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date: 03 April 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The principal theme of the chapter is the rise of the monarchical episcopate in Rome and its emergence as the pre-eminent see in the West, and then in Christendom as a whole. It is argued that some form of monarchical government is likely to have existed before Callistus (who in recent times has been credited with its creation), and that Rome was often the arbiter of choice even before she began to assume the right to legislate for the rest of the Christian world after the Council of Nicaea (ad 325). The factors that made it possible for Rome to claim absolute hegemony, from the mid-fourth century on, are examined up to the time of Pope Gregory the Great. At the same time, it will be observed that limits were set to Rome’s jurisdiction both in Africa and in the East.

Keywords: Augustine of Hippo, Callistus, catholicity, Cyprian, Donatism, Gregory the Great, Hippolytus, Jerome, monarchical episcopate, papacy

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