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date: 24 August 2019

(p. 735) Index

(p. 735) Index

Abd al-Rahman Badawi, 640–41
Absolute Idealism, 313
Abu al-A’la al-Ma’arri, 641
Abu Bakr al-Razi, 639–40
Abū Hanīfa, 167
Acaranga Sutra, 353–54
Acedia (multiple definitions of), 174–75
Adamczyk, A., 530
Adams, Douglas, 419, 685–86
Adams, Marilyn McCord, 308
Adams, Robert Merrihew, 96–98, 308
Adamski, Franciszek, 624
a-devism, 653
Adham, Isma'il, 643
Adler, Felix, 222
Adorno, Theodor, 300–301
Advaita Vedānta, 373
Aeschylus, 14, 323
Afghanistan, 637
Africa, 230, 408, 554, 560
āgama (tradition), 342
Agni (Fire), 373, 653
agnosticism, 14–15, 22, 145, 149–50, 256–57, 348, 389, 540–41, 558, 583. See also atheism, negative
analytical reasoning and, 470
defined, 310, 553–55, 558
educational achievement and, 571
ajiva (matter), 352
Alabama, 503
Alaska, 503
al-’Azm, Sadiq Jalal, 646–47
Albania, 506–7, 637, 642
Albert, Hans, 247 fn 3
Alberti, L. B., 703
alchemy, 402
Aldred, Guy, 222–23
Alexander the Great, 160
Algeria, 500, 584
al-Ghazali, 401
Ali, Michael Nazir, 273
al-Khatib, Muhammad Kamil, 644
Allen, Don Cameron, 181
Allen, Woody, 332
Almodovar, Pedro, 731
Altemeyer, B., 493, 519, 541, 612, 615–16
altruism, 546
Ambedkar, B. R., 375
ambiguity, 11–13, 639
American Humanist Association, 459
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS), 458, 558, 579, 583, 616–17
Amin, Idi, 507
Amis, Martin, 251, 696
anachronism, 219, 651–52
anarchism, 222–23, 298
anaturalism. See supernaturalism
Anaxagoras, 140, 183, 191
Ančič, Branko, 6
Ancient Greeks, 139–50, 152–61
Andriani, Marcello, 188
anekantavada ('doctrine of not-one-sidedness'), 364
animism, 368, 487
Annadurai, C. N., 657
Annet, Peter, 213
Anscombe, Elizabeth, 122, 308
Anselm of Canterbury, 120 fn 1, 153, 170, 695
Anthony, Susan B., 611
anthropomorphism, 377–78
Anti-Persecution Union, 217
Anti-Priestcraft Association, 657
anumāna (inference), 342
Apollonius, 324
apostasy, 168, 493
‘aqida, mu’taqad (belief, creed), 643 fn 10
(p. 736) Aquinas, Thomas, 170, 434, 695
atheism and, 119–34
evolution and, 133
Arab Barometer, 584
Arai Hakuseki, 670
Archelaus, 183
Arethas, 157–58
argument
defined (Grayling), 38
evidential, 71, 75–77
logical, 71–75
sorites (Carneades), 149
Aristarchus of Samos, 434
Aristippus, 190–91
Aristotle, 47, 50, 121, 149, 420, 434, 437
Aristoxenus, 183
Arkansas, 503
Armenia, 462
Arnobius, 190
Arnold, Matthew, 716
Aronson, Ronald, 290–91
art. See also visual arts
economics and, 701–2
religion and, born together, 699
Renaissance origins of separation from religion, 700–705
ascetism, 376
Asia, 554, 558, 584
astrology, 402
astronomy, 400, 402
asurika (ungodly), 369
Atatürk, 642
ateisme (atheism), 637
ateizm (atheism), 637
Aten, 18
atheism, 2, 462
'achieved' nature of (Smith), 612–13
affirmative, 526, 533. See also atheism, positive
aggregate, 329
agnosticism and. See agnosticism
analytic, 309, 312, 470
arguments for
belief replacement hypothesis, 471–74
comparative, 61–69
direct, 55–60
as a 'boy's club', 517
broad, 452
cohort, 329–30
'combined' (Keysar and Navarro-Rivera), 554
conferences on
Beyond Belief (2006), 705
First World Atheist Conference (Vijayawada, India,1972), 656
Oxford (2009), 2
Rome (1969), 2
'convinced', 584, 624
correlations, 530–31
deconstructing the word
-theism, 16–20. See also atheism
deconverting to, 470. See also atheism, adopting
defined
Adamski, 624–25
Allen, 181
Aquinas, 197
Baggini, 11
Blessing, 105
British university students, 12
Bullivant, 13, 20, 22–23
Caldwell-Harris, 540
Cliteur, 11, 18
Davidson, 181
early Christian, 158
Eller, 11
Febvre, 180
Gonda, 654
Hisamatsu, 677–78
Hood and Zhuo Chen, 539
Hyman, 18
Joshi, 654
Kors, 195
Kristeller, 181
Martin, 11
Mawson, 22
McGrath, 11
Nash, 212 fn 1
Schweizer, 685
through history, 11–21
Voltaire, 181
Whylly, 666
(p. 737) democratized, 330
derivation of the word, 11
educational achievement and, 239–40, 469 fn 2, 571
eminent scientists', 543–44
emotional (Novotini and Peterson), 542
existentialist. See Existentialism
falsificationist, 314–15. See also atheism, verificationist
freedom and, 477
'fuzzy faithful/fidelity' (Voas), 589–91. See also theism, 'fuzzy faithful'
global demographics of, 553–85
age structure, 566–71
believers versus nonbelievers, 576–83
changes to, 558–63
education, 571
gender, 564–66
marital status, 571–76
populations, 554–58
'hard' (Ficino), 189
hard-/soft-/softest-core (Jagodzinski and Greely), 631 fn 5
implicit versus explicit, 685–86
intellectual history of, 587
as an intellectual phenomenon, 589
literature and. See literature
lone-wolf, 329
Marxism and. See Marxism
material to formal, 311
medieval. See Middle Ages
modern, 661
linear perspective analogy, 652, 661–62
motivation and, 475–79
music and. See music
narrow, 452
negative, 14, 20, 83, 149–50, 158, 218, 452, 554, 660, 710. See also agnosticism
'neo'. See 'New' Atheism
neurotic (Taylor), 542
nomenclatural confusion and, 320–26
nonbelievers and, 625
'Orthodox' (Borowik), 633–34
pathological, 529–30
in perspective, 460–61
as polished grouchiness toward monotheism, 410
positive, 14–15, 18, 20, 83, 149, 158, 230, 267, 310, 540, 542–43, 558, 710. See also atheism, affirmative
defined,
Barash, 415
Keysar and Navarro-Rivera, 553–54
Wood and Zhuo Chen, 544
practical, 17 fn 4, 322, 462
'pre-modern', 651
'proselytizing', 253
psychology of. See psychology (of atheism)
rejection of, 545–46
relative versus absolute (Thrower), 19
religion and. See religion
as response and stimulus, 456–60
scholarly study of, 2–4
perils of, 320–21
as a 'secularizing exit' 538
self-mastery and, 474–78
sensation-seeking and, 474–78
societal well-being and, 504–5
'soft' (Ficino), 189
Soviet scientific, 15
speculative, 193, 195–96
state-imposed, 623. See also Communism
synonyms for, 593–95
taxonomic approach to, 15
theism and. See theism
transcendental, 411
twentieth-century. See twentieth-century
verificationist, 312–16
very broad, 452
very narrow, 452
viability of (Aquinas), 119–21
violence and, 646–47
visual arts and. See visual arts
'without irreverence' 160
Atheist Center, 656
atheology (defined, Lee), 596
atheos (person denying the existence of ancient gods), 139, 190–91, 324
atheotēs (atheism), 139, 154–55, 190
defined (Liddell and Scott), 14
Plutarch, 11
Atkatz, D., 439
(p. 738) Atran, Scott, 490
Audi, Robert, 109–10
Augustine of Hippo, 78–79, 153, 159, 392, 429
Australia, 230, 500, 571, 598, 715–19
Austria, 562
autonomy, 264, 267, 290–91, 338, 399, 475–76, 706
Avant-gardism, 707–8
Aveling, Edward, 220
Averroism, 184–86, 191
Ayer, A. J., 15, 55, 310–11, 394
Azalis, 642
Azerbaijan, 462, 500
Baal, 17
Babb, Lawrence, 360–61
Babeuf, François-Noël, 295
Babism, 642
Bach, Johann Sebastian, 705
Bacon, Francis, 208, 384, 418
Badiou, Alain, 302–4
Bagg, S., 591
Baggini, J., 587
Bagiella, E., 527
Baha’ism, 642
Baier, Kurt, 104, 110
Baillet, Adrien, 200
Bainbridge, William Sims, 487, 513, 558–60, 628
Bakan, D., 476
Balakirev, Mily, 715–16
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 185
bandha (vigilance), 359
Bangladesh, 500–501
Barash, David P., 5, 690
Bārhaspatya-Sủtras, 371
Barkley, John, 223
Barnes, Harry, 237
Baronius, Cesare, 436
Barrett, Justin, 484, 486, 490–92
Barthes, Roland, 705
Bartók, Béla, 720
Basham, A. L., 653–54
Baumgarten, Alexander, 652
Bayle, Pierre, 196
Beale, Theodore. See Day, Vox (Theodore Beale)
Beardsley, M., 705
Beattie, T., 706
Beauvoir, Simone de, 278–79
Beckett, Samuel, 108, 684, 686
Beckford, J. A., 454–55
Beesley, Edmund Spenser, 222
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 712
being
being-in-itself ( l’être-en-soi ), 201
defined (Frege and Kant), 125
in-itself ( l’être-en-soi ), 284–85
for-itself ( l’être-pour-soi ), 284
necessary. See necessary being
Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin, 468
Belarus, 626–27, 629
Belgium, 230, 500, 566, 591
belief, 17
atheism and, 11–12, 14
as cognitive state, 483–84
defined (Lanman), 484
ethics of, 49–50
explicit (reflective) versus implicit (nonreflective), 484–94
intuitiveness of, 470
Bellah, Robert, 2
Bengal, 368
Renaissance, 655
Benjamin, Walter, 300–301, 303, 728–29
Berger, Peter, 2, 453
Bergson, Henri, 387
Bering, Jesse, 485–86, 490–92
Berkeley, George, 308
Berlinerblau, Jacques, 5
Berlioz, Hector, 714
Bernanos, Georges, 691–92
Berriot, François, 187–88
Bertagnolli, Paul A., 6
Besançon, Alain, 707
Besant, Annie Wood, 219, 225, 656
Bhagavad GĪtā, 369
bhagwan (God), 358, 360
bhakti (devotionalism), 361
Bhattacharya, Narendra Nath (M. N. Roy), 656
(p. 739) bhava (becoming), 341 fn 11
Big Bang, 27–30, 325, 385, 438–39, 444
bi-khodayi (godlessness), 638 fn 2
biology, 391–94
birth control, 225
Bishop, John, 69, 75
Bizet, Georges, 714
Bjorkland, F., 99–100
Blackburn, Simon, 273–74
Blake, William, 429, 684
Blanquism, 298
blasphemy, 169, 191, 214, 220, 223–25, 684, 698, 711
Blessing, Kimberly A., 4
Blitzstein, Marc, 722
Bloch, Ernst, 298, 300–305
Blount, Charles, 213
Boethius, 175
Book of Enoch, 160
Borges, Jorge Luis, 187
Borodin, Aleksandr, 715–16
Borowik, Irena, 6, 627
Bosnia and Herzegovina, 531
Boulez, Pierre, 720
Boyer, Pascal, 490
Boyle, Robert, 385
Bracciolini, Poggio, 188
Braddock, Glenn, 284 fn 3
Bradlaugh, Charles, 218–20, 224–25, 456, 656
Bradley, Arthur, 695–96
Brahe, Tycho, 428–29
Brahma (multiple definitions of), 652
Brahmajāla Sutta, 347
Brahmajāla Suttanta, 348
Brahman, 378
characteristics of, 373
as irreducible cosmic essence, 340–41
multiple definitions of, 652
Brahmanism, Vedic-, 352
Brazil, 453, 500, 502, 555, 597
Brecht, Bertold, 684, 733
Breton, André, 684
Brewster, Melanie Elyse, 5
'Brights' (defined), 252–53
British Humanist Association, 264, 459
British Social Attitudes (BSA), 458
Britton, Thomas, 711
Broad, C. D., 311
Bronowski, Jacob, 241
Brooke, John Hedley, 440
Brooke, Rupert, 419–20
Brooks, Arthur, 90
Brown, Alison, 188
Brown, Andrew, 252
Brown, Callum G., 5
Brown, Dan, 471
Bruce, Norman, 237–38
Bruce, Steve, 452–53, 592
Brunelleschi, Filippo, 702
Bruno, Giordano, 440
Büchner, Georg, 683, 686–88
Buckley, Michael J., 185–86
Buddha, 654
Buddhism, 247, 337–48, 369, 518, 670–71, 677–78
atheism and, 340–42
God and, 342–48
quasi-theism and, 349
theism and, 337–40
Theravada, 96, 338 fn 2, 343 fn 12, 348 See also Pali canon
Bulgakov, Mikhail, 684
Bulgaria, 500, 626, 629
Bullivant, Stephen, 4, 293, 451, 461, 539, 652
Bulmer, Kirsten, 236
Burckhardt, Jacob, 183–84
Burzōē the Persian, 167
Bush, George H. W., 611
Bushidō, 676
Busoni, Ferruccio, 720
Butler, Samuel, 716
Byrne, Rhonda, 444
Cabet, Étienne, 295
Caldwell-Harris, C. L., 476, 531, 540
California, 503
Caligula (Camus), 286
Calvinism, 587
Campbell, Colin, 454–56
Camus, Albert, 107, 110, 278–79, 283–86, 291, 684, 690–93
capitalism, 299, 301
Capra, Fritjof, 443
Caputo, John D., 303
Caribbean, 602. See also North America
Carlile, Richard, 214–16, 218, 223
Carlyle, Thomas, 392
Carnap, Rudolf, 308–9, 311
Carneades, 147–50
Casanova, José, 453, 589
Catholicism, 518
causality/causation/causal order, 46–47, 61–69, 408
cause, 123, 126–30
'agent' (Aquinas), 127 fn 3, 129–31
effect and, 202
efficient, 420–21
of existence, 325, 343, 346
final, 198, 384, 418, 420
versus efficient, 420–21
first, 47, 284, 311
kinds of (Aquinas), 127 fn 3
natural, 54, 205, 407–8
of order in the universe, 201
purpose and, 41
science and, 408
'uncaused', 46–47, 130, 408, 416
Centers for Disease Control, 527–28
Central America, 230. See also North America
Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), 622–35
atheism and, 623–35
Communism and post-Communism, 624–34
sociology of, 624–28
scaled topology for religiosity in, 629
Certeau, Michel de, 186
chance, 123, 196–97, 205, 207
creation by, 433
Chattopadhyaya, Debiprasad, 375, 654
Chaves, Mark, 579
Chen, Zhuo, 5
Chen Sheng, 723
chiaroscuro, 702 fn 4, 703
Chile, 507, 558, 576
China, 272, 299, 462, 500, 541, 553 fn 1, 555, 583, 597
Chittenden, Maurice, 253
Chopra, Deepak, 444
Christianity, 17–18, 71, 168, 230–31, 320, 400–402, 408, 410, 589, 640, 660, 671
Bridgewater Treatises and, 405
equality and, 291
as form of hidden anthropology (Feuerbach), 729
fundamental, 518
as grandmother of Bolshevism (Spengler), 299
paradox of, 282
as a proto-bourgeois religion, 299
proto-Existentialism and, 281–82
as a religious denial of God (Paine), 330 fn 6
worldview engagement and, 281
church/state separation, 248, 250
Cicero, 148, 159, 183, 190
Cimino, R., 618
cinema, 727–33
as Freudian dream, 727, 729–31
modernity and, 729–31
parallels with religious ceremony, 727–28
as Plato's cave, 727–29
present and future of, 732–33
Soviet, 731–32
citizenship, 225
Clark, T. J., 707
Clarke, Peter B., 57
class, 297
Clement of Alexandria, 158
Clendenen, M., 519, 521
Clifford, W. K., 49–50, 312
Cline, K., 528
Clitomachus, 147–49
Cloots, Anarchasis, 295
Cohen, Samuel, 324
Coit, Stanton, 222
Coleman, G. G., 531
Colombia, 500–502
Colotes, 154
Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), 657
(p. 741) Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), 657
common good, 90–91
Communism, 507, 644
Islamic, 644
post-, 624–34
utopian, 298
compatibilism, 392
compensators, religious, 487, 513
Comte, Auguste, 221, 452
Condition of Reasonable Epistemic Access (CORNEA, Wykstra), 77
Cone, Edward, 714
Confucianism, 272, 675
Connecticut, 503
consciousness, 65–66, 284–85, 288, 298, 386–87
Cartesian, 131
collective, 183
essential, 56, 60
false, 295, 300–301
quantum, 443–44
conspiracy theories, 471
constant (cosmological), 441–42
Contingent Initial State
Involving Essential Fine Tuning, 62
Involving Inessential Fine Tuning, 62
Involving Only Contingent Existents, 61
Involving Some Necessary Existents, 61
control (secondary), 472–73
convergence, 393
conversion, 537–47
defined (Hood and Chen), 538
models of, 537–39
Cooley, Sterling, 234
Copernicus, 435
cosmology, 255
Cottingham, John, 111–12, 114–15
Council for Secular Humanism, 182, 459
Council of Constance, 172–73
Council of Nicaea, 122
Cox, Harvey, 2
Coyne, Jerry, 251
Cragun, Ryan T., 6, 617
Craig, William Lane, 94, 99, 104, 107–8, 110, 439–40
Cray, Dan, 252
creation
divine, 284
special, 408, 437
credibility enhancing displays (CREDs), 492–93
Critias, 141–42
Croatia, 571, 626, 629, 634
Crockett, A., 590
Crone, P., 170
Cudworth, Ralph, 95, 200
Cui, César, 716
cybernetics, 483
Cynicism, 144–45, 155–58, 191
Cyprus, 555
Czech Republic, 462, 500, 555, 558, 560, 562, 564, 571, 583, 626–31
da Vinci, Leonardo, 702
dahri (believer in fate and the eternity of the world), 168
dahriyat (atheism), 639
Dali, Salvador, 730
Damis, 156
Daniels, Grace, 234–36
D’Annunzio, Gabriele, 714
Darrow, Clarence, 455
Darwin, Charles, 116, 196–97, 209, 385, 393–94, 542, 587, 716
Darwin, Erasmus, 393
Darwinism. See evolutionary theory (Darwinian), 249, 255, 295–96, 387–88, 392–93, 405–7, 414–30, 668
Abrahamic monotheism and, 414
fundamentalism and, 414
Dassoucy, Charles, 711–12
Davidson, Nicholas, 181, 187–88
Davies, Brian, 4
Davies, Charles Maurice, 221
Davies, Peter Maxwell, 721
Dawkins, Richard, 90, 104 fn 1, 116, 241, 245, 249–52, 255–56, 388, 393–94, 399, 417, 456, 492, 497, 517, 588, 705–6
Day, Vox (Theodore Beale), 247 fn 5, 253
de Duve, Thierry, 699
de Fermat, Pierre, 651
de Lubac, Henri, 2
de Waal, Frans, 690
(p. 742) death and funeral rights, 225
death anxiety, 471–74
Debendranath Tagore, 375
Debussy, Claude, 714–15
deconversion, 537–47. See also atheism, adopting
atheistically motivated, 540–41
characteristics of (Streib), 545
defined (Hood and Zhuo Chen), 538
models of, 538–39
mixed method, 544–45
positive atheism and, 542–43
sudden and gradual, 541
Decree of Diopeithes, 140
deism, 156
Blountian, 213
church authority and, 213 fn 2
Clockwork Universe and, 436
defined
Kors, 196
Nash, 213 fn 2
rational Enlightenment, 184
theism and, 436
deity, 18. See also God; gods; specific deity
all-evil, 266
arguments for the existence of. See God, arguments for the existence of
attributes of, 39–40
governing, 474
helper-, 358
immortal, 142
monotheistic. See God
unqualified (niguna), 377
Delarue, Mathieu, 283
Delius, Frederick, 717
Demiurge, 155
Democritus, 140, 143, 183, 189, 432–33, 443
Denmark, 230, 462, 486, 499–500, 507, 543, 571, 590, 690
Dennett, Daniel, 245, 247–48, 251, 255, 257, 456
Derozio, Henry Louis Vivian, 375, 655
Derrida, Jacques, 290, 303
Descartes, Rene, 45, 131, 185, 200, 402
design, 196–97, 405
determinism, 390–91, 654, 687
free will and, 73, 391
Jainism and, 148
naturalistic, 209
theological, 82
Dev Samaj, 656
deva/devi (multiple definitions of), 340, 356, 653
Devagati Devas, and Jainism, 357–58
development (orderly versus discontinuous), 474
Dewey, John, 455–56
dharma (duty/path), 355, 376–77
Diagoras of Melos, 141, 189–90
Diamond, M., 55
Dicaearchus, 183, 190
Diderot, Denis, 180, 185–86, 206–9, 268, 295, 327–28, 437
Diggers, 213
Digha Nikaya, 369–70
Dijksterhuis, E. J., 384
Dillard, Annie, 426
d’Indy, Vincent, 715
Diodore of Tarsus, 159
Diogenes the Cynic, 145, 155, 183
Dionysius the Areopagite, 158
disaffiliation, 538–39. See also deconversion
discrimination, mechanisms for coping with (Simonson), 617
Duvalier,Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc', 507
Divine Plan, 108, 110–12, 116
critiques of, 110–11
defined (Baltimore Catechism), 420–21
'divinizing', 369
Doktór, Tadeusz, 627
Dolet, Étienne, 180
Dominican Republic, 555, 566, 576
Don Carlos (Verdi), 713
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 278–79, 683, 686–91
doubts, religious. See scepticism, religious, 189
Draper, Paul, 84
Draulans, Varlee, 627
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), 657
Dravidar Kazhagam (DK), 657
Dreyer, Carl, 730
Driesch, Hans, 387
Dryden, John, 711
Dryhten, 161
Dudley, Roger, 493
(p. 743) Dummett, Michael 308
Dumont, Louis, 376
Dundas, Paul, 354–55
Duns Scotus, 185
Durkheim, Émile, 487, 596
dvoyeveriye (double faith), 716
Dworkin, Ronald, 114
East Asia, 555
East Germany, 541
Eastern Europe, 558
Eastern Roman Empire, 400
Ebaugh, H. R.F., 612
Ecklund, E. H., 540
economics, 410–11
Edamaruku, Sanal, 659
Edgell, P., 613–14
Edgerton, Samuel Y., 661
Edis, Taner, 5
Edwards, Mark, 4–5
Egerton, Francis Henry (8th Earl of Bridgewater), 405, 422
Einstein, Albert, 434, 437–38, 443
El Salvador, 500, 502, 507
élans vitaux (Bergson), 387
Eleusinian Mysteries, 189
elhad-gari (godlessness), 638 fn 2
Elisha ben Abuya, 325–26
Elkins, James, 698, 701
Eller, J. D., 456
elohim (God), 322
Elwell, J. Sage, 6
Empedocles, 158, 183
empirical observation, 433–34
Empiricus, 141–42
encephalization quotient (EQ), 393
Encyclopédistes, 404
energy, 438–39. See also materialism
dark, 443
Engels, Friedrich, 298
England, 594
Enlightenment, 195–209, 437. See also Scientific Revolution
atheism and, 195–209
defined (Kant), 268–69
Humanism and, 268–69
naturalistic atheism and, 208–9
philosophical sources for, 201–2
Christian sources of, 197–200
entelechies (Driesch), 387
Epicureanism, 149, 152, 155, 168, 188, 190–91, 207, 213, 433–35, 587
Enlightenment, 204–5
neo-, 205–6
practical, 195
Epicurus, 71–72, 145–47, 150, 157, 189
Epikoros (multiple definitions of), 324–26
epiphenomenalism, 371–72
'eposteme' (Foucault), 652
Esau, 325
essence
defined (Aquinas), 124, 128–30
matter and, 198
Estonia, 500, 626–27, 629
Ethicism, 222
ethics
divine motivation theory (Zagzebski), 97 fn 5
Existentialism and, 286–90
gods and, 146
religion and, 92
theistic, 99. See also voluntarism, theological
as theological voluntarism, 95–98
Western, post -Enlightenment, 98
euhemerism, 147, 159–60
Euhemerus, 147, 154
Euler identity, 383
European Values Survey (EVS), 515–16, 624, 626–27, 628 fn 2
Eusebius of Caesarea, 323
Euthyphro Problem, 51
evil, 58–59, 71–86
and arguments for/against the existence of God
evidential, 75–77
free will defense, 73–74
Gale's, 74–75
greater good theodices, 78–81
Mackie's, 72–74
normatively relativized logical argument from (NRLAFE, Bishop and Perszyk), 75
Oppy, 74
Plantinga's, 73–74
skeptical theist, 77–78
atheism and, 71–86
natural, 74–75
problem of, 688
worldview engagement and, 83–86
evolution, 34, 68
Aquinas and, 133
biological, 84–85
evolutionary theory. See Darwinism
Ewing, Heidi, 732
existence, 16–17
as actuality (Wirklichkeit, Frege), 125
'existential security' (Norris and Inglehart), 597–98
Existentialism, 15, 278–91, 471
atheism and, 278–91
central tenet of, 278
defined (Sartre), 280
ethics and, 286–90
Gnosticism and, 475
materialism and, 279
nineteenth-century precursors of, 279–83
positive atheism and, 283
proto-, 281–82
twentieth-century precursors, 283–86
twenty-first century, 290–91
Exline, J. J., 541
experience
Jainism and, 363–66
kinds of (Norman), 529
openness to, 476–77
faith, 17, 39, 84, 108, 110–11, 121, 153, 164, 167, 172, 176, 181, 183, 196, 230–31, 240, 246–48, 280–82, 333, 399–406, 471–74, 497, 505
bad (mauvaise foi), 288
cure for, 252
failures of, 246–47
levels of (Hugh of St Victor), 172
-'plasticity', 516
responsibility and, 391
Fales, E., 57
falsifiability, 315
Fascism, 507
Fassinger, R., 521
fatwa (legal opinion), 647
Febvre, Lucien, 5, 180, 182, 184, 192, 326
Federation of Indian Rationalist Associations (FIRA), 657
Feiner, Shmuel, 328
Fenollosa, Ernest, 668, 671
Ferraro, K., 528
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 293, 296, 305, 587, 713, 729, 733
Fevroniya, Saint, of Murom, 716
Ficino, Marsilio, 182, 188–91
fideism (Pyrrhonian), 188, 196, 206, 209
film. See cinema
Finland, 500, 566, 584
Fiore, Joachim di, 301
First Vatican Council, 713
First Zionist Congress (Basel, 1897), 331
Fischer, C. S., 461
Fitzgerald, B., 612, 616–17
Flavius Josephus, 324
Flere, S., 531
Flew, Antony, 107–8, 308, 314–16
Flew, Sarah, 239
Foda, Frag, 647
Foote, George William, 220, 224
Force / Action, 202. See also motion
foreshortening (art), 702 fn 4, 703
Forrest, P., 69
Foucault, Michel, 290
Fourth Lateran Council (1215), 167, 174
Fowler, David, 237–41
France, 230, 500, 555, 558, 560, 562, 564, 566, 571, 583
France, Anatole, 684
Franco, Francisco, 507
Frank, Joseph, 690
Frankfurt, Harry, 113
Franzen, Jonathan, 686
Frazier, Jessica, 5
free will, 78–79, 111, 199, 390–92, 437. See also freedom; theodicy, free will
God's foreknowlege and, 315
libertarian, 80
freedom, 35, 291. See also free will
authentic (Hick), 80
compatibilist, 60
existential, 282
as foundation of all values, 287–89
God's foreknowlege and, 309–10
Humanism and, 267
from karma, 355
libertarian, 56–60
radical (Sartre), 278–79, 284–86, 290
religion and, 302, 304
from samsara, 360
Freedom from Religion Foundation, 459, 517
Freethinkers, 610–11, 656
defined (Nash), 215 fn 3
Frege, Gottlob, 125
French Revolution, 213, 216, 295–97, 686–87
Freud, Sigmund, 420, 469, 542, 587, 730
Fried, M., 707
Fromm, Erich, 300
Fukansai Habian, 670
Fukuyama, Francis, 272, 299
Fukuzawa Yukichi, 673–75
Funkenstein, Amos, 185–86
Gablik, S., 707
Gale, Richard, 74–75
Galileo, 402, 435
Gandhi, Mahatma, 116, 375
Garrison, William Lloyd, 611
Gassendi, Pierre, 711
gatis (existence or birth categories), 356
Gattungswesen (species-being), 304
Gauguin, Paul, 105–6
Geach, Peter, 125, 308
Gellert, C. F., 712
gender. See sexuality, gender
General Jewish Workers Bund (1897), 331
General Social Survey (GSS), 458, 515–16, 530, 579
geology, 'deep time', 405
Georgia, 503
Germany, 230, 295, 462, 500, 545, 555, 558, 560, 564, 571
Gervais, W., 546
Gingrich, Newt, 498
Glanville, Joseph, 200
Glasse, Hannah, 385
'Global Peace Index' (Vision of Humanity), 501
Global Study on Homicide (United Nations), 502
Glock, Charles, 2
Glover, Jonathan, 275
Gnosticism
derivation of the word, 475
Gnostic drive (defined, Farias), 475
God, 123–30. See also deity; Demiurge; Great Brahma; The One
as an achieved status, 360
'of all things', 353–56
analytic philosophy and, 308–18
arguments against the existence of, 311, 332–33, 411–12, 687. See also Evil,
benevolence, 425–27
competence, 422–25
complexity, 414–17, 421
Jainist, 353–55
naturalist, 388–91
specialness, 417–21
theodicy, 421–27
arguments for the existence of, 437–38, 693–95
Aquinas's, 121–23
cosmological, 46–48
design, 28–30
fine-tuning, 440–42
from ignorance, 441–42
from induction, 32–35
maximal multiverse hypothesis (Mawson), 30–32, 34–36
moral, 50–51
ontological, 43–46, 120
pragmatic, 48–50
'regularity of succession' (Swinburne), 123
summarized, 38
teleological, 40–43
universe and, 26–36
Aristotelians and, 197–200
attributes
Buddhist, 343
of the Greek, 149
(p. 746) of the 'traditional', 40, 44, 56–60, 131
Cartesians and, 197–200
of classical theism, 17–18, 23, 105, 155
defined (Mawson), 26–27
as a creator deity, 351, 354–55, 372
defined
Aquinas, 121–32
Blessing, 105
Hemacandra, 360
defining, 39–40
designing, 416
ens and, 185
epistemic distance from, 80
evil and, 71–86
as a first principle, 186, 284
hypothesis (Mawson), 26, 28–30, 35–36
versus gods, 17–18
knowledge of (Aquinas), 130–34
morality and, 280
personhood of (Aquinas), 131
as a 'retired engineer' (Dijksterhuis), 384, 387
as source and foundation of moral values, 270
gods. See also God
arguments against the existence of (Sextus Empiricus), 153–54
of classic Hinduism, 340
versus God, 17–18
'Goldilocks enigma', 42–43
Goldman, Emma, 332
Goldstein, Rebecca Newberger, 684, 686, 693–95
Gombrich, E. H., 701
Gonda, Jan, 653–54
Goodman, N., 33
goodness, 51, 83, 110, 132, 343, 427
fraility of (Cottingham), 112
Humanism and, 271–76
perfect, 56–60
resilience of (Cottingham), 112–13
Goody, J., 661
Gooren, H., 538–39
Gora, Saraswathi, 656
Gott, John, 224–25
Gould, Frederick James, 222
Gould, Stephen Jay, 393–94, 543
Grady, Rachel, 732
Graham, Jesse, 92–93
Grainger, Percy, 719
Grammond, Gabriel Barthélemy de, 192
Gray, John, 253, 274, 472
Grayling, A. C., 4, 251
Great Brahma, 346–47
Great Britain, 230, 271–73, 330, 500, 715–19. See also United Kingdom
Greater Magadha, 368–69
Greeley, A., 631 fn 5
Green, T. H., 313
Greenblatt, Stephen, 188
Gregory, Brad, 185
Gregory, Tullio, 187–88
Gregory the Great, Pope, 173
Griffiths, P. J., 346
Gubaydulina, Sofya, 721
Gui, Bernard, 168–69
Gujarat Vernacular Society (Gujarat Vidya Sabha), 656
Gutkowski, S., 596
Hadland, Conrad, 236
Haeckel, Ernst, 671
Haidt, Jonathan, 92–93, 99–100
Haiti, 507
Hale, Matthew, 223
Hall, G. Stanley, 537
Halman, Loek, 627
Hammer, Joseph H., 6, 616
Hamplová, D., 462
Hankins, James, 189
Hardy, Thomas, 683
Hare, Peter, 76, 80
Harries, Richard, 273
Harris, Sam, 98–99, 241, 245–47, 251, 255–57, 266, 456, 473, 588
Harrison, Frederic, 222
Hasker, William, 83, 309–10, 315
Hawking, Stephen, 439–40
Haydn, Franz Joseph, 712
Hayes, R. P., 348
(p. 747) health (physical and psychosocial), 525–33
health and, 526–29
mental, 530–32
religion and, 526–29
Hébert, Jacques, 295
Hedayat, Sadeq, 642–43
Hedges, Chris, 253
hedonism, 371
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 291
Hemacandra, 360
Henrich, Joseph, 492
Hera, 17
Heraclitus, 155, 158, 183
heresiography, 167–69
heresy, 168–69
Hermarchus, 190
Herodotus, 157
Hervetus, Gentian, 187
Hervieu-Léger, Danièle, 589–90
Hewetson, Dick, 235
Hick, John, 80–81, 113
Hicok, Larry, 237
Hilbert, David, 440
Hindu, 359
Hinduism, 230–31, 236, 340, 352, 367–78, 660
atheism(s) and, 372–73, 375–78
critiques of atheism, 376–78
early atheist culture of, 368–70
God and, 352
gods, 373–74
Lokāyatas (worldly ones) and, 370–72
Marxism and, 375
non-theism in classical, 372–74
theology, 342
hindutva (Hindu nationalist movement), 659
Hiorth, F., 654
Hippias, 183
Hirshfield, Brad, 460
Hirsi Ali, Ayaan, 251, 646
Hirst, Damien, 698, 703, 708
Hisamatsu Shin’ichi, 677–78
history, subjective (Taylor), 184–85
Hitchcock, Alfred, 730
Hitchens, Christopher, 90, 241, 245, 249, 255–56, 456, 517
Hitler, Adolf, 106, 507
Ho, D., 527
Ho, R., 527
Hobbes, Thomas, 196, 200
Holbach, Baron d' (Paul-Henry Thiry), 180, 185–86, 197, 200, 203–4, 206–8, 295, 437
Holland, 462
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 455–56
Holyoake, George Jacob, 182, 217–19, 221, 224, 456
Homer, 140
homo stultus (foolish man), 195
Hone, William, 214
Hood, Ralph W., Jr., 5, 538
Horkheimer, Max, 300
Horning, S. M., 531
Hout, M., 461
Howe, Irving, 330
Hoxha, Enver, 506, 637
Hoyle, Fred, 438
Hubble, Edwin, 438
Huet, Pierre-Daniel, 196
Hugh of St Victor, 172
Human Development Report (United Nations), 502
Humanism, 263–77, 471–72, 593–94, 703–4
atheism and, 267
characterized, 263–65
defined
Law, 263
Niethammer, 182
Enlightenment and, 268–69
existence of God and, 264
goodness and, 271–76
Judaism and, 332–33
moral relativism and, 269–71
negativity and, 267–68
what it is not, 265–67
Humanist Society of Scotland, 242
humanity, cosmic insignificance of, 444–45
Hume, David, 33, 40–41, 47, 100, 122, 180, 188, 201, 269, 308, 377–78, 386, 388, 423, 437, 587, 695, 716. See also Enlightenment
Hungary, 566, 626, 629
Hunsberger, B., 493, 519, 531, 541, 612, 615–16
Hutton, James, 421
Huxley, Aldous, 542
Huxley, Thomas, 312, 427
(p. 748) Hwang, Karen, 5
Hyman, Gavin, 18, 185–86
hypersensitive agency detection device (HADD), 491
Hypothesis of Indifference (HI, Draper), 84–85
Ibn al-Jawzi, 641
Ibn al-Rawandi, 168, 639–41
Ibn Haytham, 400–401
Ibn Sina, 173
iconoclasm, 219
ideology, ruling (Marx), 297
idravysat (real), 343
Ignatieff, Michael, 274
ilhad (atheism/non-religion/deviation), 638–39, 641
Ilive, Jacob, 213
iman (faith, trust), 643 fn 10
immortality, 107–12, 114
alternative accounts of, 109–10
critiques of, 107–9
of the soul, 168, 184, 187–88, 191, 720
impermanence, 339
impiety, 190–91
India, 462, 486, 555, 583, 597, 641, 644, 651–62
ancient, 653–54
atheism and
early, 368–70
genealogy of, 654–55
organized, 655–60
problem of, 359, 652–53
religious demographics of, 359–60
schools of thought in ancient
Ājīvikas, 654
āstika (orthodox), 653
Carvaka, 654
Lokāyata (Carvaka), 372–3, 376–6, 653–54
mīmāmsā, 653–54
nyāya, 653
Sāṃkhya, 654
Indian Radical Humanist Association, 656
Indian Radical Humanist Movement, 656
Indian Rationalist Association (IRA), 657, 659
individualism, 417–18, 453, 463, 475–76
defined (Bakan), 476
Indonesia, 500, 555, 648
Indra (warrior god), 373, 653
Infinite Regress, 61–62
infinity (defined, Stenger), 440
Ingersoll, Robert Green, 220, 224, 455–56, 611, 656
Inglehart, Ronald, 91, 454, 499–500, 505, 597–98, 627
Innocent VIII, Pope, 183
Inoue Tetsujirō, 672–73
'intelligent design' (ID), 249, 388–90, 422, 474
intentionality (defined, Sartre), 284
International Association for the Cognitive Science of Religion, 489
International Database (U. S. Census), 555
International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), 276, 657
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), 540, 545, 554–55, 560–61, 576, 584, 624, 626–27
Iqbal, Muhammad, 684
Ireland, 558, 562, 564, 571, 583
Irenaeus of Lyon, 80, 392
Isidore of Seville, 160
Islam, 17–18, 71, 230–31, 236, 312, 409, 518, 561, 637–48, 660
aggressive, 246
evolution and, 408
materialism and, 406
medieval science and, 400–402
radical modernism and, 641–44
revelation and early Islam, 639–41
Revival, 645–48
Islamophobia, 459
Israel, 566, 571, 576
Israel, Jonathan, 196
īśvara (God/Lord), 340, 378
Italy, 571, 590
Jacobsen, Jens Peter, 683, 691
Jagodzinski, W., 631 fn 5
Jainism, 351–62, 369
conception of cosmos and, 353 fn 5, 354–55
Devagati Devas, 357–58
Digamabara, 353 fn 6
dividedness and, 358–59
'God-saturated atheism' of, 356–62
(p. 749) meaningfulness and, 362–64
Shvetambara, 353 fn 6
suffering and, 353–54
theism and, 351–53
world-renouncing, 352
Jama’at-i Islami, 644
Jamaica, 507
James, William, 50, 537
Jami, Ehsan, 646
Janáček, Leoš, 719
Japan, 272, 500, 502, 555, 558, 561–62, 566, 571, 584, 598, 665–78
Edo period, 670
Meiji Era, 665–66, 668, 672, 676
Meiji Restoration, 670
nineteenth-century, 667–75
pre-Meija, 668
Jayarashi Bhatta, 372
Jefferson, Thomas, 418–19, 610
Jina (spiritual victor), 353, 359–62
jiva (seed of life/soul), 352–53, 378
John Paul II, Pope, 119, 133
Jonas, Hans, 475
Jordan, 500, 584–85, 648
Jordan, Matthew, 97
Joseph, Rabbi, 324
Joshi, Lakshmanshastri R., 654
Judaism, 17–18, 71, 155, 167–68, 230–31, 236, 312, 320–33, 410, 576, 640, 660
atheism and, 321
conservative, 518
eighteenth-century, 327–29
Humanism and, 332–33
nineteenth-century, 330–31
twenty-first century, 331–32
Zionism and, 331–32
judgment, suspension of (epoche, Carneades/Clitomachus), 147–48
justice, 92, 143, 148, 175, 290–91, 364, 376, 643, 645
perfect, 109
Justice Party, 656
Justin Martyr, 155, 324
kāma (pleasure), 369, 371
kami (gods/divinities/spirits), 666
Kane, G. Stanley, 81
Kant, Immanuel, 33, 45, 47, 50, 111, 120, 125, 268, 354, 436, 695
karma, 345, 372. See also rebirth
fundamental truths of, 355–56
Kasravi, Ahmad, 642
Katō Hiroyuki, 669–73
Kaufman, David Abelevich. See Vertov, Dziga (David Abelevich Kaufman)
Kautsky, Karl, 298
Keio-Gijuku, 673–74
Kekes, John, 114
Kena Upaniṣad, 373
Kennedy, William, 235, 241
Kenny, Anthony, 15
Kentucky, 503
Kepler, Johannes, 428
Kerala, 368
Kermani, 642
Keysar, Ariela, 6
Khivi, 326
Kierkegaard, Søren, 50, 122, 278–79, 282–83, 286, 308, 720
Killen, Patricia O'Connell, 582
Kim, K. H., 528
King, Martin Luther, 116
Kisaka, Robert, 666
Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim, 654
Kneeland, Abner, 223–24
Knight, Margaret, 241, 271
Knowlton, Charles, 216, 225
Koenig, H. G., 529
kofer be’ikkar (one who denies the first principle), 325
Kors, Alan Charles, 5, 186, 196, 323
Kosmin, Barry A., 5, 517, 554, 602–3
Koster, J. P., 542
Kōtoku, 675–76
Kragh, Helge S., 437
Krauss, Lawrence, 251, 439
Krishna, 374
Kristeller, Paul Oskar, 181, 184–85
Kroll, J. C., 515
Kropotkin, Peter, 222
Kuhn, Thomas, 384–85
Küng, Hans, 71
(p. 750) Kurtz, Paul, 182–84
Kuspit, Donald, 705
Kuwait, 584
Kyiv Patriarchate, 631
La Mettrie, Julien Offray de, 202–3, 295, 404, 437
La Moth Le Vayer, François de, 200
Lacan, Jacques, 290
Lactantius, 160, 190
la-dini (non-religious), 639
Lagrange, 206–7
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste de, 393
Lamy, Dom François, 199
Lamy, Guillaume, 205–6
Lanman, Jonathan A., 5, 628
Laplace, Pierre-Simon, 249, 416, 436
Larson, E. J., 544
Laruelle, François, 305
Latium, 160
Latvia, 558, 561, 566, 626, 629
Law, Stephen, 5
lawlessness, 143–44, 168, 690
League of Militant Atheists, 507
Lee, K. S., 540
Lee, Lois, 6
Legrand, Antoine, 200
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 47, 51, 57, 386
Lemaître, Georges-Henri, 437–38
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 624
Leo XIII, Pope, 119
Lessius, Leonard, 186
Leuba, James H., 537, 543–44
Leucippus, 143, 183, 189, 432–33, 443
Levellers, 213
Lewis, C. S., 79
Lewis, David, 310
liberalism, 588, 604
liberation, 288–89, 355 fn 8
libertarianism, 391
Liberty and Property Defence League, 218
Liddell, G. H., 13
Lin Yu Tang, 272
Lincoln, Abraham, 611
Lindsay, Ronald A., 104
linear perspective, 702
Ling, R., 591
Linneman, T., 519, 521
Lippman, Walter, 455–56
literature, 683–96
medieval
secular, 170
theological, 170–73
Lithuania, 462, 626, 629
Lizenbury, T., 55
Locke, John, 90, 437
logic, 352. See also positivism, logical
deductive and inductive, 49
evolutionary (Bering), 485
Jain, 354
modal, 46
proof and, 49
scientific, 643
tautology in, 132
transactional, 360
loka (universe), 354
Lokāyatas (worldly ones), 370–72,375–6, 661
Louisiana, 503
Löwenthal, Leo, 300
loyalism, 213–14
Lucian of Samosata, 155–58, 191
Lucretius, 90, 146, 172, 188–91, 206–8, 433–34
Lushington, Vernon and Godfrey, 222 fn 4
Luther, Martin, 437
Lutheranism, 181, 561, 587
Macedonia, 629, 633–34
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 188
Machovec, Milan, 2
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 268–69, 303
Mackie, J. L., 72–73
Madden, Edward, 76, 80
Mādhava, 371–72, 377–78
Maha Krishna. See "Big Blackie"
Mahābhārata, 653
Maharashtra Andhashraddha Nirmulan Samiti (Organization for the Eradication of Superstition in Maharashtra), 659
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, 235
Mahavira, 352, 363 fn 17, 364 fn 18, 654
Maher, Bill, 251
Mahlamäki, T., 516
(p. 751) Maimon, Salomon, 328
Maimonides, Moses, 325
Maine, 503
Maistre, Joseph de, 274
Makros, J., 529–30
Malawi, 500
Malebranchists, 197–200
Mali, 501
Mallinath (female Jina), 357 fn 13
Malraux, André, 684
Malta, 500–501
Manetti, Gianozzo, 182–83
Manicheanism, 640
manushya (humans), 356
Mao Zedong, 15
Marcel, Gabriel, 279, 283
Marcuse, Herbert, 300
Martin, David, 2, 453
Martin, Michael, 105, 452, 660
Martin, Terry, 235–36
Martin of Braga, 160
Martineau, Harriet, 221
Marty, M. E., 456, 461
Marx, Karl, 293, 469, 587
Marxism, 293–305, 471, 644, 675–76. See also Frankfurt School and
atheism and, 293–305
twenty-first century, 299–300
as a Christian heresy, 303
‘cold-stream’ (Bloch), 298, 300
Frankfurt School and, 300–301
Hegelian dialectic and, 294, 296, 302–3
Hinduism and, 375
ideology and oppression, 297–99
‘opium of the people’, 293–97
‘warm-stream’ (Bloch), 298–99, 304–5
Marcos, Ferdinand, 507
Massachusetts, 503
materialism, 187, 400, 408, 452, 543, 654, 672, 675–76
communism, socialism, and, 296–97
defined, 266–67
energy and, 437
Existentialism and, 279
Hinduism and, 375
historical, 300
Islam and, 406
Japanese, 675–78
modern science and, 406
Matoub, Lounès, 722
matter, 434, 439
dark, 443
particulate nature of, 443–44
Maurus, Hrabanus, 160
Mawson, T. J., 4
McAdams, Dan, 476
McAndrew, Siobhan, 596
McCabe, M., 529–30
McCarthy, Joseph, 611
McEwan, Ian, 251, 684, 695–96
McKinnon, Andrew, 295
McLaren, Rod, 240
McTaggart, J. M. E., 313
meaning, 105–7
of life, 112–13
atheist versus theist perspectives, 106–7
'meaning of', 105–7
theism and, 64–65
ultimate. See meaningfulness
meaningfulness, 387
atheistic theories of, 104–17
hybrid, 115–16
intrinsic values, 114–15
subjectivism, 113–14
falsificationist criteria for (FCM), 314–16
Jainism and, 362–64
synonyms for, 106
verificationist criteria for (VCM), 313–14
mechanick tradition, 212–13
mechanism, 402, 404
Meletus, 139–40
meliorism, 404
meme theory (Dennett), 247 fn 3
Memmi, Albert, 333
Mencken, H. L., 455
Mendelssohn, Moses, 328
Menece, 190
Menippus, 155–56
Menkva (Siberian shaman spirit beings), 731
'mental colonialism', 651–52, 655
mereology, 309
(p. 752) Mersenne, Martin, 179, 182, 186
Meslier, Jean, 200, 203, 295, 327
Mesmerism, 402
metaphor, 384–85
defined (Ruse), 384
machine, 387. See also machine, world as purposeless
questions for, 385–86
'root', 384
watch (Paley), 415–17
metaphysics
nature and, 407
Metrodorus of Stratonicea, 148, 190
Metz, Johann Baptist, 300
Metz, Thaddeus, 106
Mexico, 500–502, 560, 571, 576, 602–4, 609. See also North America
Michelangelo, 702
Middle Ages, 164–76, 703, 711–12
atheism and
assumptions about, 164–65
research on, 164–65
physical science in the, 434–36
Weltanschauung, 702
Middle East, 230, 554
Middletown, Ivan, 236, 238
Mill, John Stuart, 218, 221, 311–12, 587
Miller, Christian, 97
Milton, John, 98, 683
mīmāmsā (sound and meaning), 372–73
mimesis, ethical, 361–62
min (heretic), 325–26
Minos, tribunal of, 156
Minucius Felix, 160
miracles, 388–90, 403, 407, 439
Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani, 642
misotheism, 684–85
defined (Schweizer), 684–85
Mississippi, 503
Mitchell, B., 55
Miura Baien, 670
Mockus, Michael, 225
Moguchaya Kuchka (Mighty Handful), 715
moksha/mokṣa (liberation, enlightenment), 325, 353 fn 5, 358, 362–63, 652
Moldova, 629, 631, 633–34
Möller, Philipp, 251
Moltmann, Jürgen, 301
Monfasani, John, 188
monism (ontological), 373
monotheism, 18–20, 57, 59–60, 452
defined (Oppy), 53–54
Monty Python, 693, 730–31
Moore, G. E., 115–16, 311, 313, 391
moral duty, 376–77
moral education, Humanist approach to, 274–76
moral law, 50–51
morality
atheism and, 89–99
beliefs and behaviors, 90–93
defined, 89
Lin Yu Tang, 272
five foundations of (Haidt), 92–93
Godless (secular), 411
objective, 93–94
Moran, Larry, 251
More, Henry, 200
Morgan, David, 707–8
Mori, Gianluca, 196
Mormonism, 518
Morocco, 500, 584–85, 648
Morris, Simon Conway, 393
Morse, Edward Sylvester, 668–71
Moscow Patriarchate, 631
Most, John, 257
'Mothers' Index' (Save The Children Foundation), 500–501
motion, 198–200, 202–6, 345, 434–36. See also Force / Action
Brownian, 433–34
Mott, Lucretia, 611
mulhid/mulhida (atheist/deviator), 168, 637–38
Müller, Olaf, 635, 653
multiverse, 441
Müntzer, Thomas, 167, 298, 301
Murray, Gilbert, 222
mushinron (no god thesis/argument), 665–67, 670–71
defined (Whylly), 666
derivation of the word, 665–66
mushūkyo (non-religious), 666–67
music, 710–23
(p. 753) Australian, 715–19
British, 715–19
early, 711–12
modern and post-modern, 719–21
popular and ethnographic, 721–23
Russian, 715–19
Muslim,644
Brotherhood, 644
Musorgsky, Modest, 716
mutation, 416
Myers, P. Z., 251
mysticism, 247
Nahman, Rabbi 325
Naicker, E.V. Ramasami (Periyar), 656–57
Naigeon, Jacques-André, 200, 203–4, 206, 208–9
Nakae Chōmin, 673, 675
Namaskar Mantra, 360
Nandy, Ashis, 658
naraki (hell beings), 356
Narisetti, I., 659
Nash, David, 5
nastika (sceptic), 370
National Secular Society (NSS), 219
National Survey of Black Americans, 615
natural law, 295–96
natural rights, 214
natural science, 398–99. See also science
natural selection, 388, 393, 416–17. See also Darwinism
defined (Barash), 416
as an improbability generator, 419
naturalism, 57–58, 383–96, 452, 471
absolute, 203
categorical, 197–98, 202, 204, 209
defined
Oppy, 54
Ruse, 383
Enlightenment atheism and, 202–4
evolutionary (Draper), 84–85
Humanism and, 266
mataphysical, 383
methodlogical, 383–84, 407–8
physical, 54
self-refuting, 394–96
speculative, 202
theism and, 54–55, 60–69
Naudé, Gabriel, 188
Navarro-Rivera, Juhem, 6
necessary being, 46, 126
absolutely, 120
logically and metaphysically, 47
Necessary Initial State, 61–62
Nennius, 161
Neoplatonism, 17
Nešpor, Z. R., 462
Netherlands, 230, 500, 502, 504–5, 566, 571, 584, 590–91, 627, 645, 690
Neurath, Otto, 308–10
'New' Atheism, 15, 133, 245–58, 396, 398–99, 456–58, 517, 588
as 'Church of the Non-Believers' (G. Wolf), 253, 257
conceptual properties of labelling, 254–57
conceptual weaknesses of, 257–58
defined (Zenk), 245
as ideology, 253, 256
as militant menace, 253–54, 256–57
novels of, 695–96
origins of, 251–52
public characterizations of, 252–54
as a scientific/naturalistic criticism of religion, 252–53, 256
as a stealth religion (Wilson), 253, 257
New Hampshire, 503
New York, 503
New Zealand, 230, 500, 558, 571, 598
Newton, Isaac, 197, 402, 436–37
Newtonian World Machine. See universe, Clockwork
Nicéron, Jean-Paul, 199–200
Nider, Johannes, 187
Nielson, K., 55
Niethammer, Friedrich Immanuel, 182
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 257, 278–81, 289, 421, 542, 587, 683, 717, 730
Niewöhner, Friedrich, 168
Niger, 501
Nigeria, 486, 500–501, 555
nihilism, 280–81
nineteenth century, 429, 712–15
atheism and
continental, 712–15
Existentialism and, 279–83
Judaism and, 330–31
nirjara (purification), 359
Non-Overlapping Magisteria (Gould), 407, 427–29
nonconformity, 213
nonreligion, 587
defined (Lee), 588 fn 3
no-religionism
defined, 230
enumerating, 232–33
nature of, 240–43
Norenzayan, A., 486
Norman, R., 529
Norris, Pippa, 91, 454, 499, 505, 597–98, 627
North America, 554, 601–19. See also Canada; Caribbean; Central America; Mexico; United States of America
atheism and, 610–19
discrimination, 615–18
freedom and alienation and, 614–15
history of, 610–11
identity development, 612–13
morality and, 613–14
population estimates, 601–2
sociodemographics of, 602–9
North Carolina, 503
North Korea, 506
Norway, 230, 500, 502, 507, 558, 566, 584, 590, 594, 690
Novotini, M., 542
Nozick, Robert, 109–11
Nyami Nyami, 17
Obama, Barack, 611
objectivist fallacy, 539–40
objective uncertainty (Kierkegaard), 282
occasionalism, 401
Oceania, 554
Ockham's Razor, 41–42
Odifreddi, Piergiorgio, 251–52
Odin, 17
Oenomaus of Gadara, 155
Ofsted, 275
O'Hagan, Leslie, 238–39
O'Hair, Madalyn Murray, 461, 611
O'Hara, Frank, 242
Oklahoma, 503
Oliner, Pearl and Samuel, 275
Onfray, Michel, 252, 327
ontology
atheistic, 641
Democritus and, 140
Dundas and, 354
Epicurusand, 145
materialistic, 543
Muslim non-creationist, 639
naturalistic, 540–41
'of Not-Yet-Being' (Bloch), 303–4
Sartre and, 284–85, 288–89
Oppy, Graham, 4, 60, 74
Oregon, 503
O'Reilly, Bill, 497–98
'Ortlieber' (religious sect ), 166
Orwell, George, 684
Osiander, Andreas, 435
Östberg, Anders, 234
Otloh of St Emmeram, 173–74
Ottoman Empire, 641
Otway, Thomas, 711
Out Campaign, 520
Overall, C., 516
Owen, Robert, 216–17, 219–20, 611
Owenism, 217
Ozorak, E., 516
Pachacamac, 17
Pack, Ernest, 224–25
Padmavati (female protector diety), 358
Paganism, 518
Pagels, H, 439
Paine, Thomas, 214–16, 218, 220, 327–28, 330, 456, 610, 687
Pakistan, 500–501, 555
paleoanthropology, 392
Palestine, 584
Paley, William, 40–41, 415, 418
Pali canon, 338, 346, 348, 653
Palmer, Elihu, 216
Pāncatantra, 374
pantheism, 69, 344
Buddhism and, 344
defined, 196
paradigms, 384–85
(p. 755) Paradox of the Liar, 314 fn 7
parameshtis (supreme personalities or God), 360
Paranjpye (Paranjapye/Paranjpe), Raghunath Purushottam, 657
paranormalism, 402
Park, Robert L., 251
Parry, Hubert, 716–17
Parshva, 352
Pärt, Arvo, 721
Pascal, Blaise, 48, 111, 174, 196, 421, 651
'Pascal's wager', 48, 514, 522
Pasolini, Pier Paolo, 730
Pasquale, Frank L., 5, 582
Patin, Guy, 188
Patt, Emanuel, 331
Paul, Gregory S., 503, 507
Paul VI, Pope, 2
Pax Romana, 111–12
Peasants’ Uprising (1525), 298
Pedullà, Gabriele, 728, 730
Penrose, Roger, 439
Penzias, Arno, 438
People-eater, one-eyed, one-horned, flying, purple, 16 fn 3
Perrin, Jean Baptiste, 434
Person Centered Requirement (Rowe), 83
personalism, 377–78
Perszyk, Ken, 75
Peru, 500
Pessoa, Fernando, 469, 471
Peter of Cornwall, 174
Peterloo Massacre (1819), 214
Peterson, Michael, 4
Peterson, R., 542
petitio principii ('begging the question'), 49
Pew Global Trends, 558
Peyrault, Guillaume, 174
Pfeffer, Leo, 455–56
phenomena (Buddhist categories of), 341
Philippines, 500–501, 507, 555, 562, 576
Phillips, D. Z., 132 fn 8
Philo of Larissa, 148
Philoponus, John, 437
philosophy
analytic, 307–18
Absolute Idealism and, 313
Photius, 158
phrenology, 219
physical science
atheism and, 432–46
Middle Ages, 434–36
physicalism, 408
defined, 266–67
Pickel, Gert, 635
Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, 182–83, 188
Pigden, Charles, 5
Pindar, 323
Pinochet, Augusto, 507
Pir Vilayat Khan, 235
Pius V, Pope, 119
Pius XII, Pope, 438
Plantinga, Alvin, 23–25, 45–46, 73–75, 308, 394–96
Plato, 14, 47, 51, 116, 140–43, 149, 154–55, 190, 587
Platonism, 400
Plotinus the Neoplatonist, 161–62
pluralism, 463
Plutarch, 11, 154
Poggio Braccioloni, 173
Poland, 330, 453, 462, 541, 555, 571, 576, 626, 629, 634
Pollack, Detlef, 635
Polycarp of Smyrma, 155, 324
polytheism, 152
defined (Oppy), 53
Pomponazzi, Pietro, 184
Pope, Alexander, 425
Popkin, Richard, 188
Popol Vuh, 720
Popper, Karl, 42, 247, 315, 386, 471
Porphyry, 160
Portugal, 564, 590
Poser, Ernest, 240–41
positivism, 221–22, 452
logical, 56, 132–33, 308, 310–11. See also logic
Post-structuralism, 290
Prakrit canon, 653
Pratt, J. B., 538
predestination, 391
Premanand, Basava, 657
Prodicus of Ceos, 141, 147, 160
progress, 471–73
Prokofiev, Sergey, 721
(p. 756) proof, 170–73
a posteriori, 197, 200
a priori, 200
test and, 49
from universal consent', 195
Protagoras, 141, 189
Protestantism, 587
psychology
atheism and, 468–79
behaviourist, 483
Pulci, Luigi, 191
Pullman, Philip, 251, 684, 696
Purāṇas, 374
Pure Land, 677–78
Pyrrhonism, 152–53
Quack, Johannes, 6
Quakers, 213
quantum mechanics, 26, 408
Quin, Matthew, 221
Quine-Duhem thesis, 315
Quinn, Philip, 110–11
Qur'an, 637–39, 642
Rabelais, François, 180
Rabshakeh, 159
radiation, 438
radical empiricism. See positivism
Radical Humanists, 656
radicalism, 213–14
Rahner, Karl, 2
Raimundus Lullus, 172
Rāmānuja, 377
Ramsey, F. P., 307
Rand, Ayn, 684
Ranters, 213
Rao, Avula Sambasiva, 655
Rao, Goparaju Ramachandra (Gora), 656
rationalism (anti-prophetic), 640–41
Rationalist Association of India (RAI), 656–57
Rationalist Press Association (RPA), 240–41, 657
rationality, 486–88
'bounded', 488
deviations from, 487–88
'traditional' (Stein), 487
Ravel, Maurice, 715
Rawlier, Christine, 234
Ray, John, 206
realism
moral, 114
non-theistic moral, 98–99. See also morality
scientific geometry and, 662
reality, 317
reason. See higher-order cognitive capacities, 66–67, 288
dualism of practical, 316–17
rebirth, 347. See also karma
Buddhism and, 338–39
Jainism and, 358–59
recombination, sexual, 416
reductionism, 442–43
Reeve, Michael, 188
Reformation, 179–92
Jadidi Muslim, 644
Reichenbach, Bruce, 79
relativism, moral, 288 fn 4, 289
Humanism and, 269–71
relativity
general, 438–39
special theory of (Einstein), 315
religion, 56, 588 fn 3, 658. See also specific religion(s)
atheistic criticisms of, 90
'biologizing', 430
cinema and, 727–29
class rule and, 297
as a cognitive decision to believe, 652
'comfort theory' of, 488–89
conceptualization of, 661
conservative versus liberal approaches to, 92–93
Denmark and, 91, 93, 100
derivation of the word (Bloch), 301
Enlightenment scepticism toward, 404
evolutionary value of, 546
faith and, 246–47
fundamentalism and evolutionary theory, 414
'of humanity'. See positivism
as 'imaginary realization of human essence' (Marx), 304
Marxism and, 294–97
medieval challenges to institutional, 166–67
(p. 757) medieval education in, 173–75
natural versus revealed (Toshimaro), 667
'naturalization of' (Barash), 430
as a 'necessary social adhesive', 273–74
negative consequences of, 90
reinforcing identity and national solidarity, 454
return to, 302
science and, 398–412
social aspects of, 497–98
social dysfunction and, 91–92
societal well-being and, 497
Sweden and, 91, 93, 100
as a symptom of illness (Lucretius), 189
United States and, 91
Wittgensteinian ‘family resemblance model’ of, 18
religionization, 451
religiosity, 367, 471–78
alternative, 462
analytical reasoning and, 470
clear', 591
commonalities with athesity, 471–74
distinguished from atheism, 474–78
'scale', 468–69
Central and Eastern Europe, 629
spirituality and, 541
Religious and Moral Pluralism Project (RAMP), 590 fn 4, 627
Remigius of Arles, 160
Renaissance, 179–92, 699–705, 711
humanism in Italian, 182–84, 187–92
secularism in Italian, 182–84
Renan, Ernest, 180, 184
responsibility, 391
Restricted Standard Atheism, 83–84
Restricted Standard Theism (RST), 77–78, 83–84
Rétat, Pierre, 196
Reuter, Hermann, 165
Reynolds, C. B., 220
Rhode Island, 503
Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai, 716
Roberts, Jane, 234
Roberts, John, 302
Robertson, John, 165
Robichaud, Denis, 5
Roland-Manuel, Claude, 715
Romania, 626, 629, 633–34
Rorem, Ned, 721
Rose, Ernestine, 611
Rossano, Matt, 90–92
Rosset, François de, 192
Roth, L. M., 515
Roth, Philip, 331–32, 684
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 197, 207, 673
Rowe, William, 76–78, 83–84, 452
Roy, Ellen, 656
Rubenstein, Richard, 332
Ruge, Arnold, 294, 298
Ruhollah Khomeini, 647
rupa (form), 341
Ruse, Michael, 5
Rushdie, Salman, 251, 459, 647, 684, 696
Ruskin, John, 716
Russell, Bertrand, 15, 47, 56, 90, 107, 116, 124, 127, 235, 241, 249, 307–8, 310, 313, 316–18, 587
Russell's Paradox, 314 fn 7
Russian Federation, 629
Russian Orthodoxy, 561
Russian Revolution, 331
Rutherford, Ernest, 443
Rutjens, Bastiaan, 471–73
Sa‘adyā Gaon, 167, 170, 173
Sabbatai Zevi, 468 fn 1
Sacco, Nicola, 722
sacralization, 451 fn 1
Sadducism (Sadduceeism). See materialism, 187
Sagan, Carl, 49, 249, 419 fn 3, 475
Saint-Pierre, Jacques-Henri Bernardin de, 714
Sakka (ruler of a heavenly realm), 338–39
Salmon, Wesley, 76
Samannaphala Sutta, 369–70
(p. 758) saṃkhāra (formations/impulses), 341, 341 fn 11, 377
sāṃkhya, 369, 372
samsara (liberation from life and rebirth), 339, 353, 355
samyak darshana (spiritual awakening), 358–59
Ṥankara, 378
Śāntideva, 343–46
Sarasvatī, 374
Sarna, Jonathan, 333
Sarpi, Paolo, 188
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 15, 278–79, 283–87, 291, 308, 684
satanism, 684–85
Saudi Arabia, 637, 647
Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar, 657, 659
Saxo Grammaticus, 161
Scala, Bartolomeno, 188
Scaliger, Julius Caesar, 180
Scandanavia, 272, 558, 562, 593, 597, 618
Scepticism, 152–54
philosophical, 200–201
religious, 169, 173–74
meta-empirical, 452
Renaissance and Reformation, 180–81
Scheitle, C. P., 530
Schielke, Samuli, 6
Schiller, Friedrich, 713
Schmidt-Salomon, Michael, 251
scholasticism, 170
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 107, 109, 713
Schroeder, Theodore, 224
Schubert, Franz, 712–13
Schweizer, Bernard, 6
science, 471–74, 702–3. See also natural science; physical science
as alternative to religion, 543
ancient and medieval, 399–401
atheism and, 398–99, 403–12
as a belief system, 473
as a 'candle in the dark' (Sagan), 475
as child of religion, 409
cognitive, 483–94
atheism and, 491–94
defined (Lanman), 483
empirical, 489
of religion (CSR), 489–91
incomplete, 387–88
as 'knowledge without a knowing subject' (Popper), 386
methodological naturalism and, 408
modern materialism and, 406
religion and, 398–412, 433–36
technology and, 405
'theistic', 409–10
traditional morality and, 473
value-free, 386
scientific method, 383–96
Scientific Revolution, 401–3. See also Enlightenment
atheism and, 402–3
scientism, 265–66
Scott, R., 13
Second Vatican Mythographer, 160
sectarianism, 238
Secularism, 212–18, 332, 588, 642, 651–52, 659
defined (Nash), 212 fn 1
secularization, 321–22, 451–63
active atheism and, 454–56
atheism as a hard construct of, 461
characterized, 451
de-, 231
defined (Pasquale and Kosmin), 451
global experiments with, 461–63
'irreligion' and, 454–55
measures of, 454
modernization-, 453–54
as a structural theory, 452–54
structural versus intentional, 456
twentieth-century, 230–31
Victorian, 406
Sedley, David, 4, 433
Seleucus of Seleucia, 434
Self-Respect Movement, 656
Sen, Amartya, 368, 374–75
Senegal, 500–501
Sepkoski, Jack, 388
Serbia, 531, 629, 633–34
Serrano, Andres, 698, 708
'Seth material', 234
Sextus Empiricus, 148, 152–54, 188
sexuality, 511–22
feminism and, 515–17
(p. 759) gender
bias in nonreligious affiliations, 511–12
personality thesis, 513
role socialization, 512
secondary compensation model, 513
structural location theories, 512–13
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer), 511, 518–22, 532
stages of 'coming out', 521
risk preference ane evolutionary thesis, 514–15
Shaffer, Peter, 684
Shamlou, Ahmad, 643
Shariff, A., 486
Shaw, George Bernard, 50
Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 717
Sherkat, D., 511
Shimabara Rebellion, 670
Shintoism, 368, 671, 675–77
Shostakovich, Dimitry, 721
shramana (world-renouncing/path of self-effort), 352, 355 fn 8, 360
Sibiuda, Ramón, 173
siddhaloka (liberated being bliss), 353
Sidgwick, Henry, 316–17
Siegers, P., 590
Sierra Leone, 500–501
Siger of Brabant, 172
Sikhism, 17
Silk, Mark, 582
Simonson, K. R., 617
Sinclair, James, 440
Siner, S., 521
Singer, Irving, 110
Singer, Peter, 100, 265
Singh, Bhagat, 657–58
Singh, Kushwant, 657
singularity (Hawking and Penrose), 439–40
Sinha, J. W., 528
Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, 99
Sisyphus Fragment, 141–43
síva (a double god), 374
Skelton, Andrew, 5
Sloan, R. P., 527
Sloterdijk, Peter, 251
Slovakia, 562, 626, 629
Slovenia, 500, 531, 566, 626, 629
Smith, Christian, 455–56, 460, 618
Smith, George, 20
Smith, Jesse M., 6, 612, 614
Smith, Kevin, 730–31
Smith, Tom, 500
Smrke, Marjan, 627
Snorri Sturluson, 161
Sobal, J., 528
Socialism, 222, 330–31, 672, 676
Christian, 297
Japanese, 675–78
Society for the Suppression of Vice, 215
Sophocles, 323
soteriology 339 fn 6
soul
existence of, Manetti, 183
Hinduism and, 378
South Africa, 558, 564, 571
South America, 230, 554–55, 558
South Carolina, 503
South East Asia, 230
South Korea, 500, 558, 566, 571, 584
Spain, 453, 507, 566, 571, 583
Sparks, Ena, 240
special creation, 422
speciesism, 265, 417–18, 444–45
Spencer, Herbert, 394, 668–69, 671, 716
Spengler, Oswald, 299
Sperber, Dan, 490
Spinoza, Baruch de, 186, 196, 326, 403, 587
spiritual (defined), 527
spirituality, 527. See also R/S (religion and spirituality)
individualist, 402
'new', 433
quantum, 443–44
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 611
Starbuck, Edwin, 537
Stark, Rodney, 453, 462, 487
Stasov, Vladimir, 716
Stein, Edward, 487
(p. 760) Stenger, Victor J., 5, 251, 256 fn 7
Stephan of Landskron, 174–75
Stephens, Walter, 186–87
Stewart, Thomas, 224–25
Sthankavasi, 361
Stockstad, M., 701
Stoicism, 50, 141, 149, 400, 437
Stone, Alison, 5
Stopes, Marie, 223
Stravinsky, Igor, 715
Streib, H., 538–39, 545
Strepponi, Giuseppina, 713
Stroumsa, S., 170
subconscious, 420
substitutionalism, 219
suffering
God and, 422
Jainism and, 353–54
supernaturalism, 19, 67–68, 111, 293, 367, 383, 399–400, 403–4, 406–8, 443, 452, 462, 468, 485–90, 558, 658. See also witchcraft
Ancient Greek, 146
Buddhism and, 337–38
defined
Oppy, 54
Ruse, 383
suttas (Buddhist texts), 338
Sweden, 230, 486, 500, 502, 504–5, 562, 566, 571, 590–91
Swedenborg, Emanuel, 436
Swift, Jonathan, 683
Swinburne, Richard, 23, 28, 30–31, 78–79, 122–23, 131, 308
Syllabus of Errors, 713
Syndicalist movement, 224
Tagore, Rabindranath, 375
Taiwan, 566, 571, 584
Taliban, 637
Talmud, Jerusalem, 325
Tantric elements, 369
Tarkunde, V. M., 656
Tarski, Alfred, 309
Taruskin, Richard, 716
Tate, Andrew, 695–96
Tatia, Nathal, 364
Tattvartha Sutra/Tattvarthasutra, 362, 364
Taunton, Larry Alex, 497
Taylor, Charles, 183–85, 321–22, 541, 543, 651
Taylor, Richard, 113
technology, 405
Telos, 199, 300, 303–4
Tennessee, 503
Terapanthi, 361
Teresa of Calcutta, Mother 116
test, 49
Moore's, 115
Tevijja Suttanta, 348
Thales of Miletus, 140, 183, 432
theism, 452, 490, 594–95
analytic, 309
arguments against. See atheism, arguments for
atheism and, 23–25, 119, 185, 594–95
'belonging without believing' (Hervieu-Léger), 589–90
Buddhism and, 337–40
consciousness and, 65–66
defined, 133
Frazier, 367
Oppy, 53–54
Swinburne, 131
defined (Stenger), 436
diesm and, 436
Expanded Standard (EST), 78
impossible, 57–58
improbable, 59
incoherent, 56
inconsistent, 56–58
Jainism and, 351–53
knowable a priori and, 63
meaning and, 64–65
meaningless, 55
mono-, 403
morally repugnant, 59–60
naturalism and, 54–55, 60–69
non-, 368–69
non-, in classical Hindu thought, 372–74
as an objectification of groupness (Durkheim), 596
objective value and, 63–64
Open, 81–83, 309
Promethean anti-, 15
Sanskritic, 368
social aspects of, 498
societal well-being and, 504–5
universe and, 373
theodicy, 78–83, 421–27
free will, 78–79, 688
Leibnizian, 78
meta-, 78
natural law, 79
process, 81
soul-making, 80
Theodore of Mopsuestia, 159
Theodorus, 147, 189
theology
apophatic, 132
Big Bang. See Big Bang
defined (Ramsey), 307
dualistic, 173
liberation, 301–2
natural, 23, 25, 422
negative, 468 fn 1
secular (Funkenstein), 185
thermodynamics, 437–39
thermotheology, 437–38
Third Vatican Mythographer, 160
Thomas, Keith, 184
Thompson, Peter, 5
Thoreau, Henry, 116
Thrower, James, 19, 456, 587, 589, 595
Thymos (recognition of the individual), 299
Tippett, Michael, 720–21
tirthankaras (those who create a ford or river crossing), 360–61
tiryanca (compositite category of living things), 356
Toland, John, 196, 201–2
Tolstoy, Leo, 107, 110–11, 716
Tomka, Miklós, 626
Torio Koyata, 671
Toshimaro, A., 667
totalitarianism, 506–7
totemism, 487
Toynbee, Polly, 251
Trakakis, Nick, 79–80
transworld depravity (Plantinga), 74
Treiber, Johann Philipp, 712
Trinitarian doctrine, 122, 131 fn 7, 181
Trotter, Justin, 240
truth
as an absolute value, 289–90
Christian view of (Nietzsche), 288
classes of, 314
foundational, 99
'metaphysical axiom', 99
spiritual, 290
Tuatha de Danaan, 161
Turkey, 555, 562, 571, 576, 642, 647–48
Turner, Bryan, 454
Twain, Mark, 684
twentieth century, 229–44, 429
atheism and, 229–44
twenty-first century, 429
Existentialism, 290–91
Judaism, 331–32
Tylor, E. B., 487
Tyrała, Radosław, 6, 625–26
Uganda, 500–501, 507
Ukraine, 558, 564, 571, 626, 629, 631
'Unholy Trinity', 257
'Unholy Warrior', 254
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), 506, 541. See also Russia; Soviet Union
Unitarianism, 213, 218, 221–22
United Kingdom, 456–60, 555, 558, 566, 590–91, 596. See also Great Britain
United States of America, 230–31, 453, 456–60, 469, 473, 486, 531–32, 540–41, 545, 555, 558, 560, 562, 566, 571, 576–79, 582–83, 591, 602–4, 609, 613–19. See also North America
societal well-being and, 503–4
universalism, 303
universe
Clockwork, 436
defined (Mawson), 26
divinely-created, 76
eternal, 440
eternity and, 437–38
heliocentric, 434–35
natural origins of, 442
nebular hypothesis of (Swedenborg), 436
open, 82
(p. 762) Ptolemaic versus Copernican, 420
quantum tunneling, 442
relational versus theistic, 82
singularity (Hawking and Penrose) of, 439–40
Upaniṣads, 377, 653
Urban VIII, Pope, 435
Uruguay, 558, 571
Utah, 503
utilitarianism, 265
utopianism, 265
Uzbekistan, 462
Vaiśeṣika, 369, 373
Vajrayāna tantras, 338
Vallabha, 377
Vallely, Anne, 5
values, 11–13, 24, 28–30, 32–33, 42, 75, 270, 441–42
adaptive, 430
authoritarian, 512
Christian, 230, 273, 281–82
'conventional' or legal', 143
feminist, 516–17, 520
finite, 109
freedom and, 287
inherited, 280
intrinsic, 114–15
liberalization of, 240
normative, 209
objective, 64, 264
pre-existing, 284
source of moral, 270–71
well-being and, 99
Vanini, Giulio Cesare, 179–80, 191–92
Vanzetti, Bartolomeo, 722
Varèse, Edgard, 720
variation, 393
Varro, Marcus Terentius, 153, 183
Vasari, Giorgio, 701
Vedas, 368, 653
Venetian Council of Ten, 181
Venezuela, 562, 576, 583
Verdi, Giuseppe, 713
verificationism. See atheism, verification
Vermont, 503
Vernière, Paul, 196
Verrocchio, Andrea del, 702
Vertov, Dziga (David Abelevich Kaufman), 731–32
Vienna Circle, 308
Vietnam, 500
visual arts, 698–708. See also art
Vitz, P. C., 542
Vivekananda, 375
Voas, David, 590–91, 596
Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet), 43, 48, 156, 179, 181, 201, 327–28, 498
voluntarism, theological, 95–98
divine attitude theory (DAT), 98
divine desire theory (DDT), 98
pitfalls of, 97
will and command functions of, 96–97
Wagner, Richard, 713
Waite, Roger, 253
Wakan Tankah, 17
Walcher, Ferdinand, 712
Wales, 594
Walker, R., 33
Wallace, Mary, 238, 242
Walters, Kerry, 18–19
Warhol, Andy, 698, 708
Watanabe Masao, 669–70
Weber, Max, 476, 587
Weber, S. R., 530, 532
Weinberg, Steven, 251, 387
well-being
societal, 497–508
critiques of, 504–6
homicide and, 502
Human Development Index, 502
motherhood, 500–501
peacefulness, 501
in religious and nonreligious nations, 498–500
Successful Societies Scale, 502–3
theism and atheism and, 504
Wells, H. G., 684, 686
Weltecke, Dorothea, 4–5, 661
Wesley, John, 187
West, Cornell, 460
West, Rebecca, 684
(p. 763) Western Europe, 462, 558, 560, 587–98
assessing atheism in, 589–98
cultural varieties, 594–97
social identification, 592–94
positive, 583
White Tiger Corps, 668
Whitehead, Alfred North, 81
Whitehouse, Bill, 258
Whylly, Sarah, 6
Wicca, 518
Wielenberg, Erik J., 4, 104, 111, 113–15
Wiesel, Elie, 684
Wilders, Geert, 646
Wilkinson, P. J., 531
William of Ockham, 170–71, 185
Williams, Ralph Vaughan, 716–19
Williams, Thomas, 214
Wilson, Bryan R., 2, 453
Wilson, David Sloan, 253
Wilson, Robert, 438
Wimsatt, W. K., 705
Wine, Sherwin, 332–33
Winstanley, Gerard, 213
Winter, M., 516
witchcraft, 186–87. See also supernaturalism
Witham, L., 544
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 56, 121, 128, 312, 387
Wolf, Gary, 251, 253, 255–56
Wolf, Susan, 105, 115–16
Wood, James, 695
Wood, Robin, 243
Wood, Ursula, 717
Wooler, Thomas Jonathan, 214
Woolf, Virginia, 684
Wootton, David, 180, 187–88
world, as purposeless machine, 384–85. See also metaphor, machine
World Factbook (CIA), 554
World Values Survey (WVS), 454, 458, 515–16, 584–85, 590 fn 4, 602, 647–48
Wright, Susannah, 223
wrongness, 269–70
objective moral (defined, Craig), 94
theological voluntarism and, 95
Xenakis, Iannis, 720
Xenophon, 141
Yablokov, Igor, 623–24
yajna (sacrifices), 653
yaksha/yakshi (protector deities), 357
Yamagawa Kenjirō, 668–69
Yemen, 501
Yoga, 373
Youmans, Edward Livingstone, 669
Yudhiṣṭhira, King, 377
Yugoslavia, 625
Zagzebski, Linda, 97 fn 3, 98
Zappa, Frank, 722
Zayd, Nasr Hamid Abu, 647 fn 11
Zen, 677
Zenk, Thomas, 5
Zeno, 183
Zeno's Paradox, 430
'Zetetic' societies, 216
Zimbabwe, 500–501
zindīq (Manichean), 168
Zionism, 330
Judaism and, 331–32
Žižek, Slavoj, 252, 302–5
Zoroastrianism, 17, 640
Zrinščak, Siniša, 626
Zuckerman, Phil, 5, 91, 93, 554, 593, 597, 618, 627