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date: 17 July 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are experiments that compare two or more groups of participants, and participants are assigned to groups based on chance. Groups include an experimental intervention group that is being compared to a treatment as usual, a low dose or attention control condition, and/or a comparative treatment group. The purpose of randomization is to equalize groups on both known and unknown characteristics that may influence the outcome and the effectiveness of the intervention. This chapter describes how music therapists have used RCTs to demonstrate the effectiveness of music therapy interventions and services. Key strategies for implementing RCT designs are presented, and studies in music therapy that have used this design are reviewed.

Keywords: music therapy research, randomized controlled trials in music therapy, music therapy evidence, research design, research efficacy, research effectiveness, causal relations

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