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date: 24 August 2019

Subject Index

Subject Index

(p. 917) a-morphous morphology 16
a-templatic morphology 191, 205–17
ablauts 387see also apophony
acyclicity of affix-ordering 377–80
adjectival derivation 276–95
Afroasiatic languages 581–2
Altaic languages 497–8
deadjectival adjectives 280, 364–5
denominal adjectives 279–80
affixation 454, 466
conversion 451
relational vs. qualitative 284–5
systematic properties 281–3
deverbal adjectives 259n, 276–8, 281
affixation 454, 466
conversion 451
open vs. closed scale 286
Finnish 280, 477–8
Hungarian 486–7
Mari 483
Mordvin 481–2
Nenets 490
Permic languages 485
Yeniseian languages 511–12
adjectives 24, 330
affixation, systematic properties 281–3
of degree, nominalization 287–8
gradability 284–6
as lexical category 290
post-nominal, Athabaskan languages 683
proprietive 503–8
reduplication in Mandarin Chinese 615
adpositional derivation, Nilo-Saharan languages 603
adverbial derivation 479
Afroasiatic languages 582–3
Athabaskan languages 673
deadjectival adverbs
affixation 455
conversion 451
non-predicative 294–5
predicative 291–3
denominal adverbs 294
Hungarian 488
Mari 483–4
Mataguayan languages 747–8
Mon-Khmer languages 538–9
Nenets 491
Yeniseian languages 512
adverbial morphology 293
adverbs 24, 329
ideophonic 603–4
indefinite degree vs. modifiers of extension 284–5
non-predicative 294–5
predicative 291–3
reduplication in Mandarin Chinese 615
affixation 16–17, 118–19
allomorphs 125–6, 219–20
autosegmental 193, 209–17
vs. back-formation 45
vs. compounding 26–7, 48–9
bound lexemes 34–6
conversion 43–5
incorporating languages 38–41
prefixation 36–7
semi-suffixes 30–2, 33–4
synthetic compounds 41–3, 45
transition 28–30, 36
concatenative 200–4
continuous 124–6
discontinuous 126–8
evaluative morphology see evaluative morphology (EM)
frequencies 7–8
(p. 918) function words 324, 327–8
historical change 384–406
in language acquisition 424–8, 430–7, 439
languages and language families
Altaic languages 496–501
Athabaskan languages 672–84, 685–700
Austronesian languages 546–50
Chadic languages 583–7
Eskimo-Aleut languages 704–10
Indo-European (IE) languages 446, 451–7
Indo-Aryan languages 460–72
Inuit 712–22
Mandarin Chinese 611, 613, 616–20, 625–6
Mataguayan languages 745–66
Mon-Khmer languages 523–34
Niger-Congo languages 559–72
Nilo-Saharan languages 593–608
Pama-Nyungan languages 658–68
Rgyalrong 634, 637–49
Tibetan 623–30
Uralic languages 475–92
Uto-Aztecan languages 729–42
absence in Vietnamese 7
Yeniseian languages 510–19
in neoclassical word formation 120
lexical affixes 38–41
meanings 134–5, 144–6
nominalization see nominalization
novel forms 90–1
numerals 335
ordering 93–4, 130–2, 370–1
acyclicity 377–80
co-occurrence 371–2
derivation vs. inflection 371
free variation 376–7
multiple strata models 374–6, 378
reduplication 185–9, 380–2
relative 19
semantic factors 372–4
polysemy 343–9
of English -er suffix 342–3
position
circumfixation 8, 127–8
effect on processing speed 128–30
infixation 8, 125–6, 136–9, 140–3
with reduplication 537, 555–6
borrowed 151–3
derivational 139–40
meanings 144–6
stability over time 149–51
universals 146–8
interfixation 126, 146n
prefixation 8, 20, 36–7, 133
instrumental prefixes 727–9
suffixation 7–8
appreciative suffixes 296–7
borrowed suffixes 76–80
ordering 116
prepositions as 36–7
processes as 122–4, 139
processing studies 104–8
production studies 112–13
productivity see productivity
proprietive adjectives 504–8
reduplication 177–8, 182–4see also reduplication
relational vs. qualitative adjectives 285
replication, grammatical 767–76
rival affixes/suppletive allomorphy 70–2, 74–5, 80–3, 220–9
root-and-pattern morphology 193–5, 575–6, 579
semantic change 350–2
semi-affixes/affixoids 30–2, 121–2
socio-geographic variation 411–12
sociolinguistic factors 408–9
systematic properties 281–3
unique affixes 121, 131
universals 146–8, 783, 785–6
verbal derivation 87, 257–65
voice 546–7
zero-form affixes see conversion
age differences 101
in second language use 420
agentives 453, 466–8 (see also nominalization)
in language acquisition 431–6
agglutinating morphology 725–6, 740–2
agreement 22–3, 25
allomorphy
derivation vs. inflection 227–9
phonologically vs. lexically conditioned 125–6
suppletive 70–2, 74–5, 80–3, 220–30
directionality 231–4
types 219–20, 225
(p. 919) alternation see apophony
ambiguity see polysemy
analogical derivations 45–6, 47
‘ancient’ languages 148–51
antipassives (see also passives)
Bantu languages 562
Niger-Congo languages 566
Rgyalrong 639–40
aphasia, studies 92
applicatives 274–5, 638, 733–6, 764–5
suffixation 219, 223–4, 560, 563–4, 737–41
apophony 8, 123–4
ablauts 387
Nilo-Saharan languages 598
Pama-Nyungan languages 665
Rgyalrong 635–7
umlauts 212–13
Articulated Morphology 53
aspect-marking, reduplication as 173–4
aspectuals
Athabaskan languages 693–4
Mon-Khmer languages 531
auditory comprehension studies 108–10
augmentatives see evaluative morphology (EM)
autosegmental affixation 193, 209–17
auxiliary verbs see function words
back-formation 45, 779
backwards word lists 87
banks of units 114
base components 15
base marking, function words 322, 323
blends 46–7
blocking 70–2, 86–7, 228, 229
body morphemes 16
borrowing
compounds 121–2
Greek affixes in English 767
infixes 151–3
Mandarin Chinese 610
Pama-Nyungan languages 653–5, 657, 661–3
structural 767–76
bound morphemes 64
bound roots 34–6, 38, 40
boundedness 285
British National Corpus (BNC) 90see also corpus data
C1-LIN (cyclicity-linearity) model 232
calques 768see also borrowing
case marking
Nilo-Saharan languages 606–8
Polish 10–11
reduplication as 173
categories, mixed 503
categorizing tradition 13–14
category changing 4, 5, 11, 15, 19–20, 86–7 (see also adjectival derivation; adverbial derivation; conversion; nominalization; verbal derivation)
adjectives and adverbs 24
affixation see affixation
by apophony 123–4
Eurocentric view 7
reduplication as 174–5
by stress alternation see conversion
Category-Conditioned Degree of Productivity 73
category maintaining morphology 456, 464
Altaic languages 498–501
Athabaskan languages 679–84
Nilo-Saharan languages 599–601, 606
Pama-Nyungan languages 664–8
Rgyalrong 637–42
verbs 479
causatives 87
contact-induced grammaticalization 773–4
inchoative alternation 265–73
Mon-Khmer languages 526–7
Niger-Congo languages 564
Rgyalrong 638–9
Tibetan 623–4
Uto-Aztecan languages 739
change of state verbs see verbal derivation
circumfixation see affixation
clipping 385
clitics 23
Cognitive Linguistics 340
coinage, conversion as 156
coindexing 56–7
comparatives 203, 284, 551
and superlatives 72, 202, 286–9, 332
(p. 920) completive/incompletive forms 214
complex signs
semantic representation 52, 58–61
sensory-motor representation 61–3
complex uniqueness points (CUP) 109
complex words
lexical decision tasks 95–7
processing 103–10, 115–16
production studies 111–13
Complexity Based Ordering 93, 378–80 see also affixation, ordering
compounding
vs. affixation see affixation, vs. compounding
Afroasiatic languages 578
Altaic languages 502
ambiguous novel compounds 32–3
analogical derivations 45–6, 47
Austronesian languages 551–2
blends 46–7
borrowed words 121–2
definition 3
vs. derivation 4, 6, 26
in evaluative morphology (EM) 312, 314
function words 319–20
headedness 133
Indo-European (IE) languages 446, 447–9
interfixes 126
in language acquisition 427, 431, 433
Mandarin Chinese 610, 611, 316
Mon-Khmer languages 523, 540, 541–3
neoclassical word formation 35–6, 45, 119–20, 134, 385
Pama-Nyungan languages 655–6
reduplication 47–8, 459
replication in Finnish 769–70
sociolinguistic factors 422
Tibetan 623, 625
conceptual representations 54–61
Conceptual Structure see encyclopedic knowledge
consonant alternation see apophony
constants see encyclopedic knowledge
Construction Grammar 397
Construction Morphology 17, 283, 347–9
constructionist theory 282–3
contact-induced grammaticalization 403–6, 769–76see also borrowing
context 114
conversion 7, 8, 43– 5120–1, 133, 161–4, 356 (see also category changing)
Altaic languages 501
cross-linguistic problems 158, 164
cross-linguistic tests 164–7
as derivation 157–9
Finnish 479–80
formal identity 159–61
function words 321–2
Hungarian 488–9
Indo-Aryan languages 460
Indo-European (IE) languages 446, 449–51
in language acquisition 428–30
lexical derivation 154–7
Mandarin Chinese 620
Mari 484
Nenets 491
stress alternation 122–3, 159, 216
Uto-Aztecan languages 731
verbal derivation 258–60
Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) 86, 90
corpus data 85–7, 89–91
convergence with psycholinguistic study 92–4
hapaxes 73–6
cross-linguistic variation, diminutives 25
data collection 85–7, 88–91, 777–8
deadjectival adjectives see adjectival derivation
deadjectival adverbs see adverbial derivation
deadjectival nouns see nominalization
deadjectival verbs see verbal derivation
de-adverbal nouns, conversion 451
decompositional models of speech production 111–12, 113, 115
Deep Structure 15
deletion 205–7
denominal adjectives see adjectival derivation
denominal adverbs see adverbial derivation
denominal heads 43
denominal nouns 246, 248, 578–9see also nominalization
denominal verbs see verbal derivation
deprepositional verbs/nouns, conversion 451
(p. 921) derivation
vs. compounding 4, 6, 26
concatenative 61–2, 118–35, 200–4, 727, 785–6
conversion as 157–9
definition 3–4
historical change 384–406
infixation as 139–40
vs. inflection 6, 10–11, 17–18
adverbial morphology 293
affix-ordering 371
allomorphy 227–9
approaches 13–17
Athabaskan languages 680
borderline cases 24–5
comparatives and superlatives 287–9
criteria 19–24
defining boundaries 779
evaluative morphology (EM) 298–300, 309
infixation 146–8
paradigms 354, 357–61
reduplication 175–6
verbal derivation 260
non-concatenative 169–218, 709–10, 729, 785–6
paradigms 356, 361–9
reduplication as 174–5
Derivational Paradigm Functions (DPFs) 366
Derived Stems 740
derived words, studies 91–2
desideratives 532
deverbal adjectives see adjectival derivation
deverbal nouns see nominalization
dictionaries 76–80, 87–8
as analogous with mental lexicon 102–7, 110–11
digraphs, processing 115–16
directionality of conversion 160–1
discovery procedures 84
discreteness of language 67–70
distributed collectionist models 114
Distributed Morphology (DM) 16, 53, 232, 246, 263–4
dual route models 106
dvandvas 448–9see also compounding
Edge-Bias Effect 141
education level, effect on second language use 420–1
EEG (electroencephalography) 98–9, 109
elative forms 213
emphatics 207–9
encyclopedic knowledge 55, 57–9, 113
ETM see Google Search
evaluative morphology (EM) 4–5, 25, 207–9, 296–7, 300–2, 456–7
Afroasiatic languages 578–9
Altaic languages 498–9
Athabaskan languages 681–4
compounding 312, 314
defining boundaries 779–80
derivation vs. inflection 298–300, 309
Finnish 477
language acquisition, diminutives in 426, 430–1
Mataguayan languages 757–9, 761
metaphors for diminutives 301–2
onomasiological theory 302–3
Pama-Nyungan languages 667–8
phonological iconicity 314–16
polysemy 349–50
proprietive adjectives 508
quantitative vs. qualitative 303–8
reduplication 181, 311–12, 314
semantics 300–2, 304–8
sociolinguistic factors 407–8, 420n
Tibetan 627
world languages 309–14
Evaluative Morphology Saturation 307–8
‘expressive morphology’ 296–7, 298
extragrammatical morphology 296
eye-tracking 116
methodologies 97, 106
f-morphemes 16see also Distributed Morphology (DM)
f-structure 12
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 98, 99, 104
frequency 289
function words 317–19
derivation 319–32, 337
functions, in semantic skeletons 56–61
(p. 922) gender, nominal 465
gender differences 101
in affix use 408–9
in second language use 420
Generalized Template Theory (GTT) 185
generative grammar 15
generative movement/tradition 5, 84
Generative Semantics 15
Google Books 90
Google Search 80–3
gradability of adjectives 284–6
grammars of languages 14
grammaticalization
bound roots to lexical affixes 40
contact-induced 769–76
of function words 319–20, 323
lexemes to affixes 28–30, 40
habilitative forms 198–9
handbooks on morphology 18
hapaxes 73–6, 404, 411
head position 129
in compounding 27
Head-Driven Phrase structure Grammar 12
headedness 132–4
homonymy 339, 351–2see also polysemy
homophony, Athabaskan languages 699–700
hypocoristic forms 196–7, 201–2
iconicity, in evaluative morphology 314–16
ideophones 7
adverbs 603–4
Afroasiatic languages 581
Chadic languages 589
Rgyalrong 646–9
idiosyncratic speech 89
imperfective form 209
implicit priming paradigm 111
inceptives 694–5
inchoative/causative alternation 265–73, 580 see also verbal derivation
incorporation 38, 40, 470, 513, 518, 607–8, 620
Athabaskan languages 699
Eskimo-Aleut languages 714, 716
Mataguayan languages 746
Uto-Aztecan languages 728, 732
incremental mapping systems 53
inferential theories of morphology 52–3, 60–1
infinitives, Yeniseian languages 518–19
infixation see affixation
inflection 4–6
absence in some languages 7
vs. derivation see derivation, vs. inflection
mapping 53–4
paradigms 354–61
reduplication as 173–4
inflectional entropy 111–12
Inflectional Paradigm Functions (IPFs) 366
Inner Stems 740
inseparable complex verbs (ICVs) 397–8
instrumentals 128, 153, 240–9, 277, 352, 426, 529, 753–5
prefixation 727–9
suffixation 431–4
intercategorial relationships 365
involuntary prefixes, Mon-Khmer languages 533
irregular forms 68–9
kinship terms
Athabaskan languages 673
Pama-Nyungan languages 666–7
l-morphemes 16see also Distributed Morphology (DM)
Lambda-Abstraction Specification 302
language acquisition 424–39
language background, effect on second language use 421–2
language change, affixation 384–406
language contact, grammaticalization 403–6, 769–76
learning models 114
legal concepts, terminological definitions 12
letter transpositions in processing studies 108
lexeme formation see neologisms
lexemes 17, 118–19
transition to suffixes 28–30
lexical affixes 38–41
lexical allomorphy 224–5
lexical decision experiments 91–2, 95–7, 116, 117
lexical decomposition 261–3, 265
lexical derivation, conversion as 154–7
(p. 923) Lexical-Functional Grammar 12
Lexical Morphology and Phonology (LMP) 93
lexical redundancy rules 17
lexical semantics 16
lexical stock expansion 7–8, 16
lexical theories of morphology 52–3, 60, 63–4
listening, processing studies 108–10
loanwords see borrowing
locatives 242, 248–9, 343–4, 748
affixation 350, 352, 393
Mataguayan languages 755–7, 765
Mon-Khmer languages 529, 533
Turkic languages 497–8
Yeniseian languages 513
mapping 52–4, 63–5
MEG (magnetoenchephalography) 98, 99
mental lexicon 33–4, 35
organization 102–7, 110–11
methodology
convergence 92–4
data sources 85–7, 88–91
experimental methods 95–9, 101–2
issues in finding universals 777–80
materials 99–100
morphological theory 100–2
production studies 110–13
in psycholinguistic study 91–4
word processing studies 103–10
model languages see replication
modifiers of extension 284–5
morpheme frequency effects 115
Morpheme-to-Seme-Assignment Principle (MSAP) 414
morphemes
role in morphology 16
Saussure’s treatment of 52n
suppletive allomorphy 229–30
morphological categories 364–5
Morphological Doubling Theory 171
morphological family size effect 107, 109, 115
morphological phrases 43
morphological theories
lexical vs. inferential 52–3
methodologies 100–2
morphological transparence 33
morphology
augmentative 207–9
challenge to discreteness theories 68
subtractive 205–7, 550
morphomes, suppletive allomorphy 230
morphosyntactic allomorphy 223–4, 226–7, 230
naïve discrimination learning (NDL) model 114–16
natural concepts 11–12
negation 125, 328, 490–1
Altaic languages 500
Eskimo-Aleut languages 708, 718, 722
in language acquisition 434–5
Mon-Khmer languages 532–3
Pama-Nyungan languages 666
particles 488
prefixation 27, 30, 86, 134, 388, 393, 426–7, 475
suffixation 478
neo-Saussurrean sign 53, 54–61, 65
neoclassical compounds 35–6, 45, 119–20, 134, 385
neologisms 16, 37–8, 360–1(see also language acquisition)
blocking in 70–2
in data collection 85–6, 88–9, 90
defining boundaries 779
Early Modern English (EmodE) 393
hapaxes as 74
sociolinguistic factors 409, 410–11, 412–19, 422–3
neuroimaging techniques 98–9, 104, 108, 109
nominalization 15, 86–7, 235–6, 453–4, 464–70 (see also category changing)
action/state 237
deadjectival nouns 248, 254–6, 287–8, 579
affixation 464
conversion 450–1
de-adverbal nouns 451
denominal nouns 246, 248, 578–9
deprepositional nouns 451
deverbal nouns 42–3, 44, 160–1, 237–54
affixation 464–6
conversion 450, 460
event/result 253–4
(p. 924) languages and language families
Afroasiatic languages 576–9
Altaic languages 497
Athabaskan languages 672–3, 674–6
Chadic languages 584–7
Chorote languages 749–50, 753, 755–6, 759
Cushitic languages 577–8, 579
Dutch 243–4, 250
Finnish 476–7
French 241, 255, 454
German 238, 242, 244, 255, 453–4
Greek 240–1, 242, 250, 255, 453
Hungarian 486
Inuit 712–14
Italian 453
Mari 483
Mataguayan languages 748–61
Mon-Khmer languages 527–9
Mordvin 481
Nenets 489–90
Niger-Congo languages 571–2
Nilo-Saharan languages 597, 601–3, 605–6
Omotic languages 577
Pama-Nyungam languages 658–9
Permic languages 484–5
Rgyalrong 633, 643–5
Romance languages 241, 242, 244
Romanian 255
Semitic languages 578
Spanish 287–8, 453
Tibetan 624–8
Yeniseian languages 513–14
participant 237–52
polysemy 243–9
non-concatenative morphology 190–218
non-predicative deadjectival adverbs 294–5
noun class systems, Niger-Congo languages 567–70
noun derivation see nominalization
noun incorporation 38, 40
noun modification, Inuit 719–21
noun stems, Rgyalrong 632
nouns
Athabaskan languages 680–1
polysemy 349–50
with proprietive adjectives 503–8
reduplication in Mandarin Chinese 614
in replication 769–70, 775–6
Yeniseian languages 510–11
number inflection in Polish 10–11
numerals, derivation 332–7
object marking, reduplication as 182
occupation, effect on second language use 421
onomasiological theories 282, 363–4, 413–22
on evaluative morphology (EM) 302–3
onomatopoeia
Chadic languages 589
Mataguayan languages 746
Mon-Khmer languages 535
Pama-Nyungan languages 656–7
reduplication 458, 615
Optimal Interleaving 232
Optimality Theory (OT) 141, 151n, 192, 200, 207n, 209, 217, 231
orthographic processing studies 103–8, 112–13, 115–16
Oxford English Dictionary (OED) 76, 77n, 79, 87
paradigm of lexemes 11, 16, 21–2, 354–5
derivational 356, 361–9
inflectional 355–6
inflectional vs. derivational 354, 357–61
Parallel Architecture 16–17
parasynthesis 126–8
Partial Lexical Rules 299–300
participles 24–5
passives 24, 138, 324, 772–4
adjectival 278, 279, 281, 404–6, 478
Arabic 212n
Eskimo-Aleut languages 713, 717–18
Nilo-Saharan languages 601–2
Polish 224
Proto-Austronesian (PAN) 546
Rgyalrong 639–40
person marking, reduplication as 183
phonological alternation see apophony
phonological function of reduplication 178–80
phonological iconicity in evaluative morphology 314–16
(p. 925) phonological representations 64–5
phonologically conditioned suppletive allomorphy (PCSA) 221–2, 226, 228, 230n, 231–2
phonology (see also prosody)
allomorphy 219–23, 227
autosegmental 193, 209–17
Mon-Khmer languages 524
Tibetan 621–2
picture naming tasks 97, 111–12
pitch alternation 216–17
plural formation 20–1, 206–7, 213–14, 231–2
plural/pluractional reduplication 173, 178
plurals, broken 204
polysemy 243–9, 349–50
affixation 343–9
ambiguity in novel compounds 32–3
of English -er suffix 342–3
semantic change 350–2
of verbal derivations 257–8
possessive forms 203, 507
reduplication as 173
postbases, Eskimo-Aleut languages 705–6, 711, 714–22
potentation of affixes 371–2see also affixation, ordering
pragmatic pressure in nominalization 248
preference rules 11–12
prefixation see affixation
presyllables 524
pretence affixes, Mon-Khmer languages 533
priming 92, 96–7, 98, 104, 111, 114
process-and-paradigm model 367see also paradigm of lexemes
processing speed, effect of affix position 128–30
productivity 288–9, 469–70
defining 780
diachronic studies 76–80
discreteness 69–70
function words 330–2
hapaxes 73–6
of inflectional vs. derivational morphology 20–2
in language acquisition 427, 437–9
in Mon-Khmer languages 525–32, 535
rival suffixes 70–2, 74–5
sociolinguistic factors 410–11, 416–19
pronominals, Mon-Khmer languages 530–1
proprietive adjectives 503–8
Prosodic Morphology Hypothesis 193
prosody 193, 200–4
Austronesian languages 551
conversion 122–3, 159, 216
Uto-Aztecan languages 731–9
proto-languages 149–51, 153, 546–7, 672
psycholinguistics, methodology 91–4
qualitative adjectives 284–6
reading, processing studies 103–8, 115–16
realizational mapping systems 53, 64
recursion see reduplication
reduplication 8, 47–8, 132, 141
as affixation 177–8, 182–4
in affix-ordering 185–9, 380–2
Afroasiatic languages 579, 580
Altaic languages 502–3
Austronesian languages 552–7
category-changing 174–5
Chadic languages 587–9
compounding 47–8, 459
as derivation 174–5
derivation vs. inflection 175–6
Eskimo-Aleut languages 710
in evaluative morphology (EM) 181, 311–12, 314
form and function 184–5
iconicity 180–4
Indo-European (IE) languages 446, 449
Indo-Aryan languages 458–9
inflectional 173–4
Mandarin Chinese 614–15
Mari 484
Mon-Khmer languages 523, 534–41, 543
nominalization 468–9
Pama-Nyungan languages 656–7
position 185–9
as repair 178–80
Rgyalrong 634–5
Tibetan 622
treatment as a form of compounding 4
types 169–72
universals 783, 785
(p. 926) relational adjectives 284–6
replacement approach to suppletive allomorphy 229–30
replication, grammatical 403–6, 767–76 see also borrowing
rival affixes see suppletive allomorphy
root-and-pattern morphology 193–5
Afroasiatic languages 575–6, 579
root/stem distinction 670–3
rules for irregular forms 68–9
Saussurrean sign 51–2, 54
scalar adjectives 284–6
scientific concepts, terminological definitions 13, 14
selectional approach to suppletive allomorphy 229
semantic body see encyclopedic knowledge
semantic categories 11–12
semantic change 350–2
semantic decomposition 263
semantic representations 54–61, 63
semantic skeletons 16, 55, 56–61, 64–5, 113–14, 115–16, 245–6, 251, 347, 401
semantic transparency effect 33
semantic underspecification 283
semantics
approach to paradigms 365–6
factors in affix-ordering 372–4
of evaluative morphology (EM) 300–2, 304–8
semi-affixes 30–2, 121–2
sensory-motor representation 51, 58–63
Separation Hypothesis 24–5, 111
sign see also complex signs; simplex signs
conceptual side 54–61
phonological representations 64–5
sensory-motor side 61–3
simplex signs, semantic representation 54–5, 57–61
skeletons see semantic skeletons
skeptical tradition 14, 16
sociolinguistics
use of complex words 422
system level 409–22
usage level 407–9
speech production studies 110–12
methodologies 97
spell-out 232
stem-vowel alternation 387, 586–7
stimulus–onset asynchrony (SOA) 97
stratum models of affix-ordering 374–6, 378 see also affixation, ordering
stress alternation see prosody
Strong Lexicalist Hypothesis (SLH) 15–16
structuralist tradition 5
subcategorization frames 63–4
subcategorization model of suppletive allomorphy 227–9, 231–2
subject, terminological definitions 12
subtractive morphology 205–7
Austronesian languages 550
suffixation see affixation
superlatives and comparatives 72, 202, 286–9, 332
suppletion, Rgyalrong 637
suppletive allomorphy 70–2, 74–5, 80–3, 220–30
directionality 231–4
synonymy avoidance 72see also blocking
syntactic categories see category changing
syntactic derivation, conversion as 158
syntactic doubling 172, 179see also reduplication
Syntactic Stems 740
syntax, relevance in inflectional morphology 22
synthetic compounds 41–3, 45
templatic derivation 191, 192–204
Athabaskan languages 688–91
Yeniseian languages 514–18
templatic meaning 262–3, 274
tense-marking, reduplication as 174
terminological definitions 11–12, 18, 22
methodological problems 778
textbooks on morphology 17–18
tmesis 137–8
tonal alternation 215–16
transposition see conversion
triangle model 114
triplication 556–7see also reduplication
unique bound forms 34–5
uniqueness points (UP) 109–10
universals 315
approaches 780–6
methodological issues in finding 777–80
Urban Dictionary 58–9, 72
ventive marking 600
verb modification, Inuit 721–2
verb stems, Rgyalrong 632–3
verbal derivation 257–75
deadjectival verbs 257, 261, 262–5, 270
affixation 455
conversion 451
denominal verbs 24–5, 44, 87, 160–1, 257, 258, 350, 580
affixation 455
conversion 450–1, 460
in language acquisition 428–30
deprepositional verbs 451
languages and language families
Afroasiatic languages 580–1
Altaic languages 498
Athabaskan languages 677–9
English 257–8, 262, 264
Finnish 478–9
Hungarian 350, 487–8
Inuit 714–19
Mari 483
Mataguayan languages 761–6
Mon-Khmer languages 526–7, 532
Mordvin 482
Nenets 490–1
Niger-Congo languages 559–67
Nilo-Saharan languages 603, 604–5, 606
Pama-Nyungan languages 659–64
Permic languages 485–6
Rgyalrong 645–6, 648–9
Uto-Aztecan languages 729–32, 740–2
verbs
Athabaskan languages 684–700
Mon-Khmer languages, reduplication 539
polysemy 350
reciprocal, Mon-Khmer languages 529–30
reduplication in Mandarin Chinese 615
stative, in Mon-Khmer languages 530, 533
Yeniseian languages 512–13, 514–19
Voice Hypothesis 248
vowel alternation see apophony
vowel gradation, in Indo-European (IE) languages 447
Weak Lexicalist Hypothesis (WLH) 15–16
well-formedness in synthetic compounds 43
whole-word frequency effects 104, 106, 109, 111, 115, 116
word formation see neologisms
Word Manager 18, 23
word order, Mandarin Chinese 611–12
word-class, problems with defining boundaries 162–4
word-class change see category changing; conversion
word-pairing studies 98
World Atlas of Language Structures 169
writing, production studies 112–13
zero-derivation see conversion