” 241–4
Greenspan, Alan 228
Grémion, P. 158, 159–60, 163
Griffin, P. 144
groups
and problems of individual mobilization 206–7
rationality of 15
Gulick, Luther 13, 111, 118
and Urwick, Papers on the Science of Administration 36
Gunn, L. 542
Gyourko, J. 104
Hall, P. 86–7, 606
Varieties of Capitalism (Hall and Soskice) 5, 8, 605–17
Hall, T. 455
Halliday, S. 47
Halpin, D 30–1
Hammond, T. 278–9
Hansen, J.M. 208–9
Hargrove, E.C. 349
Hart, D.M. 211
Hart, Oliver 368
Hawkins, K. 563
Hayes, M.T. 88, 191
Heckelman, J.C. 215
Heclo, Hugh 45, 120, 229, 472, 484
background 372–3
Christianity and American Democracy 373
A Government of Strangers 373, 374
“Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment” 372–80, 517
Modern Social Policies in Britain and Sweden 373
On Thinking Institutionally 373
The Private Government of Public Money (Heclo and Wildavsky) 372–3
Heidbreder, B. 104
Heinz, J.P. 214, 229
Héritier, Adrienne
Policy Making and Diversity in Europe 502–5
Herring, P.
Public Administration and the Public Interest 36
Herron, M. 144
hidden action
and new economics of organization 451–2, 453, 456
hierarchies
Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 359–70
highway policy
Dye on US politics and 100–1
Hill, M. 397
(p. 632) Hirschman, Albert
background 256–7
Exit, Voice, and Loyalty 5, 7, 256–67, 267
historical-institutional context of NPM 545–6
Hjern, B. 351
Hobolt, S.B. 145
Hoffmann, S. 158
Hofstede, G. 172
Hogwood, W. 321
Holmström, B. 475
Hood, C.
The Blame Game 171
“A Public Management for All Seasons” 5, 541–55
Hooton, Cornell 523
Horton, S. 389
Howell, W.G. 458–9, 585
Howlett, M. 321
Huber, J.D. 475
Hull, C.J. 351
human dignity
transnational policies to promote 64–5
Huntington, Samuel 291
Hupe, P. 353, 397
Hussey, W. 144
ideas
in Kingdon’s Agendas 423–4, 428
politics of 359–60
implementation failure
reasons for 346–9, 559
Implementation (Pressman and Wildavsky) 342–56, 384
EDA Oakland project 344–6, 347–9, 350
implementation studies 37, 61, 62, 349–55
bottom-up 351, 454, 571
coordination, collaboration and networks 351–4
and regulatory enforcement 560, 561–2
top-down 350–1, 354
and Wilson’s Markets and Hierarchies 365
incrementalism 6–7, 80–92, 126
and agenda-setting 419
Baumgartner and Jones on 578
budgetary 84–6, 90, 195–202
critiques of 88–91
disjointed 81, 83
impact on punctuated equilibrium theory 85, 86–7, 91
logical 84
neoincrementalism 90–1
and Putnam’s Bowling Alone 600
in Simon’s Administrative Behavior 17–18
simple incremental analysis 83
strategic analysis 83
individual mobilization
in Olson’s Logic of Collective Action 206–10
individuals
and the EVL framework 262–4
and interest groups 28
rationality of 15
industrialization
Dye’s measurement of US 98, 106
inequality
and bureaucracy 47
information technology
and political science 96, 105
innovation
innovation strategies and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 611
institutional analysis
and diffusion 250
institutional analysis and development framework (IAD) 59, 531
institutional change
and common resource management 535, 537
theory of continuous 503
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 614–17
institutional complementarity
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 608
institutional economics
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 362, 364
institutional theory
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 310–12
institutionalism
and bureaucracy 37, 44, 168–9
rational choice 503
(p. 633) intelligence in policy-making 56, 58
interest group liberalism
and delegated authority 222–4
and fire-alarm oversight 446
interest groups 22–33, 97
and agendas in American politics 581, 584
conflict 128
defining 23–4
and diffusion of innovations 240
and economic regulation 291
and the EVL framework 259
free rider problem 28, 206, 208, 209–10, 211–12, 213–17
and internal politics 31–2
and issue networks 375, 380
and the McNollgast argument 479–80
and Mills’s power elite 76
overlapping membership of 25–6
and pluralism 169, 224–9, 228–9
and politics 27–8, 517, 524
potential 26–7
and regulatory enforcement 564, 565
international processes
applying the stage model of decision-making 62–5
international regimes
and regulatory enforcement 570–1
internet 8
intervenor funding programs 472
invocation in policy-making 57
Irbarne, Philippe d’ 162
issue networks 374–80
cognitive perspective on 374, 377
Issue Crawler software 380
limits and impacts of 378–80
participants in 374–5
relational perspective on 374, 376–7
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 517
issue-attention cycle 316–24
characteristics of issues 318
measuring public attention 323
and policy change 323–4
stages of the 318
testing propositions 319–22
Iversen, T. 611
Japan 378, 613, 614
Jenkins-Smith, H. 489, 493, 494
Jewell, C.J. 393
Jobert, B. 165
Jobs, Steve 247
John, P. 261, 262–4, 425, 491
Johnson, Lyndon B. 148, 221, 222, 224, 231, 344
joint decision trap (JDT) 498–510
and covert integration 499, 503–4
and deepening integration 503, 504–8
definition 499
Jones, Bryan D. 18, 87
Politics and the Architecture of Choice 19
Jordan, G. 30–1
Journal of Democracy 589, 590
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 466
judicial review
monitoring of bureaucratic policy decisions by 468–9, 477
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 519
juridical democracy 232
Kardiner, A. 160
Kaufman, B.E. 363
Kaufman, Herbert 45
on administration and changing public values 111
autobiographical essay (1996) 112, 116
The Forest Ranger 6, 8, 49, 109–21
Kaufmann, Gerald 413
Kelman, Steven 520
Kennedy, John F. 129, 221, 231
and the Cuban missile crisis 272, 274, 280
Key, V.O.
Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups 22
Public Opinion and American Democracy 6, 137–48
The Responsible Electorate 146
Khademian, Anne
Checking on Banks 523
Khan, Shamus R. 75
Kingdon, J. 313, 599
Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies 5, 8, 18, 189, 308, 417–30, 577, 579
(p. 634) Kingsley, Donald 118
Kingsley, J.D. 40
Klemmerson, R. 145
Klingeman, H.-D. 187
Knight, J. 535
Knoke, D. 378
Kolko, Gabriel 291
Kollman, K. 214
Koontz, Thomas M. 116
Kornhauser, Arthur 139
Koski, C. 201
Kramer, K.L. 541–2
Krasner, Stephen 76, 278, 279
Krause, G.A. 48, 167
and Meier, K., Politics, Policy and Organizations 167
Krehbiel, K. 459
Kreps, David M. 368
Kuhn, Thomas 55, 87
Kuklinski, J.H. 142
Küttel, D. 266
labor relations
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 610, 613, 616
Lakatosian approach to science
and advocacy coalition framework 489, 492–4
lambda-type values
and NPM 543, 552
Landis, James M. 473
Lasswell, Harold 12, 124, 137, 138
“garrison state” model 71
“Political Policies and the International Investment Market” 62–3
Politics: Who Gets What, When, How? 56
The Decision Process 6, 54–65
World Politics Faces World Economics 65
Latin America 613, 614
Laumann, E. 229, 378
law, rule of
and public administration 229–30
Lax, J. 105, 144, 145
learning
and the advocacy coalition framework 487–8
organizations 20
Leca, J. 165
Leech, B.L. 205
legislative oversight
and bureaucratic agencies 469
legitimacy
and bureaucratic agency 472
and government regulation 517
and issue networks 377, 378
and street-level bureaucracy 390–2
Lehmann Brothers 616
Lenin, V.I.
What is to be Done? 600
Lewis, D.E. 456, 460, 461
liberalism
the United States and the end of 221–32
Light, Paul 120
Lijphart, A. 26
Lin, N.
“Building a Network Theory of Social Capital” 598
Lindahl, M. 265
Lindblom, Charles 59, 303
and Carol Weiss 327
and incrementalism 17, 18
The Policy-Making Process 83
Politics, Economics and Welfare 80, 84
Politics and Markets 29–30
“Still Muddling, Not Yet Through” 6–7, 83
“The Science of Muddling Through” 5, 6–7, 80–92
and Truman’s Governmental Process 23
Lippmann, Walter
The Phantom Public 138
Lipset, S.M. 35, 41
Agrarian Sociology 36
Lipsky, M.
Street-Level Bureaucracy 5, 156, 171, 351, 384–400, 514
LME (Liberal Market Economy) model of capitalism 605, 612–13
and comparative advantage 608
and corporate governance 609
employee relations 611–12
and the financial system 610
(p. 635) LMICs (low- and middle-income countries)
and street-level bureaucracy 386, 389, 396–7, 398, 399
logical incrementalism 84
Lowery, D. 212–13
and the EVL framework 260–1
Lowi, T.J. 165, 473
“American Business” 6, 182–93
and economic regulation 291
The End of Liberalism 6, 184, 187, 188, 192, 221–32
“Four Systems of Policy, Politics and Choice” 187
James Madison lecture (2008) 231
The Personal President 187
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 517
Luton, Larry 110, 116, 119, 120
McCombs, M.E. 320
McConnell, G. 226
McCrone, D.J. 142
McCubbins, Mathew
“Adminstrative Procedures as Instruments of Poltical Control” 6, 7
“Congressional Oversight Overlooked” (McCubbins and Schwartz) 6, 433–47
and new economics of organization 453–4, 458
see also McNollgast
MacDonald, J.A. 457, 477–8
Machiavelli, N. 429
Macmahon, Arthur 111
McNamara, Robert 279
McNollgast
“Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control” 6, 465–80
“Structure and Process, Politics and Policy” 466
McRoberts, K. 502
Majone, G. 352
managerial transactions
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 363
managerialism
and bureaucracy 170
and street-level bureaucracy 392
managers
and street-level bureaucracy 394, 398
Manna, Paul
Collision Course 522–3, 525
Mannheim 71
March, J.G. 18, 19
A Behavioral Theory of the Firm (Cyert and March) 273, 303
Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations (March and Olsen) 301, 305, 307
and Carol Weiss 327
Leadership and Ambiguity (Cohen and March) 301
on organization theory 305–6
Organizations (March and Simon) 159, 273, 284
Rediscovering Institutions (March and Olsen) 156
Marinetto, M. 398
markets
and economic regulation 288
and government bureaucracy 521
market failure and economic regulation 296
and street-level bureaucracy 392, 394
Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 359–70
Martin, Roscoe 114, 117–18
Marwell, G. 207
Marx, Morstein
Elements of Public Administration 36
Marxism
and bureaucracy 40–1
and Mills’s power elite 70, 73–4
Masuoka, N.B. 187, 188
Matthew Effect 3
Matthews, R.C.O. 367
May, D. 89
May, Ernest R. 273, 284
Mayhew, David 435
Maynard-Mooney, S. 387
Mazmanian, D. 350, 351
media
and American democracy 129
attention cycle 317, 319, 322
(p. 636) and instability in American politics 585
and the issue-attention cycle 320–1
and policy image 581
and the political stream 426–7
and public opinion 140
Meier, K. 167
Meisel, James 69
Menon, Amand 508
Mergoupis, T. 266
Merriam, Charles 12
Merton, Robert 171
“Bureaucratic Structure and Personality” 43, 49–50
Reader in Bureaucracy 6, 9, 35–50
Social Theory and Social Structure 35
Sociology of Science 35
Meseguer, C. 245
Meyers, R.T. 199
Michels, Roberto 35
Political Parties 38–9
micromanagement
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 519–20, 526
migration
and the EVL framework 259
Miliband, Ralf 76
military–industrial complex
and Mills’s power elite 69, 73
Miller, W.E. 142, 143
Mills, C. Wright 35, 226
The Sociological Imagination 77
The Power Elite 5, 69–77, 138, 183, 184, 190
Mintrom, Michael
Policy Entrepreneurs and School Choice 524
MIP (most important problem) polls 321, 322, 323
“mirror-image” media effects 320
MME (Mediterranean Market Economy) 613
Moe, T.M. 22, 24–5, 208, 475, 478
“Presidents and the Politics of Structure” (Moe and Wilson) 457–8, 460–1
“The New Economics of Organization” 6, 451–62
“The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action” (Moe and Howell) 458–9
monitor-sanction approach
bureaucratic policy decisions 468–9
Monroe, A. 143
Monti, Mario 428
Moore, Gwen 75, 77
Moore, M. 390, 392
moral hazard 451–2
Morgenthau, Hans 273
Struggle for Power and Peace 284
Mosca, Gaetano 71, 77
Moynihan, D. 345, 514
The Dynamics of Performance Management 171
“muddling through” behavior see incrementalism
Mueller, D.G.
The Political Economy of Growth 215
Munger, M.C. 213
Musheno, M. 387
Nader, Ralph 517
Nathan, Richard 120
nathematical modelling
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 361
national culture
bureaucracies and American exceptionalism 520–1
National Socialism and bureaucracy 39
Nelson, Robert 229
neoclassical economics
and transaction cost economics 362–3
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 515
neoincrementalism 90–1
neoliberalism
and bureaucracy 170
and interest groups 30
neopluralism 128, 229
network analysis 308
and implementation research 351
networks
and the advocacy coalition framework 485
and social capital 595, 597–8
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 608
Neuman, W.R. 321
Neustadt, Richard 120, 274
new economics of organization 451–62
(p. 637) and hidden action 451–2, 453, 456
New Haven School 63
new institutionalism
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 311–12
New Public Management (NPM) 44, 165–5, 169–70, 171, 541–55
accountability and performance 551–2
and administrative reforms 554–5
and administrative values 543
convergence and divergence 547–8
criticisms of 542–3
and cross-border tasks 552–3
doctrinal components of 542
effects and implications of 549–51
and equity and efficiency values 543, 549
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 309–10
historical-institutional context of 545–6
and institutional and technical problems 546
managerialism and economic rationalism 542
models and components of 544–5
and political-administrative structures 545
post-NPM reforms 553
and public administration 541–2, 554
and “wicked issues” 553
Newig, J. 320
Newman, B. 144
Newton, Ken 103–4, 105
Nickerson, D.M. 143
Niskanen, W.A. 201, 473, 474, 515
Nixon, Richard 129, 223, 444, 519
Noll, Roger 453
see also McNollgast
nongovernmental organizations
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 282
and regulatory enforcement 571
North, Douglass 368, 537, 607
Northern Ireland 129
Norway
institutional theory and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 310–11
notice and comment process
Congress and bureaucratic agencies 469–70
nuclear power
change in image of 582–3
Nutzinger, H.G. 367
Obama, Barack 231
O’Connor, R.J. 90
Ogul, Morris 434
Ogul, M.S. 440
O’Halloran, S. 475
Olsen, J.P. 19, 310
Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations (March and Olsen) 301, 305, 307
“Public Policy-Making and Theories of Organizational Choice” 308
Rediscovering Institutions (March and Olsen) 156
“Reorganization as a Garbage Can” 309
Olson, Mancur
The Rise and Decline of Nations 205, 206, 214–15
and Stigler’s theory of economic regulation 289
The Logic of Collective Action 5, 7, 205–17
and Truman’s Governmental Process 23, 26, 30, 33
operational rules 531
organization theory
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 275–6
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 305–6
organizational bias 128, 129
organizational culture
and street-level bureaucracy 394–6
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 515–16, 522, 523–4
organizational structure
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 364
Orren, K. 170–1
Orwell, George
Animal Farm 580–1
Osborne, D. and Gaebler, T.
Reinventing Government 44
(p. 638) Ostrom, Elinor 2
Governing the Commons 5, 9, 368, 529–38
Ouchi, William 367
oversight
fire-alarm oversight 433–47
PACs (political action committees) 211, 212
Padgett, John 306–7, 311
Page, Benjamin 75
Page, B.I. 214
Page, E.C. 170–1
PAP (Policy Agendas Project) 492, 495, 584, 585
paradigm shift
and punctuated equilibrium models 87
Pareto, Vilfredo 71
Parry, R. 379
Parsons, Talcott 63, 74
Patashnik, Eric
Reforms at Risk 524
Patton, Michael Quinn
Utilization-Focused Evaluation 334
Patty, J.W. 476
Peltzman, S. 291
performance indicator systems (PIS) 171–2
performance-based budgeting 200
Perry, J.L. 541–2
Peters, B.G. 321
Phillips, J.H. 105, 144, 145
Pierson, Paul 64
Piore, M.J. 394, 398
PIS (performance indicator systems) 171–2
pluralism
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 168–9
democracy and agenda-setting 125
and incrementalism 82
interest groups 224–9
and Lowi’s “American Business” 183–4, 192
and Mills’s power elite 73–5
Plutzer, E. 145
police-patrol oversight
and new economics of organization 454, 455, 461–2
versus fire-alarm oversight 434–7, 439–40, 445
Policy Agendas Project (PAP) 492, 495, 584, 585
policy change
and issue-attention cycles 323–4
policy communities
and policy streams 427–8
policy image
Baumgartner and Jones on 581, 582–3
policy implementation
bureaucratic procedures for 465–80
policy stream
in Kingdon’s Agendas 420–1, 424
policy-making
and data problems 426
and evaluation research 333–5
in Kingdon’s Agendas 417–30
presidential 456, 457–61
stage model of 55–65, 493
streams 420–2, 424, 426–7, 428, 429
political action committees (PACs) 211, 212
political participation
in the United States 127, 130–1
political parties
and adversarial politics 406, 407, 408, 409
and American democracy 129, 131
and bureaucracy 38–9
and consensus politics 406–7, 409
cross-national studies of 410–11
Dye on US economic development and 99–101, 102
and partisan impacts on public policy 412–13
and public opinion 144, 146–7
studies of UK 103–4, 105, 405–14
political science
and classic works 9–10
and information technology 96, 105
and Simon’s Administrative Behavior 13
political stream in policy-making 421, 426–7, 428, 429
Pollitt, C. 120, 542
positive political theory see PPT (positive political theory)
Potoski, M. 477
poverty
and US interest group liberalism 224
US war on poverty 344
(p. 639) Powell, G.B. 145
power in organizations
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 157–8, 161, 163–9
PPT (positive political theory)
and the McNollgast argument 466–72
prescription in policy-making 57
presidential influence over the bureaucracy 456, 457–61
Pressman, Jeffrey L.
Implementation (Pressman and Wildavsky) 342–56, 384
pressure groups 24
principal –agent theory
and bureaucracy 48, 49
and fire-alarm oversight 442, 454
and implementation studies 61
and the joint decision trap 506
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 118
and the McNollgast argument 468, 474, 478–9
and new economics of organization 451–2, 453–61
and NPM 553
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 515, 519
Prindle, D. 585
prison management 354, 516, 521
prisoners’ dilemma
and common resource management 530, 531
privatization
and diffusion 249
and the EVL framework 259
and NPM 550
and regulatory enforcement 559
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 616
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 521
probabilistic theories of political processes 424
problem stream in policy-making 422, 427
procedural agencies 518
production agencies 518–19, 525–6
professional specialization
and pluralism 225
professionalism
and bureaucracy 170
and street-level bureaucracy 392
program theory
and implementation studies 347, 349, 355
promotion in policy-making 56
protest groups
and the EVL framework 259
Przeworski, A. 242
Public Administration Review (PAR) 112, 113, 120, 196
public attention cycle 317, 319, 322
public choice theory 392
and fire-alarm oversight 435–7, 438–9, 447
public goods
and the “garbage can” model of decision-making 308
and the logic of collective action 20, 205–17
public interest groups (PIGs)
and regulatory enforcement 564, 565
public management see New Public Management (NPM)
public opinion
and agendas in American politics 583, 585
and American democracy 137–48
and interest groups 29
issue publics 139
issue-attention cycle 316–24
issues and representation 143
latency in 140
and politics 140–1
and the politics of ideas 360
representation of 141–3
and the Vietnam War 148
Public Opinion Quarterly 147
public services
and the EVL framework 258, 259, 260–1, 264, 265–6, 266–7
and NPM 542, 544–5, 550, 551–2
and regulatory enforcement 561
public value
and street-level bureaucracy 390, 396–9
punctuated equilibrium theory (PET) 59, 85, 86–7, 91, 126–7
and the advocacy coalition framework 491
and diffusion 247–8
and issues networks 380
and political agendas and instability 577, 581, 582
and Putnam’s Bowling Alone 600
(p. 640) Putnam, Robert 537
Bowling Alone 5, 6, 7, 8, 189–90, 589–602
Making Democracy Work 589
qualitative research
and evaluation research 328
Heclo’s issue networks as 378–9
quantitative research
and evaluation research 328
in political science 96, 97, 105, 106
Quinn, J.B. 84
Quirk, Paul 359–60
Radaelli, C. 493
Radin, Beryl 120
rational actor model
and Allison’s Essence of Decision 273, 274–5, 276, 278–9
rational choice
agendas and instability 578
and bureaucracy 167
and diffusion 250
institutionalism 44, 503
and interest groups 23, 33
rational decision-making
and incrementalism 89–90
rationality see bounded rationality
Reagan, Ronald 223, 458
reciprocity
and social capital 595, 597
redistributive policies
in Lowi’s “American Business” 186
Reed, M. 169
regulation
Congress and bureaucratic agencies 469–70
and issue networks 379–80
US public regulatory policy 101–5
regulatory capture 287, 290, 291, 292, 293, 295–6, 561
regulatory enforcement 449–72
behavioral approaches to 560, 569, 570
benign big gun strategy 564, 565, 566, 567, 569, 570, 572
and command and control regulation 561, 568
deepened exploration 569–70
discretionary regulation 563
enforced self-regulation 564–5, 565–6, 567, 568, 570, 571
the enforcement pyramid 559, 560, 564, 565, 566, 569
and implementation research 560
inspectors and enforcement strategies 562–3, 567
and international regimes 570–1
and law and economics 561, 562
and national culture 520–1
persuasion-based accounts of 561–2
and public interest groups (PIGs) 564, 565
regulatee motivation 563–4
research 354–5
risk-based enforcement 568–9
smart regulation 568
socio-legal studies of 561, 562–4, 570
regulatory policies
implementation of 350
in Lowi’s “American Business” 185, 192–3
repetitive budgeting 199
representative democracy
and public opinion 141–5
representative government
and interest groups 25, 33
revenue budgeting 199
revolutions
and diffusion 249
Rhee, Michelle 519
Rice, D. 394–5
Rice Sharp, Walter 35, 40, 43
Rieker, Patricia Perri 329–30
Rielle, Y. 311
rights revolution 128–9
Riker, W.H. 578
risk
risk-based regulatory enforcement 568–9
social amplification of 323–4
Robson, W.A. 36–7, 50
Rockman, B. 440
Rogers, E.M. 236, 245
Rokkan, S. 45
Rom, Mark
Public Spirit in the Thrift Tragedy 523
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 140, 191
(p. 641) Rose, Richard
Do Parties Make a Difference? 405–14
Rosen, C. 182–3
Rossi, P. 336
Rossi, S.P.S 104
Rothman, S. 22–3, 27
Rothstein, B. 597
Rusbult, C. 260
Sabatier, P. 350, 351, 352
“An Advocacy Coalition Framework” 484–85
Theories of the Policy Process 425
Sabel, Charles F. 64
Sager, F. 311
Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America 599, 600
Saint-Beuve, C.-A. 182
Salisbury, R. 208, 211, 229
Samuels, Warren J. 367
Sandall, J. 398–9
Sartre, Jean-Paul 175
satisficing activity 12, 13–15, 81, 276
and budgetary incrementalism 197
Sayre, Wallace 111
Schaltegger, C. 266
Scharpf, F.W. 350–1
“The Joint-Decision Trap” 6, 498–510
Schattschneider, E.E. 191, 213, 578, 579
The Semi-Sovereign People 5, 123–31
Schelkle, Waltraud 506–7
Scher, Seymour 434, 438, 439
Schmidt, V. 508–9
Schmitter, P.C. 28
“Still the Century of Corporatism?” 606
Scholz, John 562
Schott, Richard 434
Schott, R.L. 440
Schulman, P.R. 92
Schumpeter, Joseph 71, 138
Schwartz, Thomas see McCubbins, Mathew
science
and the advocacy coalition framework 489, 492–4
selective benefits
and collective action 207
Selznick, Philip 35, 44, 154
TVA and the Grass Roots 36, 42, 157, 342
Shapiro, C. 367
Sharp, Elaine 524
Sharpe, Jim 103–4, 105
Sharpe, L.J. 410–11
Sherwood, F.P. 36, 120
Shipan, C.R. 461, 462, 475
Shonfield, A. 605–6
sigma-type values
and NPM 543
Silverman, B.S.
Cages of Reason 156–7
Simon, Herbert 2, 56
Administrative Behavior 5, 9, 12–20, 36, 81, 111–12, 157, 273
`A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice’ 13
and budgetary incrementalism 196–7
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 154, 158, 159, 165
and diffusion research 249–50
and Kaufman 111–12, 118, 119
in Merton’s Reader in Bureaucracy 35, 42–3, 44, 48, 49
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 361, 367
skill formation
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 610–11
Skocpol, Theda 76–7, 168, 188
smart regulation 568
Smith, G. 89
Smith, M.
American Business and Political Power 214
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act (1930) 23, 191
social capital 537, 589–602
components of 594–5
cross-disciplinary research on 591–2, 601
dark side of 597
and the EVL framework 263
networks of 595, 597–8
policy perspective on 592, 596, 598–601
reasons for decline in 590, 593
social investment
and the EVL framework 261–3
(p. 642) social media
and interest groups 27, 31, 33
and issue-attention cycles 323
and social capital 598
social movements
and issue networks 380
and pluralism 169
social protection
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 612
social sciences
and classic works 9
and the decline of social capital 591–2
and evaluation research 328
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 117–19
and stages of policy-making 55–6
social stratification
and bureaucracy 39–41
sociological institutionalism 37, 44
and the joint decision trap 508–9
sociology
and bureaucracy 37, 43–9, 50
Solingen, E. 245
Soroka, S. 145
Soskice, D. 606
Varieties of Capitalism (Hall and Soskice) 5, 8, 605–17
Spain 104
Spence, D.B. 478
states
power policy elites within 75–6
and regulatory enforcement 559
state-led capitalism 613–14
status groups
and elites 71
Stephens, J.D. 611
Stigler, George 2, 360
“The Theory of Economic Regulation” 5, 7, 9, 287–97
Stimson, James 141
Stinebrickner, B. 189
Stokes, D.E. 142, 143
Stolle, D. 596, 597
Strang, D. 246
strategic analysis 83
Straussman, J.D. 198
Streeck, W. 616
street-level bureaucracy (SLB) 156, 171, 384–400
core elements of 384–6
and discretion 386–96
and implementation research 351, 384
and public value 396–9
and regulatory enforcement 560, 561–2
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 514–15, 522
structuralism/functionalism
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 163, 164
structuration
and street-level bureaucracy 391
structure-performance-conduct paradigm
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 365
Str¢m, K. 145
subsidization
and collective action 207
successive limited comparison model of decision-making 81–2
Suchman, Edward 329
Sunstein, C. 570
supplemental budgeting 199
supranational regulation
and the joint decision trap 508
Sweden 28
tax and revenue policy (US) 101
Taylor, Frederick 13
TE (Tiebout Exit) 262, 266
technical information
and the advocacy coalition framework 488
technological change
and bureaucratic change 174
and interest groups 31
termination in policy-making 57–8
terrorism 8
Teune, H. 242
Thaler, Richard H. and Sunstein, Cass R.
Nudge 19
Thatcher, Margaret 406, 410
Thelen, K. 616
theta-type values
and NPM 543, 552
(p. 643) Thompson, J.D.
Organizations in Action 156
Tiebout Exit (TE) 262, 266
time
and decision-making 59–60
Tinbergen, Jan 81
Ting, M.M. 475
Tipple, Terence 115
Tirole, Jean 368
Tocqueville, Alexis de 157
Tolbert, P.S. 168
“tools” approach to government 47–8
Tout, T.F. 35, 38
trade
and interest groups 31
trade associations
and pluralism 225–6
regulation of 226–7
trade unions
and policy implementation 350–1
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 610
transaction cost economics
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 359, 360, 362–3, 366, 367, 369
transnational processes
applying the stage model of decision-making 62–5
transnational regimes
and regulatory enforcement 570–1
Troelsch, Ernst 35, 36
Truman, David 184
and pluralism 225
The Governmental Process 5, 8, 22–33, 138
trust
and social capital 537, 594, 595, 596, 597
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 608
Turner, Donald 361
United Kingdom
civil service 40
Conservative Party 406, 407, 408, 411
economic policy changes 86–7
implementation studies 349–51
issue networks 378
Labour Party 392, 399, 406, 407, 408, 411, 413–14
and Northern Ireland 129
political parties 103–4, 105, 405–14
political science and public administration 9
public services and the EVL framework 266–7
street-level bureaucracy 387–8, 388–9, 392, 398–9
Thatcher government 406, 410
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 609
United States
Administrative Procedure Act (1946) 466, 469
agendas and instability in American politics 579, 581–4
budgetary incrementalism and US federal government 197–200, 202
bureaucracy and the US Navy 43, 49
bureaucratic culture 173
communities and social capital 589–602
Cuban missile crisis 272, 274–7, 279, 280, 281–2
deregulation movement 360
diffusion of innovations in government 238–40
Dye on public policy outcomes 96–103, 106
economic regulation 289–90
EDA Oakland project 344–6, 347–9, 350
and the end of liberalism 221–32
Forest Service 109–21, 516, 518, 523
Glass-Steagall Act (1933) 227
Great Society 222–3, 344
and Heclo’s Government of Strangers 373, 374
ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) 290
influence of political principals on bureaucracy 453–61
interest groups 24, 26, 27, 29
issue networks 374–80
legislative oversight 433–47
and Lowi’s “American Business” 188, 190–2
and Lowi’s End of Liberalism 184, 221–32
Medicare Drug Benefit plan 148
and Mills’s power elite 69–77
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 471–2
(p. 644) New Deal 184, 188, 192, 222, 231, 438
and NPM 548
policy-making and Kingdon’s Agendas 419, 426, 427–8
presidential campaign (2012) 131
public opinion and democracy 137–48
regulatory enforcement 569
Schattschneider on American democracy 123–31
Second Republic 223, 231
separation of powers system 7
street-level bureaucracy 389, 390
and VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 609
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 516–21
see also Congress (US)
urbanization
Dye’s measurement of US 98
Vanecko, James 330
Varieties of Capitalism see VoC (Varieties of Capitalism)
Veblen, Thorstein 71, 362
venue shopping 508, 581
Verba, S. 207, 208
vertical mergers
and Williamson’s Markets and Hierarchies 362, 364, 365
Vietnam War 148, 278
VoC (Varieties of Capitalism) 605–17
firm-centred approach of 607–8
innovation strategies 611
institutional change and politics 614–17
institutionalist perspective on 607, 609–12
and interfirm cooperation 610
and labor relations 610, 613, 616
and skill formation 610–11
and social protection 612
typologies 605, 612–14
Vogel, D. 22
Volden, Craig 475
voluntary organizations
and individual mobilization 208
Walker, Jack
on interest group politics 228–9
“The Diffusion of Innovations among the American States” 4, 6, 7, 235–51
Walker, J.L. 208
Waterman, R.W. 460
weak rationality
and Common Pool Resources (CPRs) 530–1
wealth, Dye’s measurement of US 98
Weaver, R. Kent 523–4
Web of Knowledge 187–8, 300, 400
Web of Science citations
of works by Carol Weiss 330–2
Weber, Max
Economy and Society 8
elective affinities concept 608
From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology 118
and James Q. Wilson 514–15
and Mills’s power elite 70–1, 77
on politics 429
Weberian bureaucracy 281
and Crozier’s Bureaucratic Phenomemon 154, 160, 175
and Kaufman’s The Forest Ranger 109, 110–11, 114–16, 118–19
and Merton’s Reader in Bureaucracy 35, 37–9, 41, 43, 44–5, 50
and street-level bureaucracy 391, 394
and Wilson’s bureaucratic politics 521, 526
Weible, C. 490, 491
Weingast, B.R. 438, 453
see also McNollgast
Weisbrod, A. 266
Weiss, Carol H.
citations of works 330–2
Evaluation Research 326–38
professional and intellectual profile 327–9
“The Politicization of Evaluation Research” 329, 333
Weiss, Moritz 507
Weissberg, R. 142
welfare administration
implementation 354
and regulatory enforcement 560
and street-level bureaucracy 387–8, 394–5
welfare policies (United States) 100
EDA Oakland project 344–6, 347–9
implementation of 342
and interest group liberalism 224
(p. 645) welfare states
Heclo’s study of British–Swedish 373
Wellman, Douglas 115
Whewell, William 244
Wildavsky, Aaron 2, 45, 120
background 195–6
Implementation (Pressman and Wildavsky) 342–56, 384
and incrementalism 17, 85, 90
The Politics of the Budgetary Process 6, 195–203, 343
The Private Government of Public Money (Heclo and Wildavsky) 372–3
Williamson, Oliver 2
intellectual background 361
Markets and Hierarchies 5, 7, 359–70
Wilson, J. 188, 189