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date: 21 July 2019

(p. 967) Subject Index

(p. 967) Subject Index

acoustic properties of musical and speech sounds 226–8
acute stress disorder (ASD) 76, 271
adolescents in medical settings, music therapy for 89, 105–6
case vignettes 94–105
confidentiality and ethics 93–4
Crohn's disease 101–2
depression 97
diabetes 105
eating disorders 98–9
end-stage renal disease 104–5
epilepsy 103–4
grief 102–3
health and disease 89–91
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) 100–1
referral to treatment 91–3, 110, 111
suicide 101
traumatic brain injury (TBI) 96–7
adolescents with cancer, music therapy for 68, 73–4
assessment 77–8
cancer types, treatments, and effects 66–7
goals and objectives 78–9
improvisation 81–2
isolation rooms 70–1
life-limiting cancers 74
methods 79–83
radiation therapy 71–2
receptive music therapy 80–1
referrals 76–7
reporting 83–4
song creation 79–80
technology 82–3
theoretical frameworks 75–6
adult mental health care, music therapy in 249, 251
evidence for 258–61
improvisation 252–4
music listening 256–8
song writing 254–6
theoretical background 251–2
adult trauma work 268–9
definition of trauma 270–2
externalization–internalization process 281–2
Group Analytic Music Therapy (GAMT) 269–70, 272–3
adult traumatic brain injury 364–5
adults with cancer, music therapy for 112, 116, 128
assessment 116–17
contexts 117
contraindications 126
definition of cancer 112–13
effects of cancer 114–15
etiology of cancer 113
in-patient settings 117–18
needs alleviated by music therapy 116
out-patient settings 118–19
patients 117
psychosocial and emotional factors 115
referral 116
relaxation 123–4
research 126–8
types of cancer 113
adults with learning difficulties 335, 352
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 341
clinical work examples 346–50
current frameworks 338–9
development 337–8
documenting work 341
emotional needs 340
evaluation 345–6
history of music therapy 340
(p. 968) matching needs with approach 342
normalization and inclusion 338
person-centered thinking 339
quality of life 339
referrals 343–4
relationships 340
research 342–3
terminology 335–6
aesthetic music therapy (AeMT) 421–2, 515–16, 533–4
architectural tonic 526
contemporary music 528
context 519–22
definition 518–19
developing musical resources 522–3
form 524
gender and identity 531–2
historical perspective 516–17
improvisation 523
medical ethnomusicology 520–1
music analysis 529–30
Nordoff, Paul 532–3
philosophy of music 521
theory to practice 522–8
affect attunement 214
alexithymia 308
altered state of consciousness (ASC) 700
Alzheimer's disease, dementia and 384
behavioral influences of music 395
dementia 385–6
dementia, common features 386–7
emotion and arousal 396
evidence-based practice 390–1
future perspectives 399–400
music timbres 394
optimal arousal 392–3
re-engagement of former music experiences 395
residential care 387–8
rhythm playing 397
rhythmic cues 398
theoretical framework building 392
theoretical framework development 391
theoretical principles for music therapy 393–8
ambient sound environment 35
ambient sound environment in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 31–3
American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) 861–5
levels of practice 871
Analytical Music Therapy (AMT) 36 269, 450
analytically oriented/informed music therapy 450
anorexia nervosa 98, 299–300
ways of understanding 300–1
anthroposophical music therapy (AnMT) 342, 424, 494–5, 510
basic tenets 501–8
contents of training 496–7
diagnosis 507
first training programmes 495–6
fourfold human being 497–8
fourfold human being and musical elements 498
fourfold human being and musical instruments 498–501
medical and therapeutic specifics 501–2
musical specifics 502–5
percussion instruments 505
referral 506–7
therapeutic goals and objectives 507–8
therapeutic process 506
view of human beings 497–8
antisocial personality disorder 315
anxiety–depression 371
anxiety reduction 56–7
aphasia 371, 373
Applied Behavior Analysis Verbal Behavior (ABA VB) 199
apraxia 212–13, 371
Asperger's syndrome 187, 196
Assessment of the Quality of Relationship (AQR) 197–8
attachment
family musicality 41–2
parent–infant 137–8
repairing 159
attention disorders 372
Audio Tactile Visual Vestibular (ATVV) protocol 31
audiogram of environmental and speech sounds 227
Auditory Integration Therapy (AIT) 200
auditory profile 231
(p. 969) auditory status 234–5
Augmented and/or Alternative Communication (AAC) 179
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule 201
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 178, 186–8, 341
assessment tools 200–1
case vignettes 187–9, 199
causes 189
diagnosis 189–90
future directions 201–2
living with 190–1
music 191
music therapy history 192–3
music therapy potential and practice 193–5
music therapy to assist 195–200
treatment setting 200
avoidant personality disorder 315
Behavior Rating Instrument for Autistic Children (BRIAC) 490
behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) 386
being a music therapist 472–3
being present 789, 941–2
binge-eating disorder 98
Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM) 124, 269, 417, 567, 692–3, 787
borderline personality disorder (BPD) 315, 320
group therapy 328–9
British Association for Music Therapy (BAMT) 10, 868, 931
website 641
British Society for Music Therapy (BSMT) 868
Broca's aphasia 371
bulimia nervosa 98, 299–300
cancer, music therapy for 68, 112, 116, 128
adolescents and young adults 73–4
assessment 77–8, 116–17
cancer types, treatments, and effects 66–7
childhood cancer incidence 67–8
clinical practice for children 76
contexts 117
contraindications 126
definition of cancer 112–13
effects of cancer 114–15
etiology of cancer 113
future recommendations 84–5
goals and objectives 78–9
improvisation 81–2
in-patient settings 117–18
isolation rooms 70–1
life-limiting cancers 74
methods 79–83
needs alleviated by music therapy 116
new music 121–2
out-patient settings 118–19
patients 117
procedures, during 72–3
psychosocial and emotional factors 115
radiation therapy 71–2
receptive music therapy 80–1
referrals 76–7, 116
relaxation 123–4
relevance 69–70
reporting 83–4
research 68, 126–8
song creation 79–80
technology 82–3
theoretical frameworks 75–6
treatments for cancer 113–14
types of cancer 113
cardiac surgery 695
cautions before beginning therapy 36–7
central hearing loss 229
Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT) 861, 865–6
child abuse 93
disabled children 183
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) 912
Child–Therapist Relationship in Coactive Musical Activity scale 490
Child–Therapist Relationship in Musical Activity scale 490
childbirth 833
children with cancer, music therapy for 68
assessment 77–8
cancer incidence 67–8
cancer types, treatments, and effects 66–7
clinical practice 76
future recommendations 84–5
goals and objectives 78–9
improvisation 81–2
isolation rooms 70–1
(p. 970) life-limiting cancers 74
methods 79–83
procedures, during 72–3
radiation therapy 71–2
receptive music therapy 80–1
referrals 76–7
relevance 69–70
reporting 83–4
research 68
song creation 79–80
technology 82–3
theoretical frameworks 75–6
chronosystem 584
clinical improvisation with instruments 268, 270
clinical music therapy groups 162–3
cochlea 228
cochlear implants (CIs) 231–3
cochlear nerve 228
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 732
Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) 323
group therapy (G-CAMT) 326
collaboration 894
empowering others 910
enabling client communication 904–5
in practice 899–2
international development 912
interprofessional education (IPE) 913–15
interprofessional teams 895–6
interprofessional teams and music therapy 897–898
learning disability work 909–10
mainstream education, working with 911–12
mental health work 909
meta-perspectives 912–13
music therapy as part of collaborative web 903–13
parents and care givers, working with 910–11
potential challenges 901–2
promoting emotional well-being 907–8
promoting movement and functional skills 905–6
rationale 899–900
research 913
strengthening creative processes 906–7
splits in teams 902
successful 900–1
understanding teamworking 896–6
coma 372, 373
communication
developmental goals 60
enabling client communication 904–5
modes 233–4
special schools 179–80
through music 484–6
communicative musicality 54, 214, 215–16, 581, 715
Community Music Therapy (CoMT) 8–9, 420, 421, 465, 595, 616
competencies, training, and education 614–15
discipline 606–12
emergence and definition 595–600
flexibility 613–14
identity 613–14
overlap with Feminist Music Therapy 433–4
practice 600–6
professional ethics 615–16
professions 612–16
professions, system of 612–13
research 611–12
compassion fatigue 850
compassion stress 850
Complex PTSD 271
composition 642
conceptualizing music therapy 1–2, 12
contexts and populations across lifespan 5–6, 17–22
definitions 2–5
methods 9–10
models and approaches 6–9
research 10–11
training and professional issues 11–12
conductive hearing loss 229
confidentiality and adolescents 93–4
congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) 25
congenital heart defects (CHDs) 25
contemporary music 528
contingent interaction for neurodevelopment support 39–40
(p. 971) Continued Professional Development (CPD) 929, 930–1, 932
continuum of awareness 586, 587
costs of caring 938
creation techniques
harmonic features and arrangement 654–6
melody and rhythm 653–4
Creative Music Therapy see also Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy 200, 482–3
creative process 479
Crohn's disease in adolescents 101–2
cultural determinism 540
culture-centered music therapy 421, 538, 552–3
basic tenets 542–6
case example 546–50
culture as a resource for self and society 542–3
health musicking 544–6
historical perspective 539–42
implications for practice, theory, and research 551–2
music as a shared activity 543–4
social–musical participation 546–50
cycle of awareness 587–8
deaf and hard of hearing, people who are 243
auditory status 234–5
auditory training 239–41
communication modes 233–4
cultural affiliation 234–5
hearing devices 231–3
hearing mechanism 228
historical precedents 225
language development 238
music therapy 237–42
music therapy goals 237, 238–42
social skill development 241–2
speech production 238
dementia and music therapy, see Alzheimer’s disease
dependent personality disorder 315
depression 371, 696
adolescents 97
postpartum depression 135–6
Developmental Music Therapy (DMT) 6, 424, 577–8, 590–1
continuum of awareness 587
cycle of awareness 587–8
developmental perspectives 586–7
ecological perspectives 582–4
human life span development 581–2
improvisational strategies 589–90
intrinsic learning, musical foundations of 588–9
musical stages of development 584–5
stress and coping 578–81
domestic violence and women 289–90, 296
experiences 290–1
feminist music therapy 292–6
incidence 290
music therapy as empowerment 291–6
dysarthria 373
dyspraxia 373
dysthymia and adolescents 97
ear, structure of 228
ear drum 228
eating disorders 98–9, 299, 309–10
acting out 307
art therapies 301–2
autonomy 309
eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) 98, 299–300
feelings, identifying and expressing 307–8
general treatment approaches 301
improvisation 304–5
planning 308–9
receptive methods 309
role-play 306
self 309
song writing 306–7
structure of music therapy 305–6
ways of understanding 300–1
electronic music technology 656–7
emotional well-being, promoting 907–8
empowerment 449, 910
end-of-life care 74
adolescents 104–5
renal disease (ESRD) 104–5
entrainment 688
epilepsy in adolescents 103–4
(p. 972) ethical considerations
adolescents 93–4
community music therapy (CoMT) 615–16
Feminist Music Therapy 440
ethnography and ethnographically informed research 730–1
European Music Therapy Confederation (EMTC) 927, 928
European Music Therapy Register (EMTR) 928
European recognition of music therapy 927, 933–4
academic recognition 932
formal recognition 928
professional recognition 932–3
statutory recognition 930–1
statutory–academic–professional 929–30
evidence-based practice (EBP) 731–2
historical research 733
issues and problems 735–7
music research 732–3
philosophical inquiry and theory development 733–4
research publications 734–5
exosystem 583
expressive speech disorders 373
family approaches 158–9, 166, 172
case vignettes 167–71
child development centers 164–5
children with life-threatening illnesses 160–1
clinical music therapy groups 162–3
community-based music therapy groups 163–4
literature review 159–60
preschool children 161–2
psychiatric centers 165–6
rationale 171–2
schools 165
Feminist Music Therapy 292–6, 422–3, 428, 440–3
assessment 436–7
basic tenets of feminism as applied in music therapy 434–6
ethics 440
evaluation 439–40
gender inequalities in music therapy 440–1
historical overview 428–34
inclusive curricula 442–3
power in and of music 441–2
procedures 436–40
research 442, 440
understandings of music therapy 441
Field of Play music therapy, see also The Field of Play 8
gamelan music 527
Gate Control Theory of pain 688
gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transexual (GLBT) community 872
gaze synchrony 580
gender inequalities in music therapy 440–1
graphic notation 530
Grounded Theory 10, 729
comparisons 749–51
completing research 751–4
critical appraisal, need for 761–3
critique 759–61
definition 747–8
development 746–7
elements 756
future directions 763
identifying concepts 752–3
inductive reasoning 749
integrating and refining theory 753–4
key components 749–51
method 816
modified, pure, or hybrid studies 754
nested or embedded theory 754–5
relating categories 753
research outputs 755
search strategy 757–8
stages 752–4
strengths 759–61
study quality appraisal 761–2
theoretical sampling 751
theoretical saturation 750–1
theory appraisal 762–3
variations 754–7
weaknesses 760–1
Group Analytic Music Therapy (GAMT) 269–70, 272–3
trauma in adults 273–4
(p. 973) Group Cognitive Analytic Therapy (G-CAMT) 326
group music therapy 669–70, 678–81
biographies 670–1
case vignettes 673–4
current texts 671–3
foraging and improvising 673–8
Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) 421, 519, 692–3
cancer 696
cardiac surgery 695
consciousness modes 697
depression 696
EEG studies 700–1
effect of music 699
hypertension 695
imagery shifts 700
music studies 699–701
phenomenological studies 698
pivotal moments 698–9
research 693–4
rheumatoid arthritis 695–6
gynecological settings 832–3
health musicking 544–6
hearing losses
adulthood loss 236
childhood loss 235–6
configuration of loss 230
degree of loss 229–30
onset of loss 230–1
overall auditory profile 231
types of loss 229
hemiparesis 372
high risk neonates 24
historical research 733
histrionic personality disorder 315
HIV and adolescents 99–100
Hopkins Symptom Checklist 694
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 696
hospitalized children 53–4, 62
music therapy service development 61–2
treatment process 54–61
human life span development 581–2
hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) 25, 37
imagery and music
compared with relaxation 691
definition 690–1
music choice 691
overview 692
improvisation 81–2, 121, 641
adult mental health care 252–4
aesthetic music therapy (AeMT) 523
developmental music therapy (DMT) 589–90
eating disorders 304–5
improvised song 145, 371
parent–infant programmes (PIPs) 144–5
vocal 625–6
Improvisation Assessment Profiles (IAP) 201, 792–3
inclusive curricula 442–3
indexing 489
Individual Music-Centered Assessment Profile for Neurodevelopmental Disorders (IMCAP-ND) 201
infants, music therapy for 24–5, 44
care-givers 136–7
evaluation 43–4
family members during hospitalization 33–4
historical international development 26–7
live singing/humming 30–1
maternal voice 28
medical music therapy 27–31
modes of service delivery 34–5
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 31–3
neurodevelopment of hospitalized infant 25
practical issues 34–5
practice foundations 35–7
reporting 44
service delivery modes 34–5
treatment methods 37–43
infants, vocal connection with parents 622–3
interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) 326, 726, 776, 795–6
interprofessional education (IPE) 913–15
implications for the music therapy profession 915–16
(p. 974) interprofessional teams 895
individuals in teams 897
inter-professional tension 880–1
music therapy 897–8
typologies 895–6
understanding team working 896–7
intersubjectivity 269, 771, 942
intimate male partner violence (IMPV) 289–90, 296
feminist music therapy 292–6
incidence 290
music therapy as empowerment 291–6
women's experiences 290–1
iPads 82–3
isolation rooms, music therapy provision 70–1
juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) 103–4
learning difficulties, adults with 335, 352
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 341
clinical work examples 346–50
collaborations 351
communicating about music therapy 345
current frameworks 338–9
development 337–8
diverse approaches 341–2
documenting work 341
emotional needs 340
evaluation 345–6
history of music therapy 340
matching needs with approach 342
normalization and inclusion 338
person-centered thinking 339
quality of life 339
referrals 343–4
relationships 340
research 342–3
terminology 335–6
training and supervision 351–2
treatment methods 344–5
legacy work 411–12
life-limiting cancers 74
lifespan applicability of music therapy 5–6, 17–18, 22
contexts 18–21
evidence base 21–22
infants 24–44
populations 18–19
lullabies 30
macrosystem 584
mainstream education, working with 911–12
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) 940
MATADOC tool 366, 374
mechanical ventilation 835
mechanisms of change 822
medical contexts 19–20
Medical Ethnomusicology 520–1
medical music therapy 27
live singing/humming 30–1
maternal voice 28
recorded music 27–8
recorded music and pain 29
recorded music within Developmental Care strategy 29
Medical Research Council (MRC) 804
medical settings for music therapy 827–30, 840
adult oncology 828–32
development 836–40
epistemology selection 836–7
ethical considerations 839–40
general medical/surgical 833–6
guiding question 836
gynecological 832–3
hypothesis 836
influences of patient, family, and staff 839
institution review board 838
interventions 838
obstetrics 832–3
planning research 837
population selection 837
Melodic Intonation Therapy 371
mental health care for adults, music therapy in 20, 21, 249, 251, 909
evidence for 258–61
improvisation 252–4
methods 252–8
music listening 256–8
song writing 254–6
theoretical background 251–2
mesosystem 583
methods of music therapy 9–10, 79, 639–40, 642
adapting children's songs 147
creative techniques 145–6
(p. 975) group therapy 182
improvisation 81–2, 144–5, 252–4
live music listening within a session 143
music listening 256–8
musical conversation 216
musical games 146
popular children's songs 146
receptive music therapy 80–1
receptive music therapy techniques 142–3
recorded music listening outside of a session 143
relaxation 143
song creation 79–80
song writing 254–6
songs 181
structured movement songs 147
technology 82–3
microsystem 583
mindfulness 689
Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) 664
mixed methods research (MMR) 127–8, 726, 815–19, 823–4
definition 818–19
types 819–20
models of music therapy 6–7
aesthetic music therapy (AeMT) 421–2, 515–34
community music therapy (CoMT) 420, 595–616
culture-centered music therapy 421, 538–53
Nordoff–Robbins music therapy 7, 418–19, 482–92
resource-oriented music therapy 420–1, 557–70
the field of play 8, 419, 472–80
vocal psychotherapy 422, 622–35
models of music therapy practice 417–18, 425
Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy 371
motor skills rehabilitation 372
mourning and grief 405, 412
adolescents 102–3
legacy work 411–12
music therapy processes 406
overview 407–8
palliative care 408–10
role of music therapy 406–7
music child 483–4
music listening 22, 372
adult mental health care 256–8
Music Therapist-Board Certified (MT-BC) credential 862, 865, 866
music therapy
approaches 6–9
definition 3–4
evidence base 21–22
infants 24–44
intervention 4
lifespan applicability 5–6, 17–22
methods 9–10
models 6–9
professional issue 11–12
research 10–11
service development 61–2
structure 4–5
training 11–12
within a psychoanalytic framework 450
Music Therapy Diagnostic Assessment (MTDA) 201
Musical Communicativeness scale 490
Musical Life Panorama (MLP) 946
musical preference 218
musical processes 529
Musical Scale for Autism Diagnostics 201
music-assisted relaxation 686
compared with imagery 691
music selection 689–90
principles 687–8
research 689–90
theoretical framework 688–9
musicianship 856, 857
musicking 74, 78
culture-centered music therapy 544–6
rethinking 610–11
music–thanatology 521–2
narcissistic personality disorder 315
National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) 866
neonatal abstinence syndrome 37
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) 24–5, 26
neurodevelopment
contingent interaction 39–40
of hospitalized infant 25
Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) 96, 417
Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 386
(p. 976) new posts, developing 875–8, 889–2
appointing change agents 886–7
communication and collaboration 885–6
entering an established team 879–2
experiences 876–7
initial start-up 878–79
opportunities 884–5
path 882–3
recommendations 887–9
strategies 883–7
NICU Music Therapy 26, 31–3
Nordoff–Robbins music therapy 6, 7, 159, 200, 418–19, 482–3, 491–2
assessment 490–1
communication and interaction through music 484–6
creative processes 486–90
evaluation 490–1
meeting the music child 483–4
normalization 177
obsessive–compulsive personality disorder 315
obstetrics 832–3
Orff Music Therapy 342
Organic Brain Syndrome 371
orientation disorders 371
out-patient care for adults with cancer 118–19
ownership of songs 663
Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) system 30
pain management 56–7
palliative care 60–1, 408–10
paranoid personality disorder 314
parental attachment 137–8
repairing 159
parentified child 629
parent–infant programmes (PIPs) 135–6, 138–9, 153–4
adapting children's songs 147
creative techniques 145–6
funding 139–40
implementation 153
improvisation 144–5
methods and techniques 142–7
musical games 146
parent–infant attachment 137–8
popular children's songs 146
receptive music therapy techniques 142–3
recorded music listening outside of a session 143
referrals 140–2
relaxation 143
starting a programme 147
structure and process 148–52
structured movement songs 147
traditional children's songs 146
participation 546
as co-creation of social space 548–9
as ritual negotiation 550
as self-presentation 547–8
Pediatric Inpatient Music Therapy Assessment Form (PIMTAF) 77, 111
Pediatric Integrative Cancer Service (PICS) 75
Pediatric Medical Trauma Stress (PMTS) model 75–6
Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) 75
personality disorders 313–14, 329–30
aggression 323–5
antisocial personality disorder 315
avoidant personality disorder 315
borderline personality disorder (BPD) 315, 320, 328–9
definitions 314–16
dependent personality disorder 315
evidence base for music therapy 316–18
forensics 323–5
group therapy considerations 327–9
histrionic personality disorder 315
narcissistic personality disorder 315
obsessive–compulsive personality disorder 315
paranoid personality disorder 314
schizoid personality disorder 314
schizotypal personality disorder 314
work models 319–21
pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) 187
phenomenological music therapy research 776–7, 797
additional resources 796
arts-based approaches 794
considerations 796
(p. 977) early research 777–88
introspection 793–4
music analysis 792–3
music phenomenology 777
new perspectives 789–91
recent methodological developments 794–6
reflexivity 793–4
selected studies 778–85
steps in analysis of music 786
triangulation 791–3
phenomenological philosophy 768–9
philosophical inquiry 733–4
philosophy of music 521
Picture Exchange Communication (PECS) 179–80
cognitive goals 180
pitch 226
Polyvagal Theory 714–15
popular children's songs 146
populations 18, 20
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 271
guided imagery 694
vicarious trauma 283
wear and tear on therapists 938, 939
postpartum depression 135–6
post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) 76
power in and of music 441–2, 478–9
pregnancy 833
preloss care 411
PREPARE acronym 551–2, 568, 595–600
preschool children 161–2
professional issues 11–12, 847–9
building a strong future 851
collaboration 894–916
disabled children and vulnerability to abuse 183
ethics 615016
families, working with 183
inter-professional education (IPE) 915–17
inter-professional tension 880–1
new posts 849–50
new posts, developing 875–90
recognition in Europe 927–34
self-care 850–1, 936–51
special needs assistants, working with 182
special schools 182–3
statutory recognition 850
teachers, working with 182
teams 850
Profile of Mood States (POMS) 694
progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) 689, 690
Psychodynamic Imaginative Trauma Therapy (PITT) 694
psychodynamic therapy 450
psychoanalytic music therapy 450, 423, 448, 464–5
applications 456
assessment 456–7
beginning treatment 461–2
case history and current situation 459–61
case study 459–64
clinical principles 452–4
contraindications 456
controversies 464–5
evaluation 457
face to face 463–4
first meeting 459
historical background 449–50
limitations 464–5
musical principles 454–6
psychoanalytic background 448–9
psychoanalytic theory, basic tenets 450–2
research 457–8
training 458–9
psychosocial care of hospitalized children 57–8
research 710, 721, 726–7, 710, 721, 722
arts-based research 731
block randomization 806
bracketing 771–3
causality 801–3
connecting data 819
constructivist research 127
control groups 819
covariation 802
deductive processes 710–11
descriptive bracketing 774
Descriptive Phenomenological Analysis 775
double hermeneutic 776
effectiveness trials 803–5
efficacy trials 803–5
(p. 978) embedding data 819
empirical phenomenology 489–90
epistemology 11
epoche 771–3
ethnography and ethnographically informed research 730–1
experimental research 721, 722
exploratory trials/studies 722–3
factorial design 810–11
first-person research 729–30
gatekeepers 879
grounded theory 729
hermeneutic circles 775
hermeneutic inquiry 728–9
hermeneutic phenomenology 774–6
idiographic research 489
illustrated description 787
in-depth interviews 773–4
inductive processes 708
knowing paradox 881
longitudinal research 725–6
member checking 790
merging data 819
meta-analysis 723–4
meta-perspectives 912–13
naturalistic inquiry 727
objectivist research 126–7
outliers 820
parallel group design 807–10
participatory action research 730
phenomenological inquiry 727–8
practical clinical trial design 812
purposive sampling 773
randomized controlled trials (RCTs) 722
reflexive phenomenology 728
reflexivity 793–4
seriated research 489
single-case designs 725
stratified randomization 806
survey research 724–5
thick descriptions 773–4
quality of life 339
radiation therapy (RT) 831
music therapy provision 71–2
randomized controlled trials (RCTs) 259–60, 710, 722, 736
randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in music therapy 801, 812
alternatives 811–12
criteria for inferring causality 801–3
efficacy and effectiveness trials 803–5
limitations 811
randomization methods 805–7
randomized designs 807–11
receptive methods 309
receptive music therapy 80–1
definitions 685–6
cancer 696
cardiac surgery 695
consciousness modes 697
depression 696
EEG studies 700–1
effect of music 699
future directions 701
guided imagery 692–3
imagery 690–1
imagery overview 692
imagery shifts 700
listening to music 684–5
music studies 699–701
music-assisted relaxation 686–8
music-assisted relaxation, research 689–90
music-assisted relaxation, theoretical framework 688–9
phenomenological studies 698
pivotal moments 698–9
research 693–4
rheumatoid arthritis 695–6
stress leave 696–7
techniques 142–3
transpersonal experiences 697–8
recreative techniques 145–6
referential improvisation 268–9
rehabilitation 58–9
relaxation 686
compared with imagery 691
music selection 689–90
parent–infant programmes (PIPs) 143
principles 687–8
research 689–90
theoretical framework 688–9
relaxation, music-assisted 72
adults with cancer 123–4
(p. 979) research in music therapy 10–11, 126, 709, 720
arts-based research 712–13
constructivist 127
contexts 715–16
definition 720
evidence-based medicine (EBM) 711–12
evidence-based practice (EBP) 731–7
examples 721–31
experimental research 721
Feminist Music Therapy 442
future directions 716
historical research 733
issue and problems 735–7
mechanisms of change 713–15
mixed methods 127–8
mixed methods research 726
music research 732–3
objectivist 126–7
philosophical inquiry 733–4
publications 734–5
qualitative research 721, 726–31
quantitative research 721, 722–6
theory development 733–4
traditions 710–11
trends 711–15
types of research 720–1
resilience 567
resonator function 728, 733
resource-oriented music therapy 420-1, 570
case materials 563–5
conceptualization 559–60
considerations and dilemmas 569–70
current interdisciplinary context 567–9
elaborations 560–3
historical perspective 557–9
research 565–6
therapeutic principles 562
Rett syndrome (RTT) 210–11, 221
apraxia 212–13
case vignette 215
choices 217
genetic disorder 211
group music therapy 219–20
inclusion through music therapy 220–1
individual music therapy 218–19
learning 217
music therapy 214–21
musical conversation 216
musical preference 218
stages 211–12
theoretical foundation 214
vocalization 216–17
rhythmic auditory stimulation 372
risks to therapists from vicarious trauma 282–3
schizoid personality disorder 314
schizotypal personality disorder 314
schools
family work 165
secondary stress disorder 850
secondary traumatic stress disorder (STSD) 938, 939
self, sense of 309
self-care 850–1, 936, 941, 951
as a music therapist 941–2
as a musician 942–4
as a teacher and researcher 944–5
needs and resources 938–40
theoretical matrix 936–7
wellness approach 950–1
work–life balance 949–50
service delivery modes 34–5
service development for music therapy 61–2
sharing music 660
significant moments 302
Sing & Grow programme 136, 138–9, 163–4, 723
referrals 141
starting a programme 147
song composition 372
song creation 79–80, 373
Song Parody 652, 653
song reminiscing 373
Song Sensitisation 92
eating disorders 98–9
song writing 93–4, 640–1, 644, 664–5
adult mental health care 254–6
adults with cancer 122
afterlife of songs 661–3
alternatives to step-wise methods 649–52
apps 657
clinical examples 651, 652–3, 657–8, 659, 660, 662
(p. 980) development in music therapy 645–8
distinctions and definitions 644–5
eating disorders 306–7
electronic music technology 656–7
guidelines 650
harmonic features and arrangement 654–6
loops 657–8
lyric creation technique examples 652–3
melody and rhythm 653–4
method 647–8
methods based on specific steps or stages 648–9
music creation techniques 653–6
outcomes 663–4
parent–infant programmes (PIPs) 145–6
performances 661–3
potential issues 661
recording 658–60
scores 660–1
sharing 660
Skype 658
songbooks 43
special schools 176–8, 183–4
see also schools 177
cognitive goals 180
communication 179–80
disabled children and vulnerability to abuse 183
emotional goals 180
families, working with 183
group therapy 182
methods and techniques 181–2
music therapy 178
physical goals 181
professional issues 182–3
social goals 180
songs 181
special needs assistants, working with 182
teachers, working with 182
vibrational work 181–2
spontaneous improvisation 144
statutory recognition of music therapists 850
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) 102
suicide 101
supervision 947–51
tablet computers 82–3
teamworking 850, 895
entering an established team 879–82
individuals in teams 897
music therapy in interprofessional teams 897–8
typologies 895–6
understanding teamworking 896–7
techniques of music therapy 640
The Field of Play 419, 472, 476–7, 480, 733
being a music therapist 472–3
clinical experiences 479–80
creative process 479
esthetic 474–6
musical space 476
power 478–9
ritual 477–8
seven fields 473–4
state of consciousness 478
theory development 733–4
Theory of Mind 189
Therapeutic Music Video (TMV) 73, 804
training in music therapy 11–12, 847–8
Australian education 869–70
Canada education 869
experiential learning 849
future directions 873
health care and education trends 870
Ireland education 869
multicultural training 872
need for professional therapy 871–2
origins 859–60
practice levels 871
South Africa education 868–9
technology 870–1
timeline 861
United Kingdom education 868
United States education 861–8
World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT) 859–60
training requirements 853
perspectives from educators 854–8
supervision 858–9
transient ward communities 118
transitional objects 323, 624
trauma in adults 268–9
definition of trauma 270–2
(p. 981) externalization–internalization process 281–2
Group Analytic Music Therapy (GAMT) 269–70, 272–3
self-representation 275–7
trauma reconstruction 273–4
turning visible 277–81
vicarious trauma, risk to therapist 282–3
traumatic brain injury (TBI) 96–7
adult traumatic brain injury 364–5
assessment 366, 376
catastrophic nature of 375–6
clinical supervision 377
evaluation 374–5
goals and objectives 370–4
historical perspective on music therapy 367–8
lives affected 362
misrepresentative literature 376
music therapy process 368–75
music therapy reported cases 369–70
recovery over lifespan 365
referrals 370
rehabilitation 367–8
relational trauma 362–3
reporting 375
song writing 649
techniques 371
terminology 363–4
training 376–7
treatment methods 374
ventilation, mechanical 835
vestibular nerve 228
vitality affects 485
vocal exercises 373
vocal intonation 373
vocal psychotherapy 422, 622, 634–5
breath 623
case examples 628–31, 632–4
free associative singing 631–2
improvisation 625–6
songs 624–5
vocal connection between parents and infants 622–3
vocal holding techniques 626–8
well-being 568, 607–8
promoting 907–8
wellness approach 950–1
women who have experience domestic violence 289–90, 296
experiences 290–1
feminist music therapy 292–6
incidence 290
music therapy as empowerment 291–6
World Federation for Music Therapy (WFMT) 3, 859–60