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date: 05 July 2020

Language Index

Language Index

(p. 885) Acehnese, reduplication 171
Achooli, verbal derivation 604
Afar, adjectives 581
Afrikaans, reduplication 449
Afroasiatic languages 573–5
adjectival derivation 581–2
adverbial derivation 582–3
nominalization 576–9
root-and-pattern morphology 575–6, 579
verbal derivation 580–1
Aghem, evaluative morphology (EM) 309
Agta, reduplication 555, 556
Ahtna 670, 671
evaluative morphology (EM) 682
kinship terms 673
nominalization 672, 674
verbal derivation 678
Ainu, evaluative morphology (EM) 312–13
Aka-Bo 149
Akan, evaluative morphology (EM) 309
Akkadian
adjectival derivation 582
nominalization 577, 578
Alabama
imperfective form 209
infixation 147
meaning in infixation 144
plural formation 206–7
reduplication 174, 176
Alagwa, adverbs 583
Algonquian languages, evaluative morphology (EM) 315
Altaic languages 493–6
word formation 496–508
Amele, reduplication 182, 184
Amharic, verbal derivation 581
Ammani-Jordanian Arabic, hypocoristic forms 196–7
Anywa 598, 601–2
Ao
evaluative morphology (EM) 312
reduplication 176
Arabana, compounding 655
Arabic
adjectival derivation 280, 582
broken plurals 204
Classical, root-and-pattern morphology 575
hypocoristic forms 196–7
nominalization 577
processing studies 107–8
templatic morphology 194
Aramaic, nominalization 579
Arara
infixation 142–3, 145
meaning in infixation 144
Archi, infixation 147
Armenian 449
category-changing 454
category-maintaining affixes 456
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
plural formation 231–2
Aroma, reduplication 174
Arosi, reduplication 173
Arrernte 655
Mparntwe, kinship terms 667
verb-splitting 148n
Asilulu, reduplication 555
Atayal 149
infixation 141–2
Athabaskan languages 669–70
affix-ordering 371, 373
category maintaining 679–84
evaluative morphology (EM) 681–4
nominalization 672–3, 674–6
roots and stems 670–3
(p. 886) verbal derivation 677–9
verbs 684–700
Atsi, affixation 629
Au, infixation 148
Australian languages, meanings of affixes 135
Austronesian (AN) languages 545–6
affixation 546–50
infixation 146
compounding 551–2
prosody 551
reduplication 552–7
stability over time 149–50
subtractive morphology 550
Avokaya 597
Bade, nominalization 585
Baffin (Inuit dialect) 713, 714, 715, 717, 719–20, 722
Bafut, evaluative morphology (EM) 309
Bāgandji, evaluative morphology (EM) 310
Bahasa Indonesia see Malay
Bahnar
aspectuals 531
negation 533
nominalization 529
pronominals 531
reduplication 540
Balese 599
Baltic languages 444
Banjarese, subtractive morphology 550
Bantu, reduplication 182
Bantu languages 559n, 562, 564
affix ordering 370
influence on Nilotic languages 770–1
reduplication 184, 186–8
Barupu, infixation 148
Basque
comparatives and superlatives 287
denominal adjectives 279
influence from Gascon and French 773
influence from Romance languages 771
neoclassical compounds 35
Begak, infixation 143
Beja, nominalization 577, 578
Bella Coola, lexical affixes 39, 40
Bengali
affixation 460–1
reduplication 459
Berber languages 573, 575
compounding 578
root-and-pattern morphology 576
Beria, nominalization 606
Berta, verbal derivation 604
Bhojpuri (Hindi) 445
affixation 467
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
Bidiya
nominalization 586, 587
reduplication 589
Bikol
reduplication 176, 553
subtractive morphology 550
Birom, infixation 148
Bolaang Mongondow, reduplication 553
Bole, infixation 148
Bontok 149
Botolan Sambal, reduplication 553
Boumaa Fijian, reduplication 183–4
Breton
numerals 333–4
paradigms 359, 366
Bru
desideratives 532
locatives 533
nominalization 529
reciprocal affixes 530
reduplication 539
verbal derivation 532
Bugan, compounding 542
Bulgarian, affix-ordering 381
Bundjalung, verbal derivation 660
Bunun, reduplication 554–5
Buryat 499, 502, 504
Cantonese, tonal alternation 216
Carrier
nominalization 676
verbs 697–9
Catalan
affixation, semantic change 352
category-changing 454–5
category-maintaining affixes 456
denominal adjectives 279
evaluative morphology (EM) 296–7
Cavineña, circumfixes 127–8
(p. 887) Cebuano 150n
subtractive morphology 550
Celtic languages 443–4
Chaco languages 744
Chadic languages 573
affixation 583–7
reduplication 587–9
Chagatay 497, 500–1, 504–5
Chaha
consonant mutation 210–12
featural affixes 139n
Chamorro
meaning in infixation 144, 145
reduplication 556
Chechen, reduplication 179–80
Cheq Wong, reduplication 537
Chinese
Cantonese, tonal alternation 216
Fuzhou, diminutives 301
Mandarin/Standard 609–11
affixation 611, 613, 616–20, 625–6
infixation 146
compounding 542
conversion 620
influence from Manchu 774
morphosyntactic features 611–13
reduplication 614–15
speech production studies 111
voicing 622
Pingding 786
Choguita Rarámuri (CR) 727–9
argument changing 732–40
verbal derivation 729–32, 740–2
Chorote languages 744, 745
evaluative morphology (EM) 757
nominalization 749–50, 753, 755–6, 759
verbal derivation 762–3
Chrau
compounding 543
involuntary prefixes 533
reciprocal affixes 530
statives 530
Chukchi, reduplication 47, 173, 178
Ciyao, reduplication 186
Cree, evaluative morphology (EM) 315
Cupeño, habilitatives 198–9
Cushitic languages 573
adverbs 582–3
nominalization 577–8, 579
verbal derivation 580, 581
Cuzco Quechua, causatives 266–7
Czech
comparatives and superlatives 287
compounding 447
evaluative morphology (EM) 303
Dagur 499, 502–3, 508
Dakkhani, reduplication 459
Danish, compounding 448
Dëne Su̜ɬiné 684, 695, 697
Diegueño, evaluative morphology (EM) 310–11
Dinka 592, 596, 786
Diola-Fogny, evaluative morphology (EM) 310
Ditidaht/Nitinaht, reduplication 177–8
Diyari
category maintaining 666
nominalization 659
reduplication 170
Dogon 558–9
Dutch
affixation
circumfixation 452
polysemy in affixation 348
semi-affixes/affixoids 122
complex words 110
compounding 448
conversion 161, 163
denominal adjectives 279
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
historical change 406
nominalization 243–4, 250
paradigms 362–3, 364–5
processing studies 106, 107
socio-geographic variation 411–12
speech production studies 111, 112
suppletive allomorphy 221–2, 230n
synthetic compounds 42
East Chadic
nominalization 584
reduplication 589
(p. 888) East Dangla
nominalization 586, 587
reduplication 587, 588, 589
verbal derivation 581
East Tucanoan languages
influence on Hup 775–6
influence on Tariana 774, 775
Eastern Armenian, causative/inchoative alternation 265
Egyptian
adjectival derivation 582
compounding 578
nominalization 577
verbal derivation 580
Egyptian languages 573, 575, 576
Eipo, infixation 148
Enets 474
Enga, influence on Yimas 774
English 444, 446–7
a/an alternation 233
adjectival derivation 278, 279
adjectives, relational vs. qualitative 285
adverbs 295
predicative 291–2
affixation 118
allomorphy 125–6, 227–8
historical change 384–6
meanings in 134–5
polysemy in suffixation 342–3, 345
rival suffixes 70–2, 74–5, 80–3
semantic change 352
semi-suffixes 30, 31–2
suffixation 26–7, 116
unique affixes 121
ambiguous novel compounds 32–3
American, numerals 336
borrowing
from Greek 767–8
loanwords in Pama-Nyungan languages 657, 661–3
loanwords in Russian 121–2
suffixes 76–80
bound forms 34, 35
category-changing 11, 454–5
by apophony 123–4
causative/inchoative alternation 270–1
comparatives 203
and superlatives 287, 288–9
conversion 44–5, 120–1, 157, 158, 160, 450–1
Early Modern English (EmodE), affixation 392–5, 397
evaluative morphology (EM) 302, 303, 456–7
function words 317, 319–21, 324, 327–8, 331–2
headedness 133
hypocoristic forms 201–2
influence on Finnish compounding 769
influence on Hindi 470–2
influence on Mandarin Chinese affixation 616
irregular forms 68–9
language acquisition 425–9, 430–3, 434–5, 437
Middle English (ME) 30
affixation 384–5, 390–2, 393, 403–6
neoclassical compounds 35–6, 119–20
nominalization 235–40, 244–5, 249–52, 256, 453
numerals 332–6
Old English (OE) 29–30
affixation 384, 385, 386–90, 395, 398, 400–3
paradigms 358, 360
past tense 17
phonaesthemes 102
plural formation 20–1, 192
processing studies 107
reduplication 47–8, 171, 180
scientific, meaning in infixation 144, 145
speech production studies 111, 112
spoken by Hungarian-speakers 419–22
stress alternation 122–3, 216
synthetic compounds 41, 42
tmesis 137–8
transition from lexeme to suffix 28, 29–30
verbal derivation 257–8, 262, 264
Erzya dialect of Mordvin 481–2
Eskimo-Aleut languages 702–3
lexical affixes 40
reduplication 710
word formation 703–10
Estonian 474, 480
(p. 889) Evenki, proprietive adjectives 504–8
Ewe
affixation, semantic change 351
reduplication 172
Figuig, nominalization 579
Fijian
compounding 552
reduplication 175
Filipino 546
Finnic languages 473–4
Finnish 474
adjectival derivation 280, 477–8
affixation 476–9
compounding 769–70
conversion 479–80
inhabitant suffix 343
nominalization 476–7
numerals 334
processing studies 107
relationship with Estonian 480
relationship with Sámi 481
word-formation 480
French 339, 444
affixation
borrowed suffixes in English 76–80
ordering 19
semantic change 352
category-changing 454–5
category-maintaining affixes 456
comparatives 288
conversion 160, 450–1
defective paradigms 21
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
function words 317
influence on Basque 773
influence on Early Modern English (EmodE) 394–5
language acquisition 429, 433, 434, 435
neoclassical compounds 35
nominalization 241, 255, 454
numerals 335
Old French (OF) 385
influence on Middle English (ME) 391–2, 403–6
orthographic production studies 113
paradigms 355
polysemy 340
proclitics 23
reduplication 47
transition from lexeme to suffix 28
Fula, diminutives 25
Gascon, influence on Basque 773
Georgian, function words 322n, 324–6
German 444
adjectival derivation 278
affixation
circumfixes 127
historical change 384, 386
interfixes 126
polysemy in 346
prefixation 36–7
semi-suffixes 30–1
restrictions 372
Bavarian, contact-induced grammaticalization 772–3
bound forms 34
category-changing 454
conversion 159, 163, 449, 451
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
historical change 406
language acquisition 435–6, 437
Middle High German 29
neoclassical compounds 36
New High German 29
nominalization 238, 242, 244, 255, 453–4
Old High German 29
orthographic production studies 112–13
reduplication 47, 48
subjects 12
synthetic compounds 41, 42
transition from lexeme to suffix 29
umlauts 212–13
Germanic languages 444
compounding 27
influence on Old English (OE) 386–90
language acquisition 427, 428, 433
prefixation 36
transition from lexeme to suffix 29–30
Gidar
nominalization 584, 586
reduplication 589
(p. 890) Gilyak/Nivkh, consonant mutation 210
Giziga
adverbial derivation 583
nominalization 577, 584, 586, 587
reduplication 588, 589
Greek 444, 447
Ancient 338–9, 443
grammars 14
loanwords in English 767–8
neoclassical compounds 35, 119–20, 385
nominalization 240–1, 242, 250, 255, 453
numerals 333–4
Guaraní, grammars 14
Guaykuruan languages 743
Gumuz, verbal derivation 605
Gwandara, nominalization 585
Hadza, infixation 148
Halang, reduplication 540
Halkomelem, meaning in infixation 144
Hamar, nominalization 579
Hän 670
Hanunóo, prosody 551
Hare 670
Hausa 573
affixation 583
nominalization 242, 584, 585
reduplication 177, 588
Hdi
nominalization 585
reduplication 587, 588
Hebrew
adjectival derivation 582
Biblical, root-and-pattern morphology 575–6
Israeli, nominalization 578
language acquisition 430, 433, 434, 437, 438
naïve discrimination learning (NDL) 115
nominalization 579
processing studies 107–8
speech production studies 111
templatic morphology 195–6
verbal derivation 580
Hiaki, reduplication 188
Hidasta, pitch alternation 216–17
Hiligaynon, reduplication 174
Hindi 445, 447
affixation 460–1
prefixation 461–3
suffixation 463–72
conversion 460
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
reduplication 171–2, 459
Hittite 443
Hoava
affixation 548
infixation 137, 138, 139, 141, 143
Hua, infixation 147
Hungarian 474, 486–9
affixation 475–6
evaluative morphology (EM) 302
influence on Lovāri Romani 770
influence on Slovak and English as second languages 419–22
language acquisition 430
verbal derivation 350, 487–8
Hup, influence from East Tucanoan languages 775–6
Hupa 670
nouns 681
suppletive allomorphy 232–3
Icelandic
compounding 447–8
language acquisition 433–4
Ijoid 558–9
Ilokano, affixation 549
Indo-Aryan (IA) languages 445–6, 447, 458–72
reduplication 449
Indo-European (IE) languages 443–6
word formation 446–57
Indo-Iranian languages 444–6
Indonesian
causative/inchoative alternation 269
reduplication 171, 175
Ineseño Chumash/Samala, reduplication 187–8
Inuit 702–3, 710–12
affixation 712–22
modification 719–22
nominalization 712–14
verbal derivation 714–19
Inupiaq 709
(p. 891) Inuttut, Labrador see Labrador
Iraqw
nominalization 577, 578, 579
verbal derivation 580
Irish, verbal nouns 24
Iroquoian languages, bound roots 38
Italian 444
affixation 118–19
semantic change 352
contact-induced grammaticalization 772–3
evaluative morphology (EM) 298, 313–14, 350, 457
language acquisition 431
nominalization 453
reduplication 48, 449
transition from lexeme to suffix 28
Itbayaten, reduplication 553
Ithmus Mixe, featural affixes 139n
Jah-Hut, nominalization 528
Jaminjung, compounding 656
Jamul, circumfixes 128
Japanese
evaluative morphology (EM) 301, 312
hypocoristic forms 201
prefixes 124
Shizuoka, emphasis 207–9
Javanese
elative forms 213
Old, reduplication 553
Jeh, meaning in infixation 144, 145
Joola Banjal
nominalization 571
verbal derivation 562
K’abeena, nominalization 577, 579
Kachin, affixation 630
Kadazan, affixation 549
Kadu languages 591
Kalaallisut (Inuit dialect) 705–6, 708–9, 711, 713, 722
Kalanga, lack of affixation 130
Kalmyk 502, 504–5
Kambera, circumfixes 128
Kanembu, vowel alternation 214
Kangiryuarmiut (Inuit dialect) 712, 716–17, 718
Kanuri 592, 597
nominalization 605–6
numerals 333–4
verbal derivation 603, 604
Kapampangan, reduplication 553
Karao, evaluative morphology (EM) 311
Karo Batak, reduplication 553
Katu 527
aspectuals 531
compounding 541–2, 543
involuntary prefixes 533
nominalization 529
reduplication 540
statives 530
Kaurna 653–4
Kavalan 149
Kazakh 497–9, 501–3
proprietive adjectives 504
Kazan Tatar, affix-ordering 381
Kelabit, affixation 548
Kentakbong
aspectuals 531
desideratives 532
Ket 509–12
affix-ordering 373–4
nominalization 513–14
verb structure 514–19
Kham, evaluative morphology (EM) 312
Khanty 474
Kharia, reduplication 178–9
Khasi 526
compounding 542
desideratives 532
nominalization 528, 529
reduplication 537, 539
statives 530
Khmer 521
affixation 125, 151–3, 530
negation 533
nominalization 528, 529
presyllables 524
Khmu 526
aspectuals 531
nominalization 528, 529
reciprocal affixes 530
statives 530, 533
verbal derivation 532
(p. 892) Khoekhoe, evaluative morphology (EM) 309
Kinande, reduplication 171n, 178
Kinyarwanda, reduplication 186–7
Kipsikiis 593–4, 595, 596
Kiribatese, reduplication 174
Klallam, meaning in infixation 144, 145
Koasati, plural formation 206, 207
Koho
compounding 543
nominalization 529
pronominals 530–1
reduplication 539, 541
verbal derivation 532
Kokota, reduplication 175
Kolami, reduplication 171
Koman, verbal derivation 605
Komi/Zyryan 474, 484–6
Koryak, reduplication 173
Koyukon 670, 672
kinship terms 673
nominalization 672, 674
verbs 690–1, 694
Kri
infixation 147
nominalization 529
verbal derivation 532
Kujamaat Joola, paradigms 356
Kukatja 655
Kurdish 445, 449
Kwakw’ala, affix-ordering 373, 381–2
Kwazá, reduplication 183–4
Labrador (Inuit dialect) 708n, 710, 714, 716, 718, 720–1, 780
Ladin, contact-induced grammaticalization 772–3
Latin 443
adverbs 292
affixation 343–4
prefixation 451–2
semantic change 352
Classical, transition from lexeme to suffix 28–9
grammars 14, 21–2
influence on Early Modern English (EmodE) 393–4
influence on Middle English (ME) 391–2
neoclassical compounds 35, 119, 385
numerals 335
paradigms 356
polysemy 341
polysemy in suffixation 343–4
Lele
nominalization 586–7
reduplication 588
Lendu 593
Lepcha, affixation 629
Lese 601
Leti, infixation 141
Limbu, affixation 630
Luganda, affixation, allomorphy 219–20, 223–4
Luo 592
influence from Bantu languages 770–1
nominalization 602–3
Lushootseed, reduplication 176, 185
Ma’di 600
Madi 594
Mafa, word-external conditioning 233–4
Magahi 445
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
Maithili 445
Majang 594
Maka 744
evaluative morphology (EM) 757
nominalization 749–53, 755–6, 760
verbal derivation 761, 763
Makah Melanau 150n
Makasarese, affixation 549
Mal, reduplication 543
Malay/Bahasa Indonesia 545–6
affixation 548
compounding 552
Modern Sri Lanka, influence from Tamil 772
reduplication 553
subtractive morphology 550
Malayalam, evaluative morphology (EM) 312
Malayo-Polynesian languages, reduplication 174–5, 180
Maltese
evaluative morphology (EM) 313
reduplication 176
(p. 893) Manam, reduplication 554
Manambu
infixation 148
reduplication 176
Manchu
influence on Chinese 774
Written 497, 499–501, 503
proprietive adjectives 504
Mandarin Chinese see Chinese
Mande 558–9
Mang 523, 526
compounding 543
reduplication 538, 539, 540
verbal derivation 532
Mangarayi, meaning in infixation 145
Manggarai 149, 552
Mani, reduplication 173
Mansi 474
Marathi, reduplication 459
Margi, suffixes 124
Mari 482–4
Mari languages 474
Martu Wangka 655
Masa
nominalization 584, 586
reduplication 589
Mataguayan languages 743–5
nominalization 748–61
verbal derivation 761–6
Mehri, nominalization 579
Micmac, evaluative morphology (EM) 311
Migama/Migaama, nominalization 579, 586
Mina
nominalization 586
reduplication 174, 588
Mittimatalik (Inuit dialect) 714, 718
Miya
nominalization 585, 587
reduplication 587, 589
Mlabri 526
Mnong, reduplication 537, 539, 541
Modgel, nominalization 585
Mofu-Gudur, nominalization 584
Mohawk, lexical affixes 39
Mokilese, reduplication 47, 170
Mokilko
nominalization 585, 586
reduplication 589
Mon-Khmer languages 520–3, 543–4, 786
affixation 523–34
compounding 523, 540, 541–3
reduplication 523, 534–41, 543
stability over time 150
Mon, negation 533
Mongghul 498
proprietive adjectives 508
Mongolian 499
Mongolic languages 494–5see also Altaic languages
Mordvin (Erzya dialect) 481–2
Mordvin languages 474
Mosetén, evaluative morphology (EM) 311
Motu, reduplication 555
Muna, evaluative morphology (EM) 312
Munda languages 520–1, 526
stability over time 150
Muong
compounding 542
reduplication 539
Mupun
nominalization 585
reduplication 587, 588
Nanai, proprietive adjectives 504–8
Nancowry 526, 527
nominalization 528, 529
Nandi, adpositional derivation 603
Navajo 670, 671
causative/inchoative alternation 271
evaluative morphology (EM) 681–2
nominalization 675–6
nouns 681
verbs 690, 699–700
Ndebele, reduplication 186
Nélêmwa, evaluative morphology (EM) 312
Nenets 474, 489–91
Ngaju Dayak, reduplication 553
Ngeq, reduplication 543
Ngiti 594–5, 599
Ngiyampaa
evaluative morphology (EM) 667–8
nominalization 658–9
(p. 894) Niger-Congo languages 558–9
nominalization 571–2
noun class systems 567–70
verbal derivation 559–67
Nilo-Saharan languages 591–3
affixation 593–608
case marking 607–8
category changing 601–6
category-maintaining 599–601
Nilotic languages, influence from Bantu languages 770–1
Nimboran, blocking 229n
Nisgha, lexical affixes 39
Nitinaht/Ditidaht, reduplication 177–8
Nivacle 744, 747
evaluative morphology (EM) 757–8
nominalization 749–56, 760
verbal derivation 761–4
Nivkh/Gilyak, consonant mutation 210
Noni, infixation 148
Norogachi Rarámuri 728
Norwegian
adverbs 292
deverbal adjectives 278
Nuxalk, lexical affixes 39
Nyangumarta 653, 654, 655
compounding 655
reduplication 656
verbal derivation 660–2
O’Odham see Tohono O’Odham
Occitan
affixation, semantic change 352
evaluative morphology (EM) 313
Omotic languages 573
adjectival derivation 581–2
nominalization 577
verbal derivation 581
Oriya, affixation 460–1
Oromo, verbal derivation 581
Ouargla
adverbial derivation 583
verbal derivation 580
Paamese
compounding 551
reduplication 175
Pacoh 522
compounding 542
involuntary prefixes 533
locatives 533
negation 533
number 534
pretence 533
pronominals 531
reduplication 535, 537
statives 530, 533
Palaung 526
nominalization 529
number 534
pretence 533
reciprocal affixes 530
reduplication 539
Palawano, reduplication 556
Pama-Nyungan languages 651–2
affixation 658–68
category maintaining 664–8
compounding 655–6
evaluative morphology (EM) 667–8
loanwords 653–5
nominalization 658–9
reduplication 656–7
verbal derivation 659–64
word formation 652–3
Pangasinan, reduplication 555
Päri 595–6
Pashto 445
Passamaquoddy, evaluative morphology (EM) 299
Pazeh 150n
affixation 548
Permic languages 474, 484–6
Pero
nominalization 584–5
reduplication 589
Persian 445, 449, 500–1
affixation 462
reduplication 48
Pévé, nominalization 579
Pingding Mandarin
infixation 146, 147
meaning in infixation 144
Pipil, influence from Spanish 774–5
PMP, compounding 551–2
(p. 895) Polish 444
affixation, allomorphs 224
agreement 22–3
denominal adjectives 279
evaluative morphology (EM) 313, 315
inflection 10–11, 17, 21
language acquisition 433, 436
neoclassical compounds 35
paradigms 356
Portuguese 444
compounding 448
conversion 450
deverbal adjectives 278
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
Modern Sri Lanka, influence from Tamil 772
Proto-Athabaskan 672
Proto-Austronesian (PAN) 149–50, 546–7
Proto-Chamic, infix borrowing 153
Pumpokol 512
Punjabi
affixation 460–1, 467
reduplication 459
Puyuma, stability over time 150
Quechua, affix-ordering 378
Quileute, infixation 141
Raluana 149
Rarámuri 724, 726–9
argument changing 732–40
verbal derivation 729–32, 740–2
Rawang, affixation 630
Rengao 526, 530
Rgyalrong 630–1, 649–50, 786
affixation 634, 637–49
apophony 635–7
category changing 642–6
category maintaining 637–42
ideophones 646–9
Japhug, affixation 629
nominalization 633, 643–5
reduplication 633, 634–5
stem formation 632–3
suppletion 637
verbal derivation 645–6, 648–9
voicing 622, 624
Riang-Liang 526
River Guarijío 727–8, 730, 732, 735
Romance languages 444
compounding 27
influence on Basque 771
language acquisition 427, 429
nominalization 241, 242, 244
transition from lexeme to suffix 28–9
Romani, Lovāri, influence from Hungarian 770
Romanian
compounding 448
evaluative morphology (EM) 315
nominalization 255
reduplication 449
Rotuman, templatic morphology 197–8, 199
Roviana, reduplication 177
Ruc 521
locatives 533
nominalization 528
pronominals 531
statives 530
Rundi, verbal derivation 562
Russian 444, 474n
adverbs 295
evaluative morphology (EM) 297
influence on Arin 510
influence on Permic languages 484
language acquisition 431, 433, 436
reduplication 48, 181
semi-affixes/affixoids 121–2
suppletive allomorphy 226
Sach 521
Saharan languages, category changing 605–6
Saisiyat, nominalization 241
Sakha, proprietive adjectives 504
Salar, proprietive adjectives 505
Salishan languages, lexical affixes 40
Samala/Ineseño Chumash, reduplication 187–8
Sámi 474, 481
Samoyedic languages 474
Sanskrit 443, 447
affixation 461–3
function words 323–4, 327–32, 337
numerals 335
(p. 896) Sara Mbay 595
Sedang 526
Sekani 670
Semai
infixation 141
meaning in infixation 144
Semelai 527
Semitic languages 573, 574
adjectival derivation 582
language acquisition 427
nominalization 578
root-and-pattern morphology 575–6
templatic morphology 191, 193–7, 199
Sengoi, nominalization 527
Serbo-Croatian
category-changing 454
nominalization 453
Shabo 591
Shughni, function words 324–5
Shuswap, meaning in infixation 145
Siar Lak , evaluative morphology (EM) 312
Sidaama, nominalization 577–8, 579
Sidamo
nominalization 577
verbal derivation 581
Sinhala, reduplication 459
Sino-Tibetan languages 609
Slavey
evaluative morphology (EM) 682–4
Slavic languages 280, 444
Slovak
adverbs 293n
evaluative morphology (EM) 302, 307, 313–14, 315
function words 319n
neologisms 779–80
nominalization 453
paradigms 355, 357, 359, 363
spoken by Hungarian-speakers 419–22
Somali
adjectival derivation 581
verbal derivation 580, 581
Somrai, nominalization 585
Spanish 444
adjectival derivation 277, 280
adverbs 292–3
affixation
infixation 452
polysemy in suffixation 345
semantic change 351, 352
causative/inchoative alternation 267–9
comparatives and superlatives 287
conversion 160
Dominican
diminutives 301
reduplication 181
evaluative morphology (EM) 457
identical adverbs and adjectives 158–9
influence on Pipil 774–5
loanwords in Wichi 758
Mexican
diminutives 301
reduplication 181
nominalization 287–8, 453
Peninsular, evaluative morphology (EM) 350
reduplication 48, 449
relational vs. qualitative adjectives 285
sociolinguistics 408
systematic properties of adjectival suffixes 281–3
transition from lexeme to suffix 28
Spokane, lexical affixes 39
Sre
reduplication 539
statives 530
Supyire, evaluative morphology (EM) 298–9
Sura, nominalization 585
Swahili
affixation 130
evaluative morphology (EM) 310
verbal derivation 562
Swedish
compounding 448, 449
denominal adjectives 279
deverbal adjectives 278
Sye, reduplication 556
Syriac, adjectival derivation 582
Tagalog 150n, 547
affix-ordering 376–7
circumfixes 128
prosody 551
reduplication 174, 188, 554
Tajik 449
(p. 897) Tama, verbal derivation 604
Tamashek see Tuareg
Tamil
influence on Malay and Portuguese creoles 772
reduplication 47
Tanacross
nominalization 673, 675
nouns 681
Tapiete, evaluative morphology (EM) 311
Tariana, influence from East Tucanoan languages 774, 775
Tarok, reduplication 173
Tashelhiyt
adjectives 581
nominalization 577
Tatar, infixation 146n
Tausug, infixation 141
Temiar
aspectuals 531
reduplication 537
Terena, nasal harmony 214–15
Tetun, meaning in infixation 145
Thai
evaluative morphology (EM) 312
infixation borrowed from Khmer 151–3
meaning in infixation 144, 145
Thao
affixation 549
reduplication 552–3, 554, 555–6
triplication 556–7
voice 547
Tibetan 620–1
affixation 623–30
compounding 623, 625
nominalization 624–8
phonology 621–2
reduplication 622
Tigak, reduplication 175
Tigre, nominalization 579
Tiipay, circumfixes 128
Till, reduplication 174
Timugon Murut, subtractive morphology 550
Tiv, tonal alternation 215
Tɬi̜cho̜ Yatiì 684
Toba Batak 149, 551
Tohono O’Odham
causatives 266–7
deletion 192, 205–6, 218
reduplication 170
Tok Pisin, reduplication 554
Tolowa 670
Tongan 547
causative/inchoative alternation 265
Ts’amakko, adjectives 581, 582
Tswana
nominalization 571–2
noun class systems 567–70
verbal derivation 559–62, 564
Tuareg/Tamashek
adjectives lacking 581
nominalization 578
plural forms 213–14
Tungusic languages 495, 505 see also Altaic languages
Turkana 597–8
case marking 608
nominalization 602
Turkic languages 494see also Altaic languages
Turkish 497–503
affixation 17
agreement 22–3
proprietive adjectives 504–5
reduplication 48
suppletive allomorphy 225, 226
Tuscarora, bound roots 38
Tzutujil, circumfixes 128
Ubangian 558–9
Udihe 498–502
Udihe, proprietive adjectives 504–7
Udmurt/Votyak 474, 484–6
Ugric languages 474
Ukrainian 444
Ulwa
prosody 203
verbal derivation 274
Unangax/Unangam Tunuu 702, 705–7
Uncunwee, case marking 607
Upper Kuskokwim, verbs 685, 699
Upper Sorbian
denominal adjectives 280
evaluative morphology (EM) 313
Uralic languages 473–5
word formation 475–91
Urdu 445
(p. 898) Utkuhiksalingmiut (Inuit dialect) 712–13, 714–16, 717–20, 722
Uto-Aztecan (UA) languages 724–7
argument changing 732–40
conversion 731
instrumental prefixes 727–9
verbal derivation 729–32, 740–2
Uummarmiut 708, 710
Uzbek 502
Vanuatu, reduplication 554
Vietnamese 521, 523
compounding 542–3
lack of affixation 7
nominalization 527
pronominals 531
reduplication 535–41
Southern, function words 322n
Votyak see Udmurt
Wagiman, compounding 656
Walmajarri, category maintaining 665
Wandala, nominalization 584, 585–6
Wangkajunga 655
nominalization 659
verbal derivation 660–2
Warlpiri
category maintaining 665
causative/inchoative alternation 266, 272
compounding 655–6
nominalization 659
reduplication 47
verbal derivation 660–3
Warumungu 655
category maintaining 665–6, 667
compounding 656
West Mudburra 655
Wetan 149
Wichi 744, 745–6
evaluative morphology (EM) 757–9, 761
nominalization 749–56, 760–1
verbal derivation 761–6
Witsuwit’en
evaluative morphology (EM) 682–3
nominalization 672, 675, 676
nouns 680, 681
verbal derivation 678
verbs 689, 692, 693–8
Wolaitta, verbal derivation 580, 581
Woleaian, reduplication 174
Wolof, verbal derivation 562–7
Yagaria, infixation 147
Yanyuwa, noun class replication 775
Yaqui 732n
Yawelmani
prosody 193, 200–1
reduplication 175
Yeniseian languages 509, 786
word formation 510–19
Yeri, infixation 148
Yimas, influence from Enga 774
Yir Yoront
category maintaining 665–6
compounding 656
verbal derivation 662–3
Yoruba 786
infixation 146n
lack of suffixation 8
Yugambeh Bundjalung 655
Yupik, Central Siberian 704–5, 710, 718n
Yup’ik, Central Alaskan 705–6
affix-ordering 373
lexical affixes 39
Yupik languages 702, 703
Yurok
infixation 138–9, 140, 143
reduplication 173
Zenaga, nominalization 579
Zulu, evaluative morphology (EM) 315
Zyryan see Komi