- The Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice
- Introduction: The Idea of Distributive Justice
- Rawls on Distributive Justice and the Difference Principle
- Dworkin and Luck Egalitarianism: A Comparison
- Equality Versus Priority
- Sufficiency and Needs-Based Approaches
- The Capability Approach
- Libertarianism, Left and Right
- Desert-Based Justice
- Retributive Justice
- The Good Society
- The Ethics of Care
- The Theory and Politics of Recognition
- Distributive Justice and Human Nature
- Political and Distributive Justice
- Consequentialism, Deontology, Contractualism, and Equality
- Ideal Theory
- Constructivism, Intuitionism, and Ecumenism
- Conceptual Analysis and Distributive Justice
- The Family
- Public Goods
- Cultural and Religious Minorities
- Justice Across Borders
- Climate Change
- Future Generations
Abstract and Keywords
We discuss two leading theories of distributive justice: egalitarianism and prioritarianism. The former holds that unchosen inequality is in itself bad because it is unfair; the latter denies that inequality is in itself bad, but holds that a given increment in well-being has greater moral value, the lower the level of well-being from which it takes place. We argue that the most plausible versions of these views are “hybrids”: they are concerned with both people’s expected well-being and their final well-being. We also argue that such hybrid egalitarianism is superior to a hybrid prioritarianism because it more fully satisfies a key requirement of distributive justice: respect for both the unity of the individual and the separateness of persons.
Michael Otsuka is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method at the London School of Economics. In addition to prioritarianism and egalitarianism, his current research interests encompass the morality of imposing risks, harming, and saving from harm; the benefits of risk-pooling and other forms of cooperation; and the virtues of left-libertarianism versus social democracy. His articles have appeared in Philosophy and Public Affairs, Ethics, and the Journal of Political Philosophy, among other places.
Alex Voorhoeve is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method at the London School of Economics. He works on distributive justice, healthcare justice, and rational choice theory. His articles have appeared in Philosophy and Public Affairs, Ethics, and Economics and Philosophy, among other places.
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