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date: 06 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Studies of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) in persons with a known genetic syndrome can illustrate the heterogeneity of MLD by revealing distinct cognitive profiles linked to poor mathematics achievement. These profiles may model the development of MLD and have implications for diagnosis and intervention. This approach is evident in research on fragile X or Turner syndromes. Both syndromes have a high incidence of MLD, and their phenotypes include remarkable strengths and difficulties in select math skills. Girls with fragile X syndrome show remarkable rote knowledge that does not appear to support problem solving or conceptual mastery; at some stages, it may mask MLD. Girls with Turner syndrome have remarkably difficulty with math fluency and estimation, but untimed performance is often accurate, even under high working memory demands, suggesting unique compensatory strategies. These phenotypes have important implications for the roles of individual and developmental differences in MLD.

Keywords: dyscalculia, mathematical learning disabilities (MLD), fragile X syndrome, Turner syndrome, MLD subtypes, phenotypes, compensatory mechanisms, working memory

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